Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Timber Frame Systems

PASSIVHAUS
Solutions with NBT DIFFUTHERM, NBT PAVACLAD and NBT PAVAROOF

CERTIFICATE No 07/4448

The Science of Nature The Future of Construction

PASSIVHAUS Background

Content
Background NBT PASSIVHAUS Comparison Airtightness Insulation & Thermal Bridging Roof - Detail & Information Wall & Ceiling - Details & Information Floor - Detail & Information Window - Detail & Information Ventilation Systems Key Considerations - Designers Physical Properties 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PASSIVHAUS is a widely and extensively tested technology which is seen by many as the future of building and the main aim of sustainable construction.

Introduction
The definition of a PASSIVHAUS is a building in which thermal comfort is guaranteed solely by re-heating (or recooling) the fresh air that is required for satisfactory air quality. The principle of the PASSIVHAUS is a building with no heating system except for the heat recovery through the ventilation unit. If built correctly the buildings are robust, healthy and cost effective. To achieve a PASSIVHAUS strict design guidelines must be followed in relation to: Compact design High levels of insulation Minimal thermal bridging Highly insulating window Very high standards of airtightness High quality mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR)

These are explained in this manual.

History
The PASSIVHAUS concept was first developed by Professors Bo Adamson and Wolfgang Feist in 1988. The first PASSIVHAUS buildings were built in Darmstadt in 1990 and the PASSIVHAUS Institute was founded in 1996. Since that time around 15,000 PASSIVHAUS buildings have been built worldwide, most of them in Germany and Austria. There are now a number of other PASSIVHAUS Standards such as Minergie-P in Switzerland.

PASSIVHAUS From NBT PAVATEX

Hardly any heating requirement!

NBT PASSIVHAUS
A NBT PASSIVHAUS achieves the PASSIVHAUS standard with the following additional benefits: Full technical design and site support from NBT Full component advice and supply if required Healthy, non-polluting, ecological materials Huge amounts of carbon sequestration in the materials

15 09 kg CO2/m2a eq.

Timber studs OSB (for racking, vapour control and airtightness)

NBT PAVAFLEX Plasterboard and skim

THER PAVA

As buildings become more energy efficient, the embodied energy and embodied carbon become relatively more significant. NBT PASSIVHAUS (say 100 m2 footprint) with NBT PAVATEX products will lock up over 10 tonnes of CO2 eq. in the woodfibre boards alone, and over 30 tonnes of CO2 eq. including the timber structure. In contrast synthetic insulations will emit between 1.3 and 2.5 kg of CO2 eq. for every kg of product used and a standard masonry building will emit over 40 tonnes of CO2 eq. in total. Please see page14 for information on the composition and ecology of NBT PAVATEX woodfibre boards.

Service void

THER PAVA

M-PL

US

Cladding or rainscreen

THER PAVA

M-PL

US

Vertical battens (min. 40 mm for ventilation)

NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ or NBT ISOLAIR


OSB (for racking, vapour control and airtightness)

Timber studs

NBT PASSIVHAUS systems


A NBT PASSIVHAUS timber frame construction can accommodate thick layers of thermal insulation without the need for disproportionately thick walls that consume valuable floor space. And the NBT system is flexible in its final finish: The NBT PAVACLAD system above is an external insulation system with cladding and the NBT DIFFUTHERM system below is an external insulation system with render. NBT PASSIVHAUS systems are made of sustainable materials and products, and occupants feel exceptionally comfortable in A NBT PASSIVHAUS: Perhaps the biggest surprise is that daily life in a NBT PASSIVHAUS is absolutely normal.
Plasterboard and skim

NBT PAVAFLEX

DIFFU

THER

Service void

DIFFU

THER

DIFFU

THER

NBT 2-coat render system

NBT DIFFUTHERM

For more information please visit www.natural-building.co.uk

PASSIVHAUS Comparison
The reduction of heat losses through the building fabric has been the subject of the Building Regulations for 30 years but still has a long way to go before an optimum level is attained. It is considered that PASSIVHAUS and other equivalent standards such as Minergie-P have reached the optimum level for building fabric. It should be noted however that different designs and in particular different climates will probably have different optimums. The PASSIVHAUS standard has been developed in Southern Germany where winter temperatures may stay below 0 C for many months and may commonly go as low as -20C. Nonetheless the basic principles of insulation, minimising thermal bridging, and airtightness apply in all European climates.

