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1.

(a) (i) Double layer of phospholipid molecules;


Detail of arrangement of phospholipids;
Intrinsic proteins/protein molecules passing right through;
Some with channels/pores;
Extrinsic proteins/proteins only in one layer/on surface;
Molecules can move in membrane/dynamic/membrane contains
cholesterol;
Glycocalyx/carbohydrates attached to lipids/proteins; max 5
(ii) Thicker;
Single layer/presence of fibrils in cell wall; plasmodesmata; 2

(b) Non-polar/lipid soluble molecules move through phospholipid layer/bilayer;


Small molecules/water/gases move through phospholipid layer/bilayer;
Ions/water soluble substances move through channels in proteins;
Some proteins are gated;
Reference to diffusion;
Carriers identified as proteins;
Carriers associated with facilitated diffusion;
Carriers associated with active transport/transport with ATP/pumps;
Different cells have different proteins;
Correct reference to cytosis; max 6

(c) Absence of nuclear envelope/membrane;


Membrane bounded organelles;
Such as mitochondria/chloroplast/vacuole/lysosome;
and membrane systems/endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi;
Mesosomes in prokaryotes; max 4

Quality of language
Aspect of work
Grammar, punctuation and spelling of an acceptable standard 1
Material presented in an appropriate scientific style with due regard to correct use
of technical terms 1
Argument clearly and logically presented 3
[20]

2. (a) (i) Ability to distinguish points (close together); 1


(ii) Electrons have a shorter wavelength; 1

(b) (i) Golgi / nucleus / mitochondrion / endoplasmic reticulum /


chromosome / larger ribosomes;
R Membrane – bound structure 1
(ii) Capsule / cell wall / flagellum / mesosome /
plasmid / nucleoid / circular DNA; 1

(c) Formation / packaging of glycoproteins / glycolipids /

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secretion / modification of proteins/
formation of lysosomes / membranes / vesicles; 1
[5]

3. (a) (i) Crista 1


(ii) (Mitochondria) provide energy / ATP;
liver cells have high energy requirement for metabolism- reactions
specific liver function, eg. glycogen synthesis or deamination (not just:
active transport/ growth) 2
(iii) Principle - protein synthesis;
Function of protein in mitochondria - e.g. synthesis of (respiratory)
enzymes / growth / repair / replication.
or:
DNA has genetic information;
ribosomes produce proteins / allows replication of mitochondria. 2

(b) Maintain concentrations/water potential same inside & outside (cells /


mitochondria) / prevent osmosis;
Prevent bursting / shrinkage of mitochondria/organelles (not cells) 2

(c) Eukaryotic ribosomes denser/ heavier (not just ‘larger’). 1


[8]

4. (a) X protein synthesis / translation;


Y movement; 2
(b) (i) cytoplasm;
ribosomes;
phospholipid membranes / cell membrane / semipermeable
membrane; 2 max
(accept folded membrane for two marks)

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(ii) (it = bacterium)
cell wall;
capsule;
flagellum;
mesosome;
no nucleus / nuclear membrane / DNA free;
no mitochondria;
(accept ‘no membrane-bound organelles’ if neither nucleus
nor mitochondria mark scored)
no microvilli;
no Golgi;
no ER;
70S/smaller ribosomes; 2 max
[6]

5. (a) (i) homogeniser/blender/pestle and mortar/ description e.g. grind with sand; 1
(ii) centrifuge/ description e.g. spin at high speeds; 1

(b) (i) chloroplast; 1


(ii) (outer) membrane breaks down / inner membranes/grana separate;
solution has a higher/less negative water potential;
(accept description of relative concentrations)
water moves into organelle/chloroplast by osmosis / from higher to
lower water potential / into more concentrated solution; (reject into cell)
organelle swells/increase in pressure and bursts; 4
[7]

6.
A Ribosomes Making proteins/ assembling amino acid chain/ 1 mark
protein synthesis
B Mitochondria Respiration/ formation of ATP/ Krebs cycle/ 1 mark
Oxidative phosphorylation;
C Nuclei DNA/RNA synthesis/ controls protein 1 mark
production/ cell activity/ carries genetic
information;
1 mark
[4]

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7. (a) A mitochondrion; 1
B nucleus; 1
C endoplasmic reticulum rough ER / ER;
(reject smooth ER, ribosomes neutral ) 1

