NEW YORK • 1938


Preface by Alfred H. Barr. Jr, The Background of the Bauhaus

1 II
Note 16

Bauhaus Building Houses 101 108 110 r 12 1'16 124 The Masters'

by Alexander



From the First Proclamation Teachers and Students 1923) 18 20 22 32 39 40 41 42 49 50 54 58 62 68 12 Press

Other Buildings in Dessau Architecture Deportmenl Preliminary Course: Albers Preliminary Course: Moholy-Nogy Furniture Workshop Metal Workshop: Lighting fixtures, et cetera

r 28
136 142 148 154 158 160 162 164 110 112 113 115 180 206 201 211

The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus
Copyrighl. 1938. by Tho Museum of Mod"r" Art. New York Printed in Ihe U niled Siale. 01 America Typography end cover delign by H erbe rl Bayer

by Wolter Gropius (Weimar, Preliminary Course: hten Klee's Course Kandinsky's Course Color Experiments Carpentry Workshop Stained Glass Workshop Pottery Workshop Metol Workshop Weaving Workshop Stage Workshop Wall-Painting Workshop Display Design Architecture

* Typography


Workshop Printing, layout, posters

Workshop: Photography Exhibition Technique

Wall-Pointing Workshop: Sculpture Workshop Stage Wor.kshop Kandinsky's Course Paul Klee speaks Administration Extra-curricular Activities

Wall paper

Pointing, Sculpture, Graphic Ar+, 1919-1928 Administrative Changes, 1928 Spread

Typography and Loyout; the Bauhaus Weimar Exhibition, 1923 Extra-curricular Activiti,es Preliminary Course: Moholy-Nagy Preliminary Course: Albers Opposition to the Bauhaus Press Comments, 1923-32 The Bauhaus Quits Weimar: start at Dessau, April 1925

14 19
82 86 90 91 92 93

01 the Bauhaus


Bauhaus Teoching in the United States Biographicol Notes by Jan·ef Henrich Bibliography by Beaumonf Index of Illustrations


220 222

a fresh


*A. explained an poge 149 Ihi, and lollow;ng sections 01 the book are printed without capital leiter. is accordance wilh Bauhaus typographical practice introduced in 1925,

A. Conger Goodyear, President JO.hn Hay Whitney, l st Vice-Presiden Samuel A. lewisohn, 2nd Vice-President Nelson A. Rockefeller, 3rd Vice-President Cornelius N. Bliss Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss Treasurer and

Philip Goodwin, A.I.A., Chairman Mis.s Catherine Bouer, Director of Research and Information, United States Housing Authority John Cool;dge, Art Depa tment, Vassar College Prof. Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Jr., Wesleyan University Deon Joseph Hudnut. Graduate School

It is twenty yeors since Gropius arrived in Weimar to found the Bauhaus; ten years since he left the tronsplanted ond greatly enlarged institution at Dessau to return to private practice; live years since the Bcuhous was forced to dose its doors ojter a brief rear-guard stand in Berlin. Are this book, then, and the exhibition supplements it, merely a belated upon the tomb of brave events, which ginning our courses with gigantic renderings 01 Doric capitols, or ending them with elaborate projects for colonia! gymnasiums and Romanesque 5 yscrapers. The more radical American architects and designers in 1925, ignoring Frank Lloyd Wright, turned their eyes toward the eclectic "good taste" of Swedish "modern" and the trivial bod taste of Paris "modernistic." I is shocki ng to recall that only one year later the grea.! new Bauhaus buildi,ng at Dessou was completed.


Stephen C. Clark Mrs. W. Murray Crane The Lord Duveen of Millbank Marshall Field Edsel. B. Ford Philip Goodwin William S. Paley Mrs. Charles S. Payson Mrs. Stanley Resor Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Beardsley Ruml Paul J. Sachs Mrs. John S. Sheppard Edward M. M. Warburg Jr.

Design, Harvard University Winslow Ames, Di ector, Lyman Allyn Museum, New London George Nelson, Associate Editor,

The Architectural Forum Carl Feiss, Constructor and Coordinating Officer, Planning and Housing Division, School

wreath laid important in

their day but now 01 primarily historical interest? Emphatically, no! The Bauhaus is not dead; it lives and grows through the men who mode it, both teachers and students, through their designs, their books, their methods, their principles, their philosophies of art and education. It is hard to recall when and how we in America first began to hear of the Bauhaus. In the years just after the War we thought 01 German art in terms of Expressionism, of Mendelsohn's streomlined

01 Architecture,




II is no wonder then that young Americans began to turn their eyes toward the Bauhaus as the one school in the world where modern problems of design were approached realistically in a modern atmosphere. A few American pilgrims had visited Dessau before Gropius left in I92S; in the live years thereafter many went to soy as studen s. During this time Bauhaus maleriol, typography, paintings, prints, theatre art, architecture, industrial objects, hod been included in American exhibitions though nowhere so importantly as in the Paris Solon des Artistes Decorateurs of 1930. There the whole German section was arranged under the direction of Gropius. Consistent in program, brilliant in installa ion, it stood like on island of integrity, caprice, in a melange of chaotic modernistic demons rating [what was not general-

Mrs. John Carter Mr. Philip Johnson




Clay Bartlett

Frank Crowninshield Duncan Phillips Mrs. Rainey Rogers Mrs. Cornelius J. Sullivan


Einstein tower, Toiler's Masse Wiene's Cabinet of Dr. Co/igori. It

may not have been until after the great Bauhaus exhibition of 1923 tho reports reached America of a new kind of art school in Germany where famous expressionist pointers such as Kandinsky were combining forces with craftsmen and industrial designers under the general direction of the architect, Gropius. A little later we began to see some 01 the Bauhaus books, notably Schlemmer's amazing volume on the theatre and Moholy-Nagy's Ma/erei, Phofogra-

ly recognized at that time) that German industrial design, thanks largely to the Bauhaus, was years ahead of the rest of the world. And the rest of the world began 0 accept the Bauhaus. In America Bauhaus lighting fixtures and tubular steel choirs were imported or the des ig ns pi ro ted. Am eri co n 80 uhous stud en Is began to return; and they were followed, clter the revolution of 1933, by Bauhaus and exBauhaus masters who suffered from the new government's illusion that modern furniture, [lotroofed architecture and abstract po inting were

phie, Film.
Some of the yaung.er of us hod just left colleges where courses in modern orl began with Rubens and ended with a few superficial and often hostile remarks about von Gogh and Matisse; where the lost word in imitation Gothic dormitories hod windows with one carefully crocked pone to each picturesque casement. Others of us, in architectural schools, were be-

Alfred H. Barr, .Jr., Director Thomas Dabney Mabry, .lr., Executive John McAndrew, Industrial Art Frances Collins, Curator Manager of Architecture of Publications

Director and

one mOlYask. This is history.1 actian. for althaugh the expressionist end. formerly 0. con'eM. sociol. Jr. ta have token on the character of periad pieces. Mr. Many Bauhaus designs which were once five years ohecd of their time seem now.$I$. Mr. These divisions ind icote more than a change of locotion andextema! circumstonces.ing invited Professor Grapius. a/ the Graduate Schaal of Desi. is by lor the most complete ond auIharitOilive occounr of the Bauhaus so lor OIttempled. Mrs. thOit the school OIldesign shauld. ond their colleoques to colbbaralein the book and its accompanying exhibition. And some of its ideas are no longer so useful as they ance were. thsotre. economic. for his supervision 01 the baok and exhibition.en the book "'0" 0.gn. ten yeors afterword. Jo. lar instance.slly. Also Miss Sora Bobbitt.. Q!S volunteers. thot thoraugh manual experience of moleriels isessenriol to the student 01 design-experience at [irs! confined to free experiment and then extended ta p-octicol shap work. Bouhous designs. as Gropius has often insisted. the lost live yeors 01 the Bauhaus cauld nat be represented. Mr. Philip Jahnsan ond 01 the Bauhaus hod already Mr.'. book is being shown wilh.ft with bewildering rapidity. formO'listic experiments at Weimar were varied ond exciting. else thase who hove generausly lent moteriol 10 the exhibition ond contributed phatagraphs lor repraduction in the boak. In this way.incain. This book is primarily a collection of evidence -phatographs. .1 the Bouhous. l. camplete and corelully documented history prepored by a dispassionote autharity. weaving. Allred H. thot the study or rotionc] design in terms o] technics ond moteriols shauld be only the lirst step in the development 01 a new and modem sense 01 beauty.! 011 the student. the student orchilect or designer should be offered no refuge in the post but should be equipped for the modern world i.glO preu il "'0.8 _ degenerate or bolshevistic. Mrs. the period during which Gropius wcs director. photoqrcphy. in some cases withaut the con senl af the artist. lartunotely far the purposes of this book. but time and other circumstcnces ma:ke this impassible at present. the exhibition ond laying out this baak. inlhi. Far reasons beyand the contral of any af the individuals invalved .out I"a. The Museum ol Madern Art wishes to IhOink especiaUy Herbert Bayer lor his diHicult.licent achievements 01 the Bauhaus which are sa obvious thai they might be overlooked. a!ftides and notes done an the lield 0. tha most students should face the foci that their future should be invalved primarily with industry and moss production rother than with individua! cro ftsmansh ip: thot teochers in schools of design should be men who are in odvonce af their proiession rather than safely and academically in the reargua'rd. the Bauhaus principles. a well-ordered. bring tagether the various orts af pointing. the ideo of 01 Bauhaus style Of a Bauhaus dagma as something /ixed and permanent was at all limes merely the inaccurate conclusion of superficial observers. This baok is nat complete. And thaugh the building is naw adarned with a gO'bled roaf and the brilliont teochinq force has been dispersed there ore certcin methads and ideas developed by the Bauhaus which we may still ponder.. Laaking bock we can appreciate more fully than ever certain magn. which token together form one 01 the chiel cultural contributions of modern Germany. Nevertheless this boak.. And we can OISkif in modern times there have ever been so many men af distinguished tolent on the faculty of any other art schoolar cccderny. prepored by Herbert Boyer under the general editorship of Professor Grapius ond with the generaus collobororion Oil a dozen Bauhaus leO'chers. Bauhaus men. and Josel Albers. At some lime a delinitive wark an the Bouhaus should be written. ond Dessou. modern synthesis wh' ch di sregards canven tionol dis!i nctions between the "line" and "applied" orts. but.1 Ihe point 01 goin. elc. Boyer. thai it is harder to design 01 lirst rote choir than to point a second rate painting-Oind much mare uselul. Professor ol Art at BI. Jahn W.1 the Museum's request. wha. Bauhaus 1919-28. and. This book on the Bouhous is published in canjunction with the Museum's exhibitian. During these five yeors much excellent work was done ond the internotionol reputcrion of the Bauhaus incraosad rapidly. that because we live in the 20th century. inlo 0. tyoogrO'phy. It is only eight years since the 1920's come 10 OI.intan Sherwood. lor same material could not be brought aut 0/ GermO'lny. Wh. the fundamental chO'rOicter I been established under Gropius' lecdershlp.as 01' se¥ero·il 01 Ihe!e o'lilll. as the Bauhaus did. Professor WO'lter Grapius. All the material included in thee"hibifion has been lent 0. BUI. Bul this inevitable pracess of obsalescence was even mare active in the Bauhaus while it still existed as on institution lor. Director * 9 'The work 01 . Harvard University.nend yet I think we can now so:y without exaggeratian that the Bouhous building at Dessou was orchitecturally the mast impcr+ont structure OIlits decode. have been spread throughout the world. 192 5 -1928. thot a school of design shauld have on its faculty the purely creative and disinterested artist such D'S thaeosel pointer as a spiritual counterpaint to the practical technician in Ofder thatlhey mOly work and teach side by side lor the benef. it may be said thollhe Bauhaus really faund itsell only OIfter the move 101 Dessau. architecture. Ise Oropius lor her ossistonce in editing Ihe boak. Bauhaus ideas. with the help of the Iotherload. like the exhibition it is for the most pert limited 101 the first nine yeOirs of the institutian. spirtuol so thai he may function in society not as a decarOilor but as a vital participant. The exhibition has been organized and i'nstol'led by Herber! BO'yer with the assistance ol the Museum's Deportment 01 Archifectureand Industrial Art. have assisted Mr. There are. even within its lield.molly o'rl.n its various osoacts. Alexander Schawinsky. 10ter. 1919 -1925. Paul Gl'Otz. ond assembled here with a minimum or retrospective revision. what have we in America today to lecrn lrorn the Bauhaus? Times change and ideas of what canstitutes modern art or architecture or educatian shi. The Museum ossurnes lull respansibility far hav. extensive and painstaking work in assemhling and installing. BOIyer ond the Museum stoll.' conlidered edviseble 10 dalele the IIom.ack Mountain Callege and formerly of the Bouhaus for their help in preparing the exhibitian. It is divided into twa ports: Weimar. Br..Borr. artistic technical.

January 22. 1920.. Hcnover. the adherents 01 the old art academies . the Bauhaus was like a red rag. As early as 1919 there was talk 01 "art-Bolshevism which must be wiped out" and even then there were appeals to the "notional German spirit" of artists who were to "rescue mature art. "Goethe lawn. and this fact in port explains the force of the attock launched against the Bauhaus. elected by he ci irens . Yet this very tension and alertness may have contributed to the quick and clear-cut development 01 the Bauhaus." a -0 unanimity post-war Germons found in every novelty a sign of some ideological program.nli. First to protest against the Bauhaus were.. On one side were aligned all those who could not understand that the pre-war world was dead. are reques ed to ottend a public demonstro ion on Thorsdcv.. of course.War Period German opinion was divided into extreme factions. even outside Germany. The latter." on "Athens-on-the-Ilrn": anywhere in Germany it would have been much the some in the stormy cultural atmosphere following the catastrophe 01 1918. but to those who clung to the post." It was a feverish end tormented notion that drew such drcsfic distinctions between 'he old and new and mode peaceful growth impossible. It was remarkable with what .. Germany II It was with such alarms that the people of Weimar greeted the appearonce of the Bauhaus in their midst.ondesmuseum. " All citizens 01 Weimar THE BACKGROUND OF THE BAUHAUS by ALEXANDER DORNER Director of the Art Museum 01 the Rhode 1.. were drown to the Bauhaus as to a magnet.m."Men and women 01 Weimar! Our old and famous Ar School is in donger! to whom the obodes 01 our art and cui ure are sacred.ngs at Ihe Metropolilo:n Museum in New York in 1'121. ot 8 p. on the other stood men and women determined to learn from the debacle.lond School 01 Design Formerly Director 01 the l. The committees. and to find a new way of life. The Confusion 01 the Post. This reception was not to be blamed on the radi ional "spirit of Weimar. 09 to note thot the some phrase wos used in on cttcck on Ihe exhibition 01 Impressionist ond Post-Impressionist Po. II is interest. town living more in the post than in the present.

passed into private hands. the Belgian our times. (A the same time. reinlorced concrete. "Moss production and division of labor must be made to produce quality. toward the end of the century. who. These revolutionary movemens sessed were often no common mutually program hostile. Products academies of or the to had to make their way were there any positive. The ideo of the prefab- Henry von de Velde: Weimer Bouhous build· ing. differentiated This "applied art" was carefully from "line art. Purism and Dadaism. and with the new moss demand. the ideal was the Gothic cathedral. To him. In Germany there were Expressionism and Dadaism. from the very beginning. tapestries and other decaro ive material destined lor the courts and upper classes. politics and religion all formed one living whole. rother. and announced that the new malerials developed by modern science. a Viennese portly trained in the United States. 01 monuments and pertrc] s in the grand manner. theoretically. But no one hod yet devised the means of absorbing. dieval He strove. The cultural coordination against the artistic confusion of his day. to glorify technology." Therewith the fallacy 01 Morris' "croltsrncn's culture" seemed to have been overcome. and of the bourgeoisie whom the academies supplied with art-an art carrying on the tradilion 01 eclectic architecture. in solitude. achieving a new productive cooperation between art and lile. in France. The tide 01 Romanticism was rising to a new height in this post-war period. sought but not found by Morris. in Italy. was not to be achieved even by the Werkbund movement. both forms of unbridled individualism." who sow oeyond romantic experiments the purely personal and of artists trying to express carried further. either practically or esthetically. called lor a fa urn 10 he cultural integration the great oeriods aependent on the accepted styles of the post. somewhat proclaimed the Continent ond America began.n Germany presented a bewilderingly confused picture. the spirit of engineering in a art.. hod drafted a Memorandum on their individual views. began really to solve the problem. until the handful of people who mode up the German Werkbund at last perceived this goal and directed their efforts award it steering clear bo h of the late academicism and the late Romantic Expressionism Adolf Laos. mo- rality. the architect Behrens. the depiction historical glory and decorative landscape-on or+ accepting almost any historical "style" eclectic stylistic melange. The Deutsche Werkbund The Werkbund ideo hod been in the I BBO's by William foreshadowed in reaction He of Morris In Germany. it was still the some Romanticism which lor a century hod been vaunting individualism in its struggle against academic traditions. were for the most port still romantic individualists . dared to banish all ornament from his buildings. He founded the Deutsche Werkbund in 1907 in on eHart to effect real coopercrion between the besl crtists and craftsmen on the one hand. for a revival of meof moss But.1 ed Prallerhous . Nowhere clear suggestions for occupied with Art Nouveau ornament. in Holland. But. in the creation joined tagether in the role of which all artists ·01 croftsmen. consequently. The purpose of that struggle hod been to enrich art and extend its horizons. At the first session of the Werkbund Theodar Fischer said.) By 1900. The progressive phases of Morris' hand- 01 art and econom- ics. inspiration to their European 01 the French official tradition. on the Continent and in the United States. Called expressionism. wherein art. the creative geniuses al the 19th century and early 20th In the '90'5. a country 01 Louis Sullivan and then Fronk Lloyd Wright were the lirst to insist that "form should follow function. and linoleum.. he differed from his contemporaries in the driving earnestness with which he attacked the problem of reconciling art and on industrialized society. amazing technical In America. however. called for a new type of logical structure. at Ihe Weimor Academy of Arts the Industriol Prefabrication of Houses on a Unified Arlistic Basis. in some ways a retrogressive Romantic. As early as 1910 he and his moster. handicrafts. But. Hermann Muthesius sought 0 synthesis between the "machine style" and the Morris "arts and crofts" movement. Henry von de Velde of the engineer as the true architect It was the youngest of the Werkbund leaders. aluminum. Cubism. by founding the Bauhaus. The "modern posed art" movements which were opas well to he academies all over Europe 01 the post. hod originally been intended 01 their Irain designers lor the royal manufacturies of porcelain furniture. The disappearance of court Iile and coste rule spelled the disappearance of the principal mar e of these sto e manulacluries which. Architects and designers." sition to the academies and the academic ideas were It is hard to think of anyone at thought in any terms other than soke. Wal er Gropius. and trade and industry on the other. co 1. hot time who "art for art's 13 production developed in the industrial revoluion." Their work was a great contem porcries. Russia and Hungary. t 905 Students' s udio bUilding. such as steel. II would have been unnatural for the young Gropius to have been entirely untouched by late Romantic influence. proficiency. with the means 12 as ." though equally contemporaries. they possave that 01 oppoartist. because it hod token place isolated Irom lile and its practical demands. Morris. Mulhesius admitted: "We ourselves do not ~now where Wolter Gropius we are drifting. In contrast wih England and its "arts and crofts" movement. different abstract and Constructivist movements. he was pre"Gropius' predecessor ond Crofts. would have nothing to do with machine production. his concentration on the obsolescent techniques of handicraft brought about one of the very things he was trying to prevent-the isolation of the individual ortis -croltsmon able to produce made objects only for a select lew. as well as pointers and sculptors. Futurism.

14 ricoted house wcs borrowed from the United States. The press.Weimar who hod already discussed wilh him the possibility of his assuming the direclarship 01 the Weimar Art Academy. city and regional plonni. ond thus 10 develop a new sense of functionall design. the first products of the new education quite naturally showed the influence of contemporary "modern" movements. he was at work on a new project for ort educolion. The spirit ·of tunctional! design wos carried even into the "line orts" and applied to architecture. In 191 I he demonstrored Ihi 5 in his loctory building 01 AI/eld.re. namely the functional foundation of design. dishes. New ideas began to !low forth in abundance. lamps. Fortunotely.or Storting with mchilecture. loler. With equal perseverance he strug" gled to develop the rigihl program within the Bauhous irsell. quite understandably. OIlier the revol ution 01 November. and the dual system of Instruction could be obondoned. somewhat formalistic and crbirrorv attitude toward design. At Ihe very slart he stood firm. 1918. for every student at the Bauhaus was trained by two teochers in each subject-by on artist and a master craftsman. modern textiles.each of whom wos 01 once a creative ortisr. it is osronishing to realize that it ever hod anylhing to do Goethe's garden neor We·imor house. ond thai the 601uhous ideo has only beg. but Gropius' insistence on solving the pr6blem on a: "unified artistic bosis" was a new move toward the synthesis of technology and ort.s. and debated the "entry 01 Expressionism into the Bouhous. To develop just such erective "ambidexterity" was the purpoSe 01 the Bauhaus. encouraged by the Grand Duke 01 Soxe. but it must be remembered how very confused the world of art was when Ihe Bouhous begon." By ochi evi ng this union in 1919 at the Bouhous. This division of instruction was unavoidable at the beginning.sidence 01 the poets Harder. evidenced by 0. Gropiusextended his interests into the whole field of the orts.ng. Bulla speak 0'1 0' cut and dried "Bouhaus style" would be 10 revert 10 the cultural porolysis 01 the 19th century with its "free styles.. Gropius wonted to combine the Academy with the Weimar Arts ond Crohs School to creole a "consulting air 1 center for industry and the trades. ond. The 'Early Bauhoius ot Weim. . was just as full of chonging possibilities as our own "technical age. Goethe's house.. and ogOlin in 1914 in his oflice building at the Werkbund Exposilion 01 Cologne (both in collaboration with Adoll Meyer). In the world of art his ideas stood alone amid the chaos 01 uncoordinated forces. a new generation of teachers hod been trained. begaln 10 unite erective imoginolion wi." lis inlegral port. Schill . the 'N otionol Convention ossembled and ooopted the Constitution al the new Germon Republic. By this time. for no teachers were to be found with sufficient mastery of both phases. por+iculorlv Cubism. with Expressionism. sometimes con/used the aims 01 the Bauhaus with Ihe "isms" seen elsewhere. Goethe.un to make its woy. he took a most important and decisive new step. Creative instinct combined with his strength 01 character mode his leadership unique. Weimer Weimar. Wielond. af Lilzl and Niensc he. No one woul:d have prophesied success for Gropius.th a practical knowledge 01 craftsmanship. during the golden ero 01 Germain poelry. exploiting the new lightness of modern building construction. These buildings were the first 10 show cleorly the elemenls 01 a new orchitecturol style-free from traditional mossiveness. Her a. a' croftsman and on industriol designer.mony showing lccction of Weimar and Dessou Goethe-Schiller Weimar monument. agoinst relentless opposition and the economic difficulties of the inflation period. ond Gropius' idea soon achieved reolizotion: modern ortisls. Re.. Set in charming surraundi:ng. modern typography and layout." Today. While still at the Irani. and from the Bouhaus of Ihis period derive many familiar adjuncts of conternpororv lile-sleel furniture. and Dadaism. a center of clossic German cult . the firsl and diHicult slag!e of development was over fairly quickly. Because of the character of the artists on the faculty. familiar with science and economics. considering whot fhe Bauhaus eventually become. 15 Mop of Ge. r. The Bouhousat DessolJ In 1925 the Bauhaus wos moved frO'm hostile vVeimor to hosoitable Dessau." We believe that we hove only gllimpsed the great potentialities of this technicol' a'ge.

