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INTRODUCTION OF ADVERTISING What is advertising? It is a business, an art, an institution, and a cultural phenomenon.

The general publics attitude toward advertising is ambivalent in that they like the individual ads while they hate advertising in general believing the profession to be glamorous while the morality of the industry are suspect. Advertising facilitates large scale marketing. It is a medium of mass communication. Manufacturers supply information about new products through advertising. The fact that companies spend crores of rupees on advertising through TV, radio and newspapers indicates its benefits in sales promotion. Advertising is within the scope of promotion which is one element in the marketing mix. It is getting popularity in the present highly competitive and consumer oriented marketing. All products old and new, consumer and durable, cheap and costly need extensive advertising for sales promotion and consumer support. New communication techniques are now used for making advertising attractive and agreeable. The basic purpose of advertising is to give information, to attract attention, to create awareness and finally to influence the buying behavior of consumers. Advertising is certainly needed in marketing but is equally important and essential in social, cultural and political aspects of our life. The term 'Advertising' originates from the Latin word 'advertere' which means "to turn the mind towards". The dictionary meaning of the term advertising is "to give public notice or to announce publicity". This suggests that advertising acts as a marketing vehicle and is useful for drawing the attention of people (prospects) towards a specific product/service/manufacturer. Much of the value and power of advertising is that it provides silent information as to how we should interact and present ourselves. Advertising helps consumers see the possibilities and meanings in the things that they buy. Advertising also liberates meanings that lie below the surface. For example, Doyle, Dane, Burnbachs Volkswagon ads turned the unlikely automobile (an amalgamation of a insect and a machine developed by Hitler as his war vehicle) into a mobile social statement (in the 60s and 70s the Volkswagon van often had a peace symbol emblazoned across the front). Advertising is part of our every day culture. If we see, as estimated, 1,500 ads per day, clearly they must influence or even change the cultural consciousness and behavior of the public. Certainly advertising promotes a higher quality of goods through the ability of the consumer to identify a particular manufacturer and thus creating a need for that manufacturer to maintain quality. Advertising also gives business the ability to roll-out new products fast enough to offset the costs of creating such products. Additionally, advertising protects industry from government and special control as it democratizes information to consumers as to what products are available. Definition: Advertising is a paid, mass mediated attempt to persuade. Advertising is paid communication by a company, organization (client/sponsor) or political candidate who wants their information disseminated. It is mass mediated in that it is delivered through communication media designed to reach large numbers of people. And it is an attempt to persuade, that is, to get someone to do something. Even it the ad is purely informational, it is still designed to get consumers to like the brand/company/person. An advertisement is a specific message while an advertising campaign is a series of coordinated advertisements that communicate a theme or idea. An audience is a group of individuals who receive and interpret messages sent from advertisers. A target audience is a particular group of consumers who are most intended to receive the message. The marketing mix consists of several tools including conception of the product, pricing of the product, promotion and distribution of the product, service of person. Advertising is only ONE of the promotional tools relied on in the marketing mix. Advertising communicates the value of a product or service. Marketers must determine which marketing mix ingredients to emphasize and how to blend the elements to attract and serve customers. This is referred to as

