Abstract This paper summarizes the research activity of induction machine drives, all improved by the family of
the authors in the field of sensorless control of induction EXIN linear neural networks which solve in different
machine drives based on new linear neural techniques. In ways LeastSquares problems [26][27].
particular it describes and compares three speed observers: The first is the MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer, which
the MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer, the MCA EXIN + is the evolution of a category of previous NN based
Reduced Order Observer and the TLS Fullorder MRAS observers developed by the authors. Initially the
Luenberger Adaptive Observer. Common to all of three dynamical performances and the speed estimation were
observers is the online estimation of the speed by a new improved with the aid of a Total LeastSquares (TLS)
linear neural technique, which solves in a recursive way a method [6], while this paper proposes a further
Total LeastSquares problem: one of them employs the TLS enhancement in three aspects: 1), a more accurate discrete
EXIN neuron and the other two the MCA EXIN + neuron, current model is used, based on the modified Euler
which is an improvement of the former. The speed observers
have been verified in numerical simulations and
integration (see [7] for all the details about the advantages
experimentally on a test setup and have been also compared of the proposed modified Euler integration method), 2) in
experimentally with one another. the reference model an enhanced version of the adaptive
integration technique of [6][22][23] has been used with a
filter whose transfer function varies with speed [24], 3) a
completely new generalized LeastSquares technique, the
I. INTRODUCTION MCA EXIN + (Minor Component Analysis) neuron [26]
[28], has been adopted to estimate the rotor speed. Each of
So far sensorless control of induction motors [1][3] has these improvements has respectively given the following
been faced up to with two kinds of methods: those which advantages: more stable flux estimation, more accurate
adopt the dynamic model of the induction machine based open loop flux integration at very low speed than the
on the fundamental spatial harmonic of the mmf and those fixedpole filter transfer function and finally the use of the
based on the saliencies of the machine. The first group MCA EXIN+ neuron with its scheduling makes it more
comprises openloop speed estimators [4], MRAS (Model powerful than the other existing neural techniques with
Reference Adaptive System) speed observers [5], also resulting smoother transient, shorter settling time and
based on neural networks [6][7], fullorder Luenberger better accuracy.
adaptive observers [8][11], also with neural networks The second is the MCA EXIN + Reduced Order
[12], and reduced order speed observers [13][15][33] Observer [16], which proposes a reduced order observer
[36], also based on neural networks (NN) [16]. The improved in two aspects: 1) a new speed estimation based
second group comprises those neurons beased on on a novel generalized LeastSquares technique, the MCA
continuous high frequency signal injection [17][19] and EXIN + (Minor Component Analysis) neuron, 2) a new
those based on test vectors [20][21]. This last kind of choice of the gain matrix of the observer, called Fixed
methodologies, even if is very promising for position Pole Position (FPP), which ensures the poles of the
sensorless control thanks to the capability of tracking observer to be fixed on one point of the negative real
saliencies, either that induced by the saturation of the main semiaxis, in spite of the variation of the speed of the
flux or that caused by the rotor slots, is usually machine motor, with a resulting dynamic behaviour of the flux
dependant and sometimes requires a suitable machine estimation independent from the rotor speed. These
design (e.g. open or semiclosed rotor slots for rotor features ensure very low operating speed at no load and
slotting tracking). This is not the case for the first kind of rated load (down to 3 rad/s, equal to 2% of the rated
techniques. speed), good estimation accuracy also in speed transient
This paper summarizes some results obtained by the and correct zero speed operation. Finally, the reduced
authors for improving the first kind of techniques of order rotor flux observer is less complex and requires a
sensorless control of induction motors by using linear lower computational burden than the fullorder observer.
neural networks. In particular, it proposes a comparative
analysis of three types of model based speed observers for
frequency ranges, close to their cutoff frequency, some for C)r (rotor speed in electrical angles) by using Least
alternative solutions can be used: e.g. the integrator with Squares (LS) techniques. In literature there exist three
saturation feedback [29], the integrator based on LeastSquares techniques, i.e. the Ordinary LeastSquares
cascaded LP filters [30][31], the integrator based on the (OLS), the Total LeastSquares (TLS) and the Data Least
offset vector estimation and compensation of residual Squares (DLS) which arise when errors are respectively
estimation error [4] and the adaptive neural integrator present only in b or both in A and in b or only in A.
