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CAPSTONE PROJECT 1 REPORT (Project Semester August- December 2011)

HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM SYSTEM

Submitted by

PANKAJ KUMAR Regs. No. Section Roll No. Programme : 10804968 : K38E4 : K38E4A14 : B.TECH (IT)

Under the Guidance of MISS DIVYAJOT GILL (LECTURER) (DEPARTMENT OF CSE/IT)

Discipline of CSE/IT Lovely School of Engineering Lovely Professional University, Phagwara

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that PANKAJ KUMAR bearing Registration no. 10804968 has completed her capstone project-1 titled, HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM under my guidance and supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the present work is the result of her original investigation and study. No part of the work has ever been submitted for any other degree at any University. The project is fit for submission and the partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of.........................

Signature and Name of the Research Supervisor

Designation

School

Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab.

Date:

DECLARATION

I PANKAJ KUMAR student of B.TECH (IT) under Department of CSE/IT of Lovely Professional University, Punjab, hereby declare that all the information furnished in this dissertation / capstone project report is based on my own intensive research and is genuine. This dissertation / report does not, to the best of my knowledge, contain part of my work which has been submitted for the award of my degree either of this university or any other university without proper citation.

Date : Signature: Name of the student:PANKAJ KUMAR Registration No.: 10804968

Acknowledgement

Apart from the efforts of me, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who helped me for the successful completion of this project. I would like to show my greatest appreciation to my project guide Miss DIVYAJOT GILL. I cant say thank you enough for her tremendous support and help. I feel motivated and encouraged every time I attend her meeting. Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from all the friends was vital for the success of the project. I am grateful for their constant support and help.

Pankaj Kumar (10804968)

INDEX:

Profile of the Problem Existing System Introduction The Existing System Limitation of Existing System DFD for present system Level-0 Level-1 Level-2 Level-3 Symbols of Data Flow Diagram Purposed System Advantages of Proposed System Problem Analysis Product definition Alternative Solutions Feasibility Analysis Technical feasibility Economical feasibility Operational Feasibility Schedule feasibility Project Plan Goals of proposed system Background Software Requirement Analysis Introduction General Description Specific Requirements SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS Front End Back End Features of SQL Server 2000 Design: Logical Design Physical Design Input design Output Design

Profile of the Problem:


Hospital management is becoming increasingly difficult in todays market due to increasing health problems. The demand is growing and the challenges are increasing. This in turn asks for the better way to manage the ongoing activities of a hospital efficiently, because every business, whether big or small needs proper management. Among the unique challenges face by the hospital and other organizations. Patient are faced so many problem regarding hospital, doctors and especially for his/her disease. Patient faced problem such as takes time consuming reach to the hospital, taking appointment to the doctor and wasting money, having problem to find hospital, patient are not concern to the doctor at appropriate time and not taking an appointment to the doctor if patient having a problem at mid night at this time he/she is not allowed concern with the doctor so patient are having so much difficulties at the mid night patient are take the information about the problem or disease. Patient taking a problem for finding lab where patient know important and appropriate information of the disease after taking a particular test such as(Blood Test, Urine Test, Stool Test etc.) for particular disease. Among the unique challenges faced by hospitals , Patients of capital assets is that so many of them are on wheels. The address of the different different hospitals is different. Finding the specific location of the hospital can take a healthcare provider precious minutes so so much time consuming are there. In a typical hospital day, these lost minutes can add up to hours of lost productivity and this may lead to loss of someones life. From inadequate reimbursement and productivity management to rising insurance costs and patient satisfaction concerns, hospital management demands smart minds and smart technologies to keep the healthcare system running smoothly. An aging population and chronic illnesses are straining hospital management as much as nurses and doctors. The problem has been highly publicized, yet hospital management shortages are still a reality. Some of the major problems faced by Public Hospitals and Health Centres that operate on conventional, manual based Information Systems are listed below: 1. Time consuming & delays All work processes are very time consuming as they require manual compilation and recompilation in many steps of the work processes. This caused delays in tasks completion and inevitably delays vital information required for decision support at all levels of management. 2. Lack of immediate retrievals: -The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular information. For e.g. - To find out about the patients history, the user has to go through various registers. This results in inconvenience and wastage of time. And also the hospital has to keep the registers safe which contains the old records. 3. Resources intensive On top of being error prone, the manual based processes are very labour intensive. This results in both wastages of resources and also inefficiencies which should be corrected. 4. Redundancy Due to the limitations of manual work processes (as compared to computerized automation), redundancy in work steps are inevitable. Many similar work are repeated over various locations by different people simply because there are no means of easy data exchange / modification.

