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ASPEE College of Horticulture & Forestry Navsari Agricultural University Navsari 396450

Course No: FSC-506 Course Title: Breeding of Fruit Crops

An Assignment on Improvement of Fruit Crops by Introduction

Submitted to: Dr. T.R.Ahlawat Assistant Professor (Vegetable Science) ACHF, Navsari.

Submitted By: Kaushal B. Naik M.Sc (Horti.) 1st Sem. Post Harvest Technology

ACHF, Navsari.

Introduction: Plant introduction refers to taking a genotype or a group of genotypes of a crop species into a new area where it / they was / were not being grown so far. For successful plant introduction, knowledge of centres of origin is essential. The plants cultivated by modern man have all descended from wild ancestors. Vavilov, a Russian scientist, made extensive collections of cultivated plants and their wild relatives by sending expeditions to various parts of the world. From a study of the variations in crop plants and their wild allies, Vavilov found that there are some regions, which are the "centres of genetic diversity". It indicates the area where cultivated plant species and or their wild relatives show a much greater variation than anywhere else in the world. For example, in the Andes in South America, there were all ranges of variations from a perfectly tuber-forming cultivated type of potato to the non-tuberforming wild types. Vavilov called these regions as "primary centres of origin" for cultivated crops and indicated that all the cultivated crops in the world originated from these centres and later spread to different parts of the world. Centres of origin of cultivated plants Primary centre of origin of a crop plant refers to an area where that particular crop plant might have evolved from wild species, which show greatest diversity of forms. On the other hand "secondary centre of origin" refers to an area, where a crop species shows a considerable diversity of forms although it did not originate there. Vavilov recognized the following eight primary centers of origin. 1. China: The mountainous regions of central and Western China constitute the earliest and largest centre of origin in which the following major horticultural crops have originated. Prunus persica (Peach), Pyurs (Pear), Citrus. 2. Southeast Asia: This centre includes India, Burma, Thailand, Phlippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. This was the centre of origin of the following : Musa (Banana), Mangifera indica (Mango), Tamarindus indica.


3. Central Asia: This includes Northwest India, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan of U.S.S.R. This was the home of the following: Grapes (Vitis vinifera). 4. The Near East: This centre includes Asia Minor and Iran. The following are endemic to this region: (Ficus carica), Pomegranate (Punica granatum). 5. The Mediterranean Region: 6. Abyssinia: 7. Central America: This includes Mexico. The important crops of this region are the following: Carica papaya 8. South America: This centre includes Peru, Chile and Brazil. The following crops had their origin in this centre: Anacardium occidentale (Cashew). Plant Exploration Valuable introductions are possible by organization of expeditions not only to the primary centers of origin of cultivated plants but also to unexplored regions of the world. While introducing new crops, extreme care must be taken to avoid the introduction of weeds or insect pests or disease organisms along with the crops. Plant introduction may create havoc if pests or diseases organisms, uninhibited by their natural enemies, are introduced into new areas. To prevent this, the introduced materials are subjected to quarantine i.e. keeping the material in isolation to prevent the spread of disease, etc. present in the material. To reduce the chances of introduction of newer diseases or pests, etc. along with the materials of introduction, the sender of a germplasm entry stating that the propagules are free from weeds, diseases and pests must provide it with a phytosanitory certificate. Plant introduction is facilitated by certain agencies in India. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) situated at IARI, New Delhi is the Nodal centre for the introduction and


maintenance of germplasm of agricultural and horticultural crops. It has more than four regional centers. The various Central Research Institutes of ICAR assist the bureau in its activities. Introductions, whether in the form of seeds or in the form of colonel material, should first of all be tested for its adaptability. In a vast country like India, a central plant introduction station and a few regional plant introduction stations, one in each of the different agricultural regions, are necessary for this purpose. New introductions should be sent for study and evaluation to the region where the local agro ecological favor their growth. Promising ones should then be propagated and distributed to plant breeders.

