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Communication the process of exchanging information through a common system of symbols.

These symbols can include sign language, speaking, writing, gestures or pictorial graphs and charts. Communication is thus the process of sharing information, ideas concepts and messages between people. Need and Importance of communication Need It is the core of all human relationships. Communication is essentially two way process and can be considered complete only when the message generated by the origination of the process is understood in its correct meaning by the receipt. IMP Communication can perform a variety of different functions. Persuasion or social influence, gathering information decision-making & entertainment are some of the aspects where communication plays vital role. In business & industry, communication is the vital link through which goals & targets are transmitted from top management to the workforce. No organization can function satisfactorily or achieve its goal without effective communication that operates both internally and externally. Communication in Organization There are two types of communication in an organization 1. External Communication 2. Internal Communication INTRENAL AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION INTRENAL There is a large volume of communication within the organization. The flow of communication within an organization forms a complicated pattern.

The volume and the direction are usually determined by the pattern of hierarchy, the levels of authority and also by the requirements of tasks.









Horizontal or Lateral Communication: Messages that flow between persons of equal status or same level of authority in the organization. Between persons of same status Can be written or oral Main function is to maintain coordination and review the activities assigned Needed for both information and persuasion Required for problem solving, resolving conflicts, negotiating Provides emotional and social support

Advantages Creates mutual understanding Facilitates cooperation Helps in settling differences without mgmt intervention Solves problems at lower levels Very effective as there are no status barriers

Disadvantages There can be conflict between horizontal & vertical communication Jealousy & rivalry an impediment Wastage of time through gossip

Vertical Communication: This includes all the messages that move between subordinates & their supervisors. 1. Downward Communication: Messages going the higher authority levels to the lower levels. It may be in written form or oral. Notices, posters, manuals Letters, reports, memos etc Oral & telephonic communication; PAS Film shows Group gatherings Meetings & counselling Employee newspapers etc

Advantages Provides direction Control Motivates Employees Clarifications Labour management Relations Discipline

Limitations Delay Distortion Filtering Resentment Over emphasis Under communication

2. Upward Communication: Messages which go from subordinates to supervisors and to higher levels of authority are upward communication. Open door policy Social gatherings Suggestion schemes Complaint boxes Direct correspondence Reports Counselling Reviews & Opinion Surveys MBWA Exit Interview

Advantages Feedback Complaints & Grievances Suggestions Schemes Harmony

Limitations Awe or fear of authority Distortion & slanting Short-circuiting of authority Inattention to upward communication Anonymous communication Attitude of superiors

The functions of internal communication are as follows. Establishing and disseminating the vision, mission and goals of an enterprise. Brainstorming for better ways to improve the business. Effective interpersonal relationships at work that minimize conflict. Recruiting, training and appraising the employees. Leading, directing and motivating the staff so that they can contribute their best. Controlling the work process in line with set targets. EXTERNAL External Communication: is communication that takes place between the members of an organization and the public at large. This public include all stake holders i.e. the shareholders, investors, customers, vendors, business associates, dealers, financers and the media. Externally, communication relates an enterprise to the environment outside. It is through information exchange that managers become aware of the needs of customers, availability of suppliers, the claims of stock-holders, the regulation of governments, and the concerns of a community. It is through communication that any organization becomes an open system interacting with its environment & responds to it fruitfully, purposefully and desirably.

Outward Communication- Messages that go out of the organization Inward Communication- Messages that are received from outside Grapevine Communication Single Strand Chain Gossip Chain Probability Chain Cluster Chain Advantages Quick Transmission Feedback Supplements Formal Channel Promotes Team Spirit Informal Relations Acts as emotional safety valve

Limitations Distortion Credibility Lacks Responsibility Incomplete Information Affects Corporate Image

Guidelines for Effective Use of Grapevine Identify group leaders and keep them well informed Use official channels to counter false rumours Take effective steps based on feedback when the need arises Sensitive information and up to date information can be fed into it

Locate rumour mongers and discourage them Managers need to develop listening skills and practice open door policy Develop good labour relations to minimise damage by the grapevine

Features of communication 1. Communication is meaning-based. 2. Communication is dynamic process 3. Communication is both interaction & Transaction 4. Communication is supposed to be appropriate 5. Communication is systematic or structured.