So, The above problems are overcome by this Project HIS(Health Information system).In this project a user friendly interface is provided which is easily to use and can be handled by a person who is not having the much information about the computerized system. This project firstly reduced the paper work and improve its performance by providing fast service. Patient and doctor can easily consult from anywhere i.e from their home,clinic,office,any organization like insurance, any MNC or any local company and improved their chances of having good health. All the information are saved in the different- different DataBase that is easily retrieved by their respective authorized user so security of the information are increased. By this project user taking the information about any diseases and its Treatment and caution, hospitals, pathology labs and information about the newly generated disease, Treatments and per-caution. User can easily shear the their problems and advised about the disease. So it is very usefull for the user(i.e. any organization employee, any Patient and doctor also ). A more sophisticate register maintenance for various Patient Information, Doctor diary, Immunization Details and a good system for writing bill amount employees and stock availed for the customers can be maintained at central place. Adequate staff may be maintained so that updations are made at the very moment at the same time. Proper person for proper work should be made responsible so that a better efficiency could be achieved. This needs a lot of work force. 1. Online System:This system (HIS) provides online storage/ updations and retrieval facility. This system promises very less or no paper work and also provides help to Doctor and operational staff. In this system everything is stored electronically so very less amount of paper work is required and information can be retrieved very easily without searching here and there into registers.

Existing System: Introduction:


In most public hospitals, even today the manual system is used to manage the activities of a hospital which leads to many problems as I have already discussed above. Some private hospitals have even shifted to computer based hospital management system. But even they have started using it, there are certain drawbacks which are discussed in the further section of this report. Many computerized system are present and used by many of the organizations which is provide the limited services and not provide service like consult to the doctor and shear problem and their treatment or solution, advised etc.but most of the organization and hospitals are still now use manually system. Now, I would like to throw a light on the existing hospital management system.

The Existing System:


The existing system is manual system and all the information about the patients treatment is on the patients prescription. When the patient visits the hospital for treatment he/she is given a piece of paper indicating the date of visit, the name of the doctor giving the treatment, the check ups done, the name of the disease and the proper prescription. Thus the prescription contains the complete details of the treatment given to the patient. When the patient visits the hospital he/she has to carry all the reports and the prescription with him/her. The disadvantage is that the patient needs to carry his/her prescription with him/her every time. It may be the case that the patient gets ill on the way; when he/she is out of city and may not carry the prescriptions with him/her, in that case he/she may have to undergo all the tests again. Thus the treatment may be delayed. Existing system refers to the system that is being followed till now. Presently all the hospital functionalities are done manually. That is if a patient want to consult a doctor he can visit their till his chance called. This is make the person very difficult. Out_Patient and In_Patient tickets are distributed directly. The main disadvantage is time consuming.

Limitation of Existing System:


Lack of security of data. Time consuming. Consumes large volume of paper work. Manual work No direct role for the higher officials. To avoid all these limitations and make the system working more accurately it needs to be computerized and enhanced the facility of any existing computer based project. This project Advanced Health information System includes registration of patients, storing their details into the system Our project has the facility to give a unique id for every patient and stores the details of every patient and the staff automatically. It includes a search facility to easily search any doctor and patient from the list. User can search availability of a doctor and the details of a patient using the id. The Advanced Hospital Management System can be entered using a username and password. It is accessible either by an administrator or receptionist. Only they can add data into the database. The data can be retrieved easily. The interface is very user-friendly. The data are well protected for personal use and makes the data processing very fast.