Comparison roof build-ups


Part L 2006 (U-value < 0.30 W/m2K) 1. Roofing (tiles, slates etc.) 2. Counter battens 25 x 38 mm 3. NBT ISOLAIR 35 mm 4. 5. 6. 7. Rafter 100 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) Service void 25 mm Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

Comparison wall build-ups


Part L 2006 (U-value < 0.35 W/m2K) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cladding system (timber, brick screen) Vertical battens 40 x 40 mm NBT ISOLAIR 22 mm Stud 89 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) Service void 25 mm Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

Comparison between Part L, AECB silver and PASSIVHAUS


On this double page three energy standards are compared so that the differences between buildings can be clearly understood, both in terms of the construction and in terms of energy use and carbon emissions in use. The three standards compared are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.6.7.

Building Regulations Part L 2006 AECB Silver Standard PASSIVHAUS

Part L 2006
Renewable energy
Not required Not required

AECB Silver standard is an intermediary standard between current Building Regulations and PASSIVHAUS. It is calculated on the same principles as PASSIVHAUS, but does not take the energy reduction to the same level. Consequently it may be cheaper and easier to build, but will require a heating system and will have higher running costs. It is however a considerable step up from current building regulations

Air tightness
< 10.0 m3/m2h < 3.0 m3/m2h

Insulation thickness
> 110 mm > 190 mm

Low E glass
Double glazing Double glazing

Heat distribution
Normal distribution Normal distribution

Electical appliances
No requirements Trickle vents Minimum A and A+

Ventilation Heating requirement (Qh)

Passive stack or mechan

No requirements

No requirements
Usually 50 kWh/m2a

Usually 90 kWh/m2a

200 1 2 4 kg CO2/m2a eq.

Primary energy consumption


Comparison is indicative due to range of possibilites of achieving standards

Pleasant, PASSIVHAUS buildings are characterised by enormous energy savings and enhanced com fort for their occupants.
AECB silver (U-value < 0.15 W/m2K) 1. Roofing (tiles, slates etc.) 2. Counter battens 25 x 38 mm 3. NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 100 mm PASSIVHAUS (U-value < 0.14 W/m2K) 1. 2. 3. Roofing (tiles, slates etc.) Counter battens 25 x 38 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 120 mm

4. 5. 6. 7.

Rafter 175 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) Service void 25 mm Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

4. 5. 6. 7.

Rafter 175 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) Service void 25 mm Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

(other build-up options see page 14) AECB silver (U-value < 0.22 W/m2K) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cladding system (timber, brick screen) Vertical battens 40 x 40 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 100 mm Stud 89 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) Service void 25 mm Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint PASSIVHAUS (U-value < 0.15 W/m2K) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cladding system (timber, brick screen) Vertical battens 40 x 40 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 100 mm Stud 140 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) insulated service void 50 mm Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

(other build-up options see page 14) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.6.7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

AECB silver
Renewable energy
Not required Recommended

PASSIVHAUS

Air tightness
< 3.0 m3/m2h < 0.6 m3/m2h

Insulation thickness
> 190 mm > 300 mm

Low E glass
Double glazing Triple glazing

Heat distribution
Normal distribution Warm-air system possible

Electical appliances
Minimum A and A+ Usually A++

Ventilation
Passive stack or mechanical MVHR

nical

No requirements
2

Heating requirement (Qh)

< 15 kWh/m2a

Usually 50 kWh/m a

120 74 kg CO2/m2a eq.

Primary energy consumption


Comparison is indicative due to range of possibilites of achieving standards

40 24 kg CO2/m2a eq.

For more information please visit www.natural-building.co.uk

PASSIVHAUS Airtightness
Principle
A building envelope should be airtight when all ventilation openings are closed. The design requirement for air changes has to be provided by opening the windows manually, other controllable ventilation openings or suitable mechanical ventilation systems. When assessing the air permeability of the building envelope, the following aspects must be considered separately: Individual building components must exhibit the necessary airtightness in accordance with building component standards The overall air permeability of the building envelope must meet the limiting and target values of building regulations Local air permeability (leaks, primarily on the inside) can lead to moisture damage because they allow moist interior air to infiltrate the construction Local air permeability and associated draughts can have a detrimental effect on the thermal comfort of the occupants and can also lead to increased energy consumption Rock wool and glass-fibre boards, wood fibreboards, wooden panelling, planking, acoustic linings, building papers etc. cannot achieve the degree of airtightness required for modern buildings. The airtightness layer must be conceived at the design stage as a seamless layer over the entire building envelope, planned with its practical installation in mind, and shown as a separate layer on all drawings. Good planning includes corresponding information in the tender documents and detail in the working and fabrication drawings. The materials used to achieve the airtightness must be sealed airtight at junctions with adjoining Sketch of the principle of an airtightelements such as ness layer: Build tight, ventilate right. windows, doors and foundations. The installation of several layers each of which are only partially airtight will not result in a building with an adequate degree of sealing.

