Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 88

SOLID WASTE AND ITS MANAGEMENT

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental Science) International Islamic University,

WASTE
It is defined as: Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, garbage, junk) is any unwanted or useless materials. OR Any materials unused and rejected as worthless or unwanted and A useless or profitless activity; using or expending or consuming thoughtlessly or carelessly

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in Environmental Science)

Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

INTRODUCTION
Since the beginning, Human kind has been generating waste. It could be in the form of:

Bones

Other parts of animals they slaughter Wood

With the progress of civilization the waste generated became of a more complex nature.
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

At the end of 19th century (Industrial revolution) there was rise in the world of consumers. The increase in population and urbanization was also largely responsible for the increase in solid waste

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

TYPES OF WASTE
Solid Waste Liquid Waste Gaseous Wastes Animal by-products Biodegradable waste Biomedical waste Bulky waste Business waste
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Chemical waste Clinical waste Coffee wastewater Commercial waste Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) Controlled waste Consumable waste Composite
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

SOLID WASTE
It is defined as: Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that contain complex and sometimes hazardous substances

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Solid wastes also include: Sewage sludge Agricultural refuse Demolition wastes Mining residues

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

1.

2. 3.

Broadly there are 3 types of waste which are as follows: Household waste is generally classified as TYPES OF Municipal waste SOLID WASTE Industrial waste as Hazardous waste Biomedical waste or Hospital waste as Infectious waste

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Municipal solid waste consists of: Household waste Construction and demolition debris Sanitation residue Waste from streets.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. The existing landfills are neither well equipped or well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate Type of litter
Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc Paper Cotton cloth Wood Woolen items Tin, aluminum, and other metal items such as cans Plastic bags Glass bottles
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Approximate time it takes to degenerate the litter


A week or two. 1030 days 25 months 1015 years 1 year 100500 years one million years undetermined

HAZARDOUS WASTE
Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants. They are

Corrosive

Highly inflammable, or explosive

React when exposed to certain things e.g. gases


Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include: v old batteries v shoe polish v paint tins v old medicines v medicine bottles.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous. These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

HOSPITAL WASTE
Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals It may include wastes like Sharps Soiled waste Disposables Anatomical waste Cultures Discarded medicines Chemical wastes
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

SOURCES AND OTHER TYPES OF WASTE


Source Typical Waste Generators

Types of solid wastes


Food wastes Paper Cardboard Plastics Textiles Leather Yard wastes Wood Glass Metals Ashes Special wastes

1:Residential

Single and dwellings

multifamily

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

(e.g bulky items, consumer electronics, white goods, batteries, oil, tires), and household hazardous wastes.)

2: Industrial

Light and heavy manufacturing, fabrication, construction sites, power and chemical plants.

Housekeeping wastes Packaging Food wastes Construction and demolition materials Hazardous wastes Ashes Special wastes. Paper cardboard plastics wood food wastes glass metals special wastes hazardous wastes

3:Commercial

Stores, hotels, restaurants, markets, office buildings, etc.


4: Institutional

Schools, hospitals, government centers.

prisons,Same as commercial.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

5:Construction and demolition

New construction sites, road repair, renovation sites, demolition of buildings

Wood steel concrete dirt etc. Street sweepings landscape and tree trimmings General wastes from parks Beaches Recreational areas; sludge.

6:Municipal services

Street cleaning, landscaping, parks, beaches, other recreational areas, water and wastewater treatment plants.

7:Process (manufacturing etc.)

Heavy and light manufacturing, refineries, chemical plants, power plants, mineral extraction and processing.

Industrial process wastes Scrap materials Off-specification products.

8:Agriculture

Crops, orchards, vineyards, Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in dairies, feedlots, farms.

Spoiled food wastes Agricultural wastes Hazardous wastes pesticides).

