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Chapter 1 Vocabulary Hindsight bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen

it. Critical thinking: thinking that doesnt blindly accept arguments and conclusions; instead it examines assumptions, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Theory: an explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Operational definition: a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. Replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding applies to other participants/circumstances. Case study: an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. Survey: a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. False consensus effect: the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. Population: all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. Random sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. Naturalistic observation: observing and recording behavior in natural situations without manipulating the situation. Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and how they predict each other. Scatterplot: a graphed cluster of dots that represent the values of two variables. Illusory Correlation: perception of a relationship where there isnt one. Experiment: a research method in which the independent variables are manipulated to observe the resultant effect on behavior or mental process.

Double-blind procedure: both the research participants and staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Placebo effect: experimental results caused by expectations alone. Experimental condition: what is being tested on the participants/what is being observed from the participants. Control condition: the condition of an experiment that is the same for all participants. Random assignment: assigning participants to experimental or control groups, which minimizes the differences between the two groups. Independent variable: the factor thats manipulated and whose effect is being studied. Dependent variable: the variable that changes in response to the independent variable. Mode: the most commonly occurring score in the data. Mean: the average of a distribution. Median: the middle score in a distribution. Range: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. Standard deviation: computed measure of how much scores vary from the mean. Statistical significance: statistical statement of how likely it is that a result occurred by chance. Culture: the enduring behaviors, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from generation to generation.