DFD for present system:


Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is an important technique for modeling a systems high-level detail by showing how input data is transformed to output results through a sequence of functional transformations. DFDs reveal relationships among and between the various components in a program or system. DFDs consists of four major components: entities, processes, data stores and data flows. Why DFDs are useful? When it comes to conveying how information data flows through system and how that data is transformed in the process, DFDs are the method of choice over technical descriptions for three principle reasons. DFDs are easier to understand by technical and non-technical audiences DFDs can provide a high level system overview, complete with boundaries and connections to other systems DFDs can provide a detailed representation of system components. A data flow diagram represents the following: External devices sending and receiving data Processes that change that data Data flows themselves Data storage locations Data flow diagrams have replaced flowcharts and pseudo code as the tool of choice for showing program design. A DFD illustrates those functions that must be performed in a program as well as the data that the function will need. In spite of its strength, the beauty of DFD lies on its dependence upon just four symbols to express program design.

Symbols of Data Flow Diagram: There only four symbols used to write Data Flow Diagram as follows:

External Entities:

Rectangular box

Data Flow

Arrow headed lines

Process

Bubble (Circle or round corner square)

Data Store

opened rectangle

Level 0: Context Diagram:

Level 1:

Control Overall Data HIS(Health Information System)

Add/Edit/Delete Data

Administrator

User

Login_db Login

Chg_Pwd

Change Password Doctor Patient_db Add_New

Patient_Reg

Doctor_Reg Add_db Prescription

Test Test_db Prescription_db

Level 2:

Control Overall Data HIS(Health Information System)

Add/Edit/Delete Data

Administrator

User

Login_db Login

Chg_Pwd

Change Password Doctor Patient_db

Add_New

Patient_Reg

Doctor_Reg Add_db Prescription

Test Test_db Prescription_db

Urine Urine_db Stool

X-ray

Test Xray_db

Stool_db

Sanography

Blood

Sanography_db

Blood_db

Level 3:

Control Overall Data HIS(Health Information System)

Add/Edit/Delete Data

Administrator

User

Login_db Login

Chg_Pwd

Change Password Doctor Patient_db

Add_New

Patient_Reg

Doctor_Reg Add_db Prescription

Test Prescription_db Test_db

Urine

Urine_db

X-ray

Stool

Xray_db Test Stool_db

Blood Sanography

Sanography_db

Blood_db

Test_db

Test Medicine

Diet Advice

Diet_advice

Prescription Medicine_db Gives Injection Date Doctors Take Injection_db

Patient

Give

Give

Information

Disease

Pathology lab

Hospitals

Disease_db

HP_db

Purposed System:
The Health Information system project is user-friendly system. The main objectives of the system is which shows and helps you to collect most of the information about Hospitality and Medical Services The system is very simple in design and to implement. The system requires very low system resources and the system will work in almost all configurations. The main objectives of the proposed system can be enumerated as follows: Patients are easily allocated to the doctors. Doctors Search is possible. Todays patient list help doctors to search their patients Maintaining Patient details. Providing Prescription, Precautions and Diet advice. Providing and maintaining all kinds of tests for a patient.

Main facilities available in this project are: Maintaining records of indoor/outdoor patients. Maintaining patients diagnosis details, advised tests to be done. Providing different test facilities to a doctor for diagnosis of patients X-Ray Urine Test Stool Test Solography Test Gastroscopy Test Colonoscopy Test Blood Test Biochemistry Test Maintaining patients injection entry records. Maintaining patients prescription, medicine and diet advice details. If user forgets his/her password then it can be retrieved by hint question. In this project collection of data is from different pathology labs. Results of tests, prescription, precautions and diet advice will be automatically updated in the database.

User or Administrator can search a patients record by his/her name or their registration date. Patients diet advice can be provided in Hindi.

Purpose:
The Software is for the automation of Hospital Management. It maintains two levels of users: Administrator Level User Level

Scope:
It can be used in any Hospital, Clinic, Dispensary or Pathology labs for maintaining patient details and their test results. User access to Quality health care services for all by providing improved patient care through effective clinical and administrative processes with the help of Information Communication. The aimed management of vital patient records, analysis of the critical health related data so as to provide an updated planning & policy tool towards provision of quality health services. With this project user can know about his/her health like which kind of medicine and food etc. patient take .This project use in hospital department, insurance company, hotels, and any type of other company where large no of employee do work.