(b) ref to proteins / glycoproteins / enzymes / lipids / hormones;


ref to fate of proteins / glycoproteins / enzymes / lipids / hormones; (linked to
previous mark e.g. vesicles / exocytosis / packaging / synthesis / processing
modifying)
If neither of these: reference to vesicles / exocytosis / packaging / synthesis
processing /modifying gains 1 mark
(Max 1 mark if incorrect function given) 2

(c) 30 000 - 34 000 gains 2 marks;; 2


If neither of these: evidence of sensible measured diameter ÷ actual (0.0005 mm)
gains 1 mark
[7]

8. (a)
Feature Epithelial cell from Prokaryotic cell
small intestine

Golgi apparatus

Mitochondrion

Nuclear envelope

Plasmid

Ribosome

Mark down, one mark for each correct column; 2

(b) (i) Electron microscope with better resolution/ able


to distinguish between points closer together;
(Beam of electrons) with shorter wavelength; 2
(Ignore refs. to higher magnification/ more detail)
(A reverse argument for light microscope)

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(ii) Processes involved in preparation alter/distort cell contents/
introduction of artefacts; 1
[5]

9. (a) Answer within limits of 6.3 - 6.7;; 2


(if outside these limits, answer involving division
of actual length by 6000 1 mark)
(b) Nitrogen), Carbon), Hydrogen) and Oxygen); 1

(c) (i) In bacterial cell, DNA / genetic material / naked /


not associated with protein / not in chromosomes/
DNA in loop / plasmid / DNA not in nucleus; 1
(ii) In bacterial cell organelles / named examples /
not surrounded by membranes / bacteria only have
a plasma membrane / no endoplasmic reticulum / have mesosomes; 1
[5]

10. A cell (surface) membrane,


regulates entry/exit/selectively permeable;
B mesosome,
respiration/cell division;
C cell wall,
(mechanical) protection/prevents (osmotic) lysis;
D slime layer/capsule,
protection (against e.g. antibiotics);
E flagellum,
movement of cell;
F DNA molecule/bacterial chromosome,
genetic information;
[6]

11. (a) (i) Mitochondria site of respiration;


Production of ATP / release of energy;
For contraction; 3
Do not award credit for making or producing energy.

(ii) Enzymes are proteins;


Proteins synthesised/made on ribosomes; 2

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(b) Lysosomes produce/contain enzymes;
Which break down/hydrolyse proteins/substances/cells of tail; 2

(c) 1. Chop up (accept any reference to crude breaking up);


2. Cold;
3. Buffer solution;
4. Isotonic / same water potential;
5. Filter and centrifuge filtrate;
6. Centrifuge supernatant;
7. At higher speed;
8. Chloroplasts in (second) pellet; max 6
[13]

12. (a) Nuclear pore; 1


(b) Making/synthesising proteins/translation; 1
(c) Z packages/modifies/stores / transports proteins; 1
(d) Allow 2 marks for correct answer 1.3 – 1.4 µm
Allow 1 mark for incorrect answer if measured length by 30 000 2
[5]

13. (a) (i) Cooling / inhibitors; 2


stops / slows reactions;
(ii) Isotonic / same / same as (as mitochondria); 2
ref to osmosis / no (net) water movement / prevent bursting
prevent shrinkage;
(b) Mitochondria and bacteria approximately same size / same density / mass /
weight; 1
[5]

14. (a) (i) Short wavelength; [Allow: Small wavelength]


Good/ high resolution; [Allow: description of resolution] 2
(ii) Cut through a different plane; 1

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(b) (i) Mitochondria supply energy/ ATP;
For active transport of mineral ions/
Absorption of ions against concentration gradient;
Movement/ contraction of muscles; 3
[Reject: thermodynamically incorrect answers about ‘making’
or ‘producing’ energy]
[6]

15. (a) Presence of nucleus / nuclear envelope / membrane bounded organelles/


specified organelles, 1
(b) (i) Converted to proteins;
Involvement of ribosomes (on rough endoplasmic reticulum); 2

(ii) Arrow from plasma membrane to rough endoplasmic reticulum;


to Golgi apparatus;
to vesicles and out of cell; 3
(iii) Exocytosis; 1
[7]

16. (a) (i) Transmission electron microscope/TEM; 1


(ii) Shows detail of…/enables…to be seen;
(Answer needs to refer to evidence from diagram.) 1

(b) (Mitochondria) are site of respiration;


Release energy / produce ATP;
To move substances against concentration gradient /
active transport requires energy / ATP;
Do not allow credit for mitochondria making energy or
references to diffusion max 2
(c) Correct answer of 40 000 = 1 mark
Correct method = 1 mark 2
[6]

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