Air permeability
The air permeability of the building envelope is specified by the ratio of surface area of the building to the hourly air exchange rate for a 50 Pa pressure difference. In Part L Building Regulations an air permeability of 10.0 m3/ m2/h is allowed, for EST best practice for CSH level 3 an air permeability of 3.0 m3/m2/h, for higher CSH levels an air permeability of 1.0 m3/m2/h and for PASSIVHAUS an air permeability of 0.6 m3/m2/h are accepted as the maximum.

Testing
In order to achieve an airtight building envelope, measures and checks during construction and after completion of the building are necessary. If the airtightness layer has been properly designed and planned, expensive blower door measurements, leak detection by means of smoke tests or IR thermography, and unnecessary costs of repairs can be saved. A properly designed and constructed building will fulfil airtightness requirements without the need for further special work. NBT systems provide proper design and site support to ensure that the correct levels of airtightness are achieved.

Design and construction


To ensure that the building envelope has the necessary degreee of airtightness, an airtightness layer is required over all parts of the construction on the warm side of the thermal insulation. Generally, the vapour control layer and airtight layer funtions are combined and provided by one membrane, sheeting or a board type material (OSB, multi-ply board, plywood, gypsum fibreboard, etc.). Such materials require fixings and permanent air tight seals at joints and junctions in the form of adhesive tape, glue, mechanical fasteners etc., or may need to be held in place with battens.

PASSIVHAUS Insulation & Thermal Bridging


Insulation
It is accepted in Europe generally that U-values of 0.1 W/ m2K are the practical optimum. However, different design and different climatic conditions will have different requirements. The minimum U-value to achieve PASSIVHAUS standard is therefore < 0.15 W/m2K. Your PASSIVHAUS home or office built with natural materials from NBT provides an outstanding thermal envelope but also a living environment at its best.

Thermal Bridging
Heat loss from buildings is a continuous process with energy fed in to maintain a temperature rise above ambient. The two main routes for this heat loss are ventilation (convective or air) heat loss and fabric (conduction) heat loss. The ventilation heat loss is addressed with an airtight envelope and MVHR. The fabric heat loss is made up from two parts: Bulk area heat loss This fabric loss was traditionally calculated by multiplying the area of external element (wall, roof, window, floor) by its U-value. The standards have clear instructions about how to do this to allow for repeating thermal bridges that occur within the elements: e.g. regular bridging of insulation by timber in timber frame buildings. Geometrical thermal bridges Taking geometrical or non-repeating thermal bridges into account means the inclusion of the extra heat loss from the junctions between the elements of wall, window, roof and floor. Each of these juncitons can be represented by a -value, which, when multiplied by the length of the junction, gives a fairly accurate measure of the extra heat loss to be added to the Bulk area heat loss above. This is represented as a y-value in the Building Regulations. Y-values for non-accredited details are rated as 0.15 W/ m2K, for accredited details they are 0.08 W/m2K. For PASSIVHAUS very low y-values are required, typically 0.02 W/m2K.

Saving through a dditional thermal insulation !


Effective cost and energy saving Almost 90 % of the energy consumption in domestic households is spent on heating and hot water. Up to two thirds of energy consumption can be saved in new b uil d ings through appropriate thermal insulation: Energy-efficient building is recommended! The average consumption of new buildings with 100 m living area is currently between 700 and 1200 litres oil per year. In contrast a PASSIVHAUS uses 150 litres maximum.
Source: Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt

The full thermal benefits of the NBT PASSIVHAUS systems are not immediately apparent to those who judge performance on the basis of quoted U-values. As the systems combine insulation across the structure, heat losses due to thermal bridging at junctions between walls, windows, roofs and floors are less than most other building systems. NBT provides support for all the necessary thermal bridging details and calculations.

