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General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

General Packet Radio Service


General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a wireless packet service created by ETSI GPRS enhances the existing GSM infrastructure by adding a p y g packet solution that provides a simplified access to packet networks such as the Internet.

GSM + Packet Switched Services = GPRS

Data services available in GSM

SMS Internet Services

Short Message Services

Internet service (GSM)

IWF = Interworking Function

Motivation for GPRS

Limitation of Circuit Switched Data

Motivation for GPRS contd. .

Always On Applications

Mobile wireless networks need to provide an Always On On or Always Connected feel to customers, similar Always Connected to wire-line and enterprise networks.
Motivation for GPRS contd. .

Asymmetric data

101010001

Motivation for GPRS contd. .

QoS and Bandwidth on Demand

Motivation for GPRS contd. .

Benefits to the wireless operators

spare capacity from voice can be readily available for data traffic
Motivation for GPRS contd. .

Benefits to the wireless operators


contd. contd ..

allows the operator to get more mileage out of their spectrum. As GPRS is an enhancement to GSM it also allows the GSM, operator to retain the subscriptions of current GSM subscribers Motivation for GPRS contd. .

Packet Solution

An Air Interface Solution: GPRS defines modifications to the existing GSM air interface to support packet access. A Network Solution: GPRS defines a new Packet Switched - Core Network (PS-CN) to provide access to external packet networks for GPRS Mobile Stations (MSs) or devices.
Motivation for GPRS contd. .

Air Interface Solution


GPRS networks uses MODIFIED versions of the standard second generation GSM Base Station Subsystem (BSS) A BSS consists of a BTS and a BSC.
GPRS typically b added t a 2G BSS with t i ll be dd d to ith ONLY software changes to the BTS and BSC and minimal hardware changes at the BSC (Addition of Packet Control Unit (PCU) )only.

Air Interface Solution Contd...


The Packet Control Unit (PCU) extracts packet traffic from the BSC and forwards it to the PS CN PS-CN. integrates packet traffic from the PS-CN into the normal BSC traffic flow Gb interface between the BSC and the PS CN is PS-CN commonly implemented in the PCU

Air Interface Solution Contd...

Gb Interface

Air Interface Solution Contd...


Lets compare GPRS to a basic GSM circuit switched call: ll
In a circuit switched call, a user is assigned resources (i.e., frequency and timeslot combination) during the call setup, and has exclusive use of those resources for the duration of the call call.
This design is suitable for voice calls as the traffic is generally continuous and symmetrical (an equal amount of data is flowing in the uplink and the downlink). This design is an inefficient means of g packet data because it is g generally bursty and y y transferring p asymmetrical.

GPRS extends GSM by allowing multiple users to share a single resource. This allows the precious air interface resources to be used more efficiently. GPRS allows users to take turns sending and receiving data on a given time slot. This may decrease the data rates for the user, but will allow the system to support more concurrent users.

Air Interface Solution Contd...

Air Interface Solution Contd... (Mobile Station) (M bil S i )


Class A: MS can operate simultaneous packet switched and circuit switched services Class B: MS can operate either one at one time Class C: MS can operate only packet switched services it h d i
E.g. expansion cards for laptops

Core Network Solution

The GPRS network solution consists of a new Packet SwitchedCore Network (PS-CN). The PS-CN introduces two new nodes to coordinate packet p capabilities for GPRS mobiles. They are the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Lets go over their roles.

SGSN
The SGSN is connected to the BSS and provides the connection point for packet services. The SGSN like the MSC/VLR: SGSN,
authenticates mobiles in its service area coordinates subscribers locations with the Home Location Register (HLR) obtains temporary copies of subscribers profiles from the HLR generates billing C ll D t il R t billi Call Detail Records (CDR ) d (CDRs) The SGSN uses a subscribers request, to determine which GGSN to connect to for its desired service.

GGSN
Each GPRS network contains multiple SGSNs p and GGSNs based on the amount of needed packet capacity. GGSNs are connected to SGSNs through private IP networks. The GGSNs main roles include:
managing IP address allocation for GPRS mobiles masking mobility of GPRS mobiles from external networks providing connections for mobiles to external packet networks or services generating billing CDRs g g g

Temporary/Permanent address
GPRS allows subscribers with their wireless devices to access packet networks such as the Internet. To receive packet information mobiles using information, GPRS need some form of address. In the case of circuit switched data, the mobile dialed into di l d i t a modem pool and was allocated an d l d ll t d address by the Internet Service Provider. What happens in t e case o G S at appe s the of GPRS

Temporary/Permanent address Contd


In GPRS, subscribers can be assigned either a temporary address or a permanent address:
Permanent addresses are associated with a particular subscriber when he/she subscribes to a service and remain assigned to that user for the duration of his or her account with the carrier carrier. Permanent addresses are not very common and are expensive to obtain. A wireless web server is an example of an entity that may need a permanent address, as the server needs to be accessible by web users users.