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integrated communication, which is an effort to complement the overall marketing strategy. Advertising has communication objectives designed to accomplish certain tasks within the total marketing program and is a marketing tool that is more effective when used to sole narrowly defined communication issues (i.e., create brand awareness which is a preference for a brand that leads to an increased share of the market, which in term increases profitability). To be successful, advertising must exhibit a creative executive to gain the consumers attention and reach potential customers in an appropriate environment at a proper time. If the message is received when the target market is busy or not available, it makes no impact. Advertising, as a mass communication, must reach numerous publics. These include: distributors; employees (creating pride and loyalty); customers; potential customers; stockholders (who provide operating revenue); the community-at-large (who can influence public opinion and thus help with efforts such as new manufacturing plants and warehouse locations). An advertising plan consists of the following elements: advertising goals stated in terms of marketing goals and objections (these goals are communication); market segmentation (to define the market via demographic, geographic and psychographic factors); a budget; product differentiation (emphasizes product differentiation based on consumer perception these can be tangible or intangible such as style and image) but ultimately it is important that the customer can differentiate this product from others; the creative efforts; the media to be used for the campaign. Positioning is the process of designing a product/service so it can occupy a distinct place in the target consumers mind. Advertising communicates this distinctiveness. A brand name differentiates one seller from another. It is the part of a trademark that is words (Nike) not the pictures (the swoosh). Brand equity is the value assigned to the intangible value of an established brand. Brand loyalty is when a consumer repeatedly busy the same brand and is therefore less sensitive to price increases. This is important as it allows firms to have the flexibility to raise prices to increase their profit margins. In competition with generic and in-house brands, brands are assisted by perception and linking a brands image and meaning to a consumers social environment as well as to the larger culture. A product must meet a perceived need or else it will fail (90% of all new brands fail). In creating a brand, the firm must consider if there is a real consumer demand, what timing is best for placing the ad as well as where to place the advertising within the media. Advertising promotes differentiation among new products as well as communicating improvements and general information. Value refers to the perception by consumers that a product or service provides satisfaction beyond the cost incurred to acquire it. Symbolic value refers to value in a nonliteral way (automobiles) and what the product/service means in a societal context. Consumers are willing to pay a premium for this value (hotels, cars, jewelry). Factors to use in deciding to use advertising: a. volume of sales as sales increase, the percentage of dollars spent on advertising decreases as the public has been reached. b. competitive environment and profit margin if there is a lot of competition within the category (i.e., soft drinks, beers) then a higher advertising budget is required (with beer, the companies not invest in events rather than ads) c. philosophy of advertising with some products a moving picture is needed (food) d. new product introductions require heavy ad support

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maintaining leadership position within the category.

DEFINITION OF ADVERTISING Advertising is defined differently by different authorities and the institutions dealing with the subject of advertising. The American Marketing Association defines advertising as "any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor." This definition suggests the following features of advertising. Firstly, advertisement is paid for by the sponsor/advertiser. Naturally, he exercises control over the advertisement. Secondly, advertising is non-personal selling. It is a medium of mass communication for large scale selling. Thirdly, advertising acts as important marketing tool for presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services. Finally, advertising needs the sponsor of the message known. Advertising will be meaningless if the advertiser is not clearly identified. FEATURES OF ADVERTISING


Advertising provides information : The basic purpose of advertising is to provide information about products/services to prospective buyers. The details of products such as features, uses, prices, benefits, manufacturer's name, and instructions to be followed while using the product are given in the advertisements. The advertising message and brand name are also given. The information supplied gives education and guidance to consumers and facilitates correct selection of goods by them. Paid form of communication : The advertiser has to pay to the media for giving publicity to his advertising message. He pays for the advertisement and naturally he decides the size, slogan, etc. given in the advertisement. Advertising is a form of paid communication. Non-personal presentation : Advertising is non-personal in character as against salesmanship which is personal (face to face communication) in character. In



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advertising, the message is given to all and not to one specific individual. This rule is applicable to all advertising media including press. However even in advertising target consumers or target market can be selected for making an advertising appeal.