For more information please visit www.natural-building.co.uk

PASSIVHAUS Roof
Pitched roofs
Pitched roofs with insulation between and on top of the structural members are well established for PASSIVHAUS build-ups. This is mainly because of the following advantages: The overall depth of the roof construction is less than that of a system with only external insulation The design of the inner surfaces does not depend on the loadbearing structure Detailing for minimal heat loss at wall junction is superior

Airtightness
Pitched roofs with insulation between and over the structural memembers lead to simple details for the airtightness layer and the vapour control layer at the wall/roof junction. However, it is more difficult to accomadate components that penetrate the roof covering for architecural or structural reasons, e.g. collars, kneebraces etc. The detailing at penetrations may cause problems and therefore such penetrations should be minimised if they cannot be entirely eliminated. NBT 1 provide design support for roof insulationand airtightness 2 detailing.
3

Construction and thermal bridge


A ventilation space is required between the roof covering and the secondary waterproofing layer (NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ sarking board), with appropriate air inlets and outlets at the eaves and ridge respectively. The thermal insulation is laid between the members of the loadbearing structure, the air tightness layer and the vapour control layer are on the inside.

6 10 7 8 9

To minimise the thermal heat flow through the structural elements the rafters end on the wall plate. The thermally disconnected false rafters are fitted onto a pair of noggins. All gaps are insulated.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Roofing (tiles, slates etc.) Counter battens 25 x 38 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 80 mm NBT PAVATHERM 80 mm / NBT PAVATHERM 140 mm in case false rafters are thermally disconnected as shown 5. OSB 9/12 mm (racking & decking) 6. Rafters 150 mm / NBT PAVAFLEX 7. SIGA Majpell airtightness membrane 8. Service void 25 mm or 50 mm insulated for improved thermal performance 9. Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint 10. False rafters 100 mm / NBT PAVAFLEX

Junction detail roof with wall element. Note the large roof overhang to protect the faade

Roof and wall options: There are two basic options for the insulation layer within the roof and wall element: Ecological: 150 mm of NBT PAVAFLEX. NBT PAVAFLEX batts are made of wood fibres and allow a vapour open construction with excellent acoustic properties Economic: 150 mm of Rockwool. Rockwool is made of melted stone that is pulled into very thin fibres. Mineral fibres are not hygroscopic and therefore cannot store moisture etc.

PASSIVHAUS Wall & Ceiling


Wall
The wall build-up is usually made of standard 219 mm timber studs. To reduce significantly the heat loss through the studs bridging the insulation layer the whole building envelope is wrapped with one thick insulation layer. These layers are 80 mm thick to achieve a U-value of 0.14 W/m2K. To achieve lower U-values e.g. 0.10 W/m2K the wrapping layer onto the studs is increased to e.g. 120 mm and 50 mm of additional insulation is fitted within the service void (as shown in the drawing below).

Ceiling
The detailing of the ceiling is important: Its load bearing junction with the wall should not lead to significant thermal heat loss and its acoustic properties must be excellent between rooms: The thermal bridge is greatly reduced by keeping the load bearing beams as short as possible in the wall. As shown in the detail below the beams penetrate the wall only by max. 140 mm and the gap on its face is insulated as well as the inside of the ceiling itself Impact sound is minimised through 30 mm of insulation underneath the flooring material and air borne sound through a heavy flooring material and insulation within the structural members

The NBT PAVACLAD system


The external faade is cladding (timber, brick, rain screen etc.) and the wrapping insulation layer is made of NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ boards.

The NBT DIFFUTHERM system


The external faade is rendered breathable (lime-cement or lime render) and the wrapping insulation layer is made of NBT DIFFUTHERM boards.
1 2 3 6 4 5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Cladding system (timber, brick, rain screen) Vertical battens 40 x 40 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 80 mm Stud 219 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) Service void 25 mm or 50 mm insulated for improved thermal performance Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint
6 7

1 2 3 4 5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Flooring system (wood, laminate etc.) Fermacell 2x 12.5 mm NBT PAVATHERM 30 mm (impact sound insulation) NBT PAVATHERM-Profile 60 mm (air borne sound insulation) Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint NBT PAVAFLEX Batts Wall junction with ceiling and additional insulation in the service void

Wall build up of the NBT PASSIVHAUS PAVACLAD system with additional insulation in the service void. Instead of the NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ with cladding NBT DIFFUTHERM with render can be used

For more information please visit www.natural-building.co.uk

PASSIVHAUS Floor
Principals
The main purpose of a floor is to support the vertical imposed loads and transmit them safely to the ground or supporting structure. It also needs to satisfy acoustic and superior thermal insulation, in addition to contributing to the overall stability of the structure.

