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CHEMISTRY OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Scope & Objective


without materials, there is no engineering
Provides an introduction to the science and engineering of materials (e.g. metals, ceramics, polymers, and semiconductors) Develop an awareness of materials and their properties that, as an engineer, you must depend in the future To introduce basic concepts, nomenclature, testing of materials. To reveal the relationships between Processing - Structure - Properties - Performance To develop ideas behind materials selection and design.
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Six Major Classes of Materials


Metals Ceramics Polymers Electronic Materials Composites Biomaterials

Some of these have descriptive subclasses. Classes have overlap, so some materials fit into more than one class.

Six Major Classes


Metals Iron and Steel Alloys and Superalloys (e.g. aerospace applications) Intermetallic Compounds (high-T structural materials) Ceramics Structural Ceramics (high-temperature load bearing) Refractories (corrosion-resistant, insulating) Whitewares (e.g. porcelains) Glass Electrical Ceramics (capacitors, insulators, transducers, etc.) Chemically Bonded Ceramics (e.g. cement and concrete)

Six Major Classes


Polymers Plastics Liquid crystals Adhesives Electronic Materials Silicon and Germanium IIIA-VA Compounds (e.g. Ga, As) Photonic materials (solid-state lasers, LEDs light emitting diode (LED) :a semiconductor light source)

Six Major Classes


Composites Particulate composites (small particles embedded in a different material) Laminate composites (tennis rackets) Fiber reinforced composites (e.g. fiberglass) Biomaterials Man-made proteins (protein rods or artificial bacterium) Biosensors (Au-nanoparticles stabilized by encoded DNA for anthrax detection) Drug-delivery colloids (polymer based)

Periodic Table of Elements


From http://64.224.111.143/handbook/periodic/

Introduction to Engineering Materials


Materials are used in construction or fabrication
Include binding or cementing materials such as lime, cement and gypsum plasters; Ceramics - Glass, clay products, refractories, abrasives, composites, insulators etc Adhesives, lubricants

Cementing & Binding Materials


Mostly Inorganic materials with characteristic properties of setting & hardening on mixing with water to a paste like consistency These are capable of cementing rigid masses such as bricks, gravel, tiles etc. to give coherent & strong structures
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Types of Cementing Materials


Based on the manner in which they set & hardenCan be classified into two categories Hydraulic Cementing Materials
These are capable of setting and hardening under water, e.g. Portland Cement

Non-Hydraulic Cementing Materials


These materials set and harden in air and hence can not be used under water e.g. Fat Lime
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LIME
Lime or quick lime is CaO It is obtained by heating of naturally occurring calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of lime stone, chalk or marble to about 900 in the presence of limited supply of air (Calcination) CaCO3 + Heat CaO + CO2 This quicklime can be hydrated i.e combined with water CaO + H2O Ca (OH)2
SLAKED LIME

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Types of Lime
Different types of limes are obtained depending on the chemical composition of the lime stone used in the manufacture of quick lime. Lime stone usually contains MgCO3, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2 Fat Lime or high-calcium lime Hydraulic Lime Lean or poor lime

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Types of Lime
Fat Lime or high-calcium lime
It is a non-hydraulic cementing material & setting occurs only by drying It is obtained by calcining limestone of high purity (>95% CaCO3) Contains more than 95% CaO and less than 2% oxides of Fe, Al, & Si Its a rapid slaking lime accompanied with the evolution of a large amount of heat & volume expansion
Used for whitewashing
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Types of Lime
Hydraulic Lime
It is obtained from marls (lime stone containing 5-30% clay) Silica & alumina combine with CaO to give Ca- aluminate and Ca-silicate. Exhibits hydraulic properties and sets a hard mass on immersing in water. It slakes with difficulty, doesnt shrink or crack on setting. Hardens by hydrolysis Used as a substitute for cement particularly in new foundation for buildings

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Types of Lime
Lean or poor lime
Contains more than 30% clay 70-80% CaO, >5% MgO, smaller proportions of Si & Alumina Slakes very slowly, forms a thin paste with water Sets or hardens very slowly Poor binding material with muddy white color Used for plaster finishing

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MANUFACTURE OF LIME
Lime is manufactured by calcining lime stone in vertical kilns using coal or producer gas as fuel A kiln can be like a large cylindrical tower (20-40 m height, 2-3 m in diameter) lined with refractory bricks. Limestone is fed from the top and passes slowly down through the tower Flame of the burning fuel seeps (flow) from the sides decomposing the lime stone Air is supplied from the bottom of the tower-for cooling of hot lime & for combustion of the fuel
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KILN
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, or oven, which is used for hardening, drying or burning of materials such as clay and other raw materials to form ceramics (including pottery, bricks etc)

KILN

KILN

POTTERY

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PROPERTIES OF LIME
Slaking Plasticity Sand Carrying Capacity Setting & hardening Hardness Absorption of atmospheric CO2

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PROPERTIES OF LIME
Slaking It is the reaction of CaO with water (3:1 ratio) which produces hydrated (slaked) lime (CaO.H2O). The reaction is highly exothermic evolving about 280 Kcal heat/kg of the lime and is accompanied by increase in volume (about 2 times) Important property for using lime as a binding material.
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PROPERTIES OF LIME
Plasticity- Easy workability and ability to spread during
application as plaster
Lime containing MgO has good workability, pure lime is sticky Plasticity can be modified by incorporating sand

Sand Carrying Capacity Useful in the use of lime as a plaster, it reduce the shrinkage of lime on setting Sand carrying capacity of Ca-Lime is higher compared to dolomite lime [CaMg(CO3)2]
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PROPERTIES OF LIME
Setting & hardening
It involves the transformation of lime mortar (sand & lime) into the hard CaCO3 which serves as a binding material and finishing material Brought about by dehydration (loss of water by evaporation) and carbonation (reaction with atmospheric CO2) of lime
Hydraulic limes undergo setting under water due to chemical decomposition of the complex silicates of Ca, Al into simpler compounds of Ca-Silicate, aluminate and hydroxide. Ca-Silicate, aluminate crystallizes in a hard mass in the interior while the water soluble Ca(OH)2 diffuses to the surface & interacts with CO2 to form hard CaCO3 20

PROPERTIES OF LIME
Hardness- resistance of lime mortar to abrasion
and impact on setting and hardening.
High Mg limes exhibit better hardness compared to high Ca limes

Absorption of atmospheric CO2 by lime


This air slaked lime can not be used for making mortar or plaster as it can not set

results in its swelling and disintegration to a fine powder of CaCO3.

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