Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

Science Reviewer Summarized by Angelo Gonzalez

Lithosphere Earth is approx. 4.5 billion years old. 240 million years ago all continents were part of a super continent called Pangea and a global ocean called Panthalassa. Continental Drift Theory -proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1912 but was not accepted till 1960. -Theorized the existence of Pangea and one ocean called Panthalassa. -Evidences: -Glacial Sediments in the Equator -Similar rock layers in the east of South America and the west coast of Africa. -Fossils and plants in the Arctic regions Plate Tectonic Theory -explains Continental Drift Theory -Asthenosphere causes the crust to move due to its liquidlike state and convection currents. -tekton means carpenter or builder in Greek Layers of the Earth Crust -0km-40km - Temp. 0C -Two types of crust: Continental(above water) and Oceanic (Submerged in the ocean)crust. -Boundary between the Crust and Mantle is called the Mohorovic Discontinuity. Mantle -40km-2890km -Temp. 1000C-2000C -Comprises of: -Upper Mantle-40km-670km. Solid. -Asthenosphere-Molten/Plastic Like -Lower Mantle- Solid .670km-2890km. -Boundary between the Mantle and the Core is known as the Gutenberg Discontinuity. Core -4300C -Comprises of: -Outer core- Liquid -Inner core- Solid(due to intense pressure) -made of Iron and Nickel

Plate Boundaries(movement) Divergent -Plates move away from each other -New crust is created -Magma goes to the surface -Forms: -Valleys -Lakes -mid-ocean ridge -seafloor -Seafloor Spreading -formation of new crust in the sea floor -Crust in the sea floor is YOUNGER

Convergent -Plates move towards each other -Crust returns to the mantle through a process called Subduction. -Forms: -Mountain Ranges -subduction -mild earthquakes Transverse/Transform -causes strong earth quakes -crust is not created or destroyed. Stress builds up and is released through earthquakes

Rock Deformation Endogenous-within the earth Exogenous-over the earths crust Endogenous -Diastrophism -Volcanism -Earth Quakes

DIASTROPHISM-deformation of the Earths crust due to stress and strain Forms: Breaking- fracturing of rocks >Faults-breaks where there is movement Types of Faults: -Dip-slip-Movement in the vertical direction. -> Normal-Hanging wall goes down while the foot wall rises;found in divergent plates. -> Reverse(thrust)- Hanging wall rises while the footwall falls; found in convergent plates. -Strike Slip/Lateral faults; found in Transform plates ->Right Lateral-sideways movement to the right. ->Left Lateral-sideways movement to the left. >Joint-little or no Movement

Types of mountains: -Folded- when rock layer is bent into an arch or crest due to stress on the earth. -Fault Block-Rock is split through faulting into sharp defined blocks. One block is slowly pushed up and is often tilted. -Upwarped/Dome-Looks like an inverted bowl. Horizontal layers of rocks are pushed upwards through faulting and folding. -Volcanic-Ejection of igneous materials through vents or openings in the earths crust. Continuous build up of lava and other volcanic materials causing it to rise. -Thrust/Plateau-Starts as layers of lava like volcanic mountains or pushed up from the earths surface by the movement of the earths crust and flattens due to erosion. It has a larger surface area and much flatter, often separated by valleys.

Bending or Faulting-Bending of rocks -Syncline-Folded layers are bent upwards -Anticline-Folded layers are bent downwards

VOLCANISM-Bringing molten rocks from deep-seated sources towards the earths surface. Types: Intrusive(volcanic materials solidified before reaching the surface) and Extrusive (volcanic materials that reach the surface) Volcano- opening in the earths crust where molten and gaseous materials are ejected. It could be a mountain, hill, crack, gap or even a fracture; Paricutin Volcano was a flat plain/rice field in mexico which became a volcano.

Orogenesis-process of mountain building, faulting and folding contributes to it.

Types of Volcanoes:

Cinder/Pyroclastic Cones -small but wide craters -found near large volcanoes, usually part of a group. -Pyroclastic builds up creating it -could reach 40 angles i.e Taal Volcano Shield - often built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. -very large but gentle slopes -resembles a shield Composite/Stratovolcanoes -made of alternating layers of lava and fragmental materials from unpredictable eruptions. -have gentle bases but a steep peak. i.e Mt.Mayon

7. Tsunami-Collapse/eruption near or in bodies of water which could cause sudden movement in the sea floor.

EARTHQUAKES-shaking(feeble or violent) of the ground caused by the release of energy. Causes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Moving plates Volcanic eruptions Collapse of a cavern Impact of a meteor Stress between lithosphere plates