Plinth
The plinth area must be designed to avoid damage through water and/or discolouration of cladding due to water splash etc. The plinth starts 300 mm above ground level (area of water splash) and compromises the following detailing: Appropriate plinth insulation boards (XPS) > 30 mm of ventilation entrance for NBT PAVACLAD above plinth If the plinth is brickwork the top brick is a plinth brick If the plinth is rendered NBT HM 50 is used as base coat in the plinth area

Floor system
NBT PASSIVHAUS systems comply with both solid and suspended floor systems. However, suspended floors are generally an economic solution for PASSIVHAUS buildings and thermally they have the advantage of having an air cushion underneath that insulates in addition to the insulation.

Suspended floors
The ventilation of the space beneath the floor is provided through openings in the plinth running down in the external insulation layer. Most suspended floors are compatible with different piling systems. Foundation and flooring systems are designed to individual specifications.

Please refer also to the NBT Timber Frame manual for NBT DIFFUTHERM details.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Thermal bridge
As for all junctions of elements in a PASSIVHAUS building it is of great importance to detail the joint between the wall and the floor very carefully to avoid thermal heat loss through this thermal bridge. The following detailing reduces the heat flow through the junction: External insulation runs over the face of the floor Joists that run in the insulation layer are made of materials with a low thermal conductivity e.g. solid timber or timber derivatives such as I-beams Floor joist bearing is kept as short as structurally possible Front of floor joist is insulated U-value of floor < 0.15 W/m2K

Flooring system (wood, laminate etc.) Fermacell 2x 12.5 mm NBT PAVATHERM 30 mm Vapour barrier / sheeting (e.g. OSB 15 mm) NBT PAVAFLEX Vapour barrier / sheeting (e.g. OSB 12 mm)
3 2 1

4 5 6

Piling
There is an array of piling techniques that enables the designer to tailor the foundation systems to the needs. The techniques range from traditional driven piling, comprising driven concrete piles, driven tubular steel and combination piles, to vibrated or cast insitu piles. This kind of piling is ideally suited for contaminated land or inner city projects where removal and treatment costs can be prohibitive to development.
Suspended timber floor with brick cladding on the faade in the splash water area

10

PASSIVHAUS Window
Thermally superior windows
Windows create the connection with the outside and they act like passive solar collectors. Since they also lead to energy loss, especially in winter, it is important that in selecting the windows the energy balance between usable solar energy and energy loss is considered. Windows in PASSIVHAUS buildings must have a whole window U-value < 0.8 W/m2K.

additional ving through Cost Sa tion! thermal insula


1 2 3 4

Comfort criteria for windows


The requirement for the windows of having a U-value < 0.8 W/m2K is not only based on the energy balance for the building but also on comfort: Because in PASSIVHAUS buildings there is no radiator heater below the window, the temperature on the window surface must always be above 17 C. Otherwise this cold air falls leading to a cold air spot on the floor making this area uncomfortable and also creats a real ris of mould.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Installation of windows and thermal bridging


The installation of windows often leads to significant thermal bridges. To reduce the thermal bridge of the window it should be mounted central in the wall and the board where it is fixed to should not be persistent (see detail on the right). Based on outside measurements, which is common for PASSIVHAUS buildings, typical thermal bridge coefficients (-values) for optimised window details are 0.03 W/mK because the sill does not allow the over insulation of the window frame. In the reveal and the lintel area the -value can be negative if the window frame is over insulated.
5

Cladding system (timber, brick, rain screen) Vertical battens 40 x 40 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 80 mm Stud 219 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX PASSIVHAUS triple glazed window (u-value < 0.8 W/m2K) 6. Sill with up-stands (triangle shaped gap underneath insulated) 7. Nogging piece 60 mm / NBT PAVATHERM 60 mm 8. OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) 9. Service void 25 mm or 50 mm insulated for improved thermal performance 10. Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

7 8 9 10

Rollershutter
Insulated roller shutters which are closed overnight, reduce the U-value of the windows to 0.3 W/m2K. If rollershutter are desired they should be fixed onto the surface of the wall and their operation mechanism should be air tight. NBT can advise on window types and detailing and/or provide recommendations of suitable suppliers.