Gives publicity to goods, services and ideas : Advertising is basically for giving information to consumers. This information is always related to the features and benefits of goods and services of different types. Advertising gives new ideas to consumers as its contents are meaningful. The aim is to make the ideas popular and thereby to promote sales. For example, advertising on family planning, family welfare, and life insurance is useful for placing new ideas before the people. Basically for persuasion : Advertising aims at persuasion of potential customers. Advertising attracts attention towards a product, creates desire to have the same and finally induces consumers to visit the market and purchase the same. Advertising has psychological impact on consumers. It influences the buying decisions of consumers. Target oriented : It is possible to make intensive advertising by selecting a specific market or specific segment of consumers (e.g. children, housewives, etc.) for the purpose of advertising. This selection of a specific market is called target market. Advertising becomes effective and result oriented when it is target oriented. The waste in advertising can be minimized through such target oriented advertising. An Art, Science and Profession : It is now universally accepted that advertising is an art, science and a profession. It is an art as it needs creativity for raising its effectiveness. Advertising is a science as it has its principles and rules. Advertising is now treated as a profession with its professional bodies and code of conduct for members. Advertising agencies and space brokers function as professionals in the field of advertising. Important element in marketing mix : Advertising is an important element in marketing mix. It supports the sales promotion efforts of the manufacturer and makes positive contribution in sales promotion provided other elements in the marketing mix are reasonably favorable. This is natural as advertising alone is not adequate for promoting sales. Many companies now spend huge funds on advertising and public relations Creativity - the essence of advertising : Advertising is a method of presenting a product in an artistic, attractive and agreeable manner. This is possible through the element of creativity which is the essence of advertising. Creativity can be introduced by creative people (professionals) in the field of advertising. They introduce new techniques for introducing creativity. Without creativity, advertising will be like a body without a soul. DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF ADVERTISING






Retail advertising tends to be a harder sell and often includes price, service, location and house of service (retailers, airlines) End-product advertising used by manufacturers to build consumer demand for a branded ingredient used within the manufacturing of products (Splenda) Direct Response advertising used in all types of media and includes a sense of urgency, a 1-800 number and allows the consumer to buy directly Trade advertising directed to wholesale and retail merchants and emphasizes profitability the manufacturer may offer an initial trial of the product, increased trade support (perhaps additional consumer advertising), and announce consumer promotions

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Industrial advertising directed to the manufacturer for goods needed to create products and does not seek to sell the product directly (i.e., tires for autos) Professional advertising professional product and services to the consumer such as law, medicine, dental Public Relations/Institutional/Corporate advertising all 3 names are used for this category but for this course, we will use the term public relations advertising unlike general

Public Relations which is not a paid effort (materials are submitted in the form of press releases and video news released in the hope that the media will pick up the stories) but does attempt to create good public will for the product/service/person, PR advertising is a paid effort to establish a favorable attitude towards the company by: a. establishing a public identity; b. overcome existing negative attitudes; c. explain a companys mission; d. boost corporate identity and image; e. persuade a target audience for later sales; f. promote and relate a company to some worthwhile product. Nonproduct advertising promotes a cause or idea such as abortion, anti-terrorism, gun control, animal rights (PETA) often controversial and emotional Service advertising promotes a service sells expertise and tends to maintain slogans/logos to increase consumer awareness features the tangibles and since there is no product, these service providers often use testimonials features employees to present the quality of the employees and guarantees value and service stresses the quality of their service. Advertising objectives lay the framework for the subsequent tasks in an advertising plan. They identify the goals of the advertiser (i.e., increase consumer awareness, change consumers beliefs or attitudes about the product, influence purchase intent, stimulate trial use, switch consumers from other brands, increase sales). THE ADVERTISING LIFE CYCLE It is important to consider what point of the cycle the product is in. Initially, a new product enters a pioneering stage, which is an introductory stage. During this stage the intent is to introduce ideas and educate the consumer as to the new product/service. There is heavy advertising and promotional expenses required during this stage to create awareness. Usually the product is not usually profitable during this stage as the research and development costs still need to be off-set. It is during the competitive stage that the product reaches usefulness but not until the benefits over other brands must be established. Most advertising for the product occurs during this stage. The final stage, the retentive stage, attempts to retain patronage merely on the strength of reputation. Little, or reminder, advertising is used. Many products stay in this stage for years (i.e., Mortons Salt, Rumford Baking Powder). At the end of the retentive stage a product may have passed its market life and die or may lose market share but still remain profitable or enter a newer pioneering stage and expand the market. This may be done by product modification or by simply using new advertising. Think of how Bayer aspirin entered a new pioneering stage when the advertising stressed the value of the aspirin in preventing heart attacks and strokes. The product was not changed but the message was. Hence it is not necessary to change a product to enter a new pioneering stage. A newer competitive stage focuses on purchasing intent and a newer retentive stage relies on existing prestige to keep customers. The stage that the product is in dos not have to do with time but rather what the consumer