(e.g.,

CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE


The main sources for solid wastes are domestic, commercial, industrial, municipal, and agricultural wastes. The composition of a city waste is as follows:

Paper, wood, cardboard 53 %

Garbage 22 %

Ceramics, glass, crockery 10 % Metals 8 %

Rubber, plastics, discarded textiles 7 %

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Co Click to o f City W a ste m po sition edit Master


60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

text styles

Percentages

Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level


Ceramic , glas s c rokery metals

Series 1

Paper, Garbage w ood, c ardboard

Rubber, plas tic s , dis c arded tex tiles

T yp e o f W as te s

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

The increase in the quantity of solid waste is due to


q q q

Overpopulation,

Affluence (material comfort) Technological advancement

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE


a) Health Hazard

If solid wastes are not collected and allowed to accumulate, they may create unsanitary conditions. This may lead to epidemic outbreaks. Many diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, plague, jaundice, or gastro-intestinal diseases may spread and cause loss of human lives. In addition, improper handling of the solid wastes is a health hazard for the workers who come in direct contact with the waste
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

b) Environmental Impact

If the solid wastes are not treated properly, decomposition and putrefaction (decay) may take place. The organic solid waste during decomposition may generate obnoxious (intolerable) odors.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

WASTE MANAGEMENT
4 Rs CONCEPT Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle and Reduce) to be followed for waste management.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

REFUSE Instead of buying new containers from the market, use the ones that are in the house. Refuse to buy new items though you may think they are prettier than the ones you already have.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

REUSE
Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the bottles; cover them with homemade paper or paint on them and use them as pencil stands or small vases.
Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

RECYCLE

Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which can be used over and over again.

Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

REDUCE
Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g. carry your own shopping bag when you go to the market and put all your purchases directly into it.
Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

CONTROL MEASURES

The main purpose of solid waste management is to minimize the adverse effects on the environment. The steps involved are:

Collection of solid wastes Disposal of solid wastes

Utilization of wastes

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTES

Collection of waste includes gathering the waste, transporting it to a centralized location, and then moving it to the site of disposal. The collected waste is then separated into Hazardous Non-hazardous materials.
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES


Before the final disposal of the solid wastes, it is processed to recover the usable resources and to improve the efficiency of the solid waste disposal system. The main processing technologies are compaction Incineration Manual separation.
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

1. 2. 3.

4.

The appropriate solid waste disposal method has to be selected, keeping in view the following objectives: Should be economically viable Should not create a health hazard Should not cause adverse environmental effects Should not result in unpleasant sight, odor, and noise

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

UTILIZATION OF WASTES

The solid wastes can be properly utilized to gather the benefits such as:

Conservation of natural resources


Economic development Employment opportunities Control of air pollution


Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Generate many useful products

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities. Management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

METHODS OF DISPOSAL
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in
q

Abandoned or unused quarries,


q q

Mining voids Borrow pits

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

INCENERATION
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as " thermal treatment".

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

RECYCLING

Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed waste streams.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

The most common consumer products recycled include:


q

Aluminum such as beverage cans


q

Copper such as wire

Steel food and aerosol cans Polyethylene and PET bottles


q

Old steel furnishings or equipment


q

Glass bottles and jars


q

Paperboard cartons

Newspapers, magazines and light paper


q

Corrugated fiberboard boxes.


Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

SUSTANIBILTY
The management of waste is a key component in a business ability to maintaining ISO 14001 official approval. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year. One way to do this is by improving a companys waste management with a new recycling service. (such as recycling: glass, food waste, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles etc.)
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING
Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material food scraps paper products Can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximizing efficiencies

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

ENERGY RECOVERY
The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a Direct combustion fuel Indirectly by processing them into another Type of fuel There are 2 types of Thermal Treatment Pyrolysis Gasification

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

AVOIDANCE AND REDUCTION METHOD

An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance includes:
v v

Reuse of second-hand products

Repairing broken items instead of buying new

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags)
v

Encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery)


v

Removing any food/liquid remains from cans


v

Packaging

Designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, light weighting of beverage cans).