Advantages of Proposed System:


The system is very simple in design and to implement. The system requires very low system resources and the system will work in almost all configurations. Security of data. Ensure data accuracys. Administrator controls the entire system. Reduce the damages of the machines. Minimize manual data entry. Greater efficiency. User friendly and interactive. Minimum time required. Saving money

Problem Analysis:
Product definition: Problems with conventional system: Lack of immediate retrievals: The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular information like- E.g. - To find out about the patients history, the user has to go through various registers. This results in inconvenience and wastage of time. Lack of immediate information storage: The information generated by various transactions takes time and efforts to be stored at right place. Lack of prompt updating: Various changes to information like patient details or immunization details of child are difficult to make as paper work is involved. Error prone manual calculation: Manual calculations are error prone and take a lot of time this may result in incorrect information. For example calculation of patients bill based on various treatments. Preparation of accurate and prompt reports: This becomes a difficult task as information is difficult to collect from various registers.

Alternative Solutions:
Batch System: Alternative solution can be used of computer based batch system for maintaining the information regarding purchase details, customers and employees. A batch system refers to a system in which data is processed in a periodical basis. The batch system is able to achieve most of the goals and sub goals. But a batch system data is processed in sequential basis. Therefore batch system is not suggested. Online System: This system (HMS) provides online storage/ updations and retrieval facility. This system promises very less or no paper work and also provides help to Doctor and operational staff. In this system everything is stored electronically so very less amount of paper work is required and information can be retrieved very easily without searching here and there into registers. This system is been discussed here. The Health Information system project is user-friendly system. The main objectives of the system is which shows and helps you to collect most of the information about Hospitality and Medical Services The system is very simple in design and to implement. The system requires very low system resources and the system will work in almost all configurations.

The main objectives of the proposed system can be enumerated as follows: Patients are easily allocated to the doctors. Doctors Search is possible. Todays patient list help doctors to search their patients Maintaining Patient details. Providing Prescription, Precautions and Diet advice. Providing and maintaining all kinds of tests for a patient. Security of data. Ensure data accuracys. Administrator controls the entire system. Reduce the damages of the machines. Minimize manual data entry. Greater efficiency. User friendly and interactive. Minimum time required.

Feasibility Analysis:
Depending on the results of the initial investigation the survey is now expanded to a more detailed feasibility study. FEASIBILITY STUDY is a test of system proposal according to its workability, impact of the organization, ability to meet needs and effective use of the resources. It focuses on these major questions: What are the users demonstrable needs and how does a candidate system meet them? What resources are available for given candidate system? What are the likely impacts of the candidate system on the organization? Whether it is worth to solve the problem? During feasibility analysis for this project, following primary areas of interest are to be considered. Investigation and generating ideas about a new system does this.

Steps in feasibility analysis Eight steps involved in the feasibility analysis are: Prepare system flowcharts.

Enumerate potential proposed system. Define and identify characteristics of proposed system. Determine and evaluate performance and cost effective of each proposed system. Weight system performance and cost data. Select the best-proposed system. Prepare and report final project directive to management.

Technical feasibility:
A study of resource availability that may affect the ability to achieve an acceptable system. This evaluation determines whether the technology needed for the proposed system is available or not. Can the work for the project be done with current equipment existing software technology & available personal? Can the system be upgraded if developed? If new technology is needed then what can be developed? This is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will successfully satisfy the user requirement. The technical needs of the system may include: Front-end and back-end selection: An important issue for the development of a project is the selection of suitable front-end and back-end. When we decided to develop the project we went through an extensive study to determine the most suitable platform that suits the needs of the organization as well as helps in development of the project. The aspects of our study included the following factors. Front-end selection: It must have a graphical user interface that assists employees that are not from IT background. Scalability and extensibility. Flexibility. Robustness. According to the organization requirement and the culture. Must provide excellent reporting features with good printing support.