Acclimatization: When a plant material is introduced into a new area, it has to adapt itself to the new environment. Thus, the process of adaptation of an individual to a changed climate, or the adjustment of a species or a population to a changed environment over a number of generations is called "acclimatization" (or acclimation). A naturally cross-pollinated crop will adapt itself to the new environment more quickly than a self-pollinated crop. The gene recombination, some of which may be well adapted to the new environment, will arise very often in the cross pollinated crop due to frequent cross-pollinations. Similarly, the chances of a genetically variable population of a self-pollinated crop to become adapted to its new environment are greater than those of a pure-line. Newly introduced materials of unselected bulk may be promising in the initial phases of introduction but may prove very well in later years. This is because nature selects from the heterogeneous population superior genotypes that are better suited to the new environment and multiplies them in the course of a few years. A pure-line, on the other land, has practically no genetic variability hence it does not offer much scope for making selections suitable to the place in which it has been introduced. A pure-line thus very rarely succeeds as an introduction.


Plant introduced materials can be used in three different ways: 1. Directly increasing it en masse. In grapes cv. Anab-e-Shahi was introduced directly from Middle East about 1890 and multiplied which has revolut'onized grape cultivation in India. 2. Desirable strains can be selected from the introduced material: e.g. Arka Saurabh is a pure line selected from a variety introduced from Canada. 3. The introduced material can be used as a parent for hybridization with local varieties. Genetic resources in horticultural crops: Collection of a large number of genotypes of a crop species and its wild relatives is often referred as "germplasm collection" or "genetic resources". When these genetic resources are maintained through seeds or any asexual propagation method under suitable storage condition is called as "gene bank" or "germplasm bank". If the germplasm is maintained in the field, it is then called "Field gene bank". If the materials are maintained in in vitro conditions under cryo-preservation, then they are referred as "in vitro gene bank". Genetic resources include various cultivated varieties (old or new), breeding lines, land races and wild relatives or species of the particular crop in question. These genetic resources are the basic raw materials that are required for development of improved varieties when breeders attempt to add more desirable traits to an otherwise acceptable variety. In India, ICAR National Institutes and State Agricultural Universities maintain genetic resources of horticultural crops. Some of the important centers that maintain the germplasm are furnished below: Crop Mango Name of the National Institute Central Institute for Subtropical Fruit Crops. Lucknow (565 nos) National Research Centre for Banana, Trichy (400 nos) Name of the State Agricultural University Regional Fruit Research Station, Vengarla(168 nos) Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (125 nos).


There are two types of Plant Introduction: 1. Primary introduction: When the introduced cultivar is well suitable to new environment and is release for commercial cultivation directly without any alteration in their original genotype. 2. Secondary Introduction: When the introduced cultivar is subjected to another selection it comes under secondary introduction. Plant introduction pertains to taking a genotype or a group of genotypes into a new environment, where they were not being grown before. It means direct utilization of germplasm as cultivars after their performance has been tested and evaluated for their adaptation etc., under a particular set of environmental condition. The germplasm may include old varieties, wild forms, land races, primitive cultivars or even newly bred cultivars developed elsewhere, collected from in the country (indigenous) or from abroad (exotic). The systematic introduction and exchange of plant genetic resources of horticultural plant started in 1946 by Division of Botany, IARI, New Delhi, which was replaced by the plant introduction and exploration organization in 1956 and then by the Division of Plant Introduction in 1961. Later in 1976 National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) was established in New Delhi. Role of introduction: Introduced material may directly use as improved variety or used as rootstock after initial assessment for the purpose it is introduced for adaptability to local condition. In breeding programme for improvement or up gradation of the indigenous germplasm e.g sensation for color improvement of Amrapali mango.

Procedure of introduction: Procurement of germplasm

In the form of gift, exchange, purchase or collected through an exploration Quarantine (to keep materials in isolation to prevent the spread of diseases etc.)