Attributes or Characteristics
Speed Record Accuracy Expense Confidentiality and Safety Impression Feedback

Process of communication Sender begins the process of communication Message Receiver Encoding & Decoding Feedback

Methods of communication 1. Verbal Communication 2. Non Verbal Communication

Verbal Communication
communicating your thoughts through words. Such thoughts may be ideas, opinions, directions, dissatisfaction, objections, your emotions and pleasures. Oral Face to face Telephone Presentation Public speech Interview GD Negotiation Meeting Written Letters Memos Reports Notices Minutes Circulars E mail

Oral Communication
Advantages Saves time Less expensive

Direct and informal Instant feedback Persuasive in nature Develops relationship Generates ideas Suitable for confidential information Disadvantages Retention Lack of legal validity Lacks accountability Chances of misunderstanding Problem of distance Not suitable for lengthy messages

Lacks planning Written Communication

Advantages Legal evidence Permanent record Accurate and precise Wide circulation Accountability Less chances of misunderstanding Suitable for lengthy messages Corporate image

Disadvantages Time consuming Expensive Problem of Feedback Problem of instant clarification Writing Skills Not suitable for secret information

Good Writing Techniques

Avoid alliteration. Always. Prepositions are not words to end sentences with. Avoid clichs like the plague--they're old hat. Employ the vernacular. Eschew ampersands & abbreviations, etc. Parenthetical remarks (however relevant) are unnecessary. It is wrong to ever split an infinitive. Contractions aren't necessary. Foreign words and phrases are not apropos. One should never generalize. Eliminate quotations. As Ralph Waldo Emerson said, "I hate quotations. Tell me what you know." Comparisons are as bad as clichs. Profanity sucks. Don't be redundant; don't use more words than necessary. It's highly superfluous. Be more or less specific. Understatement always is best.

Exaggeration is a billion times worse than understatement. One-word sentences? Eliminate. Analogies in writing are like feathers on a snake. The passive voice is to be avoided. Go around the barn at high noon to avoid colloquialisms. Even if a mixed metaphor sings, it should be derailed. Who needs rhetorical questions?

E- mail Etiquette
Answer swiftly Concise and to the point Use a meaningful subject line Be comprehensive pre-empt further queries Maintain correct spelling, grammar and punctuation Use short sentences Personalize Use proper structure and layout Do not write in CAPITALS Do not send an e-mail when you are emotionally unstable Do not send anything over the e-mail that should be error free Do not attach unnecessary files Do not use Urgent and Important Do not take privacy for granted careful of confidentiality Do not forward chain letters Do not copy a message or attachment without permission Use templates for frequently used responses

Use the c.c sparingly Add disclaimers to your e-mails

Texting Etiquette
Common courtesy rules SMS in private SMS is informal Take care with the tone Leave the slang to the kids Remember SMS can be traced ! For urgent messages, use a voice call Dont text while driving Take care with the timing of your SMS Switch Off ! Non Verbal Communication: It can be divided into four broad categories 1. Physical: This is a personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell and body motions. 2. Aesthetic: This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: Playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing. 3. Signs: This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal flags, the 21 gun salute, horns and sirens. 4. Symbolic: This type of communication is that makes uses of religious, status or egobuilding symbols. Type of non-verbal communication Distance Gestures Posture Facial Expression Physical Contact Eye Contact

4 Cs of Communication Correctness Clarity Conciseness Courtesy Parts of a Business Letter Essential - Letterhead/ Heading - Date - Inside address - Body copy - Signature Optional Reference number Confidential notation Salutation Subject line Complimentary close Designation Enclosure P.S. C.C Initials

Formats of Business Letters Indented Full Block Modified Block Semi Block Demi Official Hanging Paragraph NOMA