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attitude and perception is at that point in time. Creating brand awareness is a popular advertising objective as it is an indicator of consumer knowledge about the existence of the brand. Strategic brand planning has to do with developing the brand identity. Product differentiation began in the last quarter of the 19th century with Levis branding in 1873, Budweiser in 1876, Coca-Cola in 1886. The brand is the most valuable asset a marketer has and it is created, where as a product is manufactured. A product may change, but the brand remains. The brand is a durable identity. The Inner Brand is a tangible asset that no other brand owns and could include the package graphics, logo or even color (i.e., Coca Cola red, Pepsi blue, Avis red, Hertz yellow),all of which establish an image. A brand has both a rational (content and theme of the brands communication and are the most visible part of the brand) and also emotional elements (how the brand is expressed through the style, tone and less visible elements). Interestingly in supermarkets 81 of the top 100 items purchased are branded and in pharmacies 92 are branded. A customer will repeatedly use a brand it if continues to suit their needs, however needs do change. Integrated communications refers to an approach in which all messages directed to a consumer on behalf of a brand (i.e., media advertising, public relations, direct response). It is aimed at building brand equity, that is the value that the consumer feels about the brand in relation to the competition. Master brands compete across product segments within a category (i.e. Crest toothpaste, toothbrushes, tooth strips, mouthwash). Global brands compete on a global basis (i.e., Coca-Cola). To do so, the company must be conscious of local attitudes and cultural differences. Some amazing mistakes have been made by global companies amazing because these companies spend enormous amount of money to enter international markets and yet Gerber began selling baby food in Africa, and was using the same packaging that they used in the USA that of a baby on the label. It was not until later that Gerbers discovered that in Africa, companies often placed pictures on the label of what was inside since many African consumers can not read. GM brought the Chevy Nova into South America and did not realize that no va in Spanish means wont go. When the car was not selling, the company changed the name to Caribe in its Latin markets. Schweppes Tonic Water was translated into Italy as Schweppes Toilet Water There are many such examples of big industry mistakes in entering foreign markets. SOCIAL MEDIA Social media is undeniably the most successful offshoot of this technical advancement. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein (authors of Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges And Opportunities of Social Media, Business Horizons) define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content". This definition suggests that Social Media is a platform, a potent one, which through the help of technology helps in the creation and dissemination of information. Social Media Landscape: The taxonomy of Social Media would lead us to different set of applications depending upon the type of activity being performed. The type of activities can be listed as below. 1. Publish You can create content and make it accessible to the global audience. Software applications most popularly used for this are Blogger, wikia, dig etc.