EC = for exotic collection IC = for indigenous Collection IW = for indigenous wild collection

Performance is evaluated at different sub-station of Bureau. Viz. Shimla temperate zone Jodhpur arid zone Kanyakumari tropical zone Akola mixed zone



Multiplication and distribution

Some of the important Introductions in Fruit crops: 1. Acid Lime: Star Ruby 2. Almond: Ne Plus Ultra, Pareli, Drake, California Paper Shell, Marcott, Briggs Hard Shell. 3. Apple: In apple a lot of emphasis had been laid on introduction during the last few decades. Accordingly, several spur type varieties, e.g. Red Spur Delicious; Low Chilling Varieties, e.g. Vared, Michael, Tropical Beauty; scab resistance varieties, e.g. Prima, Priscilla, Liberty and early maturing varieties, e.g. Yandik-Ovskoe and Papisovka Canniaga have been introduced through NBPGR, New Delhi, in apple growing states for its commercial cultivation. 4. Banana: Lady Finger from Australia as resistance/ tolerant to bunchy top disease, Grand Nain MS from France and West Indies disease resistance tissue cultured plants. 5. Citrus: Introduction of germplasm either from other countries or from one agro climatic region to the other within the country has been one of the most potent improvement methods. The mandarin variety'Santra' is known to have been grown in India for many centuries. It was introduced into the Central Provinces (now Maharashtra) by Ranghojee Bhonsal II from Aurangabad in eighteenth century. Tangerines, St. Michael Blood Orange and Large White Orange were imported and cultivated at Goojranwallah in Punjab during 1880. The present century has been the introduction of a number of sweet orange varieties including Washington Navel, Valencia, Jaffa, Blood Red Malta and tangerines. The first two were introduced from America and the others from the respective countries of their origin. The grapefruits were introduced from California and Florida, lemons from China and Malta from USA and Italy.


'Mosambi' seems to have been introduced in Nagpur during the beginning of the 20th century. The introduction of'Kinnow' mandarin (King x Willow leaf) showed great promise by 1947 in North India. It was introduced in South India in 1958 and Punjab in 1959 and has performed extremely well in Punjab. 6. Date palm: Tayar, Hatemi, Mejnaj, Khalas, Ruziz and Khesab from Saudi Arabia. Samani, Zaghlool, Hayani, Samy, Ari, Agolani, Saklote and Amhat from Egypt. 7. Fig: Genoa white, 0030 Genoa, 0009 Flanders, Candria from USA. Mission, Ficus Rocdin-3 and Ficus standard from USA. 8. Grape: Earlier 13th century, not much is known about the varieties. However, after 13th century, many introductions were made and found to be promising even now in certain parts of India. E.g. Anab-e-Shahi introduced from Middle East in 1890 revolutionized grape cultivation in India. Similarly, Bhokri, Pandhari Sahabi introduced about 3 centuries ago were leading varieties until late fifties in Maharashtra. Grape is believed to have come to India from Afghanistan (Middle East). Some of the important introductions made in India include Pearlof-casaba, Pride, Dixie and Black Corinth (from USA), Kishmish Charni and Kishmish Beli (USSR), Ruby Seedless and Riesling (Australia), Totlucha (Brazil), Foch (Canada), Jamp0al and Major (Portugal), Thompson Seedless, Perlette, New Perlette, Beauty Seedless, Delight, Himrod, Early Muscat.

9. Grape fruit: Starking Ruby, Natsu dai dai.



Beaumont G-35 and Indonesia Seedless from Australia. Verdie and M 25988 from USA. 11.Lemon: Lisbon, Meyer (USSR), Washington Naval. 12.Mandarin: Kinnow, Pixie, Wilking, Page, fortune, Sunbrust, Shamouti, Satsuma (USA).