" 0' 1'123 I~e Gropius.B. 1914. 1903 Woller. u e for Building Economy of he German Reich Appoinled "Dr. nee Fronk.. AppOinted Senior Professor.1 important worh belore the Bauhaus 16 Wolter Gropius: Dieseldriven locomotive cor oesigned for a !irm On Don.eM K~nsTgewerbeschule and the Grossherzogliche Socnsisene Hechschule fjjr 8ilo ende K~nsl Union 01 he two schools under the nome )919 Beuhcus 15100 liehes Bouhcus Weimar) The Bauhaus moves 10 Dessou w:th a I 1925 !eochers end students (Bauhaus Dessou.i. 1935 A. Administration Bu'Idig. Architect. Munich 1905-1907 Studied orchtecture." by 1929 University of Hanover Moved 10 London 1934 Went into partnership with Maxwell Fry. ing. 19 4 " . honoris COJSO. Holl of Machinery. Hochschule Jur Gestoltungl Resigno'ion Irom posl as Diredor 01 the 1928 Bouhous to resume private practice Member 01 Ihe board of the Reseorch In51. writer. Alfelo-on-theLe·ne. I B83 Studied architecture. 1914 Fro'" 0 p~otogro. Front view. 'ion of the German We. Harvard UniversiTY Wolter Gropius and Adolf Meyer: Fogus Shoe-los Factory. Deportment of 1937 Architecture.I. .GROPIUS.R. Harvard University Appointed Chairman 01 the Dapcrtrnern of 1938 Architecture. bvno. Born. Berlin 1907-1910 Assis ani a Peter Behrens.posi. ioined the Bauhaus comrnu~ity in 192'3 Woller Gropius cno Ado!! Meyer: Cologne E. Berlin 1910-19]4 Privo e ercetice 1914--1918 Serveo in 'he German ormy Appo inled Director of the Grossherzoglic he 1918 Soch. Berlin. Wolter Grepius' mo. tig.A. 1911 Woher Gropius: Cologne ExposiTion 0' the German Werkound.

From the FIRST PROCLAMATION of the WEIMAR BAUHAUS: The complete building is the linol oim function 01 the visual arts. Today they exist in isoloticn. which will embrace architecture and sculpture and pointing in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hands of a million workers new faith. was can. between the Wolter Gropius 01 Berlin ond tha office 01 rnorschell 01 Weimar with the agreement 01 visieno] Republicon Government 01 Sore·Weimor sen. work be imbued with the architectonic which it has 105 as "solon crt. like the crystal symbol of a The ." Architects. turn to the crafts dillerence The artist pointers. Their noblest Was once the decoration of buildings. Let us creo eo new guild of craftsmen. Architects. Therein lies a source The contract lor the a ireclion 01 the lkIuho us eluded 01 Weimor April I. is on exalted craftsman. mus recognize anew of a building pain ers and sculptors the compasite choracter Only then will their spirit as on entity.eo. the g ace of heaven may couse his wor fa blossom into ort. In rare mo- 18 ments 01 inspire ion.Eisenach.irst Bouhous seo Lyonal Fe ini ngar: Woodcut Irom Ihe proclomotion. the oro. ond I. But proficiency in his croft is essential fa every artist. coopero ive eHort 01 all craftsmen. withou the clcss distinctions which raise on orrogant barrier between craftsman and artist. [Sechof he of creo ive imoginolion. orchitect he Hoi. 1919. 1919 fir. Together let us conceive and creote the new building of the future..t .. moments beyond the conrol of his will." is no essential between the artist and the craftsman. ter 01 Weimar. sculptors. There we must all Art is not a "profession. Iram which they can be rescued only hrough Peter Rohl Program a' Ihe opening celebra ions 01 Ihe Bauhaus 01 'he German otiono T.e Deoor ments Ministry 01 Store.Weimor. 1919 the conscious.

and Gropius herelore persuaded the Weimar Ministry 01 Education to cancel tuition lees. Replacement 01 cer oin members of Ihe old sloif. Bauhaus members come Irom all social cIO'55es. This eno bled him !O hove three moslers opeointsd at he very beginning: Joho nes Uten. They were joined later by Adoll Meyer.+Ob marh ( 50. 1920.. hall 01 whom hod served in the ormy during the lost years 01 the g. I wos old hal "during Ihe enrronce exc minations every oppliconl is locked up in odor room. But he happiness and fullness of those years mode US lorgel our poverty. oul I decided 10 join the Bau ous a once. rio. t 923. 1922. Wossay andins y. 1919.09Y. April. some still in unilorm. LOTHAR SCHREYER OSKAR SCHLEMMER WASSILY ANDINSKY The s udenl body was composed 01 two hundred Germans. 1921. he managed 10 give some financial supporl to 'hose students w a produced saleable goods in ne Bauhaus workshops. and Irom Au. PAUL LEE GERHARD MARC S LYONEL FEINI GER JOHA NES ITIEN WHERE DID THE STUDENTS COME FROM 7 The s udents ol the Weimar Bauhaus come Irom 011over Germo~y. most 01 rhem in eir early wen ies. lour een Aus rions. wo Sudelen Germons and two Hung. led to bi ler conlroversy with the older genera ion 01 ortists in Weimar. lired my enthusicsrn. some wi h e long beards 01 o· is s or osee ics. who did nol lit into the new educo-io 01 line al e Bauhaus..orions. They mode a vivid cppecrcnce. 20 ADOLF MEYER FROM A STUDENT'S LmER When 1 sow the lirs Bauhaus proclamation. Oskor Schlemmer. 01 hough il exaggerated 1 e oclual lac s. Thunder and ligh ning ore le loose uoon him a ge him inlo 0 so e of ogilo ion. and to this day I wonder w' 01 rnosr Bouhcus members ived On. ornemented wilh Feininger's woodeu. I mode inquiries as to whal the Bou ous really wos." This report. Mos of the sludels hod to earn Iheir living. His being odrni ted de oends on how well he d ascribes his reoc ions. Paul Klee.he Souhaus. SOme barelool or in sondols.000. The Bauhaus budget in 1920:20b. My €leona ic iUlire was lor from assured. Some come from Ihe youth movemems. 1919. _ . I· wos during the post-war years. June. Furlh e rmore. LASZLO MOHOLY- AGY .WHO WERE THE TEACHERS? During the .00).eo war. three Ger ens from he Baltic coun rias. 1921. They were Irom seven "en to lorty years old. lyonel Feininger and Gerhard More s in May. nor hand sourh.or some vaccncies occurred on the stalls of Ihe two schcols ( he Academy 01 Picloriol Art and e Acaaemy a' Arts and Crohs] which Grcpius lc er united in . and L6sz16 Moholy. January. woo hirds 01 them were men.

all arts. the buildings themselves oHer irrelutable evidence 01 inner order or inner confusion. in a new generation. Olbrich. in consequence. however. therefore.intings tOlally divorced from Clny relotion 10 on architectural entity. brev:ty. corogrop So thus deprived hem of vitality. so alien to. every piece 01 work as a manifestation of our innermost selves. The widespread view that art iso luxury is 0 corruption born of the spirit of yesterday. Its utter confusion mirrors on uprooted wo Id which has lost he common will necessary for all correlated ellor . the great moss 01 Ihese individuals. brought about the development 01 a great art-proletariat desined to social misery. In them. in the productive life of the nation. New structural elements develop very slowly. and thus brought about his complete isolation from the community." It shut off the artist from the world of industry and handicraft. It has become mere scholarship. Unequipped to function successfully in the struggle for existence. for ol sen e nces been e 01 subadd- The dominant spirit of our epoch is already recognizoble although its form is not yet cleorIy defined. 01 a universal unity in which all opposing forces exist in a state 01 absolute balance. What remained was a drawing-roam art detached from life. 01 the artist Academic training. its spiritual and material resources lind concrete expression. ers in Germany. The founda ions of this attempt were laid neither wide enough nor deep enough to avail much against the old l'or! pour l'or! attitude. The evolution 01 form. In vilal epochs. but the life-long preoccupation of a whole people. and draughted and rendered "design" remained in the foreground. 01 life. At the very outset the new architectural spirit demands new conditions for all creative effort. arts and crofts (Kunstgewerbe) schools were founded lor the purpose of developing.R GROPIUS WEIMAR BAUHAUSES nove the ". and so for removed from life. So long. and the acceptance of this new principle is of decisive importonce ative work. Architecture today has forfeited its status as a unifying art. all sought. fed upon false hopes and trained as one-sided academicians. But lately the artist has been misled by the fa 01 and arrogant fallacy. rooted in the enti re lile 01 a people. This downing recognition of the essential oneness of all things and their appearances endows creative effort with a fundamental inner meaning. was condemned too life of fruitless artistic cctivity. was being prepared for the "profession" of orchitec ure. Bauhauses Weimar. We perceive eve y lorm as the embodiment of an ideo. whether the workman's or the crtis '5. talented individuals trained in industry and handicraft.THE THEORY AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BAUHAUS . finally. and because he acquired through cc ual practice as much adeptness and understanding as _WALTE. This quality cannot be taught and cannot be learned. The fundamental pedagogic mistake 01 Ihe academy arose from its preoccupation with the ideo of he individual genius and its discounting the value of commendable achievement on a less exalted level. the artist enriched all the arts and era lis of a community because he hod a port in its vocational life. were confined to a sort 01 drawing-pointing that hod no relation to the realities of materials. No longer can anything exist in isolation. With the developmen of the academies genuine folk art died away. as machine-economy remains on end in itself rother than a means 01 freeing the intellect from the burden 01 mechanical lobar. Schooling alone can never produce crt! Whether the finished product is an exercise in ingenuity or a work of art depends on the talent of the individual who creates it. useless. have been ed. The art of orchitsc ure is dependen upon the cooperation of many individuals. lor the evolution of crchitecturol lorrn is dependent not only upon an immense expenditure 01 technical and material resources. Many 01 the heading. but also upon he emergence 01 new philosophical concep s deriving from a series 01 intuitive perceptions. manual dexterity and the thorough knowl. In contrast. Lac of all vital connection with the life of the community led inevitably to barren esthetic speculation. on the other hand. sculpture or graphic a t. painting. On the other hand. For this art-proletariat. In its plcce is rising the idea. during Ihe -4 h year 01 Ihe Bauhaus a Weimar. of whom scarcely one in a thousand become a genui ne architect or painter. Since the academy trained a myriad of minor talents in drawing and pointing. and in the end discovered. The "academy" The tool of the spirit 01 yesterday was the A lew one occesien- "cccderrw. proper only to the lileless machine. In Germany. Only work which is the product of inner compulsion can have spiritual meaning. lulled into a dream of genius and enmeshed in artistic conceit. however. not on the betterment 01 his outward circumstonces.• ative eifart. represents the interrelation of all phases 01 creative eHort. The second half r DEE U"D AuFBAU DES STAAJUCIEN Published in 1923 al Ihe Bauhausverlag. The old duolistic world-concept which envisoged the ego in opposition to the universe is ropidly losing ground. Isolation 22 23 01 the 19th century sow the beginning of a protest against the devitalising influence of the Behrens and oth- academies. by virtue of heir schooling. A vital architectural spirit. whose wor reflects the attitude of the entire community. logs for behind the ideas which engender it. certain other arts rellect only narrow sections any other worker who began at the bottom and worked his way up. the basis 01 a reunion between creative artists and the industrial world. can be taught and leorned. in the linal analysis.' by WALTER GROPIUS Translation 01 Idee und Aufbau . Its abilities. fostered by the state. without being given the equipment of a real education -which alone could have assured it of economic and es he ic independence. The solution depends on a change in the individual's attitude toward his work. des Sfaaflichen many branches should be not a luxury. omit ed. they found themselves numbered among the social drones. that art is a profession which can be mastered by study. In the 19th century this dwindled to the production of individual po. which isoI a ted a rtistic ph enomena (/' art pour art) and echniques or economics. Rus~in and Morris in England. The art of architecture and its . and. Mechanized work is lifeless. for new cre- The decadence 01 architecture The character of on epoch is epitomized in its buildings. von de Velde in Belgium. the Deutsche Werkbund. Munich. edge which is a necessary foundation for all ere. and. the individual will remain enslaved and society will remain disordered. all techniques. But the academy was too firmly established: practical training never advanced beyond dilettantism.

opics. ly acceptable. lor the artist was 00 much removed lrorn he world about him and too little schooled in echnique and handicraft to adjust his concepions of form to the practical duction. the intellectual world and the world of the spirit function ond are expressed time. and dimensions . The ultimote. So monulocturers star ed to buy so-called "artistic designs. a realize ion which is acby the brain and the honds. echnicians pearance. A like concen ration of all our forces is necessary to give it form. Theory of Saxe-Weimar to discuss his taking over the Academy for Arts and Crafts from he distinguished Belgian architect. during summoned 10 A. if distant. ocous ics equip him to give lile and shope to his inner vision. in the assumed the directorAcademy for So chsische A. to reorganization. Bauhaus 01 Weimar Every lactar that musl be considered I. Only the individual's 10 execute Building-in which no barriers structural and the decorative Human achievement depends coordination of all the creative not enough separately: at the some the Bauhaus ion of this. Conception and visualization are always multaneous.ionin In an STONE Sculpture wor shop crolts (Werklehre): METAL Meal workshop and taols estimating.. Technique C. The character and scope 01 teachings derive from the reolizc- into: lacked the insight 10 realize thO't apeHiciency and expense could be si- The simultaneously. 1. Descriptive B. who had himself suggested Gropius as his successor. mind ond body. This conception of space demonds realization in the material complished world. goal 01 .. In 0 work of art the laws 01 the physical world. on the proper faculties. coupled with sound theoretical instrucfion in the lows of design. In 1915.. it was logical to establish the following basic requirements for educational system which is to produce actively creative human beings is implicit in such on analysis of the creative process. the unification of all troining in The brain conceive5 of mathematicol in terms of numbers space The art and design. Henry von de Velde.Dearth of industrial designers Meanwhile. Observation in form problems (Formlehre): 2. True creative work can be done only by the man whose knowledge and mastery of the physical lows 01 statics. Inst uc ion in materials B. and been accorded.A demand arose lor products outwardly attractive as well as technically . The technicians and econamicalcould not satisfy hand masters moffer through the crofts. through his metaphysical powers. Although we may achieve on awareness 0/ the inlinite we can give form to space only with finite means .. Elements all these lac tors in of boo -keeping. to school one or another they must 01'1 be thoroughly i . contrac ing CLAY Pottery workshop GLASS Stained glass war shop COLOR Wall-pointing war shop TEXTILES Weaving war shop I WOOD Carpentry war shop multaneously controlled only by planning and producing the indus rial object with the carelul cooperation 01 the artist responsible for its design. form? . Composition A. rhe au hor hod been with the Grand Duke on audience II. 10 achieve. 24 training 0/ all gifted individuals: a thorough prodicol. in a new architecture. Analysis of materials 01 space 01 design B. and sito the Bouhous is he collective work of art-Ihe exist between oris. the fulure Analysis of the designing process The objective of aU creative eHort in the visual arts is to give form to space . We become OWOfe 01 space through our undivided Ego.. Through his intuition. space. Theory C.. It is of them trained capacity in degree feel. Since there was a dear h of artists adequately trained lor such work. Its credo was: "The Bauhaus strives to coordinate all creative ellort.. man discovers the immaterial space of inword vision and inspiration. At the some time." the with the help of tools and machinery. Instruction I. to know and varies The guiding principle of the Bauhaus wos therefore the ideo of creating a new unity through the welding together af many "arts" and movements: a unity having its basis in Man himself and significant THE CURRICULUM The course of instruction at the Bauhaus is divided only as a living organism. dynamics. Study 01 nature B. The heore icol curriculum of on art academy combined with the practical curriculum of on arts and crofts school was to cons itute the basis of a comprehensive system lor gifted students. geometry of cons ruction 25 3. Hoving asked full powers in regard for. AI the "State Bauhaus ot Weimar" the attempt was made lor the first time to incorporate a consisten program. the craHs-and more especially . processes of prohe merchants and and in speed. manual training in workshops actively engaged in production. through the simultaneous activity 01 soul. . Theory of color spring of 1919 the author Drawing of plans and building of models for all kinds of cons rue ions ship of the Grand Ducal Saxon Pictorial Art (Grossherzogliche Hochschule fur Bildende Kunst) as well as of Ihe Grand Ducal Saxon Academy for Arts and Crofts (Grossherzogliche Sdchsische Kunslgewerbeschule) and united them under he new nome of "Stote Bauhaus" (Staotliches Bauhaus).nslrucl.." This was on ineffective substiute. Representation A. how can it be understood But what is and given a the war..' he industries-began 10 cost about for artists.

The creative possibilities become indispensable collaborators in the working life of the people. Such instruction would still be the best. under certain circumstances. in our time such creative versatility no longer exists and it is therelore impossible for one man to underta e a studen 's entire art education. whereas he factory worker never gels beyond the knowledge alone phose of the process. color and form is followed. with the feeling for war which. combined with procticol experiments with dillerent materials in the workshops lor beginners. Above all else. It'en. The principal difference between factory production and handicraft lies not in the machine'ssuperiority over more primitive tools as on instrument of technical precision. Productlon work in the workshop of the preliminary course. independent architectural training in the 01 Drowing from Nature Mathemetics PhysiC$ Mechanics Draughting c nd technical Construerien individuals vary. 3. Such a new productive union will give every individual that understanding 01 and desire lor cooperation which is essential to creative work. he inevitably has. All the work produced consciously sought. Both subjective and objective abservotion will be cultivated: both the system 01 abstract lows and the interpretation of objective matter. engages himself to work through the lawfully prescribed period of apprenticeship. under special circumstances. Sorting with the simplest tools and least complicated jobs. he preliminary course wos required as preparatian ior wark in the workshops.0 end in itself. Work in ell the croft. The preliminary course. Thus. for the old trades are no longer very vital ond a turning bock to them would therelore be on atavistic rnis eke. lis aim is to odd to a many-sided education rather than to develop the specialized craftsman. Nei her loctor is in itself responsible for the loss of creative unity which has resulted fromechnological development. Contact with industry is 26 Bauhaus Research Deportment. For this reason collective work is not essential in he preliminary course. and may gradually The preliminary . Elementary instruction in problems ollorm. Instruction in a crolt in one of the war shops a her 5ig ning legal art ides 01 0 ppren ticesh ip. students were taught independently by a master who was a craftsman as well as an artist. cannot conllict course is done under the influence of ins ructors. The teaching 01 a croft serves solely to train the hand and to ensure technical proficiency. The root 01 rhe evil exists rather in the Chomber of Crafts (Gesellenbrief der Handwer skammer) and. Concen ration on any particular stylistic movement is studiously avoided. (2) that instruction in crofts and in the theory oflorm are fundamental: no opprentice or journeyman can be excused from either. under the technical. The Preliminary Course (Voriehre*J Practical and theoretical studies are carried on simultaneously in order to release the creoive powers of the student. Observecourse was develooed by Johannes a d enlarged at 'he Bauhous the courses he "od alreody been giving in 1918 in Vienna. Practical participation in buildings under construction and. With this in mind the Bauhaus has ruled II) that every apprentice and journeyman is taught by Iwa masters. one a craftsman. the use of machinery and the division of lobar must be maintained. but in the fact that in Ihe faclory each operation involved in manufocturing a product is performed by a different man. for especially talented journeymen. But it would be senselessto launch a gifted apprentice into industry without preparation in a croft and hope thereby to reestablish he artist's lost contact with the world of production. for the sake of mutual stimulation. a future generation of creatively gifted workers may once more achieve a new produc ive coordina ion. The curriculum includes three departments (compare with the plan): '1. Instruction in crcjts and form problems In earlier centuries when there was no academic ins ruction in the crofts or arts. who work in dose cooperaion. the other an artist.Supplementary instruction lectures in fields relating to art and SCience. doubly trained. Every apprentice. He would be stifled by the ma eriolisic and one-sided outlook predominant in lacto ies today. During the entire curriculum a practical course in the fundamental relationships 01 sound. because 01 he disastrous secession of art from the workaday lile of the people. "post and present. on eighth in the relations between one and another. designed to horrnonize the physical and psychic qualities of the individual. he gradually acquires ability to mas er more intricate problems and to work with machinery. a four h in materials. This training purposely combats the dilettantism of previous generations in the applied arts. it is by no means 0. advanced instruction in lorm. ano her in light and shade. whereas the craft product is mode 01 the Studies in meterials. Diploma of the Bauhous. Result: Journeyman's Diploma ion and representation-wi h he in ention of showing the desired identity of Form and Conen =deline the limits of the preliminary course. A croft. a fifth in sound. Result: Admission to one 01 the workshops. however. 2. and it is therefore his best opportuni y for practical train ing. to help him grasp the physical nature of materials and the basic lows of design. Result: Moster's Diploma 01 the Chamber of Crofts and. It possessesor+is ic quality only in so for as any direct and logically developed expression of an individual which serves to loy the foundations of creative discipline can be called art. The Bauhaus believes the machine to be our modern medium of design and seeks to come to erms with it. a third in color. or between the Synthetic sjudy 01 'pace ( Synjhetisehe Raumlehre) much too materialistic attitude of our limes and in the loss of can oct between the individual and he community. while at the some ime he eeps in touch with the entire process of production from start a linish. 0 seventh in volumes or abs ract space. Diploma 01 he Bauhaus. 21 in the preliminary Instruction in crafts Training in a croft is a prerequisite for collective work in arch itecture. the discovery and proper valuation of the individual's means of expression sholl be sought out. Architectural activity and experimental wark represent a continuation 01 ins ruction in crofts and form. In this union the old croft workshops will develop into industrial laboratories: from their experimentotion will evolve standards for industriol production. Bu if industry is to develop. Synthesis is the only solution: coordinated instruction by two masters. by signing the articles issued by the Chamber of Crofts. Bu . AI the Bauhaus. The teaching of a croft is meant 10 prepare lor designing lor moss production. lis chief function is to liberate the individual by breo ing down conventional po terns 01 thought in order to make way for personal experiences and discoveries which will enable him to see his own potentialities and limitations. Free creative work in dillerent malerials Theory of form and color entirely by one person. a sixth in proportion. Therefore the Bauhaus is consciously seeking contacts with existing industrial enterprises. Instruction in orchitecture. One finds his elementary expressions in rhythm. a craftsman and an artist. II follows that Ihe Bauhaus does not pretend to be a crofts school. he continued two to a third or fourth. Three yeor course. Croltsmanship and industry are todoy steadily approach ing one another and are destined eventually to merge into one. Duro ion: depending on achievemen General coordination [Harmonisjerungslehre) and spe- cial circumstances. lasting half a year. as on ortist.upervision 01 lhe r'espective mosters.

