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Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA

Title of Assignment: Road Safety in Malaysia


2009696362 2009681312 2009467292 2009404886 2009629256 2009405646


Date: 18/06/2010 Marks:


1. Road Safety Plan of Malaysia 2006 2010 2. Road Safety Targets from JKJR Malaysia 3. Prime Minister wants holistic approach to deal with road safety issues 4. Main Causes Of Accidents in Malaysia 5. How to improve the road safety in Malaysia 6. Approaches used in Road Safety Programmes 7. Overview Of Current Road Safety Situation In Malaysia 8. The government agencies involves in highway and traffic

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Road traffic accident is regarded as one of the endemic of the modern era. It is so common in our daily lives that some of us tend to take the issue lightly. Blaming the drivers for their carelessness and not bidding to the traffic rules. On average, Malaysia recorded almost 1,000 road accidents and about 17 road-related fatalities daily. In monetary terms, we are losing more than 9 billion Malaysia Ringgit a year. Not many people realised the extent and seriousness of this calamity. Road traffic accidents can be attributed to three most common causation factors. These are:
1. Human Behaviour

2. Vehicle 3. Road Environment The effect of road environment factor and its contribution in any accident case is always in the heart and mind of the road authority. Their concerns are not only on the safety of the road users but also on the public perceptions and legal implications that may arise from accident cases. To understand the effect of road environment on how accident happened, it is important to investigate and analyse the condition before, during and after the crash situation. It may not be obvious as to what and how the road environment factor can cause an accident since the incident may well be due to human error alone. Adverse road conditions are always the source of mishaps. Poor maintenance of the road such as potholes, water ponding, debris on the road edges and poor road surface can cause drivers to make surprise manoeuvres and increase the risk of accident. Roadside trees branching into the sight line of driver would obstruct or reduce the appropriate sight distance for overtaking any vehicle in front. These are some of the glaring cases that have much highlighted the consequences of poor maintenance of the road environment.


Road Safety Plan of Malaysia 2006 2010 For the period 2006 - 2010 the Ministry of Transport had proposed a 5 year action plan which was tabled and adopted by the Cabinet on 15 march 2006. This 5-year plan outlines 9 strategies to address road safety issues covering education, enforcement, engineering and environmental issues. Central to this 5-year plan is the achievement of key targets set for year 2010 to make Malaysia on par with world best practices in road safety in five years. The 9 strategies are:1. Enhance and sustain educational and psychological measures in road safety 2. Utilizing state-of-the-art technologies to reduce human error for more effective enforcement 3. Enhance and complement engineering initiatives 4. Enhance and achieve a more comprehensive and effective implementation of road safety initiatives and programmes through community participation involving employers, community leaders, politicians, religions leaders, educationist, professional bodies, voluntary organizations and youth groups 5. Encourage model shifts and use of public transport to reduce exposure especially for high-risk groups, like motorcyclists 6. Focus on critical gaps in road safety (other than those already mentioned) with the aim of achieving the optimum cost benefic in resource deployment. 7. Focus on high risk road users most frequently involved in accidents i.e. motorcyclists / pillion riders, car drivers and passengers and pedestrian. 8. Review and enhance road safety legislations

9. Promote fund sharing between the public and the private sectors for road safety programmes

Road Safety Targets from JKJR Malaysia The Malaysian Road Safety Plan 2006-2010 have outlined nine (9) strategies and fifty-two (52) programs aimed to successfully achieve the following targets by the year 2010. These are:
1. Two deaths for every 10,000 units of registered vehicles; 2. Ten deaths for every 10,000 people; and

3. Ten deaths for a billion kilometer of travel in any vehicle. Prime Minister wants holistic approach to deal with road safety issue Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak wants a more comprehensive and holistic approach in dealing with road safety issue in the wake of the high number of road fatalities each year. He said the new driving curriculum, to be introduced by the Road Transport Department (JPJ), should be able to create competent, law-abiding and prudent drivers. Each year, there are about 6,000 to 6,500 deaths on our roads. The losses incurred in terms of costs to repair damaged infrastructure due to accidents reach the figure of RM9 billion. There are also the costs borne by the government and families in treating accident victims, not to mention the cost in terms of emotional sufferings and so on. Najib said drivers should be equipped with sufficient skills and knowledge to instill good driving practices. He also said that reckless driving and failure to abide by the law were among the main causes of accidents. These are accidents which we can actually avoid. Najib also said that enforcement of traffic law was still lacking. If the law is enforced more effectively, motorists would think twice about speeding or breaking traffic law. Driving institutes should also be effective in their roles as trainers as well as educators to nurture a generation of prudent drivers and he said what is important is effective enforcement of the law and good training for would-be drivers