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

WASTE HANDLING AND TRANSPORT


Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companies in the industry.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

TECHNOLOGIES

The waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies such as: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, GPS Integrated software packages

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT


There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

EDUCATION AND AWARENESS

Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN

Solid waste collection by government owned and operated services in Pakistan's cities currently averages only 50 percent of waste quantities generated; however, for cities to be relatively clean, at least 75 percent of these quantities should be collected. Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system right from collection of solid waste up to its proper disposal.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

URBANIZATION PATTERN
According to the 1981 census, of the 5.92 million persons who had migrated within the country, 87.6% moved from rural to urban areas, while only 12.4% moved in the opposite direction. Over 50% of them permanently settled in cities. During the last several decades, migration has occurred from rural to urban areas. The chief factors responsible for this migration are:

Slow progress in the agriculture sector, Low crop yields,


Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Lack of alternate employment opportunities Environmental degradation due to water logging/salinity, deforestation and desertification According to a study, the selected cities are growing at a growth rate from 3.67% to 7.42% which is much higher than the overall growth rate of Pakistan, i.e. 2.8%. Major cities in Pakistan are estimated to double their population in next ten years. These cities are generating high amounts of solid waste which is increasing annually with the respective population growth.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

GROWTH IN SOLID WASTE GENERATION

Presently it is estimated that, 54,888 tons per day of solid waste is generated in Pakistan. The Ministry of Environment undertook a study during 1996 on "Data Collection for Preparation of National Study on Privatization of Solid Waste Management in Eight Selected Cities of Pakistan". The study revealed that the rate of waste generation on average from all type of municipal controlled areas varies from 0.283 kg/capita/day to 0.613 kg/capita/day or from 1.896 kg/house/day to 4.29 kg/house/day in all the selected cities.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIO STRATEGIC CHALLENGES


Solid waste in Pakistan is generally composed of Plastic and rubber Metal Paper and cardboard Textile waste Glass Food waste Animal waste Leaves
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Grass Straws and fodder Bones Wood Stones and fines to various extents.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

INSTITUTIONAL, LEGAL AND MANAGEMENT ASPECTS Under the recently devolved local government system, the Town/ Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMAs) are responsible for the solid waste collection, transportation and disposal. However, TMAs are unable to cope with continuously increasing volumes of municipal waste due to inadequate funds, lack of rules, regulations and standards, lack of knowhow on the subject, lack of expertise and lack of collection vehicles and equipment

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY

The Government of Pakistan enacted the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) in 1997 which is the most recent and updated legislation on environment. It provides a framework for establishing federal and provincial Environmental Protection Agencies (EPAs). Presently the legal rules and regulations dealing with solid waste management in Pakistan are as follows:

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Current
1: Section 11 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act prohibits discharge of waste in an amount or concentration that violates the National Environmental Quality Standards. 2: Draft Hazardous Substances Rules of 1999. 3: Islamabad Capital Territory Bye Laws, 1968 by Capital Development Authority Islamabad 4: Section 132 of the Cantonment Act 1924 deals with Deposits and disposal of rubbish etc 5: Provisions contained in the Local Government Ordinance, 2001

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Required
The rules and guidelines that are yet to be introduced include:
Basic Recycling rules Waste Management rules E-Waste Management rules Development of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI) Eco-Labeling guidelines and its promotion Adoption of Life Cycle Assessment Approaches Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Collection and Disposal Guidelines for model landfill sites
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

CURRENT STATUS OF SWM PRACTICES

Currently solid waste in Pakistan has not been carried out in a sufficient and proper manner in
Collection Transportation

Disposal or dumping regardless of the size of the city. These aspect may include:
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Rate of urbanization Pattern and density of urban areas Physical planning and control of development Physical composition of waste Density of waste Temperature and precipitation Scavengers activity for recyclable separation The capacity Adequacy and limitations of respective municipalities to manage the solid waste.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

