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rt of speech

function or "job"

example words

example sentences


action or state

(to) be, have, do, like, work, sing, can, must pen, dog, work, music, town, London, teacher, John a/an, the, 69, some, good, big, red, well, interesting quickly, silently, well, badly, very, really I, you, he, she, some to, at, after, on, but and, but, when oh!, ouch!, hi!, well

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thing or person

This is my dog. He lives in myhouse. We live in London.


describes a noun

My dog is big. I like big dogs.


describes a verb, adjective or adverb replaces a noun links a noun to another word joins clauses or sentences or words short exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence

My dog eats quickly. When he isvery hungry, he eats reallyquickly. Tara is Indian. She is beautiful. We went to school on Monday. I like dogs and I like cats. I like cats and dogs. I like dogs but I don't like cats. Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are you? Well, I don't know.

Pronoun Preposition Conjunction


* Some grammar sources categorize English into 9 or 10 parts of speech. At EnglishClub.com, we use the traditional categorization of 8 parts of speech. Examples of other categorizations are:

Verbs may be treated as two different parts of speech: o Lexical Verbs (work, like, run) o Auxiliary Verbs (be, have, must) Determiners may be treated as a separate part of speech, instead of being categorized under Adjectives

Parts of Speech Examples

Here are some sentences made with different English parts of speech: verb Stop! noun John verb works. noun John verb is verb working.

pronoun She

verb loves

noun animals.

noun Animals

verb like

adjective kind

noun people.

noun Tara

verb speaks

noun English

adverb well.

noun Tara

verb speaks

adjective good

noun English.

pronoun She

verb ran

preposition to

adjective the

noun station

adverb quickly.

pron. She

verb likes

adj. big

noun snakes

conjunction but

pron. I

verb hate

pron. them.

Here is a sentence that contains every part of speech: interjection Well, pron. she conj. and adj. young noun John verb walk prep. to noun school adverb slowly.

Parts of Speech
The classification of words into lexical categories is found from the earliest moments in the history of linguistics.[3] In the Nirukta, written in the 5th or 6th century BC, the Sanskrit grammarian Yskadefined four main categories of words:[4]

1. 2. 3. 4.

nma nouns or substantives khyta verbs upasarga pre-verbs or prefixes nipta particles, invariant words (perhaps prepositions)

These four were grouped into two large classes: inflected (nouns and verbs) and uninflected (pre-verbs and particles). The Tamil grammarian Tolkappian in his work Tolkappiyam dated variously between 1st CE and 10th CE, classifies words[5] in Tamil as

1. 2. 3. 4.

peyar (noun), vinai (verb), idai (part of speech which modifies the relationships between verbs and nouns) and uri (word that further qualifies a noun or verb)

A century or two after the work of Nirukta, the Greek scholar Plato wrote in the Cratylus dialog that "... sentences are, I conceive, a combination of verbs [rhma] and nouns [noma]".[6] Another class, "conjunctions" (covering conjunctions, pronouns, and the article), was later added by Aristotle. By the end of the 2nd century BC, the classification scheme had been expanded into eight categories, seen in the Art of Grammar ( ) :

1. 2.

Noun: a part of speech inflected for case, signifying a concrete or abstract entity

Verb: a part of speech without case inflection, but inflected for tense, person and number, signifying an activity or process performed or undergone 3. Participle: a part of speech sharing the features of the verb and the noun


Interjection: a part of speech expressing emotion alone

5. 6. 7. 8.

Pronoun: a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for person Preposition: a part of speech placed before other words in composition and in syntax Adverb: a part of speech without inflection, in modification of or in addition to a verb

Conjunction: a part of speech binding together the discourse and filling gaps in its interpretation

The Latin grammarian Priscian (fl. 500 CE) modified the above eightfold system, substituting "interjection" for "article". It wasn't until 1767 that the adjective was taken as a separate class.[7] Traditional English grammar is patterned after the European tradition above, and is still taught in schools and used in dictionaries. It names eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun,preposition, conjunction, and interjection (sometimes called an exclamation).

Since the Greek grammarians of 2nd century BCE, parts of speech have been defined by morphological, syntactic and semantic criteria. However, there is currently no generally agreed-upon classification scheme that can apply to all languages, or even a set of criteria upon which such a scheme should be based. Linguists recognize that the above list of eight word classes is drastically simplified and artificial. [8] For example, "adverb" is to some extent a catch-all class that includes words with many different functions. Some have even argued that the most basic of category distinctions, that of nouns and verbs, is unfounded,[9] or not applicable to certain languages.[10]
[edit]English English words have been traditionally classified into eight lexical categories, or parts of speech (and are still done so in most dictionaries):