Window options: Beside having insulated glass, windows can have additional sound protection, burglar resistance or solar protection, and windows with load bearing PU foam parts having a U-value < 0.7 W/m2K are also available Wooden windows fitted with an additional protective aluminium on the outside are easy to maintain and are ideally protected against wind and weather conditions

For more information please visit www.natural-building.co.uk

Wooden windows convey a feeling of warmth

11

PASSIVHAUS Ventilation Systems


Ventilation and heating
NBT PASSIVHAUS solutions can be considerably more airtight than conventional constructions, achieving air change rates smaller than 0.6 m3 per m2 at 50 Pa. Healthy buildings require a minimum air exchange rate of 0.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pa. Therefore additional ventilation is a sensible and beneficial addition to a building constructed according to the PASSIVHAUS standard. Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery s y s t e m s (MVHR) bring controlled volumes of fresh air into all rooms of the building and remove a controlled volume of moisture laden The MVHR heating system provides alor stale air to the ways enough fresh air and a healthy outside. With environment the heat recovery system these units can recover heat from outgoing air to preheat the incoming air. This heat recovery can provide a large proportion of the heat required to keep the building at comfortable living temperatures. However, MVHR with integrated economic auxiliary heating is also available. w Airtightness in conjunction with a MVHR system keeps the warm air in and reduces the heating load of the house. The addition of humidity control to the mechanical ventilation system can provide an environment in which dust mites cannot thrive. This will be of benefit to asthma sufferers.

Properties
It is essential that the MVHR system is specifically sized and that the environmental and improved indoor air quality advantages are associated with all systems. If possible a system should be installed that is recognised or approved under Appendix Q of SAP 2005. Under normal circumstances a standard sized house is supplied by the MVHR with about 100 m3/h of fresh air to the living and sleeping rooms In special needs it can be set to a higher setting where between 160 and 185 m3/h is provided The same quantity of charged/polluted air is being sucked away in wet areas such as kitchen, bathroom and shower

NBT can advise on these issues and can provide consultancy support and/or recommendations of systems.

w 12

Possible timber frame structure and shape of a PASSIVHAUS building

Bosco-von Allmen Monique, Studio d'architettura, Milano

PASSIVHAUS Designers: Key Considerations


General:
Team work in design and also construction is crucial. The following may be kept in mind: Support from NBT as partner is available at all stages of the process. NBT Consult is also available for detailed support or services and non-NBT products Compact building form: The ratio between the building surface and the building volume should be as low as possible (dormers, bays etc. are better avoided) Building orientation: Typically the building is oriented toward the South where the faade of a PASSIVHAUS has many big windows. The North faade has only a few small windows. This leads to big solar gains To avoid overheating in summer the South faade should contain a sun screen.

Airtightness:
Thermally insulated constructions require a permanent airtight layer on the inside: To avoid damage to the construction and to prevent heat loss the airtightness layer must be installed very carefully especially at junctions between components, at joints between elements, around penetrations of all kinds etc. Fewer penetrations will allow for simple, cost-effective construction Pipes and cables should not damage the airtightness layer in any way

Thermal bridges:
U-values below 0.15 W/m2K require the prevention of thermal bridges. As the U-value decreases, thermal bridges become more and more significant: The proportion of timber over the whole cross-section should be minimised (timber conducts heat approx. four times more than insulation materials) Windows should be embbeded into insulation layer The detailing at all junctions and joints (corners, windows, doors, plinths, suspended floors etc.) requires special attention Simple architecture is favourable Built in rollershutters should be avoided

The airtightness layer is more important than the vapour control layer in terms of preventing damage to the fabric of the building. Please refer also to the air tightness section on page 5 for further information.

Ventilation cavities:
The primary function of ventilation cavities behind the cladding and/or the roofing material is to allow the airflow to carry away any moisture present by way of convection. The moisture is a result of vapour diffusion, precipitation or wet building trades is irrelevant. Ventilated constructions (external walls with cladding, ventilated roofs) are regarded as favourable from a diffusion viewpoint, and do not require the diffusion behaviour to be verified by calculation, provided the moisture loads do not exceed those equivalent to normal residential and working situations.

Moisture control:
Building practice dictates that the diffusion resistance of the individual layers must decrease from the inside to outside. An effective vapour control layer on the inside of the structure (e.g. wood based products such as OSB etc.) reduces the diffusion of water vapour. In combination with the vapour open NBT PAVATEX boards this ensures no damaging amounts of condensation build up within the construction (interstitial condensation): The vapour control layer must lie on the warm side of the thermal insulation The vapour control layer must cover the surface of the entire building envelope

Services:
The production of hot water is the component with the highest energy consumption in a PASSIVHAUS: Pipe runs should be as short as possible and well insulated. Dead legs should be avoided Pipes and cables must lie on the warm side (inside) of the insulation Low water appliances should be considered

Contractors:
NBT has a network of trained contractors throughout UK and Ireland. Please contact NBT for information.