Temporary/Permanent address Contd


Temporary addresses
are associated with a particular subscriber when that subscriber starts a packet data session Each time the subscriber connects to the network he or she may be assigned a new address. In this case the user receives a different IP address case, each time they connect, similar to wire-line ISPs. Applications such as email, web access, and so on, pp , , , work well with temporary addresses.

GPRS defines QoS

Another feature of GPRS is the definition of various mechanisms and parameters to define QoS in order to provide consistency of service across QoS, different networks.
This feature was not available in circuit switched data and has been added to GPRS. QoS can come into play at various p p y points in the life of a GPRS subscriber. First, , the subscriber may choose a certain QoS as the default QoS for his account. Each time he accesses the network an attempt will be made by the network to provide, and charge for, this subscribed QoS.

GPRS defines QoS contd contd


When an attempt is made to start a p p packet data session, the network must decide whether or not to accept the new session at the requested QoS.
It must consider all of the commitments it has made to users who are already connected to the network. Based on the results of its analysis, the network may decide to admit the new connection with the requested QoS, offer the user a different QoS, or reject the request

Assuming that the connection is admitted, the QoS may still change during the connection.
This may happen for a number of reasons, including mobility and changes in network load load.

Data Rate

This table summarizes the MAXIMUM data rates achievable with GPRS radio systems. Two values are given
one for a single time slot and one for the sum of all eight time slots.

The actual data rates that end users will achieve will be SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER than these values. This is due to a number of factors
it is unlikely that an operator would allocate all eight time slots for one subscribers use. in a wireless medium (where the air interface is error prone) some form ( p ) of error protection and retransmission of information is needed, which in effect reduces the data rate available to applications.

GPRS PLMN

GPRS PLMN Contd Contd


Since GPRS is designed to be an evolution of GSM g networks, the circuit switched components have not changed the CS-CN is named the GSM PLMN or GSM Public Land Mobile Network, and the PS-CN for GPRS is the PS CN GPRS PLMN However, the PLMN technically refers to the operator's network, including both the core network and the access network.

GPRS PLMN Contd Contd

GPRS PLMN Contd Contd


Its primary role is to route data from the Packet Data Network to the MS and vice versa It also manages allocation of IP addresses for versa. the mobiles and hides the mobility of the GPRS user from the packet data network.
There may be several GGSNs within the PLMN, and each GGSN may have multiple SGSNs connected to it One GGS may connect to multiple e te a PDNs O e GGSN ay co ect u t p e external s The interconnection between the GGSN and the SGSN is an IP-based GPRS backbone network When required, the GGSN may interface with the HLR in order to obtain location information for the mobile, either directly or via the SGSN interface.

GPRS PLMN Contd Contd

Traffic Delivery
In order to enable traffic delivery of packets to y p and from the mobile, coordination is required between the mobile, the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) Once this coordination is complete, packets flowing from the mobile station must first be sent over-the-air to the BSS. The BSS then sends these, along with all other packet traffic, to the SGSN. SGSN

Traffic Delivery contd. contd

Traffic Delivery contd. contd


The SGSN uses its routing table or a Domain Name Server (DNS) to determine through which GGSN the packets should travel d i h h hi h h k h ld l It wraps the packets in a forwarding header and sends them to the GGSN When the GGSN receives them, it unwraps them and sends them out into the Internet The packets are then routed to the destination like any other IP packet The rest of the Internet does not know the fact that they once went over a wireless link link.

Traffic Delivery contd. contd


Now consider traffic being sent from any host on the Internet to the GPRS mobile The sending-host addresses the packet to the mobile using the mobiles IP address This may be a dynamically-assigned IP address and the sending host must know this address before sending the packet Since all GPRS IP addresses are related to a specific GGSN, any responses from the host are always routed to that GGSN The packet is routed from the host to the GGSN based on the destination IP address in the packet.

Traffic Delivery contd. contd


The GGSN is the anchor, or owner, of a block of IP addresses and all packets destined for these addresses are routed to the GGSN When the GGSN receives the packet, it consults its routing table , g , and realizes that the MS, which is using the destination IP address, is currently being served by a particular SGSN It then envelops the packet in a new packet with the destination address of the serving SGSN and forwards it to that SGSN SGSN, The SGSN is tracking all mobiles in its coverage area and knows ( , g p ) where the MS is located (i.e., within which cell or group of cells) It then sends the packet to the mobile via the BSS.