Used separately or in relation to one another they are the means of expressing different emotions and move. at the some time. on association which prevents their wondering off into academicism. and hus has the means harmoniously to coordinate his independent. the requirements of this test are more severe than the public test. In the some measure.From these contacts wi h industry the appren" tice and. whose inner logic will be radiant and naked. Real unity can be achieved only by coherent restatement 01 the formal heme. technical chemistry. Drawing and planning. to a further lest as "Bauhaus journeyman". the g ammor in order to speak a language. later. by repetition of its integral proportions in all parts of the work. especially in regord to the journeymon's creative ability. ornaments and mouldings on the exterior of the building-os if upon a dead and superlicial moss-not as po of a living organism.t 01 work. alter consultation with their masters. whose task it might have been to cu!tiva e and develop such a theory. Instead of studying the arbitrary individualistic and stylised formulae current at the ocademies. prepared by proper schooling. must learn the specific language of construction in order 10 ma e others understand his ideo. due far a. The practical training which accompanies the studies in form is founded as much on observation. We must know both vocabulary and (machine work) in manufacturing other than those at the Bauhaus. Every journeyman at the Bauhaus who is publicly certified is entitled. Only an apparent unity can be achieved if many helpers corry out the designs of a single person. The Bauhaus is consciously ormulating a new coordination of the means of cons ruction and expression. activity with the collective war. Thus everyone engaged in the war must understand the meaning and origin of the principal theme. Instruction in the theory of form is carried on in close contact with manual raining. esthetic and decorative. so that they may have the experience of caopera ing with 011 the building trades and. As a matter of workshops journeymen should hove experience apprentice undergoes a work-test in the presence 01 a committee of established craftsmen. the academic superciliousness of another day constantly dwindles. organic education is the course in architecture with practical experience in the Research Deportment as well as on actual buildings under construeion. mechanics. an architeclure whose function is cleorlv recognizable in the relation of its forms. No appren ices are admit1ed to the Research Deportment: only certified journeymen capable of working out by themselves technical and larmal problems. Without this knowledge. unencumbered by lying facades and tric eries. the architect was engulfed in academic estheticism. even if limited. Architecture during the lost few genera ions has become weakly sen imentol. lost touch with In this decadence architecture The lost and most important stage 01 Bauhaus new methods and materials. of light values and full or empty space. gain new signilicance as auxiliary means of expression. his ideo will never emerge from chaos. In fact. Instruction in architecture Only the journeyman who hos been seasoned by workshop practice and instruction in the study 01 form is ready to collaborate in buildIng.aa. 10 complete their education with courses at technical and engineering arinciple.periman!"I' work was a lod of spcce and funds. but the most essential element of collective construction. as soon as he considers himself sufficiently advanced. Red. Without this. We wanl 10 create a clear. schools. Its vocabulary consists of the elements 01 form and color and their structural laws. healing. is capable of understanding the ideo 01 the whole. Each of these departments in the course on the theory ollorm functions in close association with the workshops. lor instance. and respect lor hard realities unites individuals engaged in a common work. having los contact wi h reali y. he is given the mental equipment with which to shope his own ideas of form. ments: hey have no importance of their own. They are jnvited to collaborate both on the plans and the actual construction of buildings lor which the Bauhaus hos been commissioned. as it is on the creation 01 individual compositions. Forms and colors gain meaning only as they are related to our inner selves. only then can we communicate our houghts. They have access 10 the The Re. and or -though antithetical. This kind of architecture we disown. radios and lost motor cars.it is considered desirable lor promising architecture students. Theory is not a recipe for the manufacturing 01 works of art. The academies. evokes in us other emotions than does blue or yellow. Ar draughting office adjoining the Research Deparlment. The opprentice is ocquointed with his future stock-in-trode-the elements 01 form and color and the lows to which they are subject. The most important condition for fruitful colloborcrion on architectural problems is a clear understanding 01 the new approach to architecture. in order to enable them to study other crolts than their own. its ultimate aim would be impossible. The new approach 10 architecture and to resolve the opposition and this process is consummated in the fight of the spirit ag!a'inst the material' world. in carrying out their work. industrial methods. Vocabulary and grammar can be learned. the unavoidable demands which industry makes on the individual a economize on ime and means. plumbing. This raining opens the way for the creative powers of the individual. The academies ceased to discriminate between them. the individual's labor within the group should exist as his own independent accomplishment. the organic Iile of the created work. he becomes a publicly certified journeyman. it provides the common basis on which many individuals are able to create together a superior uni. who creoles and const-ructs. as well as to all the war shops. . round forms speak differently to us than do pointed or iagged forms. archi ecture. but the most important factor of all. on the exoct representation or reproduction of nature. and t e planning of cities was no longer his job. Collective architectural war becomes possible only when every individual. Man. with the formalistic use 01 29 mo ifs. These two activities are profoundly different. statics. thus losing their purely academic character. the journeyman learn not only to extend their technical experience but also to consider. A corresponding knowledge of theory-which existed in a more vigorous era-must again be established as a basis lor practice in the visual arts. we wont on orchitec ure adopted to our world of machines. estoblishing a basis on which dillerent individuals can cooperate without losing their artistic independence. The mind must now them and conlrol the hand if a creative ideo is to be mode visible. The spirit creates lor itself a new lile other than the life 01 nature. confusing nature by their very origin they are wonts to riumph over Nature in a new unity. of proportion. In so for as the Bauhaus curriculum does not provide advanced courses in engineering-construction in steel and reinforced concrete. a iginates in the creative powers 01 the individual. The musician who wonts to ma e audible a musical ideo needs for its rendering not only a musical instrument but also a knowledge of theory.'" Depa'tme~1 o~ty per 'a tty re"tiled. 28 Instruction in form problems Intellectual education runs parallel to manual training. comple ely foiled to do so. After hree years of thorough training. Its chief concern has been with ornamentation. theory is not the achievement 01 individuals bu 01 generations. a slave to narrow conventions. For collaboration in a group is not to be obtained solely by correlating the abilities and talents of various individuals. physics. The elements which constitute the "grammar" 01 creation are its rules of rhythm. Hoving passed this. earn their living.

Since a universally ooplicable method for he discovery of talent does not exist. the s age space and figures are given form. in busi- in production. 1922 . The artist and the technician must collaborate in carrying au this task. Conclusion: the Bauha us in ed ucati on An organization bosed on new principles easily becomes isolated if it does not cons antly The lorer Bounous seal. A new 'esthe ic 01 the Harizontol is beginning to develap which endeavars to counteract the ellect of gravity. so that Ihe elfects of new experiments may be s udied.With the increasing lirmness and density ol modern materials-steel.or Schler-i- mer. in engineering.goed by Q. Modern pointing. technical and formal reseorch and a apply them to problems 01 damestic orchitee ure in on ellor a combine the greatest possible s ondordization wi h the greatest possible variation of farm. is closely related to architecture. During the first four years of constructive work. the basis of collective education must be sufficiently brood to permit the development of every kind of talent. the basis 0'1 the growing work of the Bouhous can never be too brood. The investigation tutes the finol sage 30 01 the of these problems consricourse in building. in which business men. the ponderousness af the old methad of building is giving way 10' a new lightness and airiness. A 31 student who has achieved technical perfection and absorbed all that the Bauhaus can teach him can be certified a master. After they have completed the course of practical ond formal instruction. The gilted student mus regain a feeling lor the interwoven strands of practical and formal war. Therefore the buildings which are to be thought of os autgrowths af modern technique and design may be canceived as an assembly 01 prefabricated and standardized par's so applied as a fullill the varying requirements 01 those to' be housed. The goal 01 the Bauhaus curriculum Thus the culminating point of the Bauhaus leaching is a demand lor a new and powerful wO'rking correlation of all the processes 01 modern life have been demonstrated. its welfare depends on the whole community. As on ex reme instance. They will compel industry to serve their ideo and industry will seek out and utilize their com prehensive training. in the future. the standardization ciple in the shaping of its character. The power of its effect on the spectator and listener thus depends on the successful translation of the ideo into opticolly and audibly percep ible forms. of form. must replace the paper work of design. provide on excellent preparation for e constructive program of the Bauhaus since they develop the entire human organism. But when. 01 movement. Their fruitfulness and salutary effect on all phases ness. The majority become interes ed 01 building . in the modulation of musical and sooken sounds. glass-and "with the new boldness of engineering. They have been tested in the face of fierce oppositian.. Any industrially produced object is the result of countless experiments. All the building ports should be lunclionol limbs 01 the comprehensive organism which depends simultaneously on building. This the Bauhaus attempts 10 do. prove mare economical than he use of substitutes. instead 01 mere esthetic pleasure. the monument is only significant when it springs from the will of the whole nation. concrete. Such cooperation would be a real demonstration of farsightedness. many ideas and problems have evolved from the original ideo of the Bauhaus. Standardization 01 units For this reoson the Bauhaus has set itself the task of creating a cenler for experimentation where il will try to assemble the achievements of economic. the few extraordinarily gifted ones will suffer no limits 0 their activity. which has a kind of orchestral unity. The education of children when they are young and still unspoiled is of great importance. of he body. Ihey undertake independent research and experiment. breaking thraugh old conventions. he must recognize as a guiding prinForm ele-· spirit 01 the new architecture wanls inertia. in the broadest . overcome "simplicity in multiplicity" Since architecture is a collective art. ments of typical shope should be repeated in series. In spite 01 all the practical difficulties. The Bauhaus has token the first steps toward such colla bora ion with the building of on experimental house at its 1923 exhibition. The 10 units for industrial production generous cooperation will require the of all concerned. so in the theo er a multitude of artistic problems form a higher unity wi h a low of its own. c s- 01 his development must find for himself the field of activity best suited to him within the circle 01 the community. meaning 01 that word. echnicions and artists participoe to determine a standard type. At the some lime the symmetrical relotianship of parts ol the building and their orien otian oword a cen rol axis is being replaced by a new conception 0'1equilibrium which transmutes his dead symmetry o] similar ports in a on asymmetrical but rhythmical balance. The Bauhaus keeps in touch with new experiments in educatian. ortists who sense new creative values have hod practical training in the industrial world. to bolance controsts. of long systematic research. The Bauhaus heater see s to recover primordial joy for all the senses. light color and sound are investigated. As in architecture the character eleoch unit is merged into the higher I'fe of the whole. For this reason the educational lield must be enlarged on all sides and extended inlo neighboring fields. The new types of schools emphasizing practical exercises. The Stage Thea rical performance.. street and means of transportation. Nawhere are the fundamental problems 01 building studied as such. To on even grea er degree. from the simple a tison to the supreme or is . training is given in body movements. This will does not yet exist today. The old conservative schools were opt 10 destroy the horrnonv within the individual by all but exclusive headwor . The joy of building. in art. in the end. The special space. such as the Montessori schools. Architecture unites in a collective task all creative war ers. the individual in the course 01 peculiar to the stage. 01 ere- a ion. It would. Far this reason. they will themselves possess the means for realizing those values immediately. But even he construe ion of absolutely necessary housing is at a standstill thanks to the mo eshilt ecanomies o] our time. hos released caun less suggestions which are still waiting to be used by the practical world. Its program consists in a new and clear formulation 01 all problems problems maintain a thorough understanding 01 all the questions agitating the rest of he world. Its responsibility is 10 educate men and women to understand the world in which they live and to invent and creote forms symbolizing that world. which was on actual demonstration 01 new conceptions of housing as well as o] new technical methods. Every archi ect must unders and the significance of the city in order to be able to engage actively in city planning.. In its origins the theater grew from a metaphysical longing' consequently it is the reclizotion af on abstract ideo.

Gropius hod met Itlen in 1918 in Vienna. page 36). The following fundamentals of ltten's eachings were re ained in port a the Bauhaus.. 1921 Drowing rnotericls of con'rosting . in spite of various additions and changes made by other ins ructors.0' . H.. HoHmon: Drawing from ncture. especially: (a) represen atian of materials and (b) experimens with actual materials. wi h various materials (see plates. Exercise designed to develope sensa of touch a nd subjective leeli n9 . I Detailed study 01 nature (see plates opposite). Diecltmonn: Cornposition using commonplace meteria 15..te' c I 32 Herber1 Boyer: Drowio9 in various medio 01 dlllerenl ledure5. I 'f2Q E. page 35). 3 Analyses of old mosters (see plates. ond-s'mpressed by his theory of educo ion-Gropius called him to the Bauhaus as the first collaborator. 2 Plastic studies of composi ion.PRELIMINARY COURSE PRELIMINARY COURSE: IDEN The backbone of the Bauhaus system was the preliminary course. the foundations of which were laid by Johannes Itten.. where he was directing a private school. Vorious moterlo 5.

but I. 1922 .. Vorio~s moteriels di:ferer' ·n cho rcc er...Engs leld: Ludwig H. Wossiliefi: Compos> tion. Ink.Mox Bronsle'n: Com ccsiion. ~J I \/ .01 .: J ! <:> '--Ludwig Hirsch'eld-Mocr: Li e drowing !curved shepes}. Exercise .rschFelo·Moc~: Line dro .\ ~ ell (1'\ ) ~ 1"'" .. g f stroight n li es).. tion 0' simolest olos rc ono rn hm'c :or"T1S.n c0r:'b. -I 'I' rP.. 1922 ()'~ "-. 1922 Drawing showing chcrccteris ic structure 01 wood. 1922 L Leuoesoori!. Ink. no. 1922 N.J r ._/ I '.~ified by rh hrric errergemen..

He must 0150 .-(- Johannes l'len: Diagrommarc onolysis o· the Adoration 0: Ihe Magi b)· Ma. 11'~"'s Toqeboc« Johannes It en: Georre'ric ana ys's of the Aoorafon of the Magi. oj 36 Erne I ·emeler. 10 specialize in work wi'h one material only. I q 19 From Johonnes Itter s Togebuch PRELIMINARY COURSE. Preporo ory work also involves exact depicfon of actual moter'ols. he goes inlo the weaving wcrkshop. and makes i possible lor him a go'n a knowledge of both moteriol ond form through di rect experl ence. Three years as a oopren ice maic. for exernple. each opere-nice nos to do his own design'ng_ No outside designs.i. . KLn.ter Franc ke. he must have a "leeling" 'or wood.mderstond its reloion to other rnoterinls. and a acquaint him wiTh ne basic orincip. not even designs mode by Bauhaus masters. The work 01 ad mosters. he work. . may be e. no. c. WEIMAR Apri /Moy.. Urom Bibl. 11 he is to work in wood.he studen 's cractive oower. Consequently. Every new sludent arrives encumbereo with a moss 0: occumu oled inlormotion which he rnus abandon belore he cc n oc hieve perception ana knowledge Ihal ere really his own. io ae onclvsis Light and al an Ann"nciotion. From Johannes Iiten'.e hi". A student is lentotively admit ed in a a workshop o:ler a 5:X months' trol period if he has suHieiently rnostereo lorm and 1"10 erial. i will help him to unders and the 11'10 erial. II a sludent draws or points a piece of wood rue to no ure in every de oil. 1921 Johannes It en: Sluoy of hand positions while drowing the figure eig~'. with hese motericls as wei."onths he is definitely cdmittsc 10 the wotlshop as on cporentice. eligible for examinations to become a [eu-nevmc . MOSIer Franke or Grunewald also olfers instruction in Ihe study of form. . This i-istrucrion is inra nded to enable the stude nl 10 perceive I he harmonious relationship of different rhythms a nd to ex press such !'ormony Ihrough Ihe use of one or several rncterio s. From Johanne. he goes lnto the carpentry shop: if his preference is for wo"en rnaleriols. to mo e him s and on his own leet. As a -ncr er 01 principle. by Moster Frone e I HO'TIb rg.es which underly all creative activit in he visual arts. combining and corr-posinq them to make their relationships fully opporen . [l he has a tolen' ior wood. 1919.lho Ie). Tagebuch . which is an essen!iol port a: the preliminary course.. 10 slone a d gloss and wool. The preliminary course concerns !he student's whole oarsonolity. At the eonelusion of a second success lui 'riol period of . such 0' Bosch. since it seeks a liberole him. c. This course Is intended to liberate .:~ months 10 work in the preliminary course. he musl know his material Ihoroughly. 1922 Each Bauhaus student is at lirst admitted lor a trio period 0.ecJled in he wor shoes. 1919. to give eim on understanding 01 nctera's materials.

/. Quo one mony others. though there is liHle doubt thai his vis: 10 Weimar he ped to clarify the problerr 01 creative design. (0) grovity and (b) he resis ing rncun ain Ibot octive foe crs]. P. J. which points toword the center of he eorr 0 cd the 00 once .. Symbols 01 ths province of statics ore he plummet.~s devetoaed c s·y e in """"Iic.. 38 Po. Ine active plene I pre- duced by 0 moving line). 1'136 np.seum of Modern Arl. "00_ 20 21 and 2S _ Fer on Occe. (II) I e mil wheels (in ermea ia'e). 140-t52. in 19 7 a. see Cubism and Ab.I'll! Doinler Piet Monar~on ~'e erchireet J. Exercise in observeion 01 so ie-dynomic ra a ions.o Iorces.ymme.ry.The 'Sli'l" g'oup 10'0' lcrmeo 01 Leyae. The QQuhous puoli"'"o booh bv all the leodirg "Sr"[l" designers (B'b.KlEE'S COURSE Thea va Doesburg and C. water and oir.eful'v be anced o. His irr'luence on a grouo 01 the students gradually waned. intermediate end ocssive icetors: tne wotermill. 1921 StJdy in E. Schwerotleger: space. (I) T e conllict of the t'.h the principle lorrn was the rec~o~gle.1 Klee: Line 0 d plone: three stages.. is expressed by (II) t e diogonol wolerfall (in ermediate loctor) which turns (III) he mill [passive foe or) 39 K. The "Sri]!' ar'it. he M.. t~e principle eeters pure red. Theo von Deesburq ono severo otner or ists not belonging 10 I~e Bounous orgonized a section 0: he "Stij" mover-ient " in Weimar in 1922. von Easterlin: House lor on crtist. clue and vellow ood princi pie ccmpcsificnol device a co. 1923 ·THEO VAN DOESBURG: Attracted oy tke endeavours 01 the Bouhou. intermediate or ronsitionol territory with linear forms giving the elfect of pia nes Paul lee: Active. nor with is emphcsis on technical Iroining. Mogeli : Cueic compcsition. (III) the :rip hommer (possive) Peul lee: Earth.jl.. in Ihe middle.d include<! in odcl'tion 10 Doesblirg.. A Ie . 01 right. . 1922 lee: Ac ive intermeoiote ond passive factors: (I) he wot8r:oll (active).n' c· Ine S'. Deesburg's precccupction with problems of pure lorrr was nol in harmony with he Bounaus ideal or educating the indivioJa' in the in erests 0' he whole co-nmunitv. . the octive line (oroduced by o moving point).ad Arl.

.ig 0: H'"c~ ~Io-I. ....and "r-t~.:I L Kerko\'ius: 5t d I :rom noture.rref'TI OJO __ohig Hi"d'relo.·od: :"oef"'men-5 i" the 0 cni··es blod ond . Rosch: norure. 5im: 'lor . 01"10 centricero sto·j-:... H'rschi"iO-I.'h'..icn they ore '.'es 'n +e Exre:r"rren"s "... Co or.!JOe r ir-t ccsed .. / / / I I 40 M. 1922 L~d.rom Construcriono ono vsis..~cpes if' ·On!!.e '5 oggres've.ocnc.... 1922 0: b cd..'.KANDINSKY'S COURSE COLOR EXPERIMENTS l"d.n' e c opacr '0 ~e oo'. d: o C ·.od: ig 't'es of blod ono wni'e v..hi·". I -t. +en rr ixed '" 'tft co ors. shoo'ng iro'T' cod to. "n the c .. Study .."rg 0" recec"ng occor::l"ng c 'he order i~ . V. mi~eo ""j'h bloc to receOe' colo" rri~ed w ·T~ '~' te tee a '0 00/0 nee r' E'oe'.. linear o"olysis. oovonci"9 centrilugol o"d dy~om·:· o 0 ck is cossive: re~eo irg.

.haus ·roining. trying 10 give crolt instruction in its own wer shops. rod a lind. his own woy toword he common aim. These pedegogic melhods insured a slow orgon'c ceveloorr an and breught abou 1 ~e genu' ne Jnily 01 'or""1"l w hie ~ 01 Sou hous p'ao ue's one ined in lerer years. 1921 -<----f E.CARPENTRY WORKSHOP THE ROLE OF HANDICRAFTS AT THE BAUHAUS Grop'us we. even il ind'reclly.el Breuer: obi e.lic. even irom hose whe took e friendly in erest in his wor . accordingly. Brigh Iy lae. the Bauhaus emphasized ine method of creative approach. 1923 Dressing 42 FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE BAUHAUS "lid OTHER CONTEMPORARY ART SCHOOLS The discrepancy 01 form 'n Bauhaus produc s 01 the lirs' iew yeors was 01 en misin erpreled by the pres. Toys. Marcel Breuer: Polished block table.'luered wood. They denied that ino u. But Grcoius stud to his gJns. 1923 '0 -<----t Morcel 1922 Breuer: Chcr. and even by Iriends oi Ihe Bauhaus who lailed to recognize in this variety a logical result 01 the director's edu(afonol pion. Each individual. 1923 . 1922 Mare. on the " g(ouno thet his insistence on the value of 'reining in a . He concluded Irem his Hlot Ihe hendicroit 1001 and e 'ndll'riol r-iocnine dilfered in scale bu a in ~ind and Ihol even the most relined machine could be operoled proouclively only by 0 man whose unaers onoing 01 irs development derived 'rom is own Ihorough cnotvsis 01 the relntion between 001 and ma erio Hance he consid· ered 'nstruction in crohs el ne Beuhol!' a rneo ns 01 ochieving tnol unde-s a~ding and estebtished sirnulto eous schooling 01 hono end mind as the basic pedagogic principle 01 ell Ba". Jesel A oars: Shelves lor mogazires. -<----. Alma Buscher. subjected 10 numerous otloch.crolt was e nee nrani. It st ove provide On ob.ec:tive education in design in which he institution as 0 whole perlicioc ed. In conlrost 10 other conlem'pcrary ert IC heels whose I ud e "Is were Iroi ned 10 learn from ekisling forms produced by artists 01 lorrner periods or by their own teachers. He sew mot there were no e eugh -nen Iroined as era'tsmen a supoly induS'ry wi h lne specialized wcr ers it needed and tho industry wcs herelor .try hod any use 'or hondicrofls. Diedmann: Sed. His iniliotive end erebccie delou's were no a be oostruc 'ed by 0 J hori otive outside eressura: no seeming harmony i style was 10 be ochieved premoturely by the odao ion 01 reody-mode forms. light and dar. ook.

ook.d do·. Fobric seot ond bod res'. 19"24 Wo ier Grooius: V/ei". 1923 44 Moreel BreCler: Choir. 1923 Moreel Breuer: Bed. 1923 . Diree tor. Light o. lemonwood ond wolnut.-Josei Albers: Conletence toble.or Bouho us. '00""'.

H.hop moves diagonally: cube wi h cross cu from op diagonal. Wood locqvered in color.. a nd co''. 1924 AlMa Buscher: Ploy cu pboord in use.n and Costte move on lines porollel to he edges of Ine board: expressed by the cube. J. the most cctlve piece. c hair.. ° moves 0 e square .~.traight or diogo oily: ''''011 cube set diagonally on a larger cube.~.. Castle and Pow».. . Horl". Red beechwood. onolly: cylinder and boll. Sioroge cobine's can 0150 be used as lobles. Hor wig: Cess 1924 se.bol of weighl and moss. Pc. Ch"" !able. Knight moves on a right ongle: righ ong e surmoun ing square. cod.'g: 1924 Chess se'.. Nossell. Bi. • Morcel Breve: Kitchen cabinet. ln sharp can rosl 10 he cube. stroight or diog. which che roc erizes ~e King. 1925 J. King ° . sy". moves any number of space. 1923 Alma Buscher: Nursery co-nrncda. Quee. Brigh-Iy locque ed . portly sloi ed bloc.