The vapour control layer can be combined with other component layers, generally with the airtightness layer.

For more information please visit www.natural-building.co.uk

13

PASSIVHAUS Physical Properties


N

PA BT

SSIV H A U S s olutio n s

f or

Minimal thermal bridging No separate heating system required

Wall
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
(with 50mm insulated service void)

Excellent sound insulation and superior airtightness


Cladding system (timber, brick, rain screen) Vertical battens 40 x 40 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 100 / 120 mm Stud 140 or 219 mm / I-Joist 245 mm fully filled with NBT PAVAFLEX OSB 12/15 mm (racking & airtightness) Service void 25 mm or 50 mm insulated for improved thermal performance Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

Full system elements that come with design and site support Highly vapour permeable constructions - no membranes needed Cost savings through simple and robust construction that has few skilled operations and is easily adapted for offsite manufacture Exceptional heat storage for light weight structures Warm inside surfaces of building elements and thus improved well-being of occupants

Timber stud dimensions Type of insulation on studs & thickness

140 mm

219 mm

(uninsulated service void)

245 mm (I-Joist)
(uninsulated service void

NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ / NBT DIFFUTHERM 100 mm 120 mm 0.15 12.5 0.14 13.7

NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ / NBT DIFFUTHERM 100 mm 120 mm 0.13 13.6 0.13 14.8

NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ / NBT DIFFUTHERM 100 mm 120 mm 0.12 15.3 0.11 16.6

U-Value [W/mK] Decrement delay [h]

Note: Calculations according to BS EN ISO 6946:1997 and BR 443. Studs assumed to be 38 x 140mm, 50 x 219mm or I-Joists (47mm flange and 9mm web) at 600 mm centres (allowances for sole plates etc, give a 15% bridging area for solid timber stud and I-Joist flange). Stud depth is taken to be the same as the thickness of insulation specified.

Roof
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Roofing (tiles, slates etc.) Counter battens 25 x 38 mm NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS 60 / 80 / 100 mm NBT PAVATHERM 100 mm OSB 9 mm (racking & decking)

Rafter 150 mm & NBT PAVAFLEX NBT SIGA Majpell airtightness membrane Service void 25 mm or 50 mm insulated for improved thermal performance Plasterboard 12.5 mm, plaster, skim and NBT emulsion paint

PAVAT EX boards provid e an excellent carbon sequestr ation!

Rafter dimensions Type of insulation on rafters & thickness over 100 mm PAVATHERM U-Value [W/mK] Decrement delay [h]

150 mm PAVATHERM-PLUS+ 60 mm 80 mm 0.13 16.7 0.12 18.1

100 mm 0.11 19.4

175 mm PAVATHERM-PLUS+ 60 mm 80 mm 0.12 17.6 0.11 19.0

100 mm 0.11 20.3

Note: Calculations are done according to BS EN ISO 6946:1997 and BR 443. Rafters width assumed to be 50 mm at 600 mm centres (allowances for wall plates etc, give a 9% bridging area for the timber). Rafters depth is taken to be the same as the thickness of insulation specified.

Manufacture and ecology


NBT PAVATEX wood fibre insulation meets all ecological requirements from its manufacture to final disposal. The natural, renewable raw material for NBT PAVATEX boards consists of splinters and wood chips of native Swiss softwoods which are by-products from local sawmills. The woods own natural lignin, which already performs the function of a binding agent in the tree, is used as a binder, without the addition of further artificial binding agents. NBT PAVATEX wood fibre board will remain effective as insulation material for the life of the building in which it is incorporated. It contains only natural materials and therefore can be recycled, composted or used to produce heat energy at the end of its life.

14

NBT Product Overview: Insulation


NBT ISOLAIR sarking board
Wood bre board for breathable roof & wall constructions Size: Cover area: Thicknesses: k-value / D: Density: 770 x 2500 mm 750 x 2480 mm 22, 35 & 60 mm 0.047 W/(mK) 240 kg/m3

NBT DIFFUTHERM external wall insulation


Wood bre board for rendered external wall insulation (EWI) Size: Thicknesses: k-value / D: Density: 790 x 1300 mm Reveal board: 600 x1200 mm 60, 80, 100 & 120 mm 0.043 W/(mK) 190 kg/m3

NBT PAVATHERM-PLUS+ sarking board


Composite wood board for roof & wall insulation Size: 780 x 1580 mm Thicknesses: 60, 80,100 &120 mm k-value / D: 0.043 W/(mK) Density: 180 kg/m3 Compr. strength: >70 kPa (at 10 % compression)