Main Causes Of Accidents in Malaysia The driver Drivers can end up being the main cause. Those who are tired, sleepy and feeling emotional should in fact not be driving at all. Likewise, those who have consumed alcohol and drugs should also abstain from driving as well. Those on medication shouldnt drive also. Drivers should refrain from overtaking at dangerous places. Try to be patient and understanding while driving. And finally, attempt to follow road rules and regulations always. Condition of the roads. Road conditions contribute a great deal towards causing accidents. How fast we drive should commensurate with road conditions. Reduce speed if its raining and roads are slippery. Raining also causes hydroplaning, which is extremely dangerous. Tyre conditions and brakes play a major role in determining how fast we should drive in the rain. Condition of the car. Another factor which can cause accidents is the condition of the car itself. The brakes, lights, signals lights and horn all have to be checked, not forgetting tyre and wipers too. Ensure also that seat belts are worn too. The weather condition. Rain and sometimes heavy fog and dew, especially during early morning and late evening have been reported as being causes for many accidents. Try coming down in the middle of the night from Genting Highlands Resort and youll surely know what I mean.

Strong light reflections. Reflections from the sun and head lights from oncoming cars have been reported as being causes of many accidents. The latest white and blinding headlights now currently being used by many vehicles, is yet another source of accidents. The traffic. When roads are congested, more accidents tend to happen. Rush hours, like early mornings, lunch hours and dismissal times are most likely for accidents to happen. So be extra careful during these times. Accidents tend to happen in places such as schools, factory areas and shopping centres too.

How to improve the road safety in Malaysia 1. Multimedia Road Safety Campaign To increase awareness and understanding of road safety. Government sponsored

road safety campaigns have been organized since 1992 covering issues such as: Banning use of hand phone Campaigning against drunk driver Highlighting effect of recklessness and dangerous driving Encouraging proper use of motorcycle safety helmets

2. Ops STATIK and Ops SIKAP Under this system drivers offences are recorded and summonses are sent by post

3. Propose Amendments To Road Safety Act 1987 To improve heavier penalties on drivers involved in reckless and dangerous driving including mandatory jail term for certain offences

4. Introduction of Defensive Driving Upgrading quality of instruction, instructors and training facilities in driving school Since 1992 all new driver have to attend a minimum 5 hours of lectures on defensive driving and the highway code prior issuance of a learners license drivers have to attend 16 hours of practical driving before they are entitle to sit for a test.

5. Safety Helmet and Safety Clothing This is currently being followed through with regional motorcycle safety campaigns at state and district level

6. Proposal for Dedicated Motorcycle lane This proposal is already a policy decision for a new highway construction in Malaysia

7. Proposal to Limit Maximum Speeds of Motorcyclist

There is a proposal that the maximum speeds of motorcyclist should be regulated to reduce accidents and fatalities This proposal is still under study by The Ministry of Transport

Approaches used in Road Safety Programmes PWD, MOW especially Road Branch is the agency responsible in planning and manages the Federal Roads. In order to increase the safety of the road concerned, these engineering approaches are utilised: i. Accident Preventions (proactive action) ii. Accident Reduction (reactive action) iii. Road Maintenance iv. Building New Road i. Accident Preventions With this approach, PWD attempt to prevent an accident from happening. This target is achievable by provide road safety audit as a mandatory to all new road projects during feasibility & planning stage, preliminary and detail design stage, construction & pre-opening stage and operational stage. Furthermore, road safety audits also being done to existing roads.

The purpose of road safety audit was to provide remedial action to road safety issues at the right time to avoid higher redesign cost because of the reconstruction. ii. Accident Reduction Programmes under accident reduction were to reduce the accident, casualties and fatalities. Therere numbers of programmes involved such as: Improvement of hazardous location With this program, the hazardous accident locations along Federal Roads are improved. This location is earlier identified by Highway Planning Unit using the accident data record and provided by Royal Malaysian Police. In practice, this program involved only low cost remedial actions to include improvement to existing traffic management, providing pedestrian facilities, providing motorcycle facilities, upgrading intersection, installing signal light and road lighting, installing road signage, etc. This program was started since 6th Malaysian Plan (1991 1995) and in 8th MP, 153 hazardous locations have been treated.

Overview Of Current Road Safety Situation In Malaysia Motorcycle lane This program was to increase safety to motorcyclist by providing exclusive motorcycle lane. Research done by Road Safety Research Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia estimated a decrease of 39% fatal accident involving motorcycle can be achieved with the usage of exclusive motorcycle lane. Under 8th MP, about MYR 100 million was provided by the Government to construction 15 location involving 150 km stretch of roads. Paving of road shoulder This program was to provide recovery and manoeuvring space for motorist from out of control and collision with others. It involved of paving 2 metres of road shoulder (both ways), road line marking and proper installation of road signage. Improvement of dangerous curve