Noun: any abstract or concrete entity Pronoun: any substitute for a noun or noun phrase Adjective: any qualifier of a noun Verb: any action or state of being Adverb: any qualifier of an adjective, verb, or other adverb Preposition: any establisher of relation and syntactic context Conjunction: any syntactic connector Interjection: any emotional greeting (or "exclamation")

Although these are the traditional eight English parts of speech, modern linguists have been able to classify English words into even more specific categories and sub-categories based on function. The four main parts of speech in English, namely nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, are labelled form classes as well. This is because prototypical members of each class share the ability to change their form by accepting derivational or inflectional morphemes. The term form is used because it refers literally to the similarities in shape of the word in its pronunciation and spelling for each part of speech.[11] Neither written nor spoken English generally marks words as belonging to one part of speech or another, as they tend to be understood in the context of the sentence. Words like neigh, break, outlaw,laser, microwave and telephone might all be either verb forms or nouns. Although -ly is a frequent adverb marker, not all adverbs end in -ly (-wise is another common adverb marker) and not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. For instance, tomorrow, fast, very can all be adverbs, while early, friendly, ugly are all adjectives (though early can also function as an adverb). In certain circumstances, even words with primarily grammatical functions can be used as verbs or nouns, as in "We must look to the hows and not just the whys" or "Miranda was to-ing and fro-ing and not paying attention".

A basic overview of the eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction, and interjection; what they are and what they do.
When determining the usage of words in sentences, it is helpful to understand the eight parts of speech. They are: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The NOUN is the first of the eight parts of speech. Nouns name persons, places, things, or ideas. Examples of persons are: Mr. Johnson, mother, woman, and Maria. Examples of nouns used as places include: city, home, Texas, and Canada. A thing may be a noun similar to one of the following: house, ring, shoe, table, desk, month, or light. Nouns used as ideas might include: grief, democracy, courage, or obedience. Nouns can be concrete or abstract. Concrete nouns can be touched. Abstract nouns (like love, bitterness, happiness, or joking) cannot be touched but are, nonetheless, still nouns because they name entities. Nouns can be proper or common. Nouns that begin with a capital letter are proper nouns. They have a specific name or title and refer to a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Common nouns do not begin with capital letters because they are less specific. Here is a comparison: Common nouns are: country, language, mother, brother, teacher, pastor. Those same nouns as Proper nouns might be: England, German, Mother Theresa, Sammy, Ms. Holstrom, Pastor Hill. A PRONOUN is said to "take the place of a noun," although a possessive pronoun can be used as an adjective. In general, pronouns can be personal, indefinite, interrogative, and demonstrative. A list of personal pronouns includes: I, me, you, he, him, she, her, it, we, us, they, and them. Possessive pronouns are: my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, and theirs. Note that there are no apostrophes used with possessive personal pronouns. This includes "its." Just as you would say "That is hers," you would say "Success is its own reward." "It's" stands for the contraction that represents "It is." "It's" is never possessive. Indefinite pronouns include: anybody, anyone, each, either, none, someone, somebody, both, everyone, no one, neither, many, few, several, and one. Notice that some indefinite pronouns aresingular, some are plural, and some may be used as both singular and plural. Interrogative pronouns ask questions. They are: who, whom, what, which, and whose. There are four demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those. The ADJECTIVE is the third of the eight parts of speech. Adjectives modify nouns. An adjective can modify a pronoun when it is used as a noun. Possessive pronouns can be used as adjectives. Example: That is his book. Adjectives answer these questions about the noun: WHAT KIND of noun is it? WHICH noun is it? HOW MANY of that noun are there? "The," "a," and "an" are called articles. Articles are always adjectives. They always modify nouns. A VERB is a word that expresses action, makes a statement, or shows a link between word relationships. Verbs can be used in different ways. They can be action or linking. As the name implies, action verbs demonstrate "action." Example: Jim hit the ball.

Linking verbs make statements OR they express links and relationships. Examples, statements: She is a good girl. He is a football player. Examples, links/relationships: She is my mother. That boy is my neighbor. Linking verbs include: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, has been, have been, had been, will be, shall be, may be, would have been, should have been, can be, should be, would be (any combination that ENDS with be or been.) seem, and become. The words taste, feel, smell, sound, look, appear, grow, remain, and stay may be used as action or linking verbs. ADVERBS modify verbs. An adverb can also modify adjectives and other adverbs. Adverbs answer these questions: WHERE? WHEN? HOW? HOW OFTEN? TO WHAT EXTENT? Commonly used Adverbs: Here, there, away, up -- tell WHERE Now, then, later, soon, yesterday -- tell WHEN Easily, quietly, slowly, quickly -- tell HOW Never, always, often, seldom -- tell HOW OFTEN Very, almost, too, so, really -- tell TO WHAT EXTENT The PREPOSITION is the sixth of the eight parts of speech. Prepositions show relationships between nouns or pronouns and other words in a sentence. Commonly used prepositions are: aboard, about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, into, like, of, off, on, over, past, since, through, throughout, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, and without . Prepositional phrases generally contain the preposition and an object of the preposition. Objects of the preposition MUST be nouns. Here are some examples: In bed ("In" is the preposition and "bed" is the noun used as the object of the preposition.) To Texas ("To" is the preposition and "Texas" is the object of the preposition.) A noun in a prepositional phrase may have modifiers. For example: In the big bed (in, preposition / the, article / big, adjective / bed, noun) To the grocery store (to, preposition/ the, article/ grocery, adjective / store, noun)