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2. Share You can share photos, videos with the intended audience. Applications most popularly used for this are flickr, Youtube, Picasa, Slideshare etc. 3. Discuss Review products, opine on movies, and interact with other people. Applications include Skype, Yahoo Messenger, Meebo etc. 4. Social Networking Websites which help you create your profile and then connect with other users. Examples of such application would include Orkut, MySpace, Facebook etc. 5. Microblog These are applications which help individuals to keep posting statements on anything s/he might be feeling about. Applications like Twitter would be the perfect example. 6. Lifestream - Eric Freeman and David Gelernter at Yale University coined this word. It is a set of documents that are chronologically ordered and stored online. Examples of such application would be Flavors.me Social media aggregator that includes support for RSS, Chi.mp Lifestreaming and personal domain service, FriendFeed Lifestreaming service, Google Buzz Lifestreaming service embedded in Gmail. 7. Livecast Applications that help share live content with an audience in real time. Examples would include Yahoo Live, Justin.tv, stickam etc. 8. Virtual Worlds These are applications which simulate real life over the internet. Examples would include Second Life, The Sims Online, Forterra etc. 9. Social Gaming Examples would include pogo, doof, Farmville etc. 10. MMO (Massively Multiplayer Online Game) These are multiplayer games, where hundreds of players can be supported simultaneously. Examples of MMO would include Toontown Online, Cartoon Network Universe: FusionFall , Freaky Creatures, Infantry Online, SubSpace etc. Wikipedia also classifies Social Media based upon the Software Applications that are being used. This can be seen here. IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA Social media all over the world has given expression a new meaning. The world has shrunk and each nook and corner of the world has been conquered. It is this very ubiquitousness of social media that has made it the prime source of information. Let us try and understand its impact through different dimensions. Political Impact: People all over the world have a platform where they can voice their opinions on every political incident that takes place. Political campaigns, live interviews of political leaders, information on political mandates, everything information is a click away.

Economic Impact: From the Marketers Perspective: Due to its reach a marketer has access to a larger set of audience. S/he can get consumer reactions in the most cost-effective way. Viral marketing is one more great positive impact of Social Media from a marketers perspective. From the Consumers Perspective: With a plethora of brands available in the market, the consumer today is spoilt for choices. This makes much more important for the consumer to interact with other consumers. Social Media becomes the ideal platform for such interactions. The consumer not only reviews a product or service but also gives feedback on how to make it better.

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Social Impact: Internet communities, fora, blogs networking sites have become an important part of life today; we can say its the new face of youth. Right from researching about a new product in market to getting reviews of a movie to letting everybody know about what is happening in your life.

Technological Impact: Social Media has been a great platform for techies to share their ideas, brainstorm and create open source applications. Consumers have been more than ready to test technologies whose beta versions are introduced for testing and post their feedbacks.

ADVANTAGES OF ADVERTISING The advantages of advertising can be divided into two main groups. One group denotes benefits to manufactures and other group denotes benefit to consumers. Let's find out how each of them gets benefited by advertising. A. Benefits of Advertising to Manufacturers

Large scale production and marketing : Advertising is useful as a sales promotion technique. It gives information to consumers and encourages them to purchase more. Manufacturers expand their production base due to higher market demand created through advertising. Introduction of new products : Advertising facilitates the introduction of new products. Due to advertising, information about new products is given to the prospects. This creates demand and the manufacturer is able to sell new products along with the existing ones. Creates new demand : Advertising spreads information and encourages consumers

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to purchase new products. Such advertising leads to the creation of new demand. Various concessions are offered to consumers in the initial period. This gives positive response from the consumers. Thus, advertising creates new demand from non-users.

Facilitates effective personal selling : Advertising creates proper background for personal selling. It gives advance information to the prospects. They visit the shop in order to purchase a particular product which they know through advertising media. The job of a salesman becomes easy as consumers develop affinity to specific products. In brief, advertising supports and supplements personal selling. Builds brand image : Manufacturers introduce branding for making their products popular with distinct personality. The brands are made popular through advertising. As a result, consumers develop loyalty towards a specific brand. Advertising builds brand image and this develops consumer loyalty towards a specific brand. Reduces cost of production : Advertising creates demand and promotes sales. This enables a manufacturer to conduct production on a large scale. This leads to reduction in the cost of production and distribution. As a result, the profit margin of the manufacturer increases. Facing competition : A manufacturer can face market competition effectively and can make his products popular through advertising. He can remove misunderstanding among consumers about his products through appropriate advertising. Sales promotion : A manufacturer can make his sales promotion campaign successful by using the support of advertising. He can prepare proper background for the success of such campaign as advertising facilitates direct communication with consumers. Goodwill builder : A manufacturer can build up goodwill and good image in the business world and also among the consumers through advertising. The social welfare programmes and community service activities can be given wide publicity through advertising. Even the progress of the Organisation can be brought to the notice of the public through advertising.