This program started in 2000 in which during that time, accident statistic shown that 25% of fatal accident happen involved motorist hitting object off-road, overturned and out of control. Because of this accident pattern is usually took place at road curve, and then safety action should be taken. Low cost remedial measure such as increase numbers of warning signage to improve safe vehicle speed and installing delineators to improve visibility of road alignment during nighttimes or heavy rain. Pedestrian crossing This program was to cater the safety for the pedestrian especially the school children. Estimated10 pedestrian at the age of 6-10 (23%) is the highest percentage of pedestrian deaths toll followed by age ranging from 11-15 years old. Provision of pedestrian crossing involved 2 type of crossing which are i) at-grade signalised pedestrian crossing; and ii) pedestrian bridges. Overtaking lane Under this program, 1 km overtaking lane is provided for every 5 km stretch of road that have the most numbers of accident cases with head-oncollision. Overtaking lane will provide enough space for other high speed vehicle to overtake low speed vehicle. The work includes installing road signage, road line marking and proper drainage. iii. Road Maintenance For the purpose of this program, currently it only applied to Federal Roads. Government have allocated about MYR 500 million a year to maintain the Federal Roads. This program involved small works such as paving of potholes, cutting grass, road side furniture maintenance, drainage clean-up, etc. Led by the increased of traffic accident during festive season, newly safety activity was initiated in 2003 by PWD to do low cost countermeasure for identified hazardous location. This low cost countermeasure is done in combination of numerous new installations such as road signage, road stud, road pavement marking and usage of traffic calming devices such as road hump and transverse bars. It hopes that with this improvement, early warning can be given to drivers to improve their driving. iv. Building New Roads


Under 8th Malaysian Plan, the Government have invested about MYR 11.6 million for road projects. About 567 road projects have been implemented involved construction of new road, replacement of old bridges, construct more interchanges, improved signalised intersection and more.

The government agencies involves in highway and traffic to improve road safety in Malaysia JKR( The Public Works Department) Under the Public Works Minitistry. Now JKR was established more than 90 years. British administration generated this department.

Reasons : i. ii. Facilities construction To fulfilled their needed.

Functions :i. ii. Implementation of development projects especially federal road, state road, bridge and airport. The headquarters of JKR in KL ( road department) is act as to plan and make sure that all of the roads are in good condition and safety.

JPJ ( The Road Transport Deparment )

JPJ was situated at Jalan Dungun, Kuala Lumpur under The Road transport Ministry. Objectives of this agency is to increase the road safety through observation of motorized vehicles and drivers. The other objective is to collect the income with efficiently and impressively. The main functions :

i. ii. iii. iv.

Implement the Road Transport Act 1987 and other procedures. Update the income tax system. Decrease the road accident. Help the government effort to decrease an environmental pollution.

LLM (Malaysia Highway Authority)

The objectives of having this agency is to plan, design, develop and maintain the highway links full with all facilities and necessaries which can make one road transport system which are swiftly, safety and efficiently. LLM also responsible in training all Malaysian citizen to develop their specialist in all aspect correlate in construction and maintenance of highway. The main functions: i. ii. iii. Implement design, construction and maintenance of highway. Implement design, construction and maintenance of facilities, which are needed along the highway. Collect the toll from highway consumers and other payment, which are related.

CONCLUSION Malaysia hopes to reduce the fatal road accident rate to two deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles by 2020 from the present. Transport Ministry parliamentary secretary Donald Lim Siang Chai said the figure could be achieved despite an increase in road accidents from 265,175 cases in 2000 to 280,417 last year. He said that in the same period, road accident fatalities went down from 6,035 cases to 5,849. Badly designed and poorly constructed roads are another cause of concern. Existing old roads which may have 'in-built' unsafe features are normally clustered with accident crashes. Even a safe design and construction of roads does not fully guarantee accident-free environment. Malaysians, in general, lack manners, have no concept of safety, have little respect for the law and have no reason to fear its consequences. A bad combination that explains why so many

deaths occur on the road. Though safety campaigns and education may solve part of problem, the laws enforcement is playing important role, especially in developing country where individual still is lacking of self-conscious awareness. Sometimes people will say why you need to obey the laws while many beat the laws without being caught? Does it mean that minority who obeys the laws look very stupid? So, back to basic thing, if we want people to follow the laws, please have good, fair and consistent law enforcement.


http://www.jkjr.gov.my/statistics.html http://www.aboutsafety.com/article.cfm?id=1389 http://eng.upm.edu.my/webrsrc/accident.pdf http://www.pmo.gov.my/ucapan/?m=p&p=paklahtpm&id=3483 http://www.mmail.com.my/content/37979-najib-wants-holistic-approach-deal roadsafety-issue http://www.rsmc.org.my/9s.htm


http://driving-school.com.my/driving-safety/4-causes-of-accidents-in-malaysia-and-howto-avoid-them/ http://keselamatanjalan.jkr.gov.my/content.php?ida=SP-20090203084637 Highway and Traffic Engineering, Second Edition, by Suria Haron, Department of Civil Engineering, UiTM Perlis.