Elastic Rebound Theory -When plates move energy is being stored. When the plates go beyond their limits, the plates brake and release the energy. The plates then snap back to the same shape but in a different location

Volcanic Products: 1. Fragmental or Pyroclastic Material- Fragments of magma that quickly solidified 2. Bombs-Incandescent lava. 64mm in diameter,brown and round. 3. Blocks-hardened products. 64mm in size 4. Lapilli-2-64 mm in size. Same composition as bombs and blocks 5. Cinders/Ash- 2mm or smaller in size 6. Lava 7. Gases Volcanic Hazards 1. Pyroclastic fall-PROJECTILE motion of solid fragments as big as boulders and as small as ash. 2. Pyroclastic flow- Same as Pyroclastic fall but with the addition of Gasses. It has great mobility and follows the shape of the slope. It is the most dangerous hazard because of its speed and mobility. 3. Lava Flow- Slow movement of lava down the slope 4. Caldera forming eruptions-Partial emptying of the magma chamber causing a depression in the ground 5. Lahar-Mixture of water and lava. Moves 6 meters per second. May occur years after an eruption. 6. Volcanic Gasses-release of toxic gas from volcanoes.

Pacific Ring of Fire- area of strong seismic activity circling the Pacific ocean. 4/5 of the worlds volcanoes are here. Parts: 1. Focus-Known also as the Hypocenter. The point in the fault plane at which the first movement occurs. The source of the energy released. 2. Epicenter-The point in the earths surface directly above the Focus.

Terms to remember: Seismograph-instrument used to detect and record earthquake waves. Seismogram- Record sheet of earthquake waves. Seismologist- Person who studies earthquakes.

Magnitude-measure of the energy released at the source of an earth. Intensity- measure of the intensity of the shaking at a certain location. Types of Seismic Waves 1. Body waves- travels through the interior of the Earth; Originate from the focus and radiates in all directions a. Primary/Compressional/P waves i. Travels by pushing rocks in the direction they are travelling ii. Twice as fast as S waves iii. Travels through solid,liquid and gas b. Secondary/Shear/S waves i. Travels by displacing rocks at right angles to their direction of travel. ii. Travels through solids only iii. Shakes the ground 2. Surface Waves- Slow, rolling movement at the surface of the earth. Responsible for damages. a. Rayleigh Waves-Shakes the ground vertically b. Love or L Waves-Shakes the ground horizontally Weathering and Erosion Weathering- Decomposition or disintegration of rocks that involve little of no movement. Classifications 1. Physical/Mechanical Weathering- break down of soil and rocks through direct contact with atmospheric conditions such as heat, water, ice and pressure. i.e Frost wedging 2. Chemical Weathering-Direct effect of atmospheric chemicals. Could also be caused by biologically produced chemicals. Erosion-Process of weathering and displacement of solids Agents of erosion 1. Water 2. Wind 3. Ice 4. Gravity a. Mass movement-bring rocks from high elevations to lower elevations bringing sediments and minerals with it. Physical Features of the Earth

SHAPE 1.Ancient people thought the horizon was the boundary between earth and sky. Earth was flat to them. 2.Pythagoras and Aristotle-Earth is spherical because it casted a shadow(arc) on the earths moon. 3.Early Sailors- Earth was a sphere because of the visibility and invisibility of moving ships as it goes near/further from the horizon. 4.Isaac Newton- Earth is an Oblate Spheroid due to centrifugal forces caused by the earths motion. The polar diameter is smaller than the equatorial diameter 5.Eratosthenes- Considered to be the first man to measure the circumference of the earth. He was a librarian in Alexandria and used that and Syene as a point of reference for his measurement. *An object only becomes spherical only when it exceeds Critical Radius (350 km) Dimensions of the Earth Polar diameter Equatorial diameter Circumference polar Circumference Equatorial Mass Density Average distance from the sun Period of rotation Period of revolution Total Surface Areas

12 713 km 12 756 km 40 008 km 40 075 km 5.98x1024 kg 5.52 g/cm3 146 600 000 km 23h, 56m, 4.09s 365 days, 6h, 9min 510 000 000 km2

MAGNETIC FIELD-Region where magnetic effects are observable. Generated by the current flowing in the Earths iron core. Magnetic Dynamo-combination of rotational motion and convection. Origin of the current flowing from molten iron. Magnetic Property- capability of being attracted. It is related to polarity or arrangements of atoms and electrons Polarity- Gives field lines a direction and so they always start at north magnetic pole and ends at south magnetic pole