B. Benefits of Advertising to Consumers

Information and guidance : Consumers get information and guidance from advertising. They can study the advertisements of competitors and select the products which are profitable to them. This avoids their cheating and exploitation at the hands of middlemen. Acts as reminder : Advertising acts as a reminder to consumers. They remember what is urgently required to be purchased through advertising. Special attraction to consumers : Advertising leads to competition among manufacturers and retailers. They have to offer something special in order to attract consumers. Such attraction offers benefits to consumers. For example, manufactures have to bring down the price in order to attract customers. They have to supply quality goods in order to attract more customers. All this is beneficial to consumers in terms of price and quality of goods. Raises living standards : Advertising raises the standard of living of people by supplying information about goods and services which can offer convenience and pleasure to them. Advertising guides consumers in the selection of most suitable goods for their daily life. Thus advertising provides higher standard of living to consumers as a social group

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Effective product use : Consumers get information about uses/benefits of different products through advertising. They also get guidance as regards the right manner of using the product. This avoids possible damage of the product purchased. Even the product can be used for different purposes because of the information supplied through advertisements. Removes misunderstanding : Advertising helps consumers in removing their misunderstanding about certain products. They change their attitudes towards certain products and services due to advertising.

ROLE OF ADVERTISING IN SELLING CONSUMER DURABLES The following points suggest the role of advertising in selling sales promotion of consumer durables. Advertising is useful for giving information and guidance to prospective buyers of consumer durables. Here, advertising gives the details of special features, benefits, price discount, and other concessions offered, etc. to the purchasers of consumer durables and encourage interested customers to take initiative in purchasing the durable articles. Effective advertising of consumer durables creates proper background for personal selling. An attraction is created in the minds of consumers and they are encouraged to visit retail shop in order to see the article or look at the demonstration of its working. Here, the salesman can use his skills and see that the article is purchased by his visitors. Advertising of consumer products enables a manufacturer to face market competition effectively. He can give special features of his product and also suggest how his product is superior to that of his competitors. This is useful for sales promotion of consumer durables. Even consumers can make appropriate selection of a suitable product by studying the advertisements of competitors. Advertising of consumer durables during the festival period acts as a reminder to

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consumers. They remember to purchase a useful product on the eve of the festival. This technique facilitates sales promotion during the festival period. The seller of consumer products (manufacturing company) may like to offer attractive gift or price discount to interested consumers. Here, advertising can be made effectively. This encourages consumers to purchase a durable product. Such advertisements are common during festivals. Even local dealer may offer certain concession to his customers. He can make suitable advertisement of such concession for large scale selling at the local level. In short, effective advertising of consumer durables is necessary and useful for regular selling, for providing information and guidance to consumers and finally for sales promotion.

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TYPES OF ADVERTISING MEDIA Advertising media are as noted in the chart given below:

It may be noted that advertising media have their special features, merits, limitations and suitability. An advertiser has to consider his advertising budget and select the most appropriate advertising media and use them for advertising purpose. DECISION-MAKING IN ADVERTISING While undertaking advertising campaign or while organising an advertising programme for products : consumer products, (tooth paste, chocolate, soap, face powder, skin cream, etc.) or durable products, (car, TV, etc.) or industrial products, (machine, etc.) concerned company has to take certain decisions and adjust the advertising activity accordingly. Such advertising decision-making is a five-step process (Five Ms of advertising) consisting of mission, money, message, media and measurement. In other words, evaluation and broad decisions need to be taken in regard to these five areas while organising an advertising programme/campaign. Five Ms of advertising are five basic considerations which need to be given proper attention so as to have positive/favorable effect of advertising efforts. These considerations are particularly applicable to consumer product marketing such as tooth paste, face powder, body creams, soaps, chocolates and so on. Advertising will be effective/result oriented when it is made with proper planning and appropriate decisions as regards the objectives, media used, funds provided and so on. In short, advertising activity needs appropriate decision-making on various matters. Such decisions constitute the steps in the advertising. FIVE Ms OF ADVERTISING An advertiser has to take decisions on the following aspects:

