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CHEMICAL BONDING

v BACKGROUND: 1. MOLECULE Neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds 2. MOLECULAR COMPOUND A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules. 3. CHEMICAL FORMULA Indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts. 4. MOLECULAR FORMULA Shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound 5. CHEMICAL BOND The physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds.

6. VALENCE ELECTRON Electrons found at the outermost energy level v LEWIS STRUCTURES a.k.a. Lewis-dot diagrams, Electron-dot diagrams or Electron-dot structures Diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule, and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule. The chemical symbol for the atom is surrounded by a number of dots corresponding to the number of valence electrons. Named after Gilbert N. Lewis, who introduced it in his 1916 article The Atom and the Molecule OCTET RULE o Atoms in compounds tend to have the noble gas configuration o Noble gases, except helium have eight electrons in their outermost energy levels. To attain stability, an atom can either lose or gain electron to other atoms or share them with other atoms. Uses: o Determine the type(s) of bonds that an element may make in certain situations o Used to predict the type of ion that an atom might make when it forms an ion o Visualizing both ionic and covalent bonds a. b. c. d. e. f. Steps in drawing Lewis Structures: Determine the type and number of atoms in the molecule. Write the electron-dot notation for each type of atom in the molecule Determine the total number of valence electrons available in the atoms to be combined. Arrange the atoms to form a skeleton structure for the molecule. Then connect the atoms by electron-pair bonds. Add unshared pairs of electron to each non-metal atom (except hydrogen) such that each is surrounded by eight electrons. Count the electrons in the structure to be sure that the number of valence electrons used equals the number available. Be sure the central atom and other atoms besides hydrogen have an octet. Exceptions to the octet rule: o Electron-poor compoundsSome atoms can be surrounded by less than eight electrons o Electron-rich compoundsSome atoms can be surrounded by more than eight electrons when they combine with highly electronegative elements (i.e., chlorine, fluorine, oxygen).

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

DATE DEVELOPED August 2011 Chemical Bonding DEVELOPED BY: Sunshine A. Tayaotao

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FIGURE 4: Lewis Structures of Common Oxoacids and Their Anions

FORMAL CHARGE o Charge calculated for an atom in a molecule or ion based on the Lewis structure

FORMAL CHARGE OF AN ATOM IN A MOLECULE/ION = Group number of the atom [LPE + (BE)]

TYPES OF BONDS

Covalent bond Hbond

Polar molecule

FIGURE 5: Types of Chemical Bonds

I.

IONIC BONDING/ELECTROCOVALENT BOND Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. An ionic solid is made up of positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions) held together by electrostatic forces in a rigid array or lattice. Electrostatic attraction between metals (cations) and non-metals (anions) Includes all salts
DATE DEVELOPED August 2011 Chemical Bonding DEVELOPED BY: Sunshine A. Tayaotao

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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v PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS

1. Melting Point Ionic compounds have high melting points because the electrostatic attraction (ionic bond) between cations and anions is strong. It takes a lot of energy to overcome this attraction in order to allow the ions to move more freely and form a liquid. The factors which affect the melting point of an ionic compound are: o The charge on the ions. o The size of the ions. 2. Conductivity Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity because the ions (charged particles) are locked into a rigid lattice or array. The ions cannot move out of the lattice, so the solid cannot conduct electricity. When molten, the ions are free to move out of the lattice structure. o Cations (positive ions) move towards the negative electrode (cathode) M+ + e -----> M o Anions (negative ions) move towards the positive electrode (anode) X- -----> X + e When an ionic solid is dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution, the ions are released from the lattice structure and are free to move so the solution conducts electricity just like the molten (liquid) ionic compound. 3. Brittleness Ionic solids are brittle. When a stress is applied to the ionic lattice, the layers shift slightly. The layers are arranged so that each cation is surrounded by anions in the lattice. If the layers shift then ions of the same charge will be brought closer together. Ions of the same charge will repel each other, so the lattice structure breaks down into smaller pieces. II. COVALENT BONDING Atoms with the same or nearly the same electronegativities tend to react by sharing electrons. Two atoms share a pair of electrons and each atom provides 1 electron for the bonding pair. Pure covalent bondingoccurs between two identical atoms bonded together (diatomic molecules) The more electronegative atom will pull the shared electron/s closer to itself Occurs between non-metal atoms Melting and boiling points are low Solubility in water is dependent on the intermolecular forces Conductivity of solids and liquids are usually poor Conductivity of aqueous solution is usually poor unless the substance reacts with water to form ions (eg, HCl reacts with water to form hydrogen ions and chloride ions) Multiple Covalent Bonds o Double bond o Triple bond Determine the type and number of atoms in the molecule. Write the electron-dot notation for each type of atom in the molecule Determine the total number of valence electrons available in the atoms to be combined. Arrange the atoms to form a skeleton structure for the molecule, and connect the atoms by electron-pair bonds. Add unshared pairs of electron to each non-metal atom (except hydrogen) such that each is surrounded by eight electrons. Count the electrons in the structure to be sure that the number of valence electrons used equals the number available. Be sure the central atom and other atoms besides hydrogen have an octet. If too many electrons have been used, subtract one or more lone pairs until the total number of valence electrons is correct. Then move one or more lone pairs to existing bonds between non-hydrogen atoms until the outer shells of all atoms are completely filled.
DATE DEVELOPED August 2011 Chemical Bonding DEVELOPED BY: Sunshine A. Tayaotao

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

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GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Coordinate covalent bond/Dative bonding o Forms when two atoms share a pair of electrons but one of the atoms provides both electrons for the bonding pair Order in Decreasing Electronegativity o F > O > N~ Cl> Br > C ~ S ~ I > P ~ H > Si

FIGURE 7: Common Hydrogen-Containing Compounds and Ions of the Second-Period Elements

v BOND POLARITYAND ELECTRONEGATIVITY Electronegativity Bond polarity o Helps describe the sharing of electrons between atoms v COVALENT BONDS: 1. Non-polar covalent bonds There is an equal sharing of electrons, no separation of charges Electronegativity difference: 0-0.4 o Non-metallic atoms with identical electronegativity o Different atoms with the same electronegativity o Different atoms with different electronegativity with a difference of 0-0.4 2. Polar covalent bonds There is unequal sharing of electrons due to the difference on electronegativity between the atoms involved in the compound. Electronegativity difference: 0.5-1.7 Example: F + H HF

v IONIC BONDS: Extreme cases of polar covalent bonds, wherein one atom has an electronegativity so much greater than the other that the electron is completely removed from one atom to the other Electronegativity difference: 1.8

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

DATE DEVELOPED August 2011 Chemical Bonding DEVELOPED BY: Sunshine A. Tayaotao

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FIGURE 8: Bond Polarity in the Different Types of Bonds

MOLECULE H2 HCl NaCl

BOND

TYPE OF SHARING

ELECTRONEGATIVITY DIFFERENCE

BOND TYPE

TABLE 1: Predicting Bond Type from Electronegativity Differences

III.

METALLIC BONDS Metallic bonding o The interaction between the delocalized electrons and the metal nuclei. o The physical properties of metals are the result of the delocalization of the electrons involved in metallic bonding.

v Physical Properties of Metals 1. Conductivity 2. Melting Points In general, metals have high melting and boiling points because of the strength of the metallic bond. The strength of the metallic bond depends on the o Number of electrons in the delocalized 'sea' of electrons. o Packing arrangement of the metal atoms. 3. Malleable and Ductile 4. Optical Properties

v TYPES OF FORCES

FIGURE 10: Intermolecular and Intramolecular Bonding in Compounds

1.