.crc. orcel Breuer: Snowcose. 1924 S oined gloss workshop. Fccr.c . Plywood locquered in two colors. 1923 49 . /·/. cner .. Sommerfeld 1922 house 'n Gloss ond wood lecouerec "n block a d white. 102(. by Gropius..e Breuer~ Wooden seol ond bod res·. 1925 Berlin. Josef Albers: Sal'ned glo ss in the stair well.STAINED GLASS WORKSHOP Morcel Breuer: Desk boded with boo shelves.

town Ro ncntlc on Ine river SO" Ie. Lindig: Eorthsnwere iug. l.. .'nolc: P cs er model 01 0 c:olf~e pot designeo 50 for moss prodJction 0. One c· Goethe s :ovorire retree-s.POTTERY WORKSHOP In Dornburg neor We'". 1922 0..or 0 tredtiono cO"ery cen er 0. Decorated by Gerhard Morcb. rkshop. OORNBURG.. Lindig: Woter pitcher Pol'ery . e Oornburg.

BoHom T.en'obrik. 1923 . Cost.. Bogler: Earthenware ilchen containers designed lor moss preduct" on.Left T. Cost. Bogler: Teopot. Berlin. ore coliee pots designed for rross produc ion. 1923 O. Right Morgorete Fried'onoer. Lind·g: Glozed eorthenwore cocoo po'. 1922 T.igned ler Mon production.ecJled by the Stcotliche Porte llcnrnc nuio 'ur. Lindig: Left Cup. 52 -<1= O. Bog er: Connislers. Ccccc set.. Bogler: CoHee mochine designed lor moss preduc'ion. Lindig.T urned. 1923 RigM O. Executed by the Al'asle Volk-tcdter Porzel. Li~dig Col-ee set. Eerthen· . 1922 T. b:ecuted by the Steingutlabr ik. Porcelen oe. Mugs. Undig: O. VeltenVordomm. E.. 1923 O.

Silverbronze wilh silver lining and ebony handles. 1'124 Noum Slutzky: Pendant.METAL WORKSHOP M. 1924 Morianne Brandl:. c. Copper. wooa. ivory and quartz. Kraie . Pop: Steel and nideled brass /loor lamp. 1924 . Knau: Samovor wi h spirit lamp and small pot for teo essence. holders w] h ebony ~ondl es.ki: S'Iver-brcr ae eo-glo . 1923 J. 19"22 ororne and brass. Component ports and the whole.. Jucker: Bross samovar lined with silver. . 54 K. 1'123 Naum Sluh. 1924 J. Silver. Metal teapot. Pop: Woler pitcher.. 1922 J.ky: Ring with selling designea to permit c ho "ge 01 stones.

1924 Josef Alber<: Gloss berr\. 192b Wolter Gropius: Lighting lixlure 01 tubular bu lb s.ood en be I leet. Shede or mil~y gloss. Dishes wilh metoli rims cno . Wei"". 1923 .Morienne Brendl: Colieeeno teo pots designed for moss oroduction.. R'l'weger and W.o'_ • JLC er o-id 56 W. 1923 Meto workshoo. W'red throlJgh 0 silverbronze tube with in the gloss >ube. Wired tnrough thin aluminum uoes. Ti:mpe : Silver-bronze teo bol s ond ste nd. O. 1923 -1924 -)-- orionne Brondt: leo se 1924 Silver-bronze with ebo y hondles. Wogenield: Gloss omp.

. 01 e: Wall hanging. brown. \924 R uth Citroen- Vo lIent' n : Applique ond embroiaered honging lor child's room. Cotten. Wool ond rayon. gray.ne mod ucr'o n deriveo from handwoven cover 0' r i91. Gray cod whi e. 1924 '~l B. 1923 . \923 Ruth Holies: Woven cover..1 58 59 Guntho Shcron-Stohl: Wall hanging_ c. Repeo ted paUer n odacled tor .WEAVING WORKSHOP G n'ro Shoron-Stoln: Woven cover.. Ye low.atl.. white. violet.

yrno woo _ Knotted In" reg. 1927 60 61 G. Ho ntschk: S".. ..' Gunlna Shcron-S olll: Topest rv. Martha Erps: SMyrna wool notted rug.

. 1922 62 Osker Sch emmer: CosTume designs lor The Triadic Bollef.' K~. Bog '" and Georg Teltsc her: FigtJres 'or The Mechanical Bol/el.io~. Tlte Figurol Cabinet. or Ihe Pantomime of PIOCe5. deiign' .STAGE WORKSHOP . 1924 T. PnOTomonloge. Secon(l Ve.. acution. 1'123 Oskor Schlemmer: F'g"r . 1923 .The Trioaic Ballet Os~or Schlerr ner .'e Hunchback Kurt Se hrr In .. 1922 Os: or Sch emmer: Design lor 0 scene 01 Melo. Morioneltes :or The Adventure. 'ro rr. Firs' produced in We'mor.. Schmidl: Sloge se lcr The Mecitooicol Bollel. Jr1 Scnmidt with F. of La... F'r51 produced in Jeno. Herg': .01. W.

on the 0 her. t A elonaer Scnow'ns~y: Top doncer and lop oancing robot. rigid pc pier-mocha forms.st~ "'es for t he Ih ree octs of The T'iodic 8011£11 . No. w'lh colored or me ollie surjcces.k eoncers "0"" [he Triadic Bolle........terious. 19) A as or Schlemmer: Delinection of space by humc-i ["gures. The! ird oct on on 0:1 bloc stage has a my. 1925 1 64 65 Oskcr Schlemmer: Farkas Maino. Bollel in three acts: a climactic development. PhotO'TlOrloge Oskor Schlemmer: The Triadic Ballet ( Dos Triodisc e Bolie 1"'). goy a nd burlesque.lerent oonce scenes in eighteen d. begun 01 Stut go rt in 1912. The second oct is a restive ri uol on a pid stoge.: in cction U-Tneoler Co. 1924y >.r: Di. two mole and one femole.. Tne -welve di. Theorelico drow·ngs. the meoning of which is inlensi:ied as iest becomes earnest The lirst oct.Herent costumes are exacu ed by three dancers in 'urn.. donce scenes.. [Irom Bib!. is do nced ago i nSI lemon-yellow stage 5£1'5..Oskor Sc"I". The costumes consist 0' podded tigh s on one sioe and. :ortoltic cncrocter.

which hod begun cs a chance discovery during a <"'pie shcdowpay entertainment . sideways-in vorying tempi.1 j Ludwig Hi"chfeld-Mad: Color sor-ct' no in red Ludwig Hirschfeld· Iv oc : Cen er ond bollom R"flected . Photomontage sqLores.JS 2'\.9h' composi ions . " 66 Osler Schlemmer: Figural Cabinet..menl. and over opoings and coloro endings result.and again in curved [ormsc i rc les. He 1. in glowing intensity. COMPOSITIONS OF Oskcr Schlemmer: in space FigJres lor The Tr'cdie Bo/let. Rich er ana Rutlmann were me reflected light cemoosilions (Reflel:tori. Scnwerdrfeger: efleded lig~1 compos'!"on THE REFLECTED LIGHT HIRSCHFELD-MACK Analogous 10 he obstroc' films of Egge"ng. control woo successfully oc h'eved over w hot hod originally been occidental and by ths fme it was ready lor public disoloy..lec'sd light compositions.1 produced lhese 0 the Weimor Bauhaus in 1922 and 10 er 01 the People's Theater (Volksbuhne) in Berlin. innovation os follows in he Ber/iner Bersenkurier 01 A~g.. They join.che lichtspieIe) of Ludwig HirschfeldMod. rneva about on the dar boegrO\l nd of c tronsporent linen screen . orcs ond wova-l ike ootterns... version The Later Schowinsky and Fritsch: Scene irorn The Circus. red. Firsl oroduced 01 the BouhoJ"ln4 '1.triangle s. "After much e~per. down. "A' tne Bo uhcus in We:mar we war ed 'or two yeors on the development 0: these re. They opoeor now cs angular lorms .. blue. 1'124: "Ye low. He oescribed hi. . polygon.uo. green.. the process hod been matured technico Iy end oristicolly .

Berlin. by Kandinsky House 'Am Horn.h collaboration of tne Bauhaus Architec ure Deportment) MOMY privc e residences Oskor Sch err mer. 1923 (building by Muche wi. 1922 (building by Gropiusl Somma r!e." Weimar. 1921-1922 Oskor Schlemmer. Murcl in Irasca and oils in the entrance holl.. 1922 I but Idi ng by Gropius 1 Otle House. from design. Wei"'ar Bauhaus. 1921·1922 . Mural at the nead of Ihe stair we Weimar Bouhcus.WALL-PAINTING WORKSHOP The following in eriors were exacu eo in color oy the wall-painting workshop: Theoler in Jana. Weimor BauhoJs_ 1921-1922 68 Os or Schlemmer: Murals and relief in the entrance hall. Berlin. 1922. 1922 I buildi n9 by Gropi us 1 Room 01 'ne a-jury chibition in Berlin.d House.

. colors. Ao· plication of exoeriments: ir Ih. red and blue. For experimentol purposes the woll-poinling workshop 01 Ihe Weimar Bouhous asks you 10 do the following problems: I.ond color. Menze. First 1Ioor: composition in dor~ blue. 1921-1922 Herbert Boyer: Design for murals in Ihe sloir well. II possible.." s.. 1923 . 2.ng wer shop. Weimar Bauhaus. members 10 investigate psychological relofionship belween ior-n . Paris: Colcimine used in voricu • ways Left wal]: Specie lily (Prolession): Set NOlionolity . Each form should be completely filled by one color. . explcin your dis!ri ution 0.or Osker Sc hle-nmar: Reliel in Ihe entrance he II.: Fresco in Ihe woll-oo'nl. Wei". circle. 1923 Herbert Boyer: M ural in he s:toir Nell. We'mor !lounous. relotions:nip be~eer colors ond 'or.. Various techniques. Wei or Bouhcus. Explonetion: 10 W.. Fill in Ihese ) forms w'ln 3 colors: yellow.lion in brig hI red: squc reo Third floor: comoosi ion in lignt yellow· lriongl e. Herbert Bo er: Sgreliilo Right woll: R. Second llccr: ccrr pos. ground f oor.-oe:Questionnaire given to 011 Sauhau.

('I) le!'ers larmed by sma e. 1924 Exnibition tower odvertising eleelrcol orad ucls. lor posters. 1924 .i ). (3) loud soe c ker . Let. Colored odvertlsements lor various products on the roo'..ask d esignee jar Ihe sa Ie 0 d odvertisernent of newspc pers. new ie ees were developed and 'urldomen a prnc'ple. Revalv' ng spnere ceve-ed wi' e eel' c bulbs.rction. S'mple construct'on adopted 10 moss prod.' DISPLAY DESIGN A 1nough here wos no speciiic wor shop for eXhibition technique. 1924 Herbert Boyer: K'os aesigned for the sole ana edvar+isemenl 01 a bro~d of cigarettes.h·oilion POVI ion ot on ind~striol fair. eutlineo 12 Herber Bo ter: Proiect 'or small e. Toothpaste lor so e inside and advert'sed Outside by ll) c lilm (projected Irom wi!. 1924 Herbert Boyer: . r in e' ec'ric bu lbs revo ve ccout the shalt. Small bose supporting loll engule.. (2) e ectric sign. suoerstructere w' h many diHeren colored Oleo. 1924 Herbert Boyer:Open strae cor waiting room wi~h news sand. 1'124 Herbert Beyer: Herber Boyer: Exnibi ion eovi ion...

and typico near pie Three studios and adjacent bedrooms. -:. Thehou. gord." 1923 !lower left). 1913 WIll • . to be cultivo~ed in their . OEPARTMENT I hod been Gropius' inten ion to reinlorce the courses i orchi eclure with a brood program of practical wor . Nevertheless. The Th~rin9ian government leosed the lond surrounding the house "Am Horn" to the Bauhous ond on eloooro!e building scheme lor additional houses was drown up but the lu nds ior t heir construction were never lorl~coming. was worked oy the Beuha.ARCHITECTURE W. b."" Bibl. Archi aefure deportment: Below models showing variations of houses comoosed 01 standardised units' above plans. Berlin. adjoining tne form. Architecture dBoortn"ent: General view of the Bauhous com"lluni'y planned lor Weimar. " Wolter Gropius arid Adolf Meyer: Model 01 proposed ocademy or philosophy. no. Weimar.. was the onl building comoleted.e"AmHorn. 1922 . ".: Sammerle a House. community. He roised money privately 10 build the house "Am Horn" for the 1923 exhibitio . Inquir ies concerning the Bauhaus settlement were answered by the 'Bouhaussiedlung G. ne construction at these community buildings W05 to be directed by the Bauhaus and to orovids contracts for the worksho os.eHlemen' wes also born [rcrn necessity. including the cons ruction 01 the heo er in Jano and the Sommerle!d residence in Berlin. kilchenet e and lavatory. A 'lege able ana frui' form. hooi g thot i would mark he beginning of on ex ensive housing development. H. • In crder fIIDlhing bu to use the lond I e director could.u"ve cotoalrcphe of infia'ion menaced this cc.h·ng the roorr s. Moln6r. turn it oyer 1he students. Drawing shows the various units or which he houses are compa. . Gropius employed them on his private orchi ee ural cornrrussroos. 1921 • ~ c % II: . A plan was being evolved for single houses ond apartments for Bauhaus mem bers in a beautiful section of Weimar. .. \II~en the -progr. " service to Ihe Bouno. leased lrom he S ate.ed according 10 he needs of the inhobitan s.pore lime a. II: Fred Forba : Atalier. wor sshops ectuelly collaborated in decororlnq and 'ur· ni.." IFro.1i'Yi'Y Gropi IJS sold an historic Forni y heir oom-a si ver table service '0 therelore. do 'The Eleuhou.n produce wo' sold in the 8cuhous cont •• n. but he wcs hindered in this by lac of understanding on the por of the authorities and by the eHects of iniloion.I C WO"er Grapius and Adoll Meyer: Model ior e house 1921 ~ II: 0 > 14 THE ARCHITECTURE Architecture department: Standordized serial houses. Grcoius. 4FI n. o~d linen which hod belonged to Nopoleon.. m.: S oatliehes Bouhaus. * The correspondence between the Bou hous administration ond the various political regimes reveals both the bureoucrotic indolence and the tragic linenciol impotence which prostrated Ihe coun~ry at Ihe time. 1921 ."" and mooe the kitchen indepenoent of price Fluctuations in the morkels.S.e. in order to assure the workshops scrne rnecsure 01 prccticol build'og expe ie ce. For he firs' time BeJhe". Drawing by F. 1921.nOJs.j.

. .... Riaht: second 1I00r... 1922 '" . "Tne Red Cube. ../~ " . ' .." Lelt: lirst llocr.... . 1922 - ( . Herbert Beyer.. ~ For~os Mainor: a U-theeter Project lor Welter Gropius: Design lor o stucv.." Farkas Moine... Projec for a wood freme house. 1922 1922 For' os Molner: Pions lor "The Red C~oe....For os Molnor: Pro' ec lor o house.. Drawing by Wa rer Gropius end AdaIr Meyer: Proiect submit'ad to the Chicago Tribuna Cernpetirlon. ~ ... 1922 1922 . " Welter Gropius one Adoll Meyer: Entrance (olioda a remodeleo municicc thee er Jeno. Re'nforced concra-e..

7) were printed were bound in he well . Rel.... on.!orced concrete. . .opCrlmeol house.d presse s. LyoneJ Feininger: Tille poge. nos..\~o:c~ 5 ..' .!E~N!. 1921 .' grophlcol design .TYPOGRAPHY AND LAYOUT Albums of Ii hogrophs ' Frovings [Bibl. 1911 19 'F''0" .nd copperplo e enn a workshop equipped with' h' .5. 1. 1924 Morcel Breuer: Mode proposed cpor+nan] house.eoenbiae"""""""uat ••••••• -.::!·•"..!. 1111111 _ : Project lor cn.. EurOpOi5c~e Grapnik. L L •• n .. The olbums equipped Bouhous bi d ery. 1924 01 Johannes IIten' Typo. Poge ! rom Utopia. Woodcut.R _=~=..::M:.

Communication ought not to lobar under preconceived esthetic notions. HAUS IN WEIMAR 1919.GY It must be cleor communication in its most vivid form. a. is chiefly 0 record of Bo. ~ . publicotion was issued by the newly founded BOClhous Peess [Bounousvar og).1923.Nogy. .E BAUHAUSPR:ESS _. > The lu. [Irom Bibl. Clarity must be especially stressed for clarity is the essence of modern printing in contrasl 10 ancient picture writing" Therefore. first of aU: absolute clarify in aU typographical work. combiningelosticity.z :: w Specie] 0' I " . S TAA iLl CHES 'BAU. Bauhaus in We. ad verti . TYPOGRAPHY AS A. edoled oy Gropius ono Moholy. Herbert Boyer: Cover design.0 series 01 becks os evidence at Inll 'otegro.on oi c~ll"ro oroo ern. Peo. ' c L Moho y.1923 D:: .c.".t.AUHAUS t-lt: . A new typographic language must be ereated. leiters should never be squeezed into an arbitrary shope-like a square. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. variety and a fresh approach to the materials of printing. L. THE 14 VOLUMES OF JH.fJfC1919 :11923 ..rhcus activities duro ng 'he lirsl three yeors. Moholy-N09Y: -itle pc g". no..cphy.. 1923 L Moholy. These Be u nous booes ore isted in 'n e tl ibliog.: . in collobororion w'tn Karl Nierendori. Bo u no us . 1924 80 81 THE BAUHAUS PRESS On the occosion ol Ihe 1923 exhioition. The book./923 BI : Tirle ooge." ""ber Junge Me"cnen. SlooJlicnes Bauhaus in Weimar 1919-1923 . -·~ ~ . Munich). Weimor-Mun·ch [lcrer A'bert Longen Verlag. the iirst BoClhou. Sioo/liehel Bauhaus in Weimar 1919. Firsl Bauhaus book. Ionguo'ge whose logic depends on the oppropriale application of the processes of prinling.r 1919-/923 STAATLICHES AUHAUS " mJill 1919 .in 9 Sloat Jiche. Cologne.Nogy: Die pO'ge. byMOHOU~N A.Nogy: Page loyout. o~c....l hero im 011he Bo uncus Press wos 10 lid i.

Grooius stoled . e heme' "ART AND TECHNICS..] Every depot" rre'! I\"mmed w'lh oc i"ity in oroer 'hot Ihe exhibition mighr ce " tncrouqh presentation of he ideo. J. EXHIBITIONS IN THE MAIN BAUHAUS BUILDING. persons visi'ed he Bouhn u exhibitior I i Postea rds printed 1923 Exhibition lor Ihe George Teuscher LJdwig Hirsch:eld-Moc Herbert Boyer Herbert acyer Farkas Molner Lyonel Feininger Paul Klee Wa"i y Kondin.h Busoni.shops.WEIMAR EXHIBITION. Progrem: HinoeMi. "Des . rei ecfed 'gol composilions works.ie by BaJhoJs [orr-bond. Krene . sro'rcases o"d rOO'05: 'nterncrionol e~h'b'lion of moderr orchilec'ure..'. Poster by Heroe" Boyer Oskor Schlemmer: Cover design fer prospectus 01 Ihe 1923 Exhibi ion ERSTE BAUHAUSAUSSTELLUNG IN WEIMAR 1923 Ff een 'ho~50nd "n Weimor.] poper Ion ern le. [This wos conlrory 10 the in'antions ol rne O. relief. 1923.c disploy until rrore morure resu 's hod been oblcined. Srrcvins~y 1 Mas 01 T e composers were presen' 0 t ne concer-s. and in the S a e Weimar: on II-e ground of Ihe Bouno~s sartlernern' (SiealungJ: "BAUHAUS ecturas: one-Iorrily house "Am Horn. A NEW UNITY. who . Bouho~5 oo'n'ing scu " ere. w PROGRAM: Woller Gropius "Ar' ana Technics.. lireoonee wi h m~. concerts Scherchen 'I s ogecrolt.l'vol. wou d have oreferred to postpone 0 pu.~y Synlhe'ic Art" "O~ WEEK" J. i the clossrccrns: useum 0 product a' he wc-r snops." b~ilt o"d iurnished by the BOL. h I"e workshoos. which onimoted lne Bouhcus. P.ory course. pre- theoretical siudies'lhe imi.dor. ." Tne e. oesig s. a New Unity Wossily Konoin." ew Bu'ld'ng in Ho ono" Oskor Sch ernrr er... 1923 In I 23 "T h~ri~gion Leg' slotiva Assemb y ILondtog) asked for 0 Bo~hous . Ouo.. hibi io -which would serve os o repor: on ""hot had been occomplished in iour yeo .r' 00 isc ne BolIe'l he eloss mechanical C. murals.ky . in voroJS vestibules.onous ork. o /' Entronce to Ihe 1923 Exhibition. lecture with ii 83 cond uctac by H.hibition inc Jded... Ifoudev'Ue 'T1S och.