Platform independent. Easy to debug and maintain. Event driven programming facility. Front end must support some popular back end like SQL. According to the above stated features we selected ASP.NET 4.0 as the front-end for Developing our project. Back-end Selection: Multiple user support. Efficient data handling. Provide inherent features for security. Efficient data retrieval and maintenance. Stored procedures. Popularity. Operating System compatible. Various drivers must be available. Easy to implant with the Front-end. According to above stated features we selected SQL as the backend. The technical feasibility is frequently the most difficult area encountered at this stage. It is essential that the process of analysis and definition be conducted in parallel with an assessment to technical feasibility. It centers on the existing computer system (hardware, software etc.) and to what extent it can support the proposed system.

Economical feasibility:
Economic justification is generally the Bottom Line consideration for most systems. Economic justification includes a broad range of concerns that includes cost benefit analysis. In this we weight the cost and the benefits associated with the candidate system and if it suits the basic purpose of the organization i.e. profit making, the project is making to the analysis and design phase. The financial and the economic questions during the preliminary investigation are verified to estimate the following: The cost to conduct a full system investigation. The cost of hardware and software for the class of application being considered.

The benefits in the form of reduced cost. The proposed system will give the minute information, as a result the performance is improved which in turn may be expected to provide increased profits. This feasibility checks whether the system can be developed with the available funds. The Health Information System does not require enormous amount of money to be developed. This can be done economically if planned judicially, so it is economically feasible. The cost of project depends upon the number of man-hour required.

Operational Feasibility:
It is mainly related to human organizations and political aspects. The points to be Considered are: What changes will be brought with the system? What organization structures are disturbed? What new skills will be required? Do the existing staff members have these skills? If not, can they be trained in due course of time? The system is operationally feasible as it very easy for the End users to operate it. It only needs basic information about Windows platform.

Schedule feasibility:
Time evaluation is the most important consideration in the development of project. The Time schedule required for the developed of this project is very important since more Development time effect machine time, cost and cause delay in the development of other systems. A reliable Health Information System can be developed in the considerable amount of time.

Project Plan:
Goals of proposed system: Planned approach towards working: The working in the organization will be well planned and organized. The data will be stored properly in data stores, which will help in retrieval of information as well as its storage. Accuracy: The level of accuracy in the proposed system will be higher. All operation would be done correctly and it ensures that whatever information is coming from the center is accurate. Reliability: The reliability of the proposed system will be high due to the above stated reasons. The reason for the increased reliability of the system is that now there would be proper storage of information.

No Redundancy: In the proposed system utmost care would be that no information is repeated anywhere, in storage or otherwise. This would assure economic use of storage space and consistency in the data stored. Immediate retrieval of information: The main objective of proposed system is to provide for a quick and efficient retrieval of information. Any type of information would be available whenever the user requires. Immediate storage of information: In manual system there are many problems to store the largest amount of information. Easy to Operate: The system should be easy to operate and should be such that it can be developed within a short period of time and fit in the limited budget of the user.

Background:
A Hospital is a place where Patients come up for general diseases. Hospitals provide facilities like: Consultation by Doctors on Diseases. Diagnosis for diseases. Providing treatment facility. Facility for admitting Patients (providing beds, nursing, medicines etc.) Immunization for Patients/Children. Various operational works that are done in a Hospital are: Recording information about the Patients that come. Recording information related to diagnosis given to Patients. Keeping record of the Immunization provided to children/patients. Keeping information about various diseases and medicines available to cure them. These are the various jobs that need to be done in a Hospital by the operational staff and Doctors. All these works are done on papers. The work is done as follows: Information about Patients is done by just writing the Patients name, age and gender. Whenever the Patient comes up his information is stored freshly. Diagnosis information to patients is generally recorded on the document, which contains Patient information. It is destroyed after some time period to decrease the paper load in the office.

Immunization records of children are maintained in pre-formatted sheets, which are kept in a file. Information about various diseases is not kept as any document. Doctors themselves do this job by remembering various medicines. All this work is done manually by the receptionist and other operational staff and lot of papers are needed to be handled and taken care of. Doctors have to remember various medicines available for diagnosis and sometimes miss better alternatives as they cant remember them at that time.