NBT PAVADENTRO internal wall insulation


Innovative wood bre insulation board for refurbishment Size: Cover area: Thicknesses: k-value / D: Density: 600 x 1020 mm 590 x 1010 mm 40, 60, 80 & 100 mm 0.042 W/(mK) 180 kg/m3

NBT PAVATHERM general purpose insulation board NBT PAVABOARD load bearing insulation
Universal wood bre board for use in external & internal walls, oors & roofs Sizes: Thicknesses: k-value / D: Density: 600 x 1020 mm & 1200 x 2050 mm 20 - 120 mm 0.038 W/(mK) 140 kg/m3 Wood bre board for highly insulated oors that have to carry loads Size: 600 x 1020 mm Thicknesses: 40 & 60 mm k-value / D: 0.046 W/(mK) Density: 210 kg/m3 Compr. strength: >150 kPa (at 10 % compression)

NBT PAVATHERM-PROFIL wall & oor board


Wood bre board for insulating oors or internal walls with plaster Size: 600 x 1020 mm Thicknesses: 40 & 60 mm k-value / D: 0.043 W/(mK) Density: 180 kg/m3 Compr. strength: >70 kPa (at 10 % compr.ession)

NBT PAVAWALL external wall insulation


Wood bre board for rendered external wall insulation (EWI) for masonry substrates Size: Thicknesses: k-value / D: Density: 600 x 800 mm Reveal board: 600 x1200 mm 80 - 160 mm (20mm increments) 0.040 W/(mK) 155 kg/m3

NBT PAVAFLEX exible insulation batt


Flexible wood bre insulation batt for roofs, walls, lofts, oors & ceilings Size: Thicknesses: Stock sizes: k-value / D: Density: 375* / 575 x 1350 mm 40 - 240 mm (20mm increments) 50, 80, 100 & 140 mm 0.038 W/(mK) * 55 kg/m3 only stock sizes

NBT PAVATEX accessories


NBT provides the full range of PAVATEX accessories & complementary products: NBT PAVATAPE incl. waterbased/solvent primers (for junctions on walls & roofs) NBT PAVATEX cutting blades & knives NBT PAVATEX system glue (for sarking
boards)

NBT ISOLAIR, all NBT PAVATHERM products & NBT PAVAFLEX are certied by natureplus. This testies to excellent natural & ecological compatability. NBT PAVATEX wood bre insulation boards are manufactured in Switzerland according to BS EN 13171, have the CE marking and are monitored by 3rd parties. The following applies to all NBT PAVATEX products: Specic heat capacity c = 2100 J/(kgK), Euroclass E (according to BS EN 13501-1), vapour resistivity = 5 (25 MNs/gm)

For more information please visit www.natural-building.co.uk

15

S w i s s Wo o d F i b re I n s u l a t i o n B oards. Natural Building Materials.

NATURAL BUILDING MATERIALS & SYSTEMS


high performance systems
NBT PAVATEX woodfibre systems provide exceptional thermal & acoustic insulation, summer overheating protection and moisture control for the whole building in wall, roof & floor

NBT PAVATEX boards are made of waste wood & lock up the equivalent of ca. 11 tonnes of CO 2 per building; raw material resources are entirely renewable, unlimited & FSC certified

low carbon, renewable products healthy housing

NBT PAVATEX insulation boards are certified by natureplus as non-polluting & the NBT systems lead to breathable constructions; NBT PAVATEX insulation is specified exclusively by the Sentinel Haus Institut for healthy housing

tried & tested systems

NBT PAVATEX woodfibre insulation boards are widely used across Europe in all climates & conditions; physical values are 3 rd party tested & guaranteed & production is according to BS EN

Pavatexs partner in the UK is Natural Building Technologies (NBT) who are a Technical Sales Company with nationwide coverage based in Oakley, Bucks. NBT lead the UK in sustainable materials & systems for high performance building shells

local service & support

swiss quality & know-how for the UK


Swiss Made

produced & developed in Switzerland for more than 70 years by the the worlds most innovative wood fibre insulation manufacturer
Subject to alteration due to developement 02.11/CZ

Natural Building Technologies Ltd. The Hangar, Worminghall Road Oakley, Bucks, HP18 9UL Tel: +44 (0)1844 338338 Fax: +44 (0)1844 338525 email: info@natural-building.co.uk web: www.natural-building.co.uk & www.pavatex.co.uk

PAVAT E X S A

CERTIFICATE No 07/4448