1924 The 105 leipzig Fair was a distinct SUCCess." inspired its critics.. The house "Am Horn. conllict between their prejudiced conception of 0 ho me and Ihe eHect prod uced by a new type of house conceived in new terms. Conservative critlcs mode much of Ihe lomous Weimar "Goelhehaus" as on orgumenl ogoin51 Ihe oppropri. ona April. America." But Ihey were unexpec. from Austria. forty·. This man hod 10 cons rue 0 new way 01 life Irom Ihe debris 01 a wreded world-o way 01 life utterly dilierent from tnol 01 pre-war limes. me Bauhaus had attempted 10 crystallize the s ill un. ord. in order to moin oin Ih" highest oossible 5 and. Orders were received from obrood. Five hundred and twenty-si.even of these students were not odm 'tted to he odyo nced courses.bperimerto builoing house "Am Hcr-.. 1923 l~e The house "Am Horn Weimar. who observed thot Goe he's garden house in the Weimar pork was the only building in Weimar thot possessed a certoi ~ conge nia I relotionshi p to the Bouhnus. ceded 01 necessity by psychological reodjuslmen s. All Bauhous workshops were busy for five months filling orders. Miss G. s udents were trained in the Bauhaus between October. Hollond. LeH Corner 01 bedroom. Righi Ki·cnen .ledly counlered by a young unorejudisted Canadian. Herbert Boyer: Poster lor 1923 exh:bition 85 WEIMAR. Floor pan 84 EXPERIMENTAL BUILDING "AM HORN" It is hord 10 recl'ze lodoy to what impassioned pronouncement. oteness 01 the "Hous am Horn. At this time more than fat)' firms were buying i)ouhou5 produc s a such on extent tho he scarcity or machinery and copi 01 ode i impossible 0 fill 011 orders. He hod to recreole Ihe world around him with limited means in a limited space: a losk pre. 1919." Weimar.! experimento IBou hous buildi "g. A large number 0 0 hers 001: only he oreliminory course. Their opinions reHeded h. 01 the University 01 Toronto. the H. 1924. England. In 1923. Formulated desires 0: 0 new mon-the post-wor German -who hod not yel realized whol he needed. tne house "Am Horn. ' Weimar. Wookey.

but since il could never be successfully rons/erred to poper. Slavic. Be' in Josef SIf'lygow. Koiserswerth Edwin Fischer.ig. tne writer Thecder Doubler.EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES The Bauhous bond storIed wilh ne musical ·mproviso. 1923 IffifHT Ludwig Hirschfeld-Moe : S Oonce Peter Rahl: design program. a man paid for his lund in billion mark noles. Agne endarl Josef Hollmann.. ..E MILLION MARK The rapid oevoluo ion of the German mark during he inllction year< led to incredible 9(0 esquens ss in dc'ly life." :_ .e interested in he school. trombone bonia" traps.Berlin Marc Chogoll.:ng: H. In the summer..l Adolf Busch.auled their services far BOlJha~$ evenings.. nrc Franz Werlel. Berlin Harber! Eulen berg. PotscorArnold Schonberg. P. .ki. Vienno Oskar Koka5Chko..iec 5 Oud.. a m" lion marks in paper money equaled in volue one mark lorly-seven pfennigs in gold. clorinet. Serloge and Poelzig. Vienna Adolf Sommerfeld. The Hogue Peler Behrens. lis council waS composeo oll"e :ollo. Vie~no -.:.. lions 01 a gro~o 01 poinlers and sculp ors on rips around Weimar. When the BOJ aus &hibilion a' 1923 ooened. Berlage." Among them wllre Such celebrities as the erch. il remained goily impromptu. Every outumn a troop 01 Bauhaus studer s we t out into the lie Ids to :Iy the amazing ites which they hao bui I. 1921 for 0 BAUHAUS EVENINGS 86 Archi ecrs.. concerts and dance recitals oroug" loge ner no only those ac uolly connec ed wilh Ihe Bauhaus bu also the townspeop. loter it was iSSued with he in. and Ihe biologist Hans Driesch. The lectures. Vi. even later when he ir>. Accordlon-rnuslc and he pounding 01 chairs.':.... Hirschield . This donee music soon become know~ all over Germany and wes played 01 or ists' festivals everywhere. ate. rumen otian wos exponded 10 include twa pianos.th~ heigh of the economic crisis in 1923. Berl'n Adolf BU5Ch. money received In he morning hod to be disposed of before evening oi Ihe some day ier by Ihat ime il was likely to be valueless. Professor Freundlich 01 Ihe Einslein Insti u e. . Ihe rhythmic srncc ing 01 0 loble ond revolver shots in lime wilh Irog'ments of Gerrnen. therll were parades 01 night through thll peaceful ~treets oi Weimar with pa'per la~ ems 01 thll students' own invention. the pianist Rudoli Serki nit he violin i. Berlin Gerhart Hauptmann.Moe .: Et . Ihe composer Bela Bartok. st'!l wet.ark note was oesig ned by Heroerl Boyer in 1923 lor the Srcte Bon k 01 nuring-o..~. ? -. Feininger.. Pcris Hans Drieseh. trumpet.. Jewish and Hungarian fol songs would swing the com pony into 0 donce. l-e cancer Polucca. the physio-chemist Wilhelm Ostwald. Vienna Hans Poeh. The" ite-Ies ivai" was a big yearly even.. Postcards desig ned lor kite-Iestivo Is and lantern poroaes by lee Mo n6r. lee. Four months later one reckoned in billions. 0< THE FRIENDS OF THE BAUHAUS The cssociction nown cs "The Friends 01 Ihe Bounous proved of 'nvoluoble more: and linonciol help during he s'o''''y years of development.:-~'. Thus tne Bauhaus strove to keep:n ouch wi h the besl and newes in other fielos of science ond or. EVERY MAN A MILLIONAIRE .. The one million "..::. III this way they served as a link between Ine Bou ous and Ihe eornrnunitv. Leipzig Alberl Einstein. scholars and pointers who were in sympo'hy wilh the iaeols 01 Ihe Beuhcus generously canlr. !wo saxophones. Two <lay.~~~ .

he fauna no ime for the task of observing and recording. press in dress his entire . a special kind of "gilt design" (Geschen grophik) Wa5 devalopec. narrow a Tha lee. 1922: baHam. Marcel Breuer: Portrait 0: Josef Albers. 1923 . loa. high closed joe eT wi a bell. Some of he conteen work wcs done by the Bauhaus members hsmselves.ink of record'ng in word or pho ogroph I e life of those lirsl law colorful and exp osive years at the Weimor Bauhaus. II W05 mode possible by the unseliish aid 01 Bauhaus members and Iriends. Somewhat inl uenced by Dadaism. Alter the lirs romon ic years 'hese clothes were discorded in accordonce wi h Gropius' opinion hot the artist 01 lodoy should wear conventional clothing. Sfli less did ha t. such cs birthdays. they earned their livi ng a long the way as craftsmen.onder Schowins y. PorI y Ihrough pure 'cotosy. Lika so many generations of young Germon. and pori y throug" entnJsiosm for clothes inlenaeo to forecos :uture sty.tuoent did tailoring work. He wcs so wropped up in the fascinating los of discavering and shooing his own ego and his environ"'enl Tnc he scarcely observed the radical contrast between his own i Tensive existence and Ihe ordi· nary small-lawn liie which surrounded him. he wonted 10 e. rnechonlcs or pointers. BaJhaus students went sou h to Italy.e'. Every Saturday a Bauhaus donee was held eitner in Weimar or in one of the any nearby ccun ry inns. For private celebrations. The greol enthusiasm 01 he eorly doys in Weimar found on outlet in soontoneous shows and parties lor which lontostic masks a nd costumes were irnprovi sad. these unconvenliona and imaginative designs played on imporlan pori :n the develcpman of loy-out and typography. seer] held by c pin.. 1924: lmnroVlseel sketches at Bauhaus dances Marcel Breuer: Birlhday greerirgs 10 Woller Gropius Herbert Boyer: Poster for Bauhaus dance. The Bauhaus canteen enabled the students 10 eot well lor lil1le mo ney. were the oosters which oppscred in the Bou hous lobby every week to onnou nc a the dances. Top. wi h· out creases. Aosorbed in living. l-norovised.noe'oend e nce 01 conve nlionol modes. Ale. Oskor Schlemmer. like v090bonds. Mostly on foot. Etching One . The poverty of a greot mony Bau hous oporen ices and journeymen maoe tne can een 0 vital necessity. Under Illen s inHuence he mode fantastic Bauhaus clothes: wide trouser.At/SivER Tne Bouh<iusier presenled a higfdy curious appearance fa the provincial eyes of he Weimar citizenry.

such as wood.PRELIMINARY COURSE: MOHOL y. first of one material alone. containers. " mode 01 heavy wood to be once projection of left half which is 01 light wcoo . Soon. glueing. later of several combined materials. we studied malerial more or less on a traditional handicraft bosis. Albers was formally oHered a posi ion as teacher at the Bouhous of er the ins ilulion hod moved to Desseu. and without workshop equipment.' a stud e "lot the Bo uhous. 'Ie Moholy· Nogy look over Ihe second term. as already indicated. The students were intraduced to a simple and elementary. Whe. About th's time Josef Albers. In this way we tried. but. To this end we analyzed typical treatments end combinations of materials. For instance.t ha. his unusual pedagogic gifts. Gropios and Monoly-Nogy left the Souhou. we visited the workshops 01 box. 1924 Construc- ized design. the dillerent characteristics of flat groin and quarter-sowing. bu appropriate use of the most imporfont croft materials. nailing. The war with materials in this course was 1923 planned to prepare the first semester students for later craft-studies in the various Bauhaus workshops. end to on understanding of their relationships os well as the differences between them. in order to learn the different uses of wood. toys and even toy furniture. Because 0. of coopers and cartwrights. metal. as a fundamental training for later specialPoul Reichle: tion. using no maIrmgard Sorenson-Popi~: Suspended construction. Whole construction rests . 91 We tried to apply our nawledge to the making of useful objects: simple implements. who hod been . 1924 later work- shop practice. split. of corpenters and cabinet-makers. began to work actively on . From hen on. and worked them out with our hands. Gloss and calico. without anticipating Tomo G'ote: Study in balance cased On specific gro/ties of vcricus woods. (page I 16). continued to teach in bOlh prelilTlinory classes until the closing of the Bauhaus in April. 1923 192+ chines and only simple everyday tools. . gloss. we expanded our practical work to allow more inventiveness and imaginoion. stone. NAGY Owing 0 di!ferences of opinion 05 0 Ine cctuol conduct of the course ITTEN . however. and to learn the various methods of joining: pegging and screwing. he directed the preliminary course during Ihe lirs! term.eh he Souhous in Ihe spring of 1'12]. Alber. He too charge of fhe studies in moteriels and conti n ued this war: even w"en Moholy-Nagy was called to the Bou· • IlQUS shortly of erword to direct Ihe preliminary course. bent and laminated wood.ndepenoently and hU5 widened the scope 01 The ·eoching.'he development of the preliminary course. textiles and paint. 1933. Chorlot e Vic oria: S'udy in volume and space. . Rig. choir and basketmakers. Thus. of first. PRELIMINARY COURSE: ALBERS wn Susoended construe ion. This development is briefly described in my article on our more developed preliminary course ot Dessou. in 1928. to develop on understanding of the fundamental properties of materials and the principles of construction. n perfeel ba a nee upon a sing e point. Each aug .

o 1-10-5ee. the govern"'ent ron he gomut !rom Lei Sociclst to Ihe ' People's Potty.he problems it raises ond it shot. e . Kanl. Siegfried Giedion*. However. 0. t e croorietor O"d monoger or a ceromics pont 01 Vel. Not only was this in accord wilh Ihe originol conceoHan 01 he Bauhaus. ... . notobly the Deportment of Fi once. in the mOdS!01 presentooy cheos..domen a Iy d'Herent opprooch..r at Da~''''cu'i Co ~.//..e I""t end.oec'S. ere. has changed inlo open animosity...us' oon n. wl>ich hod hitherto been indiilerent. no mo·ter gooo. on the inauguration oi the Bounoes a Dessou. co. 'The crchitac s ot tne Bo"hous propose 0 poi I ural cornpcsi+.. ins!"tut"on for crecticc expermen! in new moterio s.isterce Ihe Bo'uhoJ5 a! Weimor coiled "n ils Iriencls o. near Be.enSe" " " " II Gropius wo nts his scnoc to figh ogoinsl d"le'tonlism in the arts... pursues wi h unusual ene gy Ihe seorcn for Ihe new ori~cipla5 which will hove to be found ii "ver the c-eo'ive urge "n numonity i. cs be'ore. is open 0 cr"ticism in mony re. Ihe formal inougurolion of 'he new • Cnorles Eliol Nor'on Lec'uter.".il. Ihe ex oerim en I oeg . The diff'{. the leoding orchitecturol periodicol i1 Czechoslcvc ic.. "'fO·9 in the periodicol Die Kochel. which opposed he sale 01 actual obiec s produced al publicly financed schools os unfair compe ilion wi h private enterprise" But he sole 01 Sou Ous design' in re'urn lor royolties on mo .OPPOSITION TO THE BAUHAUS 011 1. n here by 0 few courogeous ond stecc lest men rernc ins 0 voluob e one in spite of 011 . 1823.S'. I. Since October. ibition of 1923 by he SW"5S0"1 historian. hos no been forthcoming..u ties 0: Ihis novel met nod or educotion begin here" The ouollsrr. why does he suppose a know:edge of tha croh 0 be essen "01 lor ind"s·riol monJioe ~re? Crcitsrncns ip ana industry hove a :ur. recognizing he Bounces cs a natural i~ berween cror· and indJstry. Ins'eod 0. in Dos WerA. . . we be'ieve. ne·" methods ono raw forms. ii he assumes 'he machine to be '..3: "Aopren ices 01 rne f!o~ho. tos of reviving orl" II ears oow ~ the borriers betwee n "no ivi d~ol oris. Wolter Curl Behrendt" in the De. . lor your lelling words o. eoo 10 Inis goo 1_" " " 'e¥er'he Ie5S. to narrow do. as 10ng 05 il is sti I concerneo w"tn the queslio~ 0: opplied or s or 'art' as such" Any ort school.. toooy be 0 lyon cncchronisrn ond non. itu ion w~er" the studen s themselves ere encouraged :0 create in'leOd of being o"g"t merely to repeot hot w "ch hod olreody been creoted" " " He Bounou. I wOs not on y c-nczeo but e"Ihusiosfc. blind re:u..lf years of ".'e modern means of production. 1938-1939" cno lecTurer 01 Unive. nizes ono emphasizes Ihe common rool 01 a I 'he arts"" The op"nion of 0 GerMan rooe oooer.4'." her -he rose-co oreo 9 csses of COU"d'9SS enrhusicsrn nor he bod scsctoctes 0. d be 01lowed to cant" nue unoer all circurnsrcnces. A chorocteris ic critico estimate coc ecr ed . >iorvcrd Unive"ilv.. 0 be reconciled with indus'riol me-roos of producfon" The 50u ho us is co~d uc·i n 9 Ihis seo rc h wilh sea nl su p port in On irr ooveri5~ed Gerrrony. Gropiu. II is poss" p e TO stc te q"" te SODer y who' he 5oJhoJ5 's wor'h to Germany ono who! it "'oy be worth 'n rne '"lure. this attitude hos enlo iled financial loss" Until recenlly il wos possible to overt the most pressing dongers.! Quousque tandem? 14. 'he only ins!"tution concerned with Ihe inlegrotion 0: 0 e soects 01 contemporory cult...g for selr-e<pression ollered the pos· sibil'ty 01 develop" ng i!s creo live powers? Neither in Fro nce. u"t"l now. foresaw these dillicul ies.d foes 10 judge for Ihe'T\selves is aims ond achievements" It is ossured o' respect in any cose... olmosl presump'uou." ".'sc. "'0 . Manager (Syndikus) of From 0 newspaper: From 0 letter Irom the Susineu the Bo uheus 10 the Director E!fJ(onenneirtet ano !Riln filr bit tnff= 1\aufJQu.a-house searches by the ". oicol of Ihe parled.'" /.t oossible to soti.. within "ts own gro~o" "He Bouhous is under a "ng Ihe bold and. 05 0 whole it sho I not and mest not be otToded" I.. " .r". produced object. . I have done my utrnos to further the development of Ihe Bou ous." ao .ng" The Bou ous is 01 net'onc i--noo"+c"'Ice' i co ocerr s ell Germany... furthermore. they fo~ghl 't. wor ing in C ose coooero ion. the crof 5 ore nothing bul 0 luxury. theorelicolly as well os procticclly. homoered by tne cheap derision ond moliciOJs 0 tocks of he reoctionories. 1 29/3/1924 MI //. The problem remo.Iem can ne¥er eoo to tho I In"tl' of art ond -echnics 01 wnic.or " is to be leored tnat his met~od o· tne Bcul-cus conno ovoid ereoting again Ihe scr-ie oongerous diJeHon:i.. 19J4" no"" Technicol Drrec:rcr of Re:seorcn Station Su'folo Cr·)."ty of hffolo. caused iT to be a toded by all subsequent governments on Ihe grounds !hot he Socialists hod slorted il. ond leo reo it es a MW :octor Ii ely 10 occa ero e thO decl'na of 'he erohs w"ich hod resulted from 20th century incus r'o development. and iocli Ily ond students he d themselves 01001 Irom participation in the work 01 any political party" AI hough the enemies 01 the school tried in every conceivoble woy a confirm their suspicions (they even went so lor as 10 order house.iation . Toooy. He lound it necessary alan early dote 10 prohibit poriticcl octivity of ony kind in the Bou hous.. 92 Nt //. " _ " Bwt '~oi "s ~o! the main I".6Top/erkunst (The orIs of tile and pottery): 'Spedal lee'".goin$1 the 93 Bouhous! How long" . ns. the a i ua a shown by su oerior ollie iols is malevolent. nor Eng 10nd nor 0 n yw h ere else wo. Ihe Beuhous is inco coble of improving indus rio orcdcction: 01 ./ r/ r/.i1. Where else i the wor"d wos .. one of the many i·h d"f.. in these ti'TIes." (signed) Emil Longe nd}en mom contra" Bravo.. ond even by oersonol diHerence. 1922. could nol be denounced as competition wilh the hondicrofts" In con!ros' to t e above is a review of he e... Grcpivs dreorns. PRESS COMMENTS 1923-1932 The cri'Ic s 01 the Bo"~o~s snowed 0 tendency.. COMm er Iin9 0 nih e exh ibition of 192. Cooperation.c~ur9 and 0 pictoriol composition is no solution of Ihe problem 0: scoce_ " " " Modern orlist:c vitoli y has 01 los: come to deny oainting ond sculoture as such." Ihe forerunner 01 the otionol Socialist Pony.".l no . The fact the the Bouhous hapoened 10 open during a Socialist regime (the progrom hod been initiated earlier und er the 00 ronoge of he Grand Duke of Soxe-Weimor). obtuse and so inllexible as consto ntly to endanger the growth 01 ths i nsfitution.. !en. Planning Auoc. in 1924. Teig. It is IJnderstordoble cno ~u"'on tnol such on exoeriment.'y the ne" desire lor a sys eMO'"C er! educotion.or was a generot"on struggli." n Ihe comprehensive BOJ~oUS p'ogrom "n order to make it liT in . Sa ptemb"r.. it 0150 took the sling out of the a tacks (foreseen from the storl!) of croll orgonizo ions.s are tough' by two rr esters.'.cns on tne '''0 S of heir rooms.'r". 1924: ·When I iirs become acquainted with "he oirr-s 01 the BOJMa.lory au hori ies] they never succeeded in producing any convincing proal. " " And 0 r'er e ccrelo I scrut' ny of the resu I15 0010" ned in W"". Bul without ils nonpertisnn oHilude. the inslil~tion would cerlo:nly hove come to a premature end" The shortsiqhted olt"lude 01 the ere] srr-en 5 or gcnizct"ons in Germany wos one 01 he greo es obstacles ne Boynous encountered. 1926-_ "0. which should hove been a matter of course on the por of Governmen officials.e most it m"ght orovide fleW impulses. Slein Ho" Eisen (Stone Wood Iron)..erent cu 'urol ideologies !nen current. In Thuringio. It shou a be \rolued cs t. Lac smilh Arno Muller.. the Bcuhcus is not consiste .cience o~d technics? Where e se bu· nere in Wei". Thee von DOBsburg.'J Character of the Bauhaus The Non·Political T~raughout its e~istence.rre. a schoo for crchitecture.'. should rot proceed withou clashes of o oinio . how a educo e human oei gs to rr eet the mas JrgeM needs in the fie d of industriol prodUCTion" T " rood chose" by the Bouro"s wi.. suopor'ed by ·he bourgeoisie with ·~eir individ"olism o~d snoboery ana the"r purely decorotive point of view" L"ke any olner art school. never chose a coliey pre'T\oturely and preser ed tnereby its moin SOl. ce of srre g h.t'fl'/ r/ r".m. but since Ihe odven of the new government he olliciol altitude.urich./ -I' /Jf.9 wrote: ~ "" " .soired oy '~e BOJ~aus Exhibition a' 1923 Dr" Horkort. It recog. bu' 0 wall is no' 0 p. virt ro Iy 'ne onl. hous bu"ld'ng wi"1 10 e pace" Tne ~oro BOLhou< hcs ceCO'T1e a ro v"ng-cry ior friend ond foe" To do it jus'ice . o crolts'T1cn O'd on or'. Z.he Allgemeine Zeituog.. 0 des're whic . he odmi s the division of looor. hoo begun to ossert iTse ! in 0 countr" es in ne 'ieldS of ort..apored designs much in he manner of a laboratory lor indus rial and crof use.'" /. Ihe Bauhaus found itself •nvalved in the political convulsions 0' post-war Germany. October 2.n Slovbo. /... t here on "n.. he Bcuhous never forced its noturo growth. unforlurolely. t"Nt/i1 The Beuho"s worhhops o. 1923: "Aher 'hree and a no. i. 0: this s .'s. Decerroe 4 h.i"n.

,-J ....

~<CI'.. v.~

\0<;' -ott'


. I 's "viae~i • at a 1undomentol improvamen in i dusrial production, which all i formed persons agree is nece ss crv, ceoencs largely on the wide.pread and enthusiastic oor+ic.pctien 01 cr-is s, The~ should not remain olcol Irom -h' s important lask b wt u nderto k" it a 5 he ma,t pr essi n 9 orcble-n ol rhe eress nJ dol'; for its be neiit they mus socrifica heir own p ecsnn inoividual praeecupo ions. "The Bouhous wonts to en isl on en ire generation crtists in a s nIggle 10 solve the erective problems 01 ind ~s',io Iism. It used to be mare or less e cha nce occur 'e nee [or a creative a rtist to Iind his way irlo a lac ary ord rnester the problems PJI to him. This will now be done censciocs yond 10 on ex-ent worthy 01 the importcnce 01 these proo ems. "The ceramics indus ry in oortlculcr, where esthetic ccnsiderorlons are so im oere!"ve ana where industrial requ ir arn e nts MOve had a porticu lady d svcstcf ng i nil u· enee on orrisrie quo ity. should lee obliged to pcrtlclpa'e in he elfor' mode 01 Weimor ond should be eoger 10 accept and develop who, has been begun there."


cution in on e,hioit"on hon the one submned. A. 0 mo er of princ'ple, I am • ep icol obout the construe ion of houses 'or display purposes. but in this case it is a question a' a new tyoe of builaing, ihe r eolizo ion of which is Iikely to hove for-reaching CU Itural and econom ic ccnseq renees, Tna need lor a strictly economical ",ethod 01 ccnstruction. as we I as our altered way of life seem 10 call or" new treatment of Ine one·lam·ly house in which i cease. a be on imitc-ien of he villa with rooms oi equal s·.e. There is evidence tho a type 0; oe,ign is develap'ng whie~ orgonically unites saverol srno! rooms 0 rou nd a lorga one, tn us bringi n9 a bout 0 comp~ete che g9 in form as we as in manner of living, Of oil tne olans I have seen, none appeors 10 me to be so apt to clady and a solve Ihe aroblem as Ihe one suomitted by the Bou~o~s. me aligh "n which we f'nd ourselves as a cricn nece,si'ates ovr be'ng t~e first of 011 notions 10 solve Ihe new problems of bu! ding. These olons clear y go 101 toward blOl'ng 0 new loil.' The re otion between I.e Bcuhous ond ·he Sate Governmen presen'l'd a problem which conlron'ed almost all publiciy appointea airec crs of cultu 01 ·nstitution. in Ihe new democracy: how for the democro'ic orincip e of the VOt9 should be a Ilowed to i oteriera with non·politicol rT'ot ers. Koch. a de-nccrot'c Secretory 01 Slate finally settled tne dispute by declaring hot any ind of puolic vot"ng on questens of art was On obsu dity. The Deutscne WerAbuno'. u der the leodership of 'ts president. he crcbtact Hans P,oel.ig. aaopted the some point 01 v'ew, in a leiter addressed to the government of rhe iree s'o'e of Sare-Weimor: "The pLolic cor-iroversy now rog'ng around the BaJhous 01 Weimar is no local mot er: in more ways than one. it concerns all hose interested in I~e growth and dave]oamen! 01 our crt. I is always undesiroble to confuse pro olarr-s 01 art with portical trends. The fury of politico I ,\,ile iniec ed into oil aiscussion of the work and purpose 01 the Bouhaus impedes y real consideration of he greot and imper ant experiment be dly going Io...-.'ord here. We trust that the oilieiels and departments having jurisdiction over this motter will do their II 0' a prevenl poli icol pa .. ions from destroying on underta jng whien should not be meosured by personol a'rejud'ces or by considerctlons foreign to art, bi.t solely by its own s ,oignlforwardne5S a~d its own unimpeachable objec-

Dr.E. Red.lob. Nationol Art Director of Germcny, cornmenting On the p on. lor the House "Am Horn" to be eree 'ed for ' e proposed exhibitio" in 1923: "I nviled by he Director 01 the Ba IJ ha,",s 10 rnc ke a s a emen concerning ne plans for 0 house in the pro DOsed exhbitio n 'n 1923. I a1!irm hot I con hardly imagine. under present circum. o nces, a plan "'are suited for exe-


A FEW HEADLINES The Collop.e of Weimor Art Disintegration 01 the Staalliche Bouhou. in Weimar Swindle-Propoganda Storm over Weimar Stootliche Rubbish Bauhau. Scandal Save the Bouho U5! The Menace 01 Weimar The Art War in Weimor The p.".a ult on the Bou haus Culture Demolition in Weimar The Cultural Fight in TIluringia Protest 01 the Weimar Arti.ts

l{.,ltur .. lb"a" in ttt,uringen l
sne Dolfi'cf:ien oerl .. ltgen Oen 1166.... Oe. St .. Qtlicf:icn. tJa"",, .. 'e.