Software Requirement Analysis: Introduction:


A software requirements specification (SRS) is a comprehensive description of the intended purpose and environment for software under development. The SRS fully describes what the software will do and how it will be expected to perform. An SRS minimizes the time and effort required by developers to achieve desired goals and also minimizes the development cost. A good SRS defines how an application will interact with system hardware, other programs and human users in a wide variety of real-world situations. Parameters such as operating speed, response time, availability, portability, maintainability, footprint, security and speed of recovery from adverse events are evaluated. The main activities in requirement determination are: Requirement Anticipation: It includes the findings of the problems, features and requirements of the new system. It is a mixed blessing. On one hand, experience from previous studied can lead to investigation of areas that would otherwise go unnoticed by an inexperienced analyst. Requirement Investigation: This activity is at the heart of the system analysis. Using a variety of tools and skills, analysts study the current system and document its features for further analysis. It relies o the fact-finding techniques and includes methods for documenting and describing system features. Requirement Specification: The data produced during the fact-finding investigation are analyzed to determine requirement specification, description of features for a new system. This activity has three interrelated parts- analysis of actual data, identification of essential requirements and selection of requirements specification.

General Description:
Health information management (HIM) is the practice of maintenance and care of health records by traditional (paper-based) and electronic means in hospitals, physician's office clinics, health departments, health insurance companies, and other facilities that provide health care or maintenance of health records. With the widespread computerization of health records and other

information sources, including hospital administration functions and health human resources information, health informatics and health information technology are being increasingly utilized in information management practices in the health care sector. User can register you-self for check his/her health information according to symptoms and take an advice and all the information (caution, related to food medicine etc.) From doctors and health adviser for his/her health. Patient also can share any health information, solution, advice to other user. In this Project HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM so many module are there some of them are listed below: REGISTRATION: Patients and doctors can register by creating an account. Registration is very simple only fill some personal detail as well as select an user name and password for security purpose. ADMINISTRATION: Administration is maintaining the whole project. All the process execute with the permission of the administration. The user not permits to perform all the operation in the project. SERVICES : Service management define all the service are provided by the project and how to execute services or how to perform operation , It means have the detail about the service provided by the project and the way of performing operation for new user. It consist all the services provided by the system. PATIENT MANAGEMENT: Patient management have the all information about the patient like patient disease, patient medicine, Disease test etc. DOCTOR MANAGEMENT: It holds all the data of the doctor. MEDICAL DATA : Medical data is having the all the information about the medicine like medicine company, medicine salt, medicine dose, medicine price, way of how to take medicine and for which disease patient take which kind of disease. INFORMATION: This module having the information about the medical hospital in particular city and town information of the address of hospital, information about the disease and the solution of the disease as well as cautions etc.

Specific Requirements: SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS Operating System : Font end : Back end : Design Tool : Windows XP/above Asp.NET Frame Work 4 SQL Data Flow Diagram

Hardware Specifications: Processor : X86 Compatible processor with 1.7 GHz Clock speed RAM : Hard disk : Monitor : Keyboard : Mouse : 512 MB or more 20 GB or more VGA/SVGA 104 Keys 2 buttons/ 3 buttons

Windows Xp:
There are many new and exciting features at our fingertips. Some of these features are making their debut in window xp professional and others have been improved upon since earlier releases of window. There are new tools you can use to get the most out of your computer experience, and other technologies that run in the background, making your computer run more efficiently and reliable. First, what you cant see: window XP professional has capability in the behind-the-scenes running of the computer. Overall security has been improved, making it ever safer for you to shop and browse on the Internet. You can also communicate with other people on the network without worrying about compromising your privacy on your personal data files. Performance is at all time high, allowing you to use programs and have then run faster then ever. Window XP professional is dependable and stable, so you can always rely on the performance and effectiveness on your computer. Best of all, compatibility with other programs is better than ever. Now, what you can see: window XP professional has many feature and tools that will make using your computer easy, effective and entertaining. For example, you can use remote desktop

to access your work computer and its resources from home, and to view and documents on your computers desktop from a co-workers computer. With Net meeting you can have virtual meetings with anyone, anywhere, and you can participate in discussions using audio, video or chat. Getting help has never been easier: with remote assistance, you just send e-mail to your favorite computer expert or help desk personnel and they can help you fix a problem from location. It helps a person to perform its work with high efficiency and it has some big connectivity options. Windows XP featured a new task-based GUI (Graphical user interface). The Start menu and Taskbar were updated and many visual effects were added, including: A translucent blue selection rectangle in Windows Explorer Drop shadows for icon labels on the desktop Task-based sidebars in Explorer windows ("common tasks") The ability to group the taskbar buttons of the windows of one application into one button The ability to lock the taskbar and other toolbars to prevent accidental changes The highlighting of recently added programs on the Start menu Shadows under menus (Windows 2000 had shadows under mouse pointers, but not menus)