[22]. In Ordinary LeastSquares (OLS) each element of A is
With regard to the reduced order adaptive observer, the considered without any error: therefore all errors are
problem of the DC drift in the integrand signal exists only confined to b. However this hypothesis does not always
for those choices of the observer gain matrix which correspond to the reality: modelling errors, measurement
transform, at certain working speeds of the machine, the errors etc. can in fact cause errors also in A. Therefore in
reduced order observer into an openloop flux estimator, real world applications the employment of Total Least
like the CVM (Current Voltage Model) in [32] which Squares is to be preferred, as it takes into consideration
gives rise to a smooth transition from the "current" to the also the errors in the data matrix.
"voltage" model according to the increase of the rotor In the monodimensional case (n=1), which is the case
speed. With such a choice, below a certain speed and under study, the LS technique solves for this problem by
above another one the observer behaves like a simple calculating the value of Cr which minimises the sum of
openloop estimator and therefore suffers from the squares of the distances among the elements (ai, bi), with
mentioned problem. This is not the case in the reduced i=1,... ,m, and the line itself. Fig. 1 shows the difference
order observer presented in this paper as explained in among the OLS, TLS and DLS. OLS minimises the sum
II.C. of squares of the distances in the b direction (error only in
the observation vector). TLS minimises the sum of
squares in the direction orthogonal to the line (for this
reason TLS is also called orthogonal regression) while
1821
DLS minimises the sum of squares in the A direction
(errors only in the data matrix).
vJ(k)=e Ax_T v (k1) +
In particular it must be expected that, in absence of noise, + [eAXTS I]A B i, (k ) (3)
the results obtained with TLS are equal to those obtained where k is the current sampling time and where the
with OLS; however in presence of increasing noise the symbol A stands for estimated value.
performance of TLS remains higher than that of OLS, A T
because TLS is less sensitive to noise. e X s
is generally computed by truncating its power
For these reasons the TLS algorithm is particularly series expansion at the nth term, i.e.
suitable for estimation processes in which data are
=+ x TS + A x T2S + A x nT
2
AxTsAA
n
affected by noise or modelling errors; this is certainly the e (4)
case of speed estimation, where the estimated rotor flux, 1! 2! n!
present in A, is affected both by modelling errors and In the MRAS observer proposed here, the adaptive model
noise. Therefore, a TLS technique should be used instead is based on an enhanced ADALINE neural network based
of the Ordinary LeastSquares (OLS) technique. The TLS on a modified Euler discretization method, which avoids
EXIN neuron is the only neural network capable to solve the instability problems due to simple Euler
a TLS problems recursively online. The MCA EXIN + discretization.
(Minor Component Analysis) neuron is a further Moreover, like [6], the adaptive model has been
improvement of the TLS EXIN neuron, in which a employed in "prediction mode", that is the flux
parameterized formulation (Generalized TLS, GeTLS components estimated by the reference model are used as
EXIN) of the error function is defined on the basis of a inputs in the adaptive model, thus avoiding any feedback.
The employment of the adaptive model in prediction
parameter ;: ; is equal to 0 for OLS, 0. 5 for TLS and I mode leads to a quicker convergence of the algorithm, a
for DLS. The TLS EXIN problem can also been solved higher bandwidth of the speed control loop, a better
by scheduling the value of the parameter ; in GeTLS behaviour at zero speed, lower speed estimation errors
EXIN, e.g. it can vary linearly from 0 to 0.5 and then both in transient and steadystate conditions and a stable
remains constant. This scheduling improves the transient, behaviour of the estimator, in particular in the field
the speed and the accuracy of the iterative technique. [25] weakening region. This is not the case when the flux
shows that a TLS problem corresponds to a minor estimated by the adaptive model is fedback as an input.