F. H. Ehmke, 0 wei nown ort teoc~er and poqrcpher, com menti ng on I ~e cover of th e book. Sioo/lienas 8auhous Weimar I Bib!. nc, 8). 1923: "Wholly concerned with shopwindow eHec s, or, il one wonts to be nasty sheer bluff; bru 01 in coloring. without rernament of form ... " Br'uno Tout. architect. com men ing on e Preliminory Course: 'The me 00 01 test'ng a studen by lal1ing him a.peri-

qibt r~ c~lIm
",:,,":... a,;j\lUll~T'



me~' i"dependen'ly ord [·eely 01',," seems curious 0 the 10 mon; b~' :0' Ihe leocher it is he MOSI in!ollio e indico!ion 01 wh,,'hor a studen ~os ony creative obil"ty ond whether he con prol'to o y be oomitted to a speci'ied wor~shop. Tnis met nod of se ection 's, oerhc ps, one a' ..e most 'rrporton ochievemen-s of tne Bauhaus, Kole KoH in the 8 Uhr AbendbloH, Berlin,. February, 1924, ....o·e or 'Ie Bouho as donces: r 'The IImschlosschen [on inn) is lor au! i the country, in Ober .. ai-ncr. What a dercole pcelic nome. and w~ot a shod the. c eccrcred! Throug~ a norrow passageway one aene role, in 0 a dance holl 01 medium size, 0: "X urio nt ugli ness, The decorative rnu '0 I. dOle assuredly from 'he '80 s: 'hey represer rnoidens ploying the harp On some green meadow 'n porooise, Cor it be 0 he pupi's 01 l·on .. 1 Feininger, oi Kcndins y or Pou Klee Ore going to conee ~ere? Idle deuors disopnecred oiter or hour S en husics ic oorticipotion! In 'his throne-room 01 itsch [cheop bod 'oste 1 here is more reol yo"thlul erris ic atmosphere t~on in 011 'he sty'shly decorated nrtists' bolls of Berlin. All is arimitive 'here is nol the leas refinemenl, nor is there hot yown'ng blase o emeoncr nor tho overheo'ed ormosphere "hich necesstotes the stofoning 010 oolicemon in Iron 0; every dor~ recess 0' our bolls in Berlin. Everytl,ng bos bee!'! done by 'he BouhoJS srude nts themselves, Firs or 011, rhere is tne orchesirc. the bas ion bond thet I ever heorc raging' they ore musicions to Ihe'r finger ios. In inven 'on o,d glorious colori~g 'he costumes eave ior benind anything tho' con be seen 0' our periormonces .. , , T'e BOJhoJS ccmr-iunitv, mo. ers, journeymen, oppre tices, form a small islond ill 'he ocean 01 he Wei",or bourgeoisie. Four years 0: serious iobors have ot been oole ro oc custorn the Bauhous peop e lo '~e good 10 ~s of Weimot--ond vice verso ... :. S'x years 101e' the Solon des A,fisi e, Decoroleurs in Poris included on exnibirion 01 Ine Deuische Werklll/Md, organized under the direct'on 0: Wo er GropioJs with Ihe colloboro'ion 0; Herbert Boyer, Marcel Breuer ond lodislo~, Moholy-Nogy_ On ~is oecos'on Poul Fieren, wrote in the JOllrno/ des Deba1s. June 10, 1930: "In oil EJropeon coun r;es. he some ideas have been odvonceo, Ihe some e=lorts ore being moae_ In our own coun ry ney are too disper5ed, In Germany. 'hey ore more concen'ro eo; ods. and ind~s:riolis. are wor ing togelner i Ihe some spirit. The Bouhou. 0' DessoJ represents a woe generotion of explorer, co poble oi e'ploirng he numerous resources of modern 'ecilnics: it is 0 school and 0 laboratory at t"e some time, Germony hos reolized Ihe impor'once 01 the problem, which she has considered in connec ion wi'h the social reodjuslment now going on. And tho is ",hy, in h.. ni.ory of orchitecture ond Ihe 'naustriol orts 01 -he 20ln century, Germany will have the I"on', .hore," In June, 1924, Dr. August Emge, Prolessor 01 NO'ionol Economy onO P'lilosophy at 'he U nivers' yo' Jeno. oub-


ished !wo lactures ent'j ed The Conception of fhe 80uhcus I BioI. xu). Bo;ing his v·"w. on 1M theses set forth by Gropius in his essoy. The Theory olld Organization of fhe Bo"halJ' IBibl. xxx) D·, Enge compored -he 'esthe'ic synthesis" of the BouhoJ, wiT its "social synthesis." Ai er quoTiog the Grocius thesis .. -nechenired war is neiess, proper only 10 the ifeless machine ... _ Tne so ution aepends on 0 c ho ~ge in the individ JO s at'i'ud e 'oword his war. not o~ Ine ae erme'll oi his o~tword c' rcurnstonc es. Dr. tmge wri es: • A blun er rejec ion 01 Morxism ana kiMdred Utooras is inccncalvob e, I 's clear y sto'ad here -rot hormonious creation is or ethicol problem 10 be solved Oy he individ"o'.' later I,e alludes to the relcrlon 0: Ihe Bauhaus coneeolion to ·he contemporory world: "A movement which is limely in the ~est sense oi Ine word con not be said to deny history .... It is dHicult a delerm;ne jusl how the or+is: is o'leded by rrcditin-. Trodi'o~ must live in a no~-j conno' be cultivo\ed in him. 'Once spirt hos to en or mo erial forO": soY' Heg .. l, "t is lufl" to try to 'rnpose on it forms evolved by earlier cUlhJfes' hey ore Ii e ..... ithered lecves 'hrv", de by bJds which have oeen nc arisned lrom he some roots, I -nev be true even in a her lielos 0: endeovor thcr rrooilion ""US make itS9: let ho-menicusly, unoblrJsively ond subconsciouslv, bu- i' is esoeciol y opcloble 'n he reolm of ort. Es'nelic 'odi ion 's embod'ed 'n 5 le, But 0 s yle must be "nborn in tho o"is' ond generic to "Is epoch os were the great sty es 01 the post, All conscious a tempts \0 £loin insigh inlo 'he essence of a s·yle. 011 onil'c'o preservetion, eoo to on ~isloricol o!lituoe which is hos-ile 0 liie o nd consicerinq the MU Ti lic ity of choice, 10 a c hoos n 01 style, in One ond the some period."


The iollowing persons and sociefias par ic'pcred i • e flood 01 pretests ogoins tne discontinuance of Ihe Bauhaus 01 Weimor whic were addressed to the Government of the S a e of T uriogio: Prolessor Bernhard Pon~ok Dr. Mo~ Osborn Prafessor Dr. Hons Thoma Professor Josel HoHmonn Hugo von Hoffmonn. hoi Professor Oskor Kokosch a Professor Mox Reinhordt Arnold Schonberg Prolesso S rygows~i Fronz Werlel Grolin Kolkreuth Dr, N, Muthesius and many others

Professor Peter Behren. Prolessor lovis Corinth Proie .. or Alber Eins ein Dr. Alexo·nder Dorner J. J. P. Oud Professor Dr. C. Fries Dr, Gerhart Hauptmann Lud wig J usti Mies von oer Ro e Dr. Roland Schoch Hermann Sudermonn Prolessor Rohl's Prof. Dr. RiametSchmied Prolessor Hans Poellig




26th, 1924

leiter to the Government

01 Thuringio


Leogue 01 German Archi ee s (Blind Deu+sc er Archilekten) Architects Society "Architecturo et Amici ie." Amster. dom German Werkbund (Deutscher Werkbundl Austricn Werkbund (Osterreichischer Warkbund I Soci .. y 01 Social BJilding Trade, [Verbond Sozio er Boubetrieoe) Society of Ger on Art Critics (Verbond Deutscher Ku"'Tkritiker) Newsoooers from tne following continuo nee of the Bcuhcus: cities recom end he

Th e Director ond moslers 0' the S ote Bouhous 01 Weimar, comaelled by he otti"'oe of the Governmenl 01 Thuringio, herewith a "nou nce their d scislon to close I e insti tion creo ed by them on their own initiotive ond according to their conviction s, on the exoirotion dote 01 their contracts, thai is. April lirst, ninete~n hJn. d red 0 nd twenty./ive. W_e accuse the Government 01 Thuringia of hovi g per, mltted and approved the Irus rotion of cui urolly irnpor. ton ond olwoys non-political ellorls Ihrough the intrigues 0' has ile politico I porlies. , .. (signed by 011 the mostersJ From a leHer ta the Government Weimor, of Thuringia Jo "ory 13th, 1925


BielFeld Weimor Dresden Dorms 001 Jeno Bremen Chemnitz Magdeburg Edun

Attocks on the Bou hous Th e lollow'og quercrion Irom on o"ic e by H, PIlug. prinled in T e ooli icol wee Iy "Die Tal" in 1932. de." ribes the "nceosi.'g ·... . orlore he Bou nous was forced to "'oge ogo,ns' 'ts odversories. "DiHe"en' vo Jo'ions moy be p aced on ~e role of the BaJhous 'n Ihe developMenl 01 moo ern orcni eC urol de"gn. bUI urdoubled y tha: role wo, 0 great one. The v:oJence of the oltoc s 'esti'ied a Ihe s'renglh and historical sig"'ficonce of Bounol.;s ideos. The polTcol otlocb ~od as their oosis psychologicol o~d phi osophicol re,entment. Those no longer oble or nol ya w'lling to chonge o.,d leorn, realized Ina Ihe Bauhaus ,1000 lor 0 new li'e and 0 new stye in 0 new lime. Philistines and reoctionories rebel ed. All the animosity Ihey could not ,,,,Iood e sew here wos oirac'ad ogo'ns he visib e embodirrent of what Ihey feared."

Apoldo leipZig Homburg Munich Fron lort Stut gort Heilbronn Honover Korlsru e school 0:

We notify the Go~ernmenl of Th"ringio thot we, collebe-c ors at the Slole Bauhaus ot Weimor, sholl leave the Bauhaus together wilh the leaders of he Bouhous, because 01 Ih.. actions of the Slote Government .. _ [signeo by all Ihe studsnts ]

Also orolesting he discon inuonce of the Weimor wete the following publications: Germany: Die Tot Der Cicero e Weltb~hne Die Bou..... el Kunstchro i in Sc hO'Lkommer

Holland: Tefegrool. Bouwerbndig We .. kelo". Nieuwe ROI erdamsche Courant u s morkt Czechoslovo ;0: Progertageb'olt Hungory: A II ogyor, BJoopes

S'"i/zerlond: eu" Zuricher Ze'tu Dos Werk

U. S. A.: The Freemon.

New York

Menaced by on uncompre enoing ond antagonistic go~ernment and co sciolI' 01 Ineir solidarity ana rights as tOenoers of the institulion, the d'rettor ond counci 0/ mo" .." decided, at Christm", time, 1924, on the dis50Iu"on 01 the Bauhaus in order to orestoll is destruction. In spile of 011 proohecies 0 The co Irory. h's, eo proveo to oe wi, e. The e'pril de corp~ whic h hoo g.rod uoily develooed among Ihe student. and masters withS ood this riol. or eir own occord the s'udent. infor ed the government that they stood with the direc or ond mo,ters and intended 0 leo'le w'th t em. This ~nited o-t"tud .. wos ",lIected in ne entire press and oecided 'he fUTure of he Bo"hoJs. Vorious cities, De .. ou, Fran _ For, Hogen, Monnhe'", DarMstadt opened ~e90tictionl with 0 view TOtron'planting Ihe Bouho~s, On • e 'ni ia. t;"e o· Moyor Hesse. Dessou. in the center of the midGer'T1an caol bel, iovi ad the en ire B.ouhous to reestob, lish itself there. This invitotion wos occepted ond. ofter carrying o ... their can roct. in We·mor. mosters ond t students Oiled a Dessou in the 'prj 9 of 1925 and t"'ere bego n the reorgon ilOtion of 1 he So u ho us,

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from northwest.. laundry and ain'ng holl for he studen s. Feininger. however. Especially noteworthy was he city's decision to odd to he Bouhous building proper a wing wi h twentyeight st dio opor men s. one 01 hose notable individuals who demonstrote the imparlance 01 he smolt German cily os a celturo loctor. The principles 01 the Bauhaus were again c:lorilied: The Bauhaus is on advanced school lor creative work. Ihe Junkers airolane worh moved to Dessou. A business organization. . which hod 01. was established a handle I e sale to indus ry 0' mod "Is created in lhe Bauhaus workshops.. a the t: me. especiolly building and lntarier deeoroticn.es: and thanks to him it was able to develop relatively undisturbed for a number 0: years. On his initiative. and ateliers were provided for 'he artists in Ihe old a nd. Herbert Boyer. Fritz Hesse.FACULTY AND STUDENTS . os well 0' the development 01 model. udents.' Almost all the former rnesters. Gerhard Moreks. He encouraged culrurol activity wHI the some tenacity. The workshops were set up on a floor 01 the Seiler loctory. Kle e. were appointeo masters. NEW BUILDINGS The mayor !or seven 01 Dessou hod o oproved on appropriation houses with studios for the former Weimor mosier. manual and technical raining 01 men ond women of creative talent [or a I kinds of erea ive war. want 10 teach near Holle since there W05 no money or room to reinstall his ceramics workshop in Dssscu. was begun at once.. especially building. Mahaly-Nagy. Construction. 2.. end neorly 011 the Bouhous studan s moved Irorn Weimar a Desscu. Hinnar Scheaer. The deporlment of architecture wo s considerably e nlorged a d l~e leochers of the Municipal School cooperoTed with it. Gropius.. from Groaiu' designs. pending he comole ion 0: its new bu'ld'ng 01 he and of 192b. Josef Albers. e"ll ply Art Museum. Joost Schmidl. Ihe Bouhc as hod to move into !"moorory quarters in Desseu. ond lor a new building to house boih Ihe Bo~ ous and the Municipal Arts ond Cra. The in ellecluol. The Transitional Period al Dessau Wolter Gropius: Dessou Bauhaus. the Bauhaus 100'05ronslerred Irom Weimar to De550 u: he 101'0lIy 5U poor1ed its orinci p . where wor c W05 imme· diotely begun in provisional quor+ars. the Bauhaus Ccrporo-icn. 1925·192b A er eO.lts School. Moree Breuer. Muche. remained wilh Ine Bouhous when it moved a Oe'50u.. wcs on eminently farsighted person. The execution of oroetico experimen 01 work. boths. Five former. Its ouraose is: I.0 been placed under GrODi. Schlemmer. Vie . THE NEW CURRICULUM 100 T e curricu urn underwent several changes: joi nt instruction by a crohsrncn and on orris was abandoned. Owing to his energy ond cour09".1\g Weimar. for industrial and manual pro· duction. The Mayor or Dessou. Dr. A dapcrtmen 0: typography ond lev-out W05 added. classroom ins ruction oak place in the rooms 01 he existing Arts and CroiJs SChool.! supervision. Henceforth each workshop was directed by one moster. Kondinskv.

hor .southwesL 1925·1 '126 which can be connected to make a large exhibition hail. situated between the auditorium and the dining hall. mo ing possible a reossignmen of roomuses. its classrooms and administrative quarters.200 marks. brick masonry. The total cost amounted to 902. so that spectators can sit on ei her side with the stage betwee them. The two upper Iloors are connected with a bridge across the street. carried on piers. pointed with mineral paints. The stage. and thus all the space occupied by the dining hall. metal workshop. regular roofs hove the some type of insulation mentioned above. On the second lloor. only one story in height. all the walls surrounding the stoge can be removed. physics hall.) on the ground lIoor. The tubu.500 marks. is connected with the by WALTER GROPIUS A.Wal er Gropius: De. half below and half above ground. 1925·1920 THE BAUHAUS BUILDING designed the bridge. 27) Dessau in the autumn of 1925 and was cornpletely finished in time for the formal dedication in December. and two lecture halls Wolter Gropius: Dessou Bauhaus. the volume is approximately 1. Steel window-sash with double weathering conlocts. hollow tile floors. the wall-pointing workshop. or rouqhIy twenty cents per cubic foot. which contains scholarship stu-.lar steel furniture of the assembly hall.. The . In the live upper stories there are twentyeight studio oportments for studen s.ol axis. The interior decoration 01 the entire building was executed by the well. me ry and ihe ron is piece facade. time-saving communication clecn-cu separation of 'he different par soil e whole flexibility. stage and di ni ng. The Bauhaus building was begun by the city of A characteristic bui ding of the Renaissance or Baroque nos a symme· rico I facade. welded together. On the third floor. Drainage by cast iron pipes inside the building. containing the adminis ration ofIices and Professor Gropius' office. a large lecture room. the design and execution of all lighting fixtures by the metal workshop. on he upper floor. library. the architectural de- 102 ~- gymnasium and locker-room. Air view. View Iror.00. The bridge conecting buildings I and 2 [oins this floor . instructors' rooms. covered with lacquered burlap and a cement top.pointing war shop. In front of the dining hall is a spacious terrace. the weaving room. portment. laid on insulation boards 01 "torfoleum" he tile (com- pressed peat moss). On the lower floor 01 this bridge are the administrative offices of the Bauhaus. the servants' quarters and the furnaces. and 103 . room for models.. the dye-works. ii or90 nizotione I changes make this neeessory. auditorium and vestibule can be cornbined into one large halJ lor the occasion. Lettering was execu ad by the printing workshop. no. and in addition each floor has a kitchenette.000 cubic feet. and. On gala occosions.ho' I C Laboratory worbhoo o Bridge lodmi~istrotion oHices) E Technical sc 00 (from B·o. 0 The building consists of (see plate opposite): E. c. In the basement of he studio building there are ba hs. are the printing plant. ping. which in turn leads to the sports areas.000. stage. about $230. These ore housed in a three story block (with basemen ). rooms for preliminary courses (grundlehre). The cost of furnishing the building amounted to 126. Ex erior finish of cement stucco. T is leads to the upper story of . w' h he entrance on Ihe cent'. dining room and s udios was executed from designs by Marcel Breuer.sou 60uhous. In the basement. A dents' quarters. Studio wing. The bridge (D. A builaing express-n9 the modern splrir reiec s sym. The view olieree 10 Ihe spectotcr as he drows near is 1I0t a a two-di· mensiono . The flat roofs designed to be wal ad on ore covered with asphalt tile. 1926_ The whole building occupies on area of about 28.Cl c. a large vestibule leading to the auditorium with 0 raised stage at one end. Material cnd construction 01 the project Reinforced concre e skeleton with "mushroom" columns. The dining hall communicates wi h the kitchen and several smaller rooms. the sculpture room and the packing and storerooms. Pia n of Ihe Bouha us: Ground Floor Considerations 10 be hp in mind in orgoni1ing a pion: proper orenrction to the sun . The auditorium (8. A Stucio wing B Auoitorium. on electric laundry.) leads to laboratory workshops and the classrooms. On the ground (Iirsl) 1I00r are the carpentry shop and the exhibition rooms. The wing which contains the Technical School (later Professional School).300 square feet.150. can be opened on bo h sides. One must walk around tnis srrue ure in three-dimensiono character of its form and the function of its ports.

was regorded as e greol cui urel event and brought mor a han 1500 visitors to Desscu. as well as a do nee in he new cuilaing. Six y pre ss . The reopening of the Souhous under more orosperous condition. Wolter Gropiuo: Dessou Beuhous. bridge and techn ico I school beyond. 1925·1926 Welter Grooius: Dessou Souhous. Wolter Grapius: Desseu Bau~ou s.-<---e On December 4.or hod been designed mainly oy he war . motion pictures. 1921.eore. The inaugural oddress was de ivered by NOTional Art Director [Raichsku nstwor"] Erwin Red· sleb who hod been born in Weimar and who hed..ibi ion. Re oorls in 'he press indicaled that only few c rilics understccc thaI he ..oos ·hemselves. 1925·1926 ° 104 Wol er Gropivs: Oesseu Sol/hous. Two thousand 0' ended a Bauhaus bell Ina evening. Most 01 Inem believeo il hod been designeo by the o-chirae s and only executed by Ihe worhhops. View towerd s age end.=: Walrer Gropiu5: Desseu Bauhaus.ebrotions i eluoed an exI. The 'naugurel ce. Oliice 01 the o: rector. the Beuhaus wos formally inaugure ed. View from the steirecss toward the workshop s. Staircase. . Desscu Beuhous.entotives were present a the Bauholls ooe ing in 1925. lectures. 1925·192b -<--. shown greel interest in the 80u ous. 1925·1921.!. Nigh view. Dining ream. 1925·1921. 1925-192b Wolter Gropius.'"Iler. from ! e very beginning. Corner 01 the workshop wing.

1915-192b .ng n the studio Wolter Gropius: Dessc u Bcuhcus.1'00' 106 Room w. Balconies of the students' .uhoJs.olter Grcp'vs: Desscu Bc.judio ouiiding. View of studen s' studo build'ng from southeast. 1925-I92b Life 0 he in Dessou 801.

1. Desseu. The interiors were designed and executed by the Bauhaus workshops... 1926 .925-1926 Wo'Ter Gropius: Studio in a mosler's house. Dessc u.Wolter Gropius: View 01 masters' houses. Dessa u. 1925·1921> A few hundred yards from Ine main Bauhaus building were three double houses and one single house built by l~e town of Desscu for the Bouhaus masters. Dessou. hou se. rs' houses. Dessc u. 1925-1926 Woller Gropius: Dirac or'. Walter Gropius: Living rccrn in moster's house. 1921> Wo or Grepius: Mo .