Front End:
Front end is basically provide an interface to handle the Whole project or software. Different different module are there which module are user need user can easily operate it.The front end is developed in ASP.net technology. It is basically a server side scripting technology that enables scripts (embedded in web pages) to be executed by an Internet server.The front end is very simple and user can easily operate it.

Microsoft visual studio:


Visual Studio supports different programming languages by means of language services, which allow the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees) nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in languages include C/C++ (via Visual C++), VB.NET (via Visual Basic .NET), C# (via Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2010[3]). Support for other languages such as M, Python, and Ruby among others is available via language services installed separately. It also supports XML/XSLT, HTML/XHTML, JavaScript and CSS. Individual language-specific versions of Visual Studio also exist which provide more limited language services to the user: Microsoft Visual Basic, Visual J#, Visual C#, and Visual C++. Microsoft provides "Express" editions of its Visual Studio 2010 components Visual Basic, Visual C#, Visual C++, and Visual Web Developer at no cost. Visual Studio 2010, 2008 and 2005 Professional Editions, along with language-specific versions (Visual Basic, C++, C#, J#) of Visual Studio Express 2010 are available for free to students as downloads via Microsoft's DreamSpark program.

Developers have long understood the benefits of Microsoft .NET technologies. The wide variety of .NET tools, services, clients, and servers empowered developers to build powerful software and systems through Web services. These technologies offer IT professionals far-reaching benefits. From accelerating and improving daily operations to providing advanced capabilities for deploying next-generation technologies, .NET can help IT professionals connect their companies more broadly than ever before. Some Points are given below about ASP.net: ASP.NET is a Microsoft Technology ASP stands for Active Server Pages ASP.NET is a program that runs inside IIS IIS (Internet Information Services) is Microsoft's Internet server IIS comes as a free component with Windows servers IIS is also a part of Windows 2000 and XP Professional How does ASP.net Work: When a browser requests an HTML file, the server returns the file When a browser requests an ASP.NET file, IIS passes the request to the ASP.NET engine on the server The ASP.NET engine reads the file, line by line, and executes the scripts in the file Finally, the ASP.NET file is returned to the browser as plain HTML

Following are some of the significant new features of ASP.NET: ASP.NET uses compiled code written in Common Language Runtime languages such as Visual Basic and C#. Unlike previous versions of Active Server Pages, this version does not use interpreted scripting languages such as VBScript. ASP.NET pages are built out of server-side controls. Web server controls enable you to represent and program against Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) elements using an intuitive object model. ASP.NET includes a new technology called Web Services. You can use Web Services to access methods and properties and transfer database data across the Internet. ASP.NET is part of Microsoft's .NET Framework. You can access thousands of .NET classes in your code that enable you to perform such wondrously diverse tasks as generating images on-the-fly and saving an array to a file.

ASP.NET includes page and data caching mechanisms that enable you to easily and dramatically improve the performance of your Web site Back End: Back end is the most important part of the project because all the information regarding project and any user are stored in the back end data base. It is Provide a DATA BASE where data are stored in structural form. All the information which is user need, user access it from the back end data base. The languge which is used in back end is SQL the few point are given below about SQL:

SQL stands for Structured Query Language SQL lets you access and manipulate databases SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard

Although SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard, there are many different versions of the SQL language.However, to be compliant with the ANSI standard, they all support at least the major commands (such as SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT, WHERE) in a similar manner. Most of the SQL database programs also have their own proprietary extensions in addition to the SQL standard!