A word about "to." When "to" is used with a noun, it is a preposition; but when it is used with a verb, it is an infinitive. Be careful to recognize the difference. Examples: To bed to plus noun = preposition To sleep to plus verb = infinitive CONJUNCTIONS are words that join words or groups of words. There are two main types of conjunctions. They are coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions include: and, or, but, for, & nor. These conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses of equal value. Clauses of equal value are called independent clauses and can stand on their own as separate sentences. Example: John is running in this race and I am carrying his water bottle. (Each clause can stand alone as a separate sentence: John is running in this race. I am carrying his water bottle.) Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses. Dependent clauses cannot stand alone as a single sentence. In fact, the clause is "dependent" on the rest of the sentence for its meaning. Example: Since I will not be home, Tina will answer the phone. ("Since I will not be home" doesn't make sense by itself. It is dependent on the rest of the sentence for its meaning.) The most commonly used subordinating conjunctions include: although, because, as, while, until, whether, since, after, so that, when, before, and if. The INTERJECTION is the eighth part of speech. Interjections are exclamatory words that express strong emotion. Interjections have no other grammatical connection with or relationship to the rest of the sentence. Interjections may be followed by either commas or exclamation points. Here are example of both instances: Ouch! That hurt! Oh, what a wonderful movie! Great! What a terrific idea! Aha! I've found your secret! Alas, the poet was no more. There you have it: eight little parts of speech that can make a BIG difference in how a sentence is used and what it means.

The eight parts of speech that form sentences and a description of each.
What is Grammar?Grammar makes up all the words and structures in a sentence. What are the parts of speech?The parts of speech are nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. What is a noun? A noun is used to name a person, place, thing, quality or idea. A few examples of each are Bill, Detroit, car, beauty and justice. What are the two types of nouns? The two types of nouns are proper nouns and common nouns. What is a proper noun? A proper noun is used to name a specific person, place or thing. Such as Bill Gates, New York and the Hudson River. A proper noun is always capitalized. What is a common noun? A common noun is used to name one or all members of a class or group. Such as a boat, woman, light and minutes. A common noun does not have to be capitalized. Common

nouns can be concrete or abstract. Concrete nouns are used to name things people can use their senses to "see." Abstract nouns are used to name intangible things such as qualities (sweetness) and ideas (freedom). What is a pronoun?A pronoun is used in the place of a noun or phrase. There are many types of pronouns: personal, relative, interrogative, reflexive, intensive, demonstrative and indefinite. Personal pronouns are used to refer to specific nouns. Such as: I, me, you, yours, they, he, it, and us. Relative pronouns introduce dependent clauses. Such as: who, whom, that, which, what and whose. Interrogative pronouns introduce a question. Such as: who, whose, whom, what and which. Reflexive and intensive pronouns deal with the self. Such as: myself, herself, yourselves and themselves. The difference between them is that reflexive nouns name the receiver of an action and intensive pronouns emphasize a noun. Demonstrative pronouns show which nouns perform or receive the action. Such as: this, these, that and those. Indefinite pronouns are used to show an unspecific number of nouns. Such as: all, few, many, none, other, something, anyone and neither. What is a verb? A verb is used to show an action or a state of being. Such as: jump, run, cook and drive. There are three types of verbs. What are the three types of verbs?The three types of verbs are regular, irregular and linking. Regular verbs end in -ed or -d. Irregular verbs change forms, such as write changes to wrote. Linking verbs express a state of being, such as shows or appears. What is an adjective?An adjective is used to describe or specify a noun or pronoun. Such as: green, big, that, this and her only. What is an adverb?An adverb is used to modify a verb, adjective and other adverbs. They show when, where, why and how. Such as: never, often, above, there, then, not, almost and perhaps. What is a preposition? A preposition is a word that is used with a noun or pronoun to form a phrase that shows where, when, how and why. They are commonly used to elaborate on the subject of a sentence. Such as: about, above, because, but, by, except, in, into, on, off, to, with, without and up. What is a conjunction? A conjunction is used to connect words and phrases to show order and ideas. Such as: and, but, or, nor, for, so and yet. What is an interjection? An interjection is used to show surprise or emotion. They are usually short phrases such as "oh no!" or "Good Lord!"