According to the 1998 census, of the 130.579 million persons living in Pakistan, 67% live in rural areas, while 33 % live in urban areas. Furthermore, out of 33 % of persons living urban areas, 54 % of them live in ten major cities of Pakistan. During the last several decades, migration has occurred from rural to urban areas. The major factors responsible for this migration are: Slow progress in the agriculture sector Low crop yields Lack of alternate employment opportunities Environmental degradation due to water logging/salinity Deforestation and desertification.
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD ESTIMATES

The number and growth of population and households is the foremost factor affecting the solid waste and its management at various stages. The selected cities are growing at a rate ranging between 3.67% to 7.42%, which is much higher than the overall growth rate of Pakistan, i.e. 2.8% (EPMC, 1996).
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Major cities of them are estimated to double their population in next ten years. The numbers of households also play an important role in generation and collection of the solid waste. The average household size in the selected cities varies from 6.7 to 7.3 persons.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

WASTE GENERATION AND COLLECTION ESTIMATES

The average rate of waste generation from all type of municipal controlled areas varies from 1.896 kg/house/day to 4.29 kg/house/day in a few major cities. It shows a trend of waste generation wherein increase has been recorded in accordance with city's population besides its social and economic development.
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

In Pakistan, solid waste is mainly collected by municipalities and waste collection efficiencies range from 0 percent in low-income rural areas to 90 percent in high income areas of large cities. Collection rate of solid waste by respective municipalities ranges from 51% to 69% of the total waste generated within their jurisdiction.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE


The move from landfill-based to resource-based waste management systems requires a greater knowledge of the composition of municipal solid waste. Solid waste in Pakistan is generally composed of three categories i.e. Biodegradable such as food waste, animal waste, leaves, grass, straws, and wood. Non-biodegradable are plastic, rubber, textile waste, metals, fines, stones and Recyclable material includes paper, card board, rags and bones.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

The waste is disposed off within or outside municipal limits into low lying areas like ponds etc, without any treatment except recyclable separation by scavengers. The land is also hired/leased on long term basis for disposal. Moreover, the least mitigating measures have also never been reported from any municipality. Treatment and disposal technologies such as sanitary land filling, composting and incineration are comparatively new in Pakistan

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Crude open dumping is the most common practice throughout Pakistan and dump sites are commonly set to fire to reduce the volume of accumulating waste. At present, there are no landfill regulations or standards that provide a basis for compliance and monitoring, but national guidelines for these standards are being prepared by the Consultant under National Environmental Action Plan Support Program (NEAP SP).

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

CONCLUSION

The overall conclusion of the study on present status of solid waste management in Pakistan as follows: 1.There is a limited focus on control mechanisms which is adversely effecting on safety, health and the environment. 2.Regulations are inadequately enforced and SWM does not seem to be a priority. 3.None of the cities has an integrated solid waste management system

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Collection rate 5 1-69 % of total waste generated. Hospital and industrial wastes are treated as ordinary waste A lot of potential for recycling and involvement of private sector which is overlooked No disposal facilities

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Open burning of waste or open disposal is most common practice. No weighing facilities are installed at any disposal sites Open burning of non-degradable components like plastic bags are adding to air pollution Much of the uncollected waste poses serious health hazards

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

RECOMMENDATIONS
Following recommendations are proposed for sustainable SWM: 1.The involvement of people and private sector through NGOs could improve the efficiency of SWM. 2.Public awareness should be created especially at primary school. 3.Littering of SW should be prohibited in cities, towns and urban areas. 4.Moreover, house-to-house collection of SW should be organized
Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

The collection bins must have a large enough capacity to accommodate 20% more than the expected waste generation in the area. Municipal authorities should maintain the storage facilities to avoid unhygienic and unsanitary conditions. Proper segregation would lead to better options and opportunities for scientific disposal of waste.

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

An open dump or an uncontrolled waste disposal area should be rehabilitated. It is advisable to move from open dumping to sanitary land filling in a phased manner. Land filling should be restricted to non-biodegradable, inert waste and other waste that are not suitable either for recycling or for biological processing

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in

Made by Sahrish (BS Hons in