component analysis (MCA) problem and is equivalent to Unlike [6] the Modified Euler Integration has been
a particular DLS problem. For all the details on the MCA employed in (3) because it takes into consideration also
EXIN + algorithm and its features see [25][28]. the values of the variables in the two previous time steps
[7] thus yielding the following discrete time equations:
B. MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer
1) Structure ofthe Observer Yrd(kA1)KA
(k) = w1n 2 @rq (k)+ W3 isD (k1)
In the MRAS speed observation scheme proposed here + W4n YJrd(k2)+w rq(k2)W6 isD (k2)
the reference model is based on the well known voltage {q(k) = Wi@W (k1)+ W@ (k1)+W3 isQ(k1)
model of the induction motor [2], while the adaptive + W4n YKrq(k2)W5n fdq(k2)W6n isQ(k2)
model is a linear artificial neural network based on the
current model. To perform openloop integration the (5)
voltage model employs the integrator based on the neural where A stands for the variables estimated with the
adaptive filtering described in § II A.2 adaptive model and k is the current time sample. A linear
The adaptive model is given by: neural network can reproduce these equations, where w1n,
W2n, W3n, W4n, W5n, W6n are the weights of the neural
networks defined as: w1n= 1 3Ts/(2Tr),w2n=3w,Ts/2,
dI Jrd =Lim sD/rdWr TI)frq W3n=3TsLm/(2Tr),w4n=T s/(2Tr),w5n= oT s/2,w6n=TsLm/(2Tr)
dI/Jrq Li/r+r;/r (1) Rearranging (5), the following matrix equation is
T =L i T obtained in prediction mode:
rdt sQ Vrq +Cr r
m r
q 1)+1/2T Vq(k
F 3/2T, d(k 2)1 (k 1)
L3/2 T,Kd (k 1) 1/2 T,Kd (k 2)]
Eq (1), divided by Tr, can be rewritten in the folloiwing
manner: (k) WInjq(k 1) W3jniD(k 1) W41nVd(k2) + W6n iD(k 2)
r Wq (k) Wlinq (k 1) W3n,iQ(k 1) W4ndq (k 2) +W6niD, (k 2)
Wr =A xN+Bi
=
r x sx 2
(2) (6)
This matrix equation can be solved by any regression
where V't =
d
A = T
co T
B =L technique: here the MCA EXIN + technique has been
r
Vrq]9 Lw T½1
9
adopted to retrieve the rotor speed online. Fig. 2 shows
.~~ ~~  isr the block diagram of the resulting MRAS speed observer.
I = s
_tQ
1822
OLS TLS DLS
I
x~

tan(OL)  r
=
tan(O) =
(Or tan(Oc)  r=
9
integrator because of the initial conditions and the 290= 10.0
oft 1=ha_enstt
90
filtering error of the neural filter 1 appearing during its the vau Frequency (rad/sec)
4,wiei pe
adaptation (Fig. 3). Fig. 4 Frequency response of the adaptive integrator with two values of
Fig. 4 shows the frequency response of an ideal the learning factor, of the LP integrator and of the ideal integrator
integrator, an LP filter based integrator (cutoff frequency
= 15 rad/s) and the neural adaptive integrator with two
That is why the use of low values of c can bring about
different values of , respectively 2 104 and 1.105. It can stability problems in the flux control loop, especially
be demonstrated that the transfer function of the neural during speed transients. In this respect the problem has
adaptive integrator presents two poles and one zero (in been solved as follows: at reference speeds above 10
the origin). rad/s (in electrical angles) and during each speed transient
the value of c has been set to 2.104 , while in speed
1823
steadystate at references from 10 down to 4 rad/s, the the estimated rotor flux linkage hr as well as the
value of t has been varied linearly from 2 104 to 1. 105 measured stator voltage u, and current space vectors is.
and then kept to this last value for lower reference speeds, Moreover, since the gain matrix G is time dependant, the
as shown in Fig. 5. It should be remarked that reducing correction term which takes into consideration the time
the value of t corresponds to moving the poles of the derivative of the gain matrix dG/dt is also included in the
neural filter towards the origin, which however does not scheme.
affect anyhow the accuracy of the integrator. This is not
the case for the LP filter integrator, where the amplitude Us
, Induction Machine
of the pole cannot be reduced too much, since the lower
the amplitude of the pole the higher the drift at the LP A1GA,4
filter output caused by a DC drift at its input
G
IEIs
lo
I<
+
1 10
A22GAl< .
1
r)
mmmir A N
z
l 0o'
L L
aLs Lr or gre aLs Lr Pr gim
(A22 GA12 >4"r +(A21GAII)i5 GB1us +G d i /3=or + 
I
~dt s s
1824
dG _ dGre dGim 2YsLr Rprwr dtOr I+ line. For all the details on the MCA EXIN + algorithm
dt dt dt
=
L (2 2)2 dt and its features see [25][28]. In any case remark that the
use of only two equations of the machine reduces the
computation time, but is less robust to noise or errors in
+ R I
2 Wo;(p2 +c2)2
rJ data. To overcome this all of the four equations should be
Lm yP+ dt used, which has been used in the follwing observer.
(1 1)
Fig. 7 shows the observer pole locus, the amplitude of
D. TLS EXIN Full Order Observer
poles vs rotor speed, the damping factor 4 vs rotor speed
and gain locus (Gim vs Gre) as obtained with the FPP gain 1) Induction motor equations
matrix choice. It shows that this solution permits the The state equations of the induction machine in the
dynamic of the flux estimation to be kept constant, stationary reference frame are given by:
because the amplitude of the poles is the constant R and
the damping factor 4 is always equal to 1. This last dt xV'rj ]A
K21]+[I 1]US =AX+BUs
feature is particularly important for sensorless control in (13a)
high speed range: in fact most of the choices of the matrix
gain results in a low damping factor at high rotor speeds, i =Cx (13b)
which can easily cause instability phenomena. Actually where the meaning of all matrices and vectors have been
higher values of the damping factor result in low explained in II.B. 1. For the rest of symbols, see the list at
sensitivity to estimated speed perturbations or parameter the end.
variations.