Magnetic North- a compass needle doesnt point true north. It points instead several degrees away from it. The position and strength of the Earths magnetic poles change slightly and even reverses after 10 000 years. *Earths magnetic field protects us from solar winds and radiation. TEMPERATURE Temp. at the surface varies due to weather and location. Starting at 20 meters of depth the temperature slowly increases 1 every 40meters for the first 1000 meters. The increase in temperature is attributed by: 1. Heat by radioactive elements 2. Friction between rock masses as they move 3. Pressure exerted by the earth its self towards the core. ROTATION-Movement of the earth around its axis Axis- Direction/angle of the earth as it orbits the sun. The axis is 23.5. The Earth revolves from west to east. Effects of the Earths Rotation: 1. Deflection in the swing of the Foucault pendulum 2. Coriolis effect-alters the path of a moving object 3. The length of day is set by the Earths rotation which is 23h, 56m and 4.09s Solar day-length of the day with respect to the sun= 24 hours Sidereal day-length of the day measured with respect to the stars = less than 24 hours.

We move counterclockwise from above the north pole. Perihelion- nearest point to the sun in orbit. Approx. 147.1 millions km. Aphelion-farthest point in orbit from the sun.

Equinox -Equi=Equals, nox=night -Time of the year when the length of the day is EQUAL to the length of night. -Neither northern nor southern hemispheres are tilted towards the sun 1. Autumn Equinox-Sept 22/23 2. Spring Equinox- March 20/21

Solstice-Longest day or longest night in the northern or southern hemisphere. 1. Summer Solstice-June 21/22 longest day 2. Winter Solstice-Dec21/22 Longest night Effects of the Earths revolution: 1. The hemisphere that leans towards the sun has warmer and longer days compared to the other hemisphere. 2. Yearly change of seasons 3. Change in temperature and day light Parallelism of axis- similar tilting and direction no matter what position in the orbit it is.

REVOLUTION- Movement of the Earth and its orbit around the sun. 1 a day The shape of the orbit is an Ellipse

The Moon-The Earths only known natural satelite Characteristics 1. Lower density 2. Less iron 3. More aluminum and titanium than earth 4. No atmosphere 5. Dry, dusty, rocky surface 6. Mountain ranges 7. Maria:low,flat areas 8. No liquids 9. No magnetic field; small core 10. Geologically inactive 11. Temp is 107C to -153C 12. No light of its own Moons Orbit Perigee-closest to earth; 356 410 km Apogee- farthest to earth; 406 700 km

Phases of the moon 1. New moon-The moon is between the earth and sun. We only see the SHADOW of the moon. 2. Waxing crescent 3. First Quarter 4. Waxing Gibbous 5. Full Moon 6. Waning Gibbous 7. Last Quarter 8. Waning Crescent

Eclipse- The sun, moon and earth are aligned. 1. Solar Eclipse-The moon is in between the earth and moon; occurs during the new moon.

The moon 1. Rotates every 27.3 days 2. Orbits the earth every 27.3 day s 3. Has a lunar cycle which lasts 29.5 days 4. Is inclined by 5 to the earths orbit around the sun 5. Is tilted by 7 Dimensions -It is the width of Earth -Radius is 1080 miles -Gravity is 1/6 of Earths gravitational forces -The mass is 1.2% of earths mass Synchronous rotation -The rotational period is EQUAL to the elliptical orbit. -Because of this we only see one side of the moon -we only see the Near side -The side we dont see is called the Far side

2. Lunar Eclipse- The Earth is between the moon and sun; occurs during a full moon

Annular Eclipse-The suns light is NOT completely covered by the moon.

Tides 1. Spring tide- the sun is in line with the earth and moon; Occurs full and new moon. 2. Neap tide-The sun, moon and earth are perpendicular(90) of each other; occurs first and last quarter

Measurement in Physics Measurement- it is the combination of a number/value and a unit. i.e 40km/ph is a measurement. 40 alone is not a measurement. Significant Digits -Mmeaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity - Digits that express the greatest amount of correct measured information and no information that is in doubt. -i.e Measurement Significant figures 101 kg 3 S.F 1000N 1 S.F 0.0012 2 S.F Rules in determining significant figures 1. All non-zero digits in a measured number are significant 2. Zeroes between non-zero number ARE SIGNIFICANT. They are known as captive numbers 3. Leading zeroes in decimals are NOT SIGNIFICANT. i.e 0.008cm -> 1 S.F 4. Trailing zeroes in numbers WITHOUT decimals are NOT SIGNIFICANT. They are significant when there is a decimal point or bar. i.e 233 000 m -> 3 S.F 233 000.m -> 6 S.F

Lectures ends here GOOD LUCK! Hope this helped :> please tell me if there are any errors. Have fun ;)

Centres d'intérêt liés