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BMCD 2573 ENGINEERING DESIGN

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

What is quality?
Survey by Time magazine (1989): 1. works as it should, 2. lasts a long time, and 3. easy to maintain. Garvin (1987) identified: 1. performance, 2. features, 3. reliability, 4. durability, 5. service-ability, 6. conformance to conventions/standards, 7. aesthetics and 8. perceived quality / reputation of manufacturer.

How can we systematically develop all that information to assure QUALITY?


Maintain a good set of notes Prepare a House of Quality: With team members 2-D matrix of information Facilitates group discussions Forces agreement of targets/data

Definition

A system for translating consumer requirements into appropriate company requirements at each stage from research and development to engineering and manufacturing to marketing/sales and distribution. [ASI, 1989]. A method for developing a design quality aimed at satisfying the consumer and then translating the consumers demand into design targets and major quality assurance points to be used throughout the production phase. [Akao, 1990]

QFD

VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER

+ =

QFD

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

QFD Definition (Cont.)

[ASI, 2000]

Integrating customer requirements into product design Quality: Meeting the specifications Function: Function that forms quality Deployment: Step-by-step deployment of that function

QFD - Benefits
Improved Customer Satisfaction Reduced Development Time Improved Internal Communications Better Documentation of Key Issues Save Money
[ASI, 2000]

Before & After Implementation QFD


Before QFD Individual work After QFD Cross-functional teams

Some customer focus


Over the Wall Development Poor Documentation Poor Communication

Intense customer focus


Support concurrent engineering Support integrated product development Better communication / documentation

Who Should Participate in QFD?

Process partners from all effected functions within the enterprise Process partners from key suppliers Possibly customer representatives Skilled facilitator

QFD Process
Production Characteristics Process Characteristics Part Characteristics Production Planning Process Planning Part Design Product Planning

Engineering Characteristics
Customer Requirements

House of Quality (HOQ)

The House of Quality is a central tool of QFD, it translates customer requirements, market research and benchmarking data into prioritized engineering targets to be met by a new product design

-9 -9 1 9 9 -3 1 3

3 1

-3 1

1 9 -3 1 Engineering Characteristics (units)

point cone angle (degrees)

point roughness (micro in.)

shavings storeage (cu.in.)

hold force required (lbf)

start switch force (lbf)

force to sharpen (lbf)

Importance wt.

no. hands to operate

grasp torque (in-lbf)

no. steps to empty

120 VAC (yes/no)

slides (yes/no)

cord length (ft)

friction factor

Custom er Requirem ents 1 1 doesn't slide w hen using 0.10 9 2 needs little insertion f orce 0.05 3 requires little insertion torque 0.05 4 operates w hen pencil is inserted 0.15 5 collects pencils shavings w ell 0.05 6 empties shavings easily 0.20 7 plugs into w all socket easily 0.05 8 cord is long enough 0.05 9 grinds pencil to sharp point 0.20 10 needs only one hand tw o operate 0.10 Total Importance 1.00 Perform ance current product(CP) competitior A: Model #25 N

2 3

3 3 9 9

4 3 9

5 9

6 1 9

10 11 12 13 14 CP 3 3

weight (oz)

Custom er Satisfactio n Rating (0.00 1.00)

9 9 3 1 9 9 9 9 3 9 3 1 3 -3

A B 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8

1 1

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

2 3

6 4

Y Y

6 6

20 18

1 1

20 18

6 5

competitor B New Product Targets N

House of Quality (HOQ)


Room 1 CR

- Clear list of functions and subfunctions on important needs of the customer.


Room 2 EC - List of quantitative performance parameters and associated units. Room 4 Relationship matrix - To indicate the correlation between CR and EC

Room 5 Importance ranking


- Indicate the performance of each benchmark product for each engineering characteristics.

QFD House of Quality application


One Spinner Bucket Project

Bucket that design to have spin dry system. Operate by human stepping force. Dry the mop by spinning the mop head. It is recommended to use bucket that store water less than 24 liter.

QFD House of Quality application


One Spinner Bucket Project

Product objectives: To design one spinner bucket that can improve the existing product. To divide and dry water from clean water that mixed with floor cleaner. To spin and dry mop easily using foot paddle. Users hand wont be dirty. To mix and produce foam each time we want to continue mopping duties.

QFD House of Quality application


One Spinner Bucket Project Customer requirements (CR):

Cost to buy product (0.2) Fast dry mop (0.2) Using less energy to dry mop (0.15) Can separate dirty and clean water efficiently (0.15) Easy to carry around (0.05) Easy to pour out water (0.05) Corrosion resistant (0.2)

QFD House of Quality application


One Spinner Bucket Project Engineering characteristics (EC):

Weight without water (g) Force to spin the spinner (N) Stiffness of spring (N) Material toughness/resistance External dimension (mm) Rotation speed (rpm)

Engineering characteristics
n/a External dimension (mm) 5 9 9 5 5 5 9 3.35 23.10 1 1.20 8.27 5 3.30 22.76 2 2.45 16.89 4 3.15 21.72 3 9 5 < > > > > Rotation speed (rpm)

Stiffness of spring (N)

Weight without water (g)

Importance weight

Cost to buy product Customer requirements Fast dry mop Using less energy to dry mop Can separate dirty and clean water efficiently Easy to carry around Easy to pour out water Corrosion resistant

0.2 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.2

1 9 9 1 9 5 1 1.05 7.24 6

1 5

Total % Rank

Material toughness/resistance 5

Force to spin the spinner (N)

QFD House of Quality application


One Spinner Bucket Project

Based on the HoQ analysis, the team has found out that:
1.

Force to spin the spinner is the priority to be emphasized during the development of the product ensure less energy consumption, effectiveness. Material selection of the product is also important ensure durability, reliability

2.

3.

Rotation speed of the device must perform as per intended.


Basic function of the product must perform effectively.

4.

Summary

Careful problem formulation leads to successful problem solutions. Obtain detailed understanding of the problem, including customer and company requirements, importance weights, engineering characteristics and customer satisfaction. EC are used to quantify how well an existing product/future product design fulfills a given customer/company requirement. QFD is a method that utilize HoQ to systematically deploy voice of customer HoQ is a systematic product planning and graphic representation of product design information organized as a matrix of rooms, roof and basement.

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