2) The adaptive speed observer
Proposed Gain Choice
The full order Luenberger state observer estimating the
stator current and the rotor flux is given as usual by
R
9c [1][2][12]:
.2)
a)
.E 0
04
dt =AX+Bus+G( sis) (14)
real(eig(A 22G A12)) speed (rad/s)
where A stands for estimated values and G is the observer
gain matrix which is designed so that the above observer
can be stable.
The Total LeastSquares (TLS) based speed observer
C,
stems from a modification of (14), in the sense that it
E 0
E
exploits all of the four scalar equations to estimate the
rotor speed, as shown below in discrete form for digital
implementation:
speed (rad/s) real(G) al2 Ts @rq (k  1)
Fig. 7 Pole locus, amplitude vs speed, 4 vs speed and gain locus with
the proposed gain matrix choice a22 Ts X,f (k 1)1
a22 Ts @frd (k 1)
isD(k) isD(k 1) al T iD(k 1)a2 p T rd (k 1) bT isD(k 1)
3) MCA EXIN + Speed Estimation _isQ (k) isQ (k1) all Ts isQ (k  1)2 Pr Ts tfrq(k 1)  b T su(k 1)
The MCA EXIN + based speed estimation derives from
the exploit of the two first equations of the complete state t/rd (k) + 8frd (k1) + a2l Ts isd (k 1) + a22 Ts ITr Yfrd (k1)
equations of the induction motor [8], as shown below in ITr
Yfrq (k) + Yfrq (k1) + a2l Ts isq (k 1) + a22 Ts l/frq (k1)
discrete form for digital implementation: (15)
Fa2Ts
1 r (k 1)1
where pr= 1Tr, Ts is the sampling time of the control
algorithm and k is the time sample. Note that also here
a12Ts
~~ 1) 1 JTk(k)
isD (k) isD (k 1)al Ts isD (k 1) a2 P Ts @,d (k 1)b Ts fiSD (k 1)
TZ2Q(
the symbol has the same meaning as in the previous
LisQ (k) isQ (k1)  a,1 7s isQ (k 1)  a2 P. 7s 7^1rq (k1) b 7s isQ (k 1) observer. Here the TLS EXIN technique has been
(12) adopted to retrieve the rotor speed online. For all the
where pr=l1Tr, Ts is the sampling time of the control details on the TLS EXIN algorithm and its features see
algorithm and k is the current time sample. Note that the [25][28].
on the stator voltage space vector means that it is It should be remarked that, to compute the rotor speed,
computed from the DC link voltage considering also the all the four scalar equations of (14) have been used. Fig. 8
blanking time of the inverter and the voltage drop on the shows the corresponding block diagram. It should be
remarked that the computation of the rotor speed by
power devices of the inverter as proposed in [4]. The means of the TLS estimator is performed through the
same symbol on the rotor flux stands for the estimated minimization of the residual of the matrix equation (15).
flux. This matrix equation can be solved by any
regression technique and here the MCA EXIN +
technique has been adopted to retrieve the rotor speed on
1825
observers, the TLS FullOrder Luenberger Adaptive
Observer is the only which can perform the speed reversal
at the lowest speed (2 rad/s). Then there is the MCA
EXIN + Reduced Order Observer which can perform the
speed reversal at 4 rad/s and finally the MCA EXIN +
MRAS Observer which can perform the speed reversal at
7 rad/s.
MCA EXIN +MRAS Obser er,
12 Rfeec
all tests, the measured speed has been used only for
comparison reason, while the estimated speed has been
fed back to the control system.
As a first test, a speed step reference of very low speed
at no load has been given to the drive. Figs. 9, 10, 11 show
2
1826
As a third test, the drive has been operated with all the These figures confirm that all of the three observers can
three observers in zero speed operation at no load. Figs. work correctly at zero speed at no load. The correct
15, 16, 17 show the reference, the estimated and the behaviour of the MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer is caused
measured speed obtained at zero speed, respectively with by the employment of the adaptive model in prediction
the MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer, the MCA EXIN + mode. The correct behaviour of the MCA EXIN +
Reduced Order Observer and the TLS FullOrder Reduced Order Observer and the TLS FullOrder
Luenberger Adaptive Observer. This test has been Luenberger Adaptive Observer are caused by the fact that
performed with all the three observer over the long time the Least Squares algorithm estimates in both cases the
interval of 60 s. rotor speed by using the measured stator current signals
and not the estimated ones (only the FullOrder observer
MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer
estimates also the stator currents), as in the classic Full
Order Adaptive Observer [8].
MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer
uiD AN1T
Real speed
I
Reference speed
10 20 30 40 50 60
time
 Estim. speed
~ ~ ~  Reference spe:e:d
Fig. 12 Reference estimated and measured speed with the MCA EXIN + L L
L
10 20 30 40 50 60
time (s)
MRAS Observer with a speed reversal from 7 to 7 rad/s (experiment)
Fig. 15 Reference estimated and measured speed with the MCA EXIN +
MRAS Observer at zero speed (experiment)
MCA EXIN + Reduced Order Observer
MCA EXIN + Reduced Order Observer
.1
81 siae
1
6 Reeec
o04I~44
4
1411l1
2 4 4ub A + 4S t 5 + ; pl.ii.
111 T oT
101 1 11111 1
Fig. 13 Reference estimated and measured speed with the MCA EXIN +
Reduced Order Observer with a with a speed reversal from 4 to 4 rad/s Fig. 16 Reference estimated and measured speed with the MCA EXIN +
(experiment) Reduced Order Observer with at zero speed (experiment)
.p
~t 4 4~ 1~ 1
i
Fig. 14 Reference estimated and measured speed with the TLS Full
Order Luenberger Adaptive with a speed reversal from 2 to 2 rad/s
(experiment) Fig. 17 Reference estimated and measured speed with the TLS Full
Order Luenberger Adaptive at zero speed (experiment)
1827
In particular, with all of the three observers, the LIST OF SYMBOLS
estimated speed has slight oscillations around 0 rad/s, us= space vector of the stator voltages in the stator
while the measured speed is always zero, except for some reference frame;
spikes which are due to the nonperfect filtering of the UsD, usQ = direct and quadrature components of the stator
speed signal coming from the incremental encoder: in any voltages in the stator reference frame;
case the rotor does not move. Experimental tests
performed at zero speed at load show that of the MCA is space vector of the stator currents in the stator
EXIN + MRAS Observer can work at zero speed with a reference frame;
slight load torque, while the MCA EXIN + Reduced Order isD, isQ = direct and quadrature components of the stator
Observer and the TLS FullOrder Luenberger Adaptive currents in the stator reference frame;
Observer can work at zero speed with a medium load isxn isy = direct and quadrature components of the stator
torque. currents in the rotorflux oriented reference frame;
Tab. I summarizes and compares the results of the 3 tested Vs= space vector of the stator fluxlinkages in the stator
speed observers with regard to the main issues of reference frame;
sensorless algorithms (score 1 corresponds to the best and VsD, VsQ = direct and quadrature component of the stator
3 to the worst). It shows that the TLS FullOrder flux linkage in the stator reference frame;
Luenberger Adaptive Observer outperforms all the other 'I'r= space vector of the rotor fluxlinkages in the stator
observers in all the specified issues, followed by the MCA reference frame;
EXIN + Reduced Order Observer and finally by of the Vrd, Vrq =direct and quadrature component of the rotor
MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer. flux linkage in the stator reference frame;
Ls stator inductance.
V. CONCLUSIONS Lr rotor inductance.
This paper summarizes the research activity of the Lm= total static magnetising inductance;
authors in the field of sensorless control of induction R = resistance of a stator phase winding.
machine drives based on new linear neural techniques. In
particular it describes and compares three speed Rr = resistance of a rotor phase winding.
observers: the MCA EXIN + MRAS Observer, the MCA Tr = rotor time constant;
EXIN + Reduced Order Observer and the TLS FullOrder 0= ILm2/(LsLr) =total leakage factor;
Luenberger Adaptive Observer. All of the three observers p = number of pole pairs;
are characterized by the fact that the speed is estimated 0L?nr = angular rotor speed (in mechanical angles);
online by a new linear neural technique, which solves in Or = angular rotor speed (in electriical angles per
a recursive way a Total LeastSquares problem: one of
them employs the TLS EXIN neuron and the other two second);
the MCA EXIN + neuron, which is an improvement. Ts = sampling time of the control system.
These techniques are linear regression methods which
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1828
TABLE I.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE 3 SPEED OBSERVERS (SCORE 1 CORRESPONDS TO THE BEST AND 3 TO THE WORST)
Accuracy in Minimum Zerospeed Fieldweakening Regeneration mode
Speed speed operation Behaviour at low speed
Transient
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Observer
MCAEXIN + 2 2 1 1 1
Reduced Order
Observer
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Observer
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