What can SQL do:


SQL can execute queries against a database SQL can retrieve data from a database SQL can insert records in a database SQL can update records in a database SQL can delete records from a database SQL can create new databases SQL can create new tables in a database SQL can create stored procedures in a database SQL can create views in a database SQL can set permissions on tables, procedures, and views

To build a web site that shows some data from a database, you will need the following:

An RDBMS database program (i.e. MS Access, SQL Server, MySQL) A server-side scripting language, like PHP or ASP SQL HTML / CSS

Features of SQL Server 2000:


Internet Integration: The SQL Server 2000 database engine includes integrated XML support. It also has the scalability, availability, and security features required to operate as the data storage component of the largest Web sites. The SQL Server 2000 programming model is integrated with the Windows DNA architecture for developing Web applications, and SQL Server 2000 supports features such as English Query and the Microsoft Search Service to incorporate user-friendly queries and powerful search capabilities in Web applications. Scalability and Availability: The same database engine can be used across platforms ranging from laptop computers running Microsoft Windows 98 through large, multiprocessor servers running Microsoft Windows 2000 Data Center Edition. SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition supports features such as federated servers, indexed views, and large memory support that allow it to scale to the performance levels required by the largest Web sites. Enterprise-Level Database Features: The SQL Server 2000 relational database engine supports the features required to support demanding data processing environments. The database engine protects data integrity while minimizing the overhead of managing thousands of users concurrently modifying the database. SQL Server 2000 distributed queries allow you to reference data from multiple sources as if it were a part of a SQL Server 2000 database, while at the same time, the distributed transaction support protects the integrity of any updates of the distributed data. Replication allows you to also maintain multiple copies of data, while ensuring that the separate copies remain synchronized. You can replicate a set of data to multiple, mobile, disconnected users, have them work autonomously, and then merge their modifications back to the publisher. Ease of installation, deployment, and use: SQL Server 2000 includes a set of administrative and development tools that improve upon the process of installing, deploying, managing, and using SQL Server across several sites. SQL Server 2000 also supports a standards-based programming model integrated with the windows DNA, making the use of SQL Server databases and data warehouses aseamless part of building powerful and scalable systems. These features allow you to rapidly deliver SQL Server applications that customers can implement with a minimum of installation and administrative overhead.

Data warehousing: SQL Server 2000 includes tools for extracting and analyzing summary data for online analytical processing. SQL Server also includes tools for visually designing databases and analyzing data using English-based questions.

Design: Logical Design:


Logical design is created before the physical design. It includes the overview of the system and a demi project for developing purpose according to the specific requirements. In this analyst writes the detailed specifications of the new system. It includes the major features of the system and how they are related to one another. It includes input and output specifications, file and database specifications, processing specifications and requirement data for the new system. When analyst prepares the logical system design, they specify the user needs at a level of detail that virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system and the required data resources.

Physical Design:
Physical design is the final design of the system it developed according to the all requirements And also check the system can meet the requirements or not. This produces the working system by defining the design specifications that tells the programmers exactly what the candidate system must do. It includes the following steps: Design the physical system. Specify input/output media. Design the database and specify backup procedures. Design physical information flow through the system and a physical design walkthrough. Plan system implementation Determine training procedures. Devise a test and implementation plan and specify any new hardware/software. Update benefits, costs and system constraints.

Input design:
Input design sis a process of converting user-originated inputs to a computer based format in the system design phase, the expanded data flow diagram, identifies the logical data flow, data stores, sources and destinations. After input data are identified, appropriate input media is selected for processing.

Detailed Design: ER-Diagram:

HIS

Have

Admin

User

Password

Have

LoginID

Patient
Password

Login Id Login Id

Doctor

Password

Login

do

Patient request

Patient

give

Prescription

Test

give

Output Design:
This is the important and direct source of the information to the user. Efficient, intelligible output design should improve the systems relationships with the user and help in decision making. The output devices to consider depend on factors such as compatibility of the device with the system, response time requirements, expected print quality and number of the copies needed. The task of output preparation is critical, requiring skills and ability to align user requirements with the capabilities of the system in operation.

BIBILIOGRAPHY: Principles of Software Engineering 4th edition (Ian Somerville) Software Engineering- A Practitioners Approach (Roger S. Pressman) System Analysis & Designing ( James A. senn, Tata McGraw Hill)

http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/Doherty/DFD/DFDRules.htm
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