Intramolecular Forces Force that holds the atoms or ions together in a compound; present between elements 3 main types of intramolecular force: Much stronger than intermolecular forces. o The physical properties of metals and ionic substances are dependent ONLY on strong intramolecular forces (metallic bonding and ionic bonding)
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GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

BASIS

IONIC BONDING

COVALENT BONDING

METALLIC BONDING

2 atoms share a pair of electrons


Occurs When Cations and anions bond

and each atom provides 1 electron for the bonding pair. Coordinate Covalent Bond - 2 atoms share a pair of electrons but one of the atoms provides both electrons for the bonding pair Non-metal atoms Electrons are shared between two atoms

Metal atoms bond to each other

Occurs Between Bond Characteristics

Metal and non-metal ions Cations and anions are held together by electrostatic attraction or forces

Metal atoms Delocalized electrons shared between atoms

Typical Example/s

Group I Metal + NM (eg.,


NaCl) Group II Metal + NM (eg., MgCl2) High.

Group VII elements (eg., Cl2) Group VI non-metals (eg., O2) Hydrogen + NM (eg., H2O) Coordinate covalent bond
examples: NH4+, H3O+ Low Dependent on the intermolecular forces Usually poor Usually poor Usually poor unless the substance reacts with water to form ions

Group I (alkali) Metals (eg., Na) Group II (alkali earth) Metals


(eg., Mg)

Transition Metals (eg., Fe)


High.

Melting/Boiling Point Solubility In Water Conductivity Of Solid Conductivity Of Liquid Conductivity Of Aqueous Solution

Soluble Poor. Good.

Insoluble Good. Good.

Good.

N/A

TABLE 2: Comparison of the Properties of the Different Types of Bonds

o o

The physical properties of three dimensional covalent network substances are determined by strong intramolecular forces (covalent bonding) The physical properties of molecular covalent substances are determined by weaker intermolecular forces.

2. Intermolecular Forces Much weaker than intramolecular forces Dispersion forces (one hundredth-one thousandth the strength of a covalent bond) < dipole-dipole interactions < hydrogen bonds (about one-tenth the strength of a covalent bond) a. Ion-Dipole Forces o Exists between an ion and the partial charge on the end of a polar molecule

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

FIGURE 11: Ion-Dipole Forces in Polar Molecules DATE DEVELOPED DOCUMENT NO. August 2011 Chemical Bonding ISSUED BY: DEVELOPED BY: Sunshine A. Tayaotao Sunshine A. Tayaotao REVISION # 00

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b. van der Waals Forces o Named after Johannes van der Waals, who developed the equation for predicting the deviation of gases from normal behavior. i. o o o o London Dispersion Forces/Temporary Induced Dipole-DipoleForces Named after Fritz London who first described these forces theoretically in 1930 The intermolecular attractions resulting from a constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles. The more electrons that are present in the molecule, the stronger the dispersion forces will be. Only type of intermolecular force operating between non-polar molecules and noble gas atoms.

FIGURE 12: London-Dispersion Forces in Helium

ii. o o o o o

Dipole-dipole Interactions Permanent; similar to ionic bond but weaker Dipolecreated by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance Occur between molecules that have permanent net dipoles (polar molecules) The partial positive charge on one molecule is electrostatically attracted to the partial negative charge on a neighboring molecule. A polar molecule can induce a dipole in a non-polar molecule by temporarily attracting its electrons, resulting to a short-range intermolecular force that is somewhat weaker than the dipoledipole forces.

FIGURE 13: Dipole-Dipole Forces

c. o

Hydrogen bonds Occur between molecules that have a permanent net dipole resulting from hydrogen being covalently bonded to fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen.

FIGURE 14: Flowchart for Determining Intermolecular Forces DATE DEVELOPED DOCUMENT NO. August 2011 GENERAL AND INORGANIC Chemical Bonding ISSUED BY: CHEMISTRY DEVELOPED BY: Sunshine A. Tayaotao Sunshine A. Tayaotao REVISION # 00

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