Mission : This refers to the purpose/objective behind advertising. The objectives behind advertising are varied in character. They include sales promotion, information and guidance to consumers, developing brand loyalty, market goodwill, facing market competition effectively, making the products popular/successful and introduction of a new product. Decision in regard to mission is a basic one as other decisions are to be adjusted as per the mission or objective or purpose of advertising decided. For consumer products like chocolate, tooth paste, soap, the mission/objective include facing market competition, sales promotion and making the product popular in the market. Money : This refers to the finance provided for advertising purpose (advertising budget). It means the budget allocation made by the company for advertising. Money provided is a limiting factor as effectiveness of advertising, media used, coverage of advertising, etc. are related to the funds provided for advertising purpose. Advertising is costly and companies have to spend crores of rupees for this purpose. Advertising should be always within the limits of funds provided. Naturally, decisions on advertising package should be adjusted as per the budget allocation for advertising. It may be noted that consumer products like tooth paste or chocolate are highly competitive with many substitutes easily available in the market. Naturally, extensive advertising on TV, newspapers, radio, etc. is required. These media are costly. Naturally, the manufacturing/marketing company will have to provide huge money for

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advertising purpose.

Message : Message is provided through the text of advertisement. The message is given through written words, pictures, slogans and so on. The message is for the information, guidance and motivation of prospective buyers. Attractive and meaningful messages give positive results and the advertising becomes result-oriented. The services of creative writers, artists, etc. are used for giving attractive message to the consumers. Here, the advertiser has to decide the message to be given, the media to be used for communicating the message, the extent of creativity, the specific customer group selected for giving the message and so on. The message is also related to the decisions taken as regards mission and money provided for advertising. For advertising consumer product like chocolate, the message is important. The buyers are mainly children and others of lower age groups or for the benefit (pleasure and satisfaction) of younger generation. The advertising message should be simple and easily understandable with the help of picture or slogan. It should be also attractive and agreeable to younger generation. The pictures or slogans used should be short and impressive. Media : Media of advertising are already noted previously. The advertiser has to take decision about the media to be used for advertising purpose. Media differ as regards cost, coverage, effectiveness and so on. The selection of media depends on the budget provided, products to be advertised, and features of prospective buyers and so on. Wrong decision on media may make advertising ineffective and money spent will be wasted. This suggests that media should be selected properly and decision in this regard is important and critical. For advertising popular and extensively used consumer items like chocolate, the media should be selected properly. TV advertising particularly a cartoon channel, advertising in children books or newspaper supplements for children, advertising on radio programmes for children, etc. Measure : Measure relates to the effectiveness of advertising. An advertiser will like to make evaluation of advertisement in order to judge its effectiveness. If an advertisement is not effective /purposeful, it will be modified or withdrawn. This is necessary for avoiding expenditure on the advertisement which is not effective or is not likely to give positive results. An advertiser has to measure the effectiveness of his advertisement programme/ campaign and take suitable decisions. This decisionmaking as regards effectiveness of advertising is equally important and essential. Such testing facilitates introduction of suitable remedial measures, if required. For measuring effectiveness of chocolate advertising, the post advertising sale is one major consideration. Demand creation in new market segments or in new age groups is another consideration for the measurement of advertising effectiveness. Even success of sales promotion programme is useful for measuring advertising effectiveness. In brief, like other areas of marketing management, decision-making is necessary in advertising. This relates to Five Ms - mission, money, message, media and measurement.

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