By 1928 he hoc comole'eo 316 houses.. Generol . S'r. which we'" pori y lurnis' ed by th!! BouhOJ. Dessou.'ew. 192& . 1929 Wolter Grooivs: City EM.e. lnterior view. Ciry Employment Olfiee Dessou. 1926 Anonymous: d'.Woller Grocius. 1926 60 one-:omi y ~o ~. Desso~. 1920 \"/0 I ler Gropi us: Desso W· Torten. 1')'29 II D In Mid·Sa olember.'olei'ng "Minimal Wolter Grcpi. using 5'oodord'zed units were peg..e of 'ypico I U nirs. 0 co-nrnu-iity 0: wor~ers "OW.Jc!uro' sche.s e ons .~e.rs: DessouTor e«. ""or . I'?29 Wolter Gropius: CilY Emoloymerl Ol'. cs per: 01 0 -ew ho~s'ng crojec' ior Ihe city or Dassou. ployme~1 Or:ice. View showing rodioling en ranees :or voricus vccotiono groups. Sire pan.}n in Torlen... III Woller Gro oius: Dess'lJ' Torten. Wolt!!r Gropius wos the orchi'ec~....!!5.

ec ural courses. A project to house Bve Bouhous masters.. 1928 . The sew-tooth design of he roofs 0 "ows for clerestory wi ndows. 1927 Hans Witwer: HOJse 'or Dr. hus increasing !unlig t ono adding interest to the inlerior design.ge rooms. S otics and Descriplive Geometry were oopointeo 10 he s a. how . which enables Ine pupil a lorm conclusions on the bests of nis own ebse'voliol) 0 nd e~ periance. 1925 ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT Specie lists in Cons ruction.r. An elle 01 wos mode to ne oort lrorr the rigid horzornc l=vertico. was the indUC'iv" method. 10m'Iy lile (husbonowife.Jer. Two lo.l in Dessou 'n order wioen he scooe of the orchitedural troining.once ho" and the itchen and bo hroorrunils are pia 'led wi n on eye a the d ua phases a. 1928 112 Moreel Bre. os in a o hers.. beccusa 01 tne shorloge of lunds.Marcel Breuer: Bernbcs Houses. composition prevclenj in mod ern a rchitacture. A voriction 01 the pion below 'ndudes a stud'o unit. Director 01 the entire Bauhaus lor a shon oeriod. olden. Moyen. '0 HANNES MEYER. Plan and i. Hennas Meyer become head of the Architedure Deportmen and.v . seDOroled as we os co"nee'ed by Ihe en . porer+s . In 1927 Gropius succeeded in bringing he Swiss Hannes Meyer to Ihe Bouhous as ins raetor in Architec ure. Some oi t ~e po' nls 0: Gropius' program were never realized.chi dren: day .nigh!). alter Gropius left in 1928.ometric drawing of small metal house designed for preiabrieotion. Tne pedagogic procedure Iollcwed in he oren.

.. . ./' ~ :~ ~l I I \ g. .1... ... j~- -: \ \ 115 " . . I . 114 \ ~ L!-.r I ....1 • fi ... _. 1928 .. view. t »: . . --L-- I' . He. I I :.. . Bernou Isometric.' . r.. '.nnes M e YIlf' Trede Union School.. .(' 'l~ .. • ~.

pas e it.. As the course ocvonces the possibilities in the use 01 various materials os well cs their limitations are gradually discovered. Sometimes the results represent men! of methods rived at of these experiments Exercise in transformofon on one plone 116 01 materials. through direct ex- Marg. or even material: we reinforce il by com- /\~ CONCERNING FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN by JOSEF ALBERS Learning through experiment Economy of form depends on function and material. of course. naturally.i! Fischer: Study in materials combining similar and diHeren le. or with match-boxes. The most 10miliar methods 01 using them are summarized: and since they are already in use they are for the time being in hondic oft lying fiat: the reason we try as a building JOSE F ALBERS. is generally used edge is rarely utilized.. Cut without woste from OnB sheet of po per." Constructions To increase our independence of the traditional use of materials we solve certain given problems in technique and form by making original constructions out of a great variety of materials: out of corrugated paper and wire netting. The twisting is outamotic resu It of lihi ng or stretching In order to insure first-hand. to rivet it. we do not begin with a theoretical introduction: we start directly with the material. by a free handling cal aims. Therefore. In other words. Cu without wOS e Iromane piece of paper.. perience and they are our own because they have been re-discovered rather than taught.. The learning ond opplication of estobl. and industry. At the some time we learn by experience its properties of flexibility and rigidi y. for instance. linolly. Our aim is not so much to work differently as to work without copying or repeating others. Then.ished methods 01 manufacturing develop discernment and skill. but hardly creative po entialities. But even when we evolve which are already in use.PRELIMINARY COURSE: ALBERS S udy in plastic use of poper. alter having ried all other methods of fastening we may. and its potentialities in tension and compression. therefore. For his paper standing upright. Study in plastic use 01 paper . monuol knowledge 01 the material we restric the use 01 tools. phonograph needles and razor blades. has consisted chiefly in the teaching is given alone. to sew it. we fasten it in a multi ude 01 different ways. Hossenpllug . We try to experiment.by undisturbed. To experiment of materials without practithan is at first more valuable innovations in the application or treatmaterial. These constructions must demonstrate the qualities and possibilities of the materials used by fulfilling he techn' col requirements set forth in the wording of the problem. . For example: paper. Industrial methods of treoling raw materials represent the results of 0 long technological developrnent. to train ourselves in "constructive thinking. precede the investigation of lunction . to pin it. of established it hinders creprocesses. We know thai this learning through experiment lakes more time. 4 feet hig h liT ation ond invention. If such training G. in other words. uninfluenced and unprejudiced experiment. Technical education. we have arthem independently. Paper is usually posted: instead of posting it we try to lie it. Therefore our studies 01 form begin with studies plicated folding: we use both sides' we ernphusize the edge. The ability to construct inventively and to learn through observation is developed-at least in the beginning . entails detours and in- . 1921> forbidden.tures to produce: free ploy in the beginning develops courage. The study of the material must.

but no beginning can be straightfor. but with its appearance. facture and texture. which we differentiate carefully. Cut withou waste from one sheel 01 paper. S'udy in plastic pacer use of 118 119 Study in plastic use of paper. II trains the student in constructive thinking.. bend'ng.s to be used. both tactile and optical.ward.-«directions. hue and intensity. This sort a: exercise replaced I. Economy allobar is as important os economy 01 material. so surface qualities. by the constant use 01 ready-mode and easily procured means. -+ leet high First oUem pis 10 use cord. with emphasis on technical and economical rather than esthetic considerations makes clear the difference between the static and the dynamic properties of moterials. Consciously roundabout ways and controlled mistakes sharpen criticism and promote a desire lor improvement. . It is fostered by the recognition of quick and easy me hods. rucMatchboxes S·udies in plastic use of Ii . CJr~ed laid. They are not concerned with the inner qualities 01 the material. stretching ond co""' pressi ng. Just as one calor inlluences another by its value. that is to soy. Tronsformo'ion of a cone by cutt"ng. . can be related. These qualities of surface can be combined and graduated somewhat as colors are in pointing. We classify the appearance of the surface of o malerial as to structure.. The sysleWerner tion. As the proportion 01 ellort to achievement is a measure 01 the result.nol examinations S'udy -n plcs ic ~se of paper. Economy is the sense of thriftiness in labor and material and in the best possible use 01 them to achieve the ellect that is desired. It encourages the interchange of experience and the understanding of the basic lows 01 form and their contemporary interpretation. Feis : Can. by the correct choice 01 tools. It shows that Ihe inherent characteristics 01 a maleriol determine the way in which il . by the combination of several processes or by restricting oneself to a single implemen . board plastically Study in plastic paoer use of . These exercises in textures alternate with the "construction" studies described above. by the use of ingenious substitutes lor missing implements. Texture Experiment with surface qualities is another method lor the study 01 form ond the development 01 individual sensibility. Learning in this way. It counteracts the exaggeration of individualism without hampering individual development. an essential point in our teaching is economy.

Otherwise eaching is a sour bread and a poor business." published in Bib!. Through discussion 0/ the results obtained from the study of the problems of materials. central or peripheral emphasis.. warm to cold. These surlcce qualities co n be perceived usuo lIy by . such os: the grain of wood or the composite' ructur e 01 groni:".rlvre 01 0 carpet is eosily perceive" by both hand and eye. (from "Werklicher Formunterricht. symmetry or osymmetry.3) "Struetura' refers 10 those quo I itias al .Iars to those quoli ies of surioc . stroight·edged to shapeless.urioce which reveal how th . row material grow. smooth 10 rough. to recognize which lield of work is closest to him. It leads to economical form. To summarize briefly: the inductive method of instruc ion proposed here has as its goal selfdiscipline and responsibility toward ourselves. such os hard to soh. or the wavy surioce 01 corrugo ed po per. nos.ed in one plane . free or measured rhythm. Examples: the stTvelura of high Iy polished wood co n be perceived by eye but not by touch: the fodure 01 0 orinled poge can be perceived by sensi ive IingeMi ps but. clear and clouded. as students and teachers. toward the material and toward the work. learn from each other cantinually. It develops lIexibility. olso in the visual quali ies of surfaces such as wide-meshed and norrow-rneshed: transparent and opaque. no. geometric or arithmetric proportion. "Texture" is a general term which refers to both "structure" and "Iccture. beauty or intelligence. We must. polished to mot. for more easily by the eyes: the le. in choosing his vocation. we acquire exact observation and new vision.. which reo veal how he row rna erial has been treated technically. he" exure" 01 pelished wood reveols both he "srruc re" Ismin) and he "lecture" (polishing l.d.120 matic arrangement of surface quofities in scoles ond series makes one sensitive to the minutest differences and the subtlest transitions in the tactile qualities a/surfaces. 1927 S udy in plestic use 01 paper. mysticism or science. For insronce. Flat wire nelling mTong.l92b S ud yin illusory three dimensions Studies in plos ic use of paper. the hammered or polished surlace 01 me 01. such a.. We discover what chiefly interests us: complicated or elementary form. in stimulating cornpetition. It helps the student.ish' and ol'en by both sight a d touch. E. We learn which formal qualities are important today: harmony or bclonce.hibi ion of 0 student's lirst semester work. 1928. "Foe ure' r.. Transformation 01 a cylinder through cu ins and bending -<-6 Study 01 three dimensions. 01 course. 2. or is [errn . octuol and illusory Study in optical illusion ." but only i bolh are present. These ore chielly s uoies in the properties 01 wire. 3D.

Construction.cfionship Above G.els ccbsved by repetition oi wc-drnens'onct elements: circ. To' ner: S "dies in optical illusion. 9 feet high 10". Hessenpiluq: S udy in plostic use or gl055 Study in onticol F at wire netting il usicn. eeP.929 re. Wooden stids lostened osether with r070r blades.. 1.. Hossenpllug: Study in between colors ond lorrns. Inverse use 01 colors ond forms.earge Grosz.G. 122 G.es ond ports of circles Deto il 01 construction right at 123 . Threedimensional "'f.

if invisible. shapes which are ordered into certain well defined. It will. as other capacities do. Wire end tubes.PRELIMINARY COURSE MOHOLY . This capacity can be developed through practice and suitable exercises. 1928 Co. Be/ew: An ettempt at graphic rronscription. They learn how to tell the "styles" of the great monuments of the pasthow to recognize Doric columns.i THE CONCEPT OF SPACE by MOHOlY-NAGY We are all biologically equipped to experience space. 1923 S udy in 124 125 Gerde Marx: Study in tex ure. Today spatial design is on interweaving 01 shapes. still learn architecture out of books.NAGY -<----. or 01 the flow of interweaving space.teneo tegether with thin wire. Neumann: structien. Gloss tubes ia. Pure space arrangement is not a mere queslion 01 building materials. differ in degree in diflerent people. unfortunately. shapes which represent the fluctuating ploy of tensions ond forces. The way to learn to understand architecture is to have direct experience of space itself. 192a . But these are only the togs 01 architecture. those who learn by the historical method can seem to know a 101 when all they have really learned is to classify and dote the monuments of the post.- . Hence a modern space composition is not a mere combination Klau. of the balance 01 tense contrary forces. long preparation is necessary bela e one can appreciate this essential character 01 architecture. Most people. but in principle space can be experienced by everyone even in its rich and complex forms. 01 course. that is. only a very few ever learn really to experience the miracle of esthetically arranged space. for he has no ideo 01 the real ellect of pure space arrangement. etc. Gothic rosettes. Romonesque orches. 192a --(-- Werner Zimmermann: Censtruction. In reolity. 1928 -<--ci Merionne 6'endl: belence. Naturally.. how you live in it and how you move in it. In general the "educated" man today is incapable of judging works of architecture in 0 true way. Hinrlck Bredendied: Suspended cons ruction. space relationships. just as we are equipped to experience colors or tones. just as in every other field. Corinthian copitols. For architecture is the functionally and emotionally satisfactory arrangement of space.

not as a complex of inner spaces. velopment. That is. Build. 1927 --: Construct. to be used as for as possible in expressing the artistic relations 01 created and divided space. inouslry. etc.e 011 olike.senp!iug.ind 01 tolenl on equal chance. architecture will be understood. not merely as a shelter from the cold and from danger. but as an orgonic component in living.other Lang' below Siegfried Grlesenscblog: Studies in texture.es S odbrokers co I 'Iv u res. ". icribe.heo belore they monilest t emselves. ond their logical in erdepe dence on ana ana her in the modern world.boord is merely a prelude 10 the active joy 01 fashioning. It wa nteo to help the lormol artist to recover the fine 010 sense of design and execution being one and e some.e l. ~Iotive reseo eh 0 which humon'ty owes the sort of vol. monding brains will have been through he some indus'rial mill they will know. but also how to mo e 'he mochi. as on unalterable arrangement of rooms. 1924 "W at tne Bauhaus peached in prcc ice wos I e com.ure 01 various mote.cod . Wire and 126 SCOPE OF THE BAUHAUS Gropius: TRAINING Bri"ge '11u5 '0 ing vibration and pres. (Adopted from Bibl. an 0 tempt oj graphic transcription. not the putting together of dilferently shaped blocks and especially not the building of rows of blocks of the same size or of dilferent sizes. Ho. nor as a fixed enclosure. 1927 G.01 building stones. 'ng uni e. As varieties of talent conno be dis ingui. artist as well cs orti. Building materials are only a means. 321 12T . men citizenship 01 all [orrns of creoti v e work. con emporory problems. Below.o . not only how to mo~e 'ndustry odopt their i"provements and inventions. t e individual must be able to discover is proper sphere of activity in '~e course 01 ki. NotlJrorfy the greet mojori y will be absorbed by the building odes. o. Herelo. and rna e him leel the he drowing. ond 51 ce experimental and productive work are of equal "rocticol impor once. both monuol ond mentol war en in a common to s k.. no.on . e the vehicle of their idees. rials. The primary means lor he arrangement of space is still space itself and the lows of space condition all es hetic creation in architecture. As soon as this erte has linished its communol tro'ning i will be free to concentrate on individual work." {lrom Bibl.: George Gros~: ConS'rJC' ion. 29) Ab". as a governable crea ion fo mastery 01 life. or tho inestimobly u5elul spec. But Ihere will always be a small mi ority of ou S onding ability whoss legitimate ambitions it would be lolly to circum.• hould have 0 common Iroini g. own de. And sinee all t hess com. I e oasis 01 thot lreining should be breod enough to give every .

This voriction is possible only if the very simplest and most straightforward pieces are used: otherwise changing will mean buying new pieces.ry.pring bod. And so we halve furnishings.euer: Fold ing choir. opporently immovable and built for eternity. creates only hall 0 dwelling.Folding. Fobric seol. The room is no longer a sellbounded composition. The pieces of furniture and even the very walls 01 Oi room have ceased to be massive and monumental. 1·928 12. or. rooms end buildings allowing as much change and os many transpositions and diHerenl combinations as possible. so to speak. Melal lube.. fn itself impersonal. 01 a complete scheme. Marcel Breuer (Irom Bibl. Designed lora dining room. let our dwelling halve no porticulo:r "style.8 . and wood." but only the imprint 01 the owner's character. The architect.rcel Breuer: Choir. Morcel Breuer (Irom dos neue frankfurt. os producer. the other holl. drown in space. like a flower or 0 human being. nor should il attempt to Iix in odvcnce the personol environment 01 the occupant. A complete scheme is no arbitrary composition either but rather the ourwcrd expression 01 our everyday needs: it must be able to serve both those needs which remain constant and those which vo. a closed box. 15) G. no.. wooden teble. the man who lives in it. 1927) 129 Moree I: B'·euer: Firs! tubuchoir. bad end arm rests. They hinder neither the movement of the body nor of the eye. 1928 . 1'1'25 lor Mo. it tokes on 'meaning only lrom the way it is used or as pmt . One may conclude rhot any object properly and proctically designed should "IiI" in any room in which it is used as would any living object.FURNITURE WORKSHOP Josef Albers: Wooden armchair wilh . the new inferior should not be a sellportroit 01 the architect. lor its dimensions OInddillerent elements can be varied in mony ways.l92b -(----'1f Mcreel B. Hcssenplluq: . lnsteod they are more opened out. 192b A piece 01 furniture is not on arbitrary cornoosition: it is a necessory component 01 our environment.

1927 510 ndordiled Co. 1926 130 131 Breuer: De!so~ Bedroom in Directors house. 1926 Marcel Breuer: Pisco or House. Fabric seal ond bod res..Marcel Breuer: Tubular choirs. 1926 Woher Grcnius: De. Choirs by Marcel Breuer.rpentry Dessou worhhop. 1916 Bouhcus. . Fabric seal and backrest. Dining room. Choirs by Marcel Breuer. Morcel Morcel Brauer: Iurnitur e u its. Berlin.ou Bauhaus.ln7 Morcel Breuer: Tubulor c airs. 1926 Woller Gropius: De550u Bouhous Auditorium. AuditoriUM.

ting Author: Operator: Life demanding Marcel fiye yean. 1926 132 1925 G. Bucking: Choir. these right •• -( Breuer who recognizes Beller and beller eyery yeor. right s. 1. it. Wood~n table wilh lubulor supports 1977 P. Plywood seal. Mindon': Colopsi le srcc].. t926. 1928 Corpen'ry workshop: Drawer "nit for desk. Below: legs without seot. 1928 A Bou heus Moyie lo. 1926 Coroentry wor shoo: Desk composed 01 toble and drower unit. in the end we will sit on resilient air columns. er: Dining room cobir. (from Bio. Hossenpflug: Folding choir. Fobric sect and bockrest. 1928 133 -(- Marcel Breuer. . no. I) Lotte Gerson: roder. no. 30. S retched fabric sect. 1928 Child's . 1928 1924 Morcel Bre.1921 T.

Conversely. Berlin 1 1 . It hos spread all over the world. the production 01 tubulor steel furniture hos lo~en on ..wivel choir. Gallery. but commercial nego iotions were and led by the Bauhou. lig hting lidu res.t which the Bouhous hod rebelled cs on inodequo e macns or communicotion between designers ond industry. Zwido" Showrooms of the 'A streets. and the Werkbund E. Dusseldorl were exhibited at: Lei pzig Spri 119Fa ir German Society of Women's Apporel and Culture. lamps.000 mark s. Berlin Fide" King Albert M"seum. Tokio.NI\ ARMLEHNSTUHL and for a number of private oportmen s. the Art Museum. Oronienboum The prcctico] objective of the BO.position. restcurcnt. he lcctories oltan sent t eir tec nicicns a the Bouhous wor shops to keep them informed obou the development 01 designs. Corporation. wore were accepted by monufocturers. ad movea to Desscu.n. This wos a greo improvement over he ineffective dependence on pc per orojects ogoin..A. Income from royalties rose steadily.wos pursued on 0." Berlin Children's Home.. ('\lSlB!. and designs in co lor lor tha lollowing firm" Nierendorf aw Art Dresden COOPERATION WITH INDUSTRY Gallery. Exhibition.. large scale only ofter the Bouhow. purchased Bauhaus products for their res peetive collections. Design' lor rurni ure.AI er Marcel Breuer hod comole ed he :irsl steel cheir 01 Iha Bouhous. Ar Museum Monnheim Werkbund Honover Trade Museum. in vc rious lowns Kestner Society. Ihe Monnesmonn Works were osked 10 pUI steel pipe at our dispose! lor furl her experimenls. 80.'I33I-lL ~'~1 ~~ _..Jhous workshops-to evolve designs soti. The income was divided between Ihe Boubous Corporo ion ond the school itself. 01 er !hi rtaen yeo r s. van der Rohe. ROYA'LTIES Each worhhop hod the right to confer independently with indus rial [irrns regording technical problems. When a workshop considered a design ready for sale i wos rned over a the Business Menager or the Corporotion together with all the necessery drawings ond descriptions of the processes involved '0 tho contracts could be drown up. Todcv.. while the other 11011went to a welfore j"nd used 10 poy lor desig'ns which were considered voluoble but which could not be disposed 01 for the time being. . The factories were Ihen olten visited by Bcuheus designers who 5 udied Ihe orocesses used and cooperated with technicions to simplify and improve the designs. exercising 0 decisive inlluenee on many other cscec s 01 interior design. tedile lcbrics.t wOS rei used on the grounds Ihol such exoerimenls were unir-rpor 001. Steel tubing and plywood THONET~ 135 Stahlrohrmobel Bouhous products Gesolei.._I . Monnheim. tremendous prooor1ions. until. the Trade Muse"m of Basel.and gI055-. Half the royalty paid the school wos credited 10 the Bo"ho"s lund. which poid the designer. under Ihe direction 01 Mie. Tokio The Bavarian Notional Museum. 134 Moreel Breuer' S. Some poges from colcloqs olloclories prod uci n9 lurniture designed 01 the Souhous ~f ~ ~ Uncle Tom's Cobin.. The reque. in t932 it elCeeded 30.foc!ory from formo and technical poi nts of view whic h shOllld t hen be soJ it ad to inbm dustry 'or prod uction .1 (Kunstholle).. rnatol. During J 925 the workshops of Ihe D9 •• cu Bouhous executed orders lor lurn iture. including he masters' houses in Oessou and the new Bcuhous building.

All 01 these were adaoted lor industrial production. room of the Desscv ·." teo Morionne Brondl: Ugh ing (i. The metal workshop also handled 01 her probRl!prod~ced. nickel and chromium plating and abhorred the ideo of making models lor electrical household appliances or lighting fixtures. heavy strips and rods of iran and brass. Choins hold globe whi e electric bulb i. particularly for reflectors. were mode. 1921.. the use 01 aluminum.. lor it meant a new beginning.or. ond T~rrpe: Ind'YiduQI se·. samovars. 8. After this we developed lighting fixtures introducing such useful ideas as: the close-litting ceiling cop: combinations of opaque and frosted glass in simple forms echnicolly deterrn'ned by the action of light: securing the globe to the metal chassis. This principle 'nvolves the use of concentric gloss cyr nders to ovoid a glare.* But even this was a great victory. w.. especially in localities where the quic se tling of dus makes ordinary lighting inellicient. Bib. 1925 teo -<~ Morionne Movable Brandl: wo. Changing the policy 01 this war shop involved a revolu ion. elaborate jewelry..1I fixture ref ector. etc.. I remember the lirst lighting Ii ture by K. no. In addition to these innovotions may be mentioned one which even today presents a very uselul solution 0'1 ane lighting fix ure prablem.shop. Egg boil e r . with devices lor pushing and pulling.METAL WORKSHOP t Droug~l. cojustobta witn 1925 . for in their pride the gold· and silverSlT'ithsavoided the use a/ferrous metals. 11121. 01 translucent plastics. It took quite a while a get under way the ind 01 work which later mode the Bauhaus a leader in designing lor the lighfng fixture industry.. Jucker.ng melol orionne Brandl: FROM WINE JUGS TO LIGHTING FIXTURES byM OH01Y-N·AG·Y When Gropius acpoin ed me to toke over the metal workshop he asked me to reorganize it as a workshop lor industrial design. Frosted end ploin gl055 g abe. done before 1923. From this originated the louvre sys em 01 concentric rings of metal and recen Iy.IJrl!. 'ng chongl!d.ln)·1925 M. Josef Albers: Glo" set. Si ver-brome lineo w'ln 5i ver. 1'l25 las Morionne Brandt: Fish COS5ero e. Until my arrival the metal war' shop hod been a gold and silver workshop where wine jugs. page II b. Kroie". looking more like a dinosaur than a functional object. calfee services etc .