13.Mango: Most of the Indian mango cultivars do not possesses good fruit skin color. To meet the international demand of good fruit-color some exotic cultivars of mango had been introduced these include Tomy Atkins, Zielete, Haden, Sensation, Julie from Miami, Florida (USA), Caribao from Philippines, Carabao from USA. 14.Papaya: Solo, Sunrise, Sunset. (Hawaii,USA) 15.Peach: A large number of low chilling peach varieties, e.g. Floradsun, Sun Red and Sun Gold and some other selections, Floradared, Floradabelle were introduced at the PAU, Ludhiana, during last sixties from Florida and California states in USA. Of these introductions, Flordasun, Flordared, Sun Red and 16-33 (named Shan-I-Punjab) became very popular. Of the later introductions from USA, TA 170, known as Partap, has been identified as early (7 days earlier than Floradsun). Its flesh is yellow, firm, with red coloration and better keeping quality. Another two introductions from Florida, Flordaprince and Earligrande, have been recommended for commercial cultivation for the plain of Punjab and adjoining areas. Flordaprince is an early ripening, where as Earligrande is a mid-season variety.



16.Pear: Important and popular cultivar such as Bartlett, Anjou, Kieffer are only introductions from Europe and are well acclimatized to the Northern and Southern Indian Hills. A lot of variability, however, exist in soft pear plantations in yield, regular bearing, fruit size, shape, skin color and fruit quality. An extensive survey of pear growing areas in Punjab and adjoining states by the PAU, Ludhiana resulted in the identification of 19 superior strains of soft pear. Of these, soft fleshed Red Blush, Punjab Gold and Punjab Nectar are promising. Red Blush with the highest yield potential (23.7 tonnes/ha), has fruits (134.4g) each with a TSS of 15.1 Brix. Punjab Nectar is also a high yielder (21.2 tonnes/ha) and very juicy (48.3%). Punjab Gold has large fruits and good quality. Flemish Beauty (USA), Devoe, Max Red Bartlett, Manning Elizabeth. 17.Pecan: Mahan, Desirable. 18.Persimmon: Hachiya, Flat Seedless, Hykumo (Australia). 19. Pineapple: Many cultivars exist in different pineapple grooving countries and they differ widely among themselves on the basis of flower color, fruit shape and spine characters of leaves etc. significant result in this respect have been obtained in Australia, Formosa and South Africa, where progress have been made in improving Cayenne cultivar and in Malaysia Singapur Spanish cultivars. 20.Pistachio Nut: Red Allepo, Bronto. 21.Plum: A large number of plum varieties have been introduced from different countries. Of these, Santa Rosa, Sutlej Purple are important commercial cultivars found to be suitable for midhills of North Western



Himalayas. Other methods of breeding are not yet followed in this crop in India. Methyl (Kenya), Kanto-5 (Japan), Santa Rosa, Late Santa Rosa, Burmosa, Stanley, Starking Delicious. 22.Pomegranate: Wonderful from USA, Rannij G1-8-23, and Rannyj G-1-3-34. 23.Sweet cherry: Lambert, Francis, Emperor (USA). 24.Sweet Orange: Blood Orange, Washington Naval Orange. 25.Tangelo: Pearl. 26.Tengor: Temple (Royal Mandarin) from USA. 27.Walnut: Lake, English, Payne, Waterloo, Tutle 16 (USA).

Merits of Introduction: It provides entirely new crop plants. i.e. Kiwi fruits It may provide superior varieties either directly, or after selection or hybridization. Introduction and exploration are the only feasible means of collecting germplasm and to protect variability from genetic erosion. It is quick and economical method of crop improvement. Plants may be introduced in new disease free area to protect them from damage.



Demerit: The disadvantages of plant introductions are associated with the introduction of foreign weeds, diseases and pests.



References: Plant Breeding: Principles & Methods. By B.D. Singh.

Basic Approaches in Fruit Breeding. By Anil Kumar Shukla, Arun kumar Shukla, B.B Vashishtha

Breeding of Horticultural Crops. By N Kumar

Horticulture at a Glance Volume- By Dr. Ajeet Singh Salaria