Dull aluminum reflector Iii by electric: bulb behind mi ror. Dessce Marianne Brandt: Ind ustrially produced lamp shodes. We therefore selected lor young oppren ices problems from which the use of materials. speciol one.u reo 1914 Marianne Brondt: Wall fixture.) which industry bought and for which royalties were poid.-«lems of industriol design: utensils ond household oppliances. involving simultaneously education and production. Marianne Brandt: Chromium and frosted gloss lighti ng fi. 1928 139 138 Me 01 works op. tools and machinery could be learned and which were at the some time of practical use. During those days there was so conspicuous a lack of simple and functional objects lor daily use thot even the young ap' prentices were able to produce models for industrial production (ash trays. etc. The function of the metol war shop was 0 .ki: Chromium a~d Ira' ed gloss lighting fixture. Krojew. 1925 Morionne fixture Brondt: Ceiling . 1915 Mor'onne Brondt: Night toole lorna with adjustable shcde. Hoo 5 suppor ing the globe are easily odjus able. 192& Marianne Brondl: M'rror lor shoving or rna eup. 1911> M.. teo holders. c.

... DeS50J Melol wor shop: Adjustoble desk lomp.. Aluminum shode.. .: ... 1925 Pages irom co ologs or loc cries monufocturing lighting fi. --- . 1925 M.~- .Melol worhhop.tures from BounolJs designs . _... Brondt cnd H. ere.. 1924 Merionne Brondr: Spun chromium lighling fixture ror corridors.. 1'126 Morie~ne BrondT: Lighling fixture lor wells or low ceilings. Pnyrembel: Adjustoble ceiling Ii.:1_..

Red ond yellow sitk. Albers: c. Weaving . The weoving improvisations furnished 0 lund of ideas from which more carefully considered compositions Were later derived. Ann. What hod existed hod proved to be wrong-even its foundations.WEAVING WORKSHOP THE WEAVING WORKSHOP by ANNI ALBERS Any reconstructive work in a world as chaatic as post-wor Europe had. to be exparimental in a very comprehensive sense. however useless. Courage is on irnportan factor in any creation. nalurally. Previously they hod been so deeply interested in the problems 01 the material itsell and in discovering various ways of handling it that they had token no time for utilitarian considerations. a shift took ploce from free ploy with forms to logical composi- 143 t. Lit Ie by little the attention of the outside world was oroused and museums began 10 buy. and passessing olten a quite barbaric beauty.._ elms. It was a curious revolution when the students 01 weoving become concerned with a practical purpose. their fullness of color and texture. Now. Unburdened by any practical considerations. however. Desscu Anni Albers: Doublewoven woll honging. They began amateurishly and playfully. those starting to work in weaving or in any other croft were fortunate to hove hod no raditionol training. This freedom 01 approach seems worth reo taining lor every novice. They believed that only manual war could help them back a solid ground and put them in touch with the problems of their time. It is no easy task to discord conventions.I927 •••• Woven rug. tiles striking in their novelty. 1927 . tex. this ploy with materials produced amazing results. to At the Bauhaus. Many students hod felt the sterility of the art academies and their too greot detachment from life. Si 1925 Anni Albers: Topestry. Technique was acquired as i was needed and 142 as a foundation for future attempts. but gradually something grew out of their ploy which looked like a new and indeoendent trend. i can be mos active when knowledge does nof impede it at too eorly o stage.

red.lopnone a[.JJ ll!l". The interest 01 industry was aroused. concentrotion on a definite purpose now had a disciplinary elfect. and cellophane leroL Wool A~ni Albers: Drooery moBlue end while. Co Ion and reyon Anni Albers: Wall coverCotton Guntha Shcrcn-Stdlzl: Coot material. gray motericr. Wool Anni Albers: blue. Berger: Textile._= .The desire to reach a larger group of consumers brought about a transition from handwork to machine-work: work by hand was lor the laboratory only. more systemotic troining in the mechonics 01 weaving wos in roduced. Bled. helping 0 create new art forms and new techniques. Tal' cotton. The changing moods 01 the time aHected the Bauhaus workers and they responded according to their ability.J"-~-. Light-reflecting and soundabsorbing materials were developed. Wool Gun ho Sheron-S Cur'oin me eriol. Dessau lion.. brown. paper Iibre and cellophane Anni A bers: Drapery and rayon Drapery rno- OMi Berger. as well as a course in the dyeing 01 yorns. and rcvon 011. T "'0 shcdes of brown. Albers: Wall cover- ing. As 0 result. The whole 'ronqe 01 possibilities had been freely explored: .. Knotled rug. 144 more instincive than conscious and only in re- 145 trospect does their meaning become evidenl. each individual bringing to it his interpretation 01 a mutually accepted ideo. wark by machine was lor moss production. Ce. l"!P.' ~e' feI ~. The physical qualities 01 ma erials become a subject of interest. Many of the steps were . terio . While ce 'Icphc ne a nd colton .I: ing. The work as a whole was the resul of the [oint efforts of a group. 1'127-t928 Ann. Ton. Weeving workshop.

red. Bloc end while. bloc" Smyrno.Lis Volger: Rug. I\lbers: Dreoery rr o'eriel. Albers: Wo COlfer'og. woo. Heavy wool ond :ine hemp 146 141 Ott' Berger: Reg. br'llion bi~e" red yellow. royor ond wool 1\on. clock. Grey. Co'lon. Smy'no wool oed heme Ann. Whi'e. Ce oohone ond cotton I\nni I\loer5: no'ted rug. 1925 .

.. so that the suppression 01 capitols added fresh insult to old injury. posters. moreover.._QPII!L5CHRj.IC '==::--... O"". neue orbeiien de. 1925 I..'" j herbert ooyer: cover oesign. especially on the typewriter. BAUHAUSBOCHER lille ooge.. magazines. ~ SCHAUBU AG . .... professional and business men. monoly-nogy: ~ .. J i '~'" ... 192b cover . 7 -. students. .".M:. for lants and type cases would be smaller.. since the shift key would then become unnecessary. printing would be cheaper... ~I. typographical experimen~ the balance of thiS volume. ..O.(Sl'R2" fhe triadic Ii hogroph bellet.:N eAUM .. nevertheless the bauhaus mode 0' thorough alphabetical house-cleaning in all its printing.and lower-case letters..~~ ~~ KINDE.·N .. stenographers. to page 221.. catalogs._ . the bauhaus had always used roman or even sans serilletters instead of the archaic and complicate..I.'Y'II L-M·O . with these common sense ecanomies in mind the bauhaus began in 1925 to abandon capitol letters and to use small letters exclusively. and at the same time is less of a burden on all who write-on school children. o DIENSTACi'iS FE8RUAR8~~ • DI ENSl AG 26.~a.~.. VOI\'rI(AKAUJ' lUI tl(lI'H[if!. bo uho us pros oectus. bOJhcu.. ~'.. • .__ • 148 esker schiernrner: poster. so that printing establishments would save space and heir clients money.. to recall this..a._1.typography workshop ~erberl boyer: pege loyau .. especially because in german capitol initials are used lor all nouns...KOHLEPAPIER .. .IILImIdiIto. will be printed without using capitol letters. 1921> I. prospectus. 1925 typography by herbert bayer why should we write and print with two alphabets? both a Iorge and a small sign are not necessary to indicate one single sound..".... it gives us practically the some result as the mixture of upper. ~0ftGSIUi' UNOu>LEI!IIllAII:. beuhells werksiaiten." .... F{MUM ""'" ..... it could be written much more quickly. stationery and even colling cords._ ----..... typewriting could therefore be more quickly mastered and typewriters would be cheaoer because of simpler construction. I D. dropping capitols would be a less radical relorm in english. mchoiy·ncgy: design. eliminating capitols from books..b gotijic alpfJallet customarily employed in german printing. indeed the use of capital letters occurs so infrequently in english in cornpcrison with german that it is difficult to understand why such a superlluous alphabet should still be considered necessary.WCJit~ U ~~ eAUHAUSWERKST~TTEN .-... this step toward the rationalization 01 writing and printing met with outraged protests.n lid a the bauhous war shop. o ..._. NEUE ARBEITEN NaJ&. we need only a single alphabet.~_ 149 1924 - A hondbills.. 1~95 : ~ ... 'I we do not speak a capitol A and a small a.. y • jlJl.:~~:__- ----. mogc!ine quolil"#. .IICM]( """..

r.rs pr'n!i~9 shop.aa.... design based on three fundamental shopes. 1926 magazine aflsel... It. 1924 bco] P. ~'I~ "'1' tla tI~ I~ josef clbers: stencil letters.lu· . verticol and o. 1921> jaser albers: stencil leiters. I~..abcde'GhiiH I mnpqrstuvw he rber' boyer: univerSal tyee. er. nertlerbayer: universaJ toe.. uu U 151 U 'JU X MONDRIAN NEUE GESTALTUNG . 1925 r. rl'edium cnd lighf weights.a tt It tl. cherecters 01 bose snow med'um ana j'gh! "eig'*. chorccrers at oose show bold.... 1925.. (r •• 4If."'" ~~" I"If ." d to. ". pi med in The beuhc. 1928 !~ ! : cover design.. herbert bayer: resao reh in the developmen 01 he universal type stuvwxyz a dd abcdefGhi iK mnopqr 150 neroert 1926 oyer: po.. la iii: I. 1925 nerbert boyero e~hibi 'an DOSier.:J I t l ! I ~ herbert bayer: basic e ements Irom whie the universol type is b~i r up: a :9" orcs. nn rill L mohaly-nogy: jcc er.zo~tc line. condensed bole. nree angles... xqzaS dd l:i :4: 1: . improveo. ·tril. basic elements Irom which the letters ore built vp.

...... 1935 + 11-: 1+ :.. •• -:.... t M e 153 .. given: form 01 leHer T c ononymous: 5 dies in illusion of dislance a d proximity for purposes 01 layout and display. given: form of let er z. given: nine squores of equal size I anonymous: rhemotic contrasts studies in and optic a + + olexo nder sc hawi ns~y: poster advertising hars.. <. e"ec<. u b 6l + --.. free choice 01 odd"lionol elemenl. .•••• ••..course a anonymous: slud ies in can rosr. rr" .._ •• :\4 ••• '1 T c rpm T --. . 1928.~ I C IIIr ~III ~ ~ d 7 __U~§§III ----_ ~ + b 152 alexander schawinsky: cesser adverlising men's clothing. 1928 T1 T T __:__j JT[ -% #'... d anonymous: studies in comoosi ion. given: seven bars of equal size e anonymous: STudies in composition. . given: a cross b anonymous: studies in contrasl..Iled in :Ialy.. .

thanks to photography. eye view. nowever. a poster must convey instantaneously 011 the high points alan ideo. ine bOlJhous stuoenis deeply concerned with new prob ems 01 spoce relations . applied photography. mohol -nagy: led a ond The swon. moholy-rogy: 1926 do s. 1915 I. ~' :stucio rellecled in gorde n cry. the camero's objective presentation of lacts frees the onlooker from dependence on someone else's personal description and makes him more ap to form his own opinion. is course os well -cs his own photogrophic work (such cs the photogrorn. "negative e1le<::5. . by moholy~nagy 54 the most importont development affecting present day layout is photo-engraving.e 15. the two new resources of poster art are: II) photography. 1923 I. double prinlinq. 1923 pho 0I. moholy-nogy: ~oSIer. the expression 01 ideas through pictures is lar more exact. the inclusion 01 photography in poster design will bring about another vital change.. rroholy-nogy. e c.ponded eagerly to the new ortisfc possibilities 01 pho ogrophy: bird'.. oheremor rcqe. (2) emohotic contrast and variations in typagrophicalloyout. no. 1922 . which ollers us a brood and powerful means of communication. or exposure without 0 comero I s im".e. until 1929. on egyptian pictograph was the result of tradition and the individual ortist's ability. enerogrurn. including the bolder use of color. bu '1 wos pul to proclical US" in odvenising loyout. hod 0 very lmpcrto~ in!luence o~ 0 II bo ~~ous work. oosle rs ood typogrophy. blanking auf. it wcs moholy-nogy who first encouroged the bouhovs to consider photogrophic oroblems. now.lel. the greatest possibilities lor future development lie in the proper use of photographic means and 01 the different pho agraphic techniques: retouching."us the bauhaus 100 on active oorl in Ihe development of pholograpnic orl. no only wos ehetogroohy thus considered 05 on eno in 'tsell.islen~e . enlargement. the mechanical reproduction 01 photographs in any size. moholy-ncgy: gram.photography no technicol photogroohic worhhop was in e. distortion. 8J 155 I. 1923 (from bib1. eye ono worrr'." double exposure ond oouble printing microphotogrophy cno e~ orge. p~o omontoge I.loled ne s ude" s to rno e Ihei' own experiments. photogroo~y.

---florence hetlry: photograph. werner 1928 leist: the pipe. o!fentior. herber boyer. 1928 . 1931 . photograph lor cover of magazine bouhou r. new york. mohaly-nogy: negative prin!. 1927 ____ anonymous. awarded first prize in the exhibition af foreign advertising phatagraphy at the art center.! ohatamantage lut leininger: photograph. 1927 156 nerbert 1928 boyer: balcony.

ano e ' schowi~s.hibi.>31 olexc ncer schcwi nsky: transparent oisoloy lor hot water boi ers.in.ander scho v(ns·t morce breuer. 1928 alexander sc:nowi~5l<yand joos: schmiol.h·c't"on. 905 a nd wCJ~er e.hibi'ion. berlin. colog-e. berlin. gas and woter exhibi'ion berli .hiDition 01 the ba~ho~s by bouhcus 'Isell.exhibition technique 'i'n addit'on 10 e hibilions 10. ot he press e. the 101pea? e may De herbert boyer. 1928 olexonder st~o".ter groo'u5 moholy·nogy. berlin.~ oui Cling ex· oosition. noll of elementary 'Vpograohy.posi'ior. gas cnd wo'er exhibition.schol'eo I building e.58 heinz Ioew and franz ehr ich: siudies in luminous adver ising. Iq29 wo. eosrer in junkers pavilion.ng orcble-ns (gogio) berlir . design lor a tronsportoble exhibition pavilion advertising ogric ulturo Mac hinery. 1928 oi lh" lawns 01 d essou and lilrbs' berl' n. Iq17 herberl DO yer. 9lnibi'ie· oi the buildi ~g unions (502:01" boug"we'. 1928 : port of d'sploy lor i~ nkers go s water nacters. oer. 1930 herber' boyer monoly-nogy welter 9rooi". 1928 herbert baler and hermon Foulik 'ronsporsoble oovil'on lor exhibiiior purposes e"'7 i. 1928 -<:----.s.ion. 1928 wolter gropiL'.wi~g exh:bifan des'gns me"lianed: heroert ocver. marcel brevet. berl' n 1'. exec ~ted oy rne bo u hous workshops. gos and water eXhibition. i~n ers Dov·lio·.k)': plosiic health pos'er in jun ers pcvilion.:i orexoneer sc~owjns. 1928 .bund elhioition paris. oerli". ". gas o-id woler e. e. 1928 ol"xo-de schowinsky: povilion ior ju ~kers 901 boi ers.hio'tion oi hOL. gos and we er exhibi'ion. berlin. 1928 '1. 1931 Noher grop'us ana ole.'n' y: heo If. mOholy-nogy ole. herbert bayer wer.

and horough training in oc ual pain ing. plans and elevo"ons b poster work 7 knowledge 01 tools. watercolor. melollic point 3 lundomen 01 principles 01 color harmony lacquers.i "g tech ~ique. he enphosis was not on potlern bu on lexlure: scud colo" were used. exoerimenls in various echniques and MO erial. celscrnine. bookkeeping wall paper produclion was planned under 9ropiu s. 01 the post lresco. dryer. m. pigmen s 4 prcc icol opplicotien of the new ered in he experi-nentol workshop 5 proiects !or color schemes models. erection echniqves discov- lor given architectural ing 01 stencils ana cnrtoons. tives. casein and mineral pain 5 tempera. marble and a obosler dust plosters ior empero poinling. he mOK' perspec- preparing est:mo es. models wall-pain ing workshop. he influence on german Man ulocturers was very greo ' bcuhous woll paper was widely imitated. 0' 5collo ding working drawings. and chemical nature 01 oils. desseu. wood and metal.iis von der rohe. gypsvm plosler. . on Ine walls.wall-painting workshop _ pointing " : wolldesigns. ploster 01 Doris. varnishes. late'. preporalion ol Ihe ground lor panel pictures 161 2 siudy 01 all known po in. spa tier pointing (airbrush) on ploster. 1927 inslruclion in Ihe worKshop included instruction 01 'arm. and a number 01 new techniques were introduced. 8 taking dimensions. color and moleriols. I technical composi ion 01 he poinling in heory practical ground 160 lime ploster. encaustic oil point lacquer. octuol execution too place under ho nnes meyer and.

I'ar a' arimary plostie larm s.lic 'or.sculpture workshop _ : pcrcboloic sculpture. 162 L ahr ich: sculptured r"liel. o.. linear end __ : cemperotive . lap lrc nslcrmotion 0' cyl ino er to hvperoololc..." S._ elosrie 'arm.d '1'1 1926· na con co as..iaf'llatian a' in" and circle '0 hyp"r· boloic a no sphere plo.. 1926· 1928 - _ co-n oorisor-. negative : llJoy'n posirive '101'0 I".928 carr DO . 1'1'16. 1926··1928 .I918 163 ._ prlrnorv lorrns. boliam 'ran..

colors and lights. 1927.loge 1heory • . march 16. pp. let us consider plays consisting only in the movements 01 forms. if the movement is purely mechanical. exec uted at zwidou. 1926 olexonder schcwins y: design lor" theoter curtoin from a lecture with stage demonstrations by oskar sch/emmer. we are predominantly visual beings and therefore purely visual askor schlemmer: donee of gestures.. a theater (including both stage and auditorium) demands above all on architectonic handling of space: everything that happens in it is conditioned by space and related to it. where we hod no theater 01 our own. 1927. light is of great impor once. we are interested in interior space treated os port of the whole composition of he building. 1. t 927 alexonder s<:howins~y: design for georg kaiser's From mor« fill midnighf_ 1926 es or sell emmer: varia lions an 0 mcsk. we hod to use some one of the local stages for our productions. the whole conception could have the precision -<-:i olexonder schowinsky: ligures lor robbers' bolle· in two ganl/emen of verooa. involving no human being but the man at the switchboard. danced by schlemmer. 30. drawings 'or c es s in . siedoll. design lor 0 ballet. lights. however. 3.stage workshop olexonder schawinsky: 5 oge set ior a sho kespeoreo n oloy. delivered before the friends of the bauhaus. no. not only he interior but the building as an architectural whole-on ideo which has especial fascination in view 01 the new bauhaus building-we might demonstrate to a hiherto unknown extent the validity 01 the spoce-sioqe. 1927 164 experience can give us considerable so islcction. komins y. if we go so for as to break the narrow confines of the stage and extend the drama to include the building itself." will be fulfilled. 2 in weimar. form (two-dimensional ond three-dirnensionol] is on element of space: color and light are elements of form. if forms in motion provide mysterious and surprising effects through invisible mechanical devices. stogecralt is on art concerned with space and will become more so in the future. no. in the new building at dessau we are lucky enough to have our own theoter. a noble "feast for the eyes. as an ideo. published in bibl. c. now. if space is trans/armed with the help of changing forms. colors. drowings lor co's in stage theory. then all the requirements of spectacle. 1925 osl:or schlemmer: stiltwal ers. the units con be combined in various wcvs.

but firmly believe that some day we shall develop soeech quite naturally From them. lorrn and light? is entirely mechanized drama to be thoughl of as on independent genre. l'l2b mute ploy of gesture ond movement. 1'127 esker scnlemmer: spire] figure from the 1riodic ballet I. perhaps i rnporton I-speech.glht ploy. how long can a soectoror's interest be held by rotaling. we admit that we have cautiously this problem so lor. swinging.s~)": stage set. can it dispense with man except as a perfect mechanic and inventor? since at present no such mechanically heinz loew: model 01 a mechanical stage set.which is meant 10 serve as 0 background lor per. the rronscendentol-on organism of lIesh and blood as well as 0 phenomenon existing within the limits of time and space. lcrmonces by human actors. of using light equipped stage exists. cutcmctc. heis the antithesis olthe rationally constructed world of form. etc. humming machinery. the humon actor continues to be on essential element 01 drama for us. film projections. produced by s10 gil class . experiment with dillerenl way. it is only a question of money_ but there is also 'he question of the extent to which such equipment would be justified by the effects obtained. but becouse we are well its signiliconce ond want to moster for the time being we ore sotislied 01 on imthe most avoided does not aware of it slowly. and he will remain 16& 50 as 10'1g as there is a stage. and since our own experimentol stage until now hos had even less equipment thon the regular theaters. not because it concern us. not as literalure. as though they were heard for the first lime. he is the creator portant element 01 drama. as on event. but in an elementary sense. we wont to understond words.the Ihealer 01 steel. modern engineering can produce such equipment.exalnder schowinsky: preliminary sketch lor space theater. the immediate. i am speak'ng af ccmplatelv independent mechanical not of the mechanization and rechnico renovation of sloge equi ome nt. .of a vast automaton requiring 0 tremendous technical equipment. even if accompanied by innumerable variations in color. concrete and 9 ass with rolaling slage. with the -<-= o. with pantomime. alexander scnawiMky: s~ekh. color and light· he is the vessel of the unknown. 192b 0 ISl alexander schowi r.

danced by siedoH esker schlemmer: donce.emmer: de'ineo ion 01 space by human figure. produced class wives by sage os 0' schlemme-: by weininger musical clown. therefore.e whole interior. c. donced andreas OSKor schlemmer: drawings of the human body.ign lor 0 spherical theo er. schlemmer. is drown toword the center ond is.::oskar scb . block ligure in cen'er: osker schlemmer . heibig. each ovenooks Il. opticcl end ocoustica! relo ionshi p fa the whole stage closs rehearsing On the bouhous roo I. the speclotors . donced by s·"dol'. drawings lor clcss in sloge theory U " 169 a exa oder schowinsky: sketch.it olo"g the interior surface 01 Ihe g obe.OS or schlernrner : bOJ: ploy. in 0 new psycho log lcol.. do need by schowinsky. 1927 . produced by sage clcss andreas weininger: oe.

cente . no.enema. mo'~ len. and which in my opinion used in oll other fields. were: to a simwi hin drawn rendering. etc.kandinsky's course analytical drawing !irst stage: the sn. 2 accentua the use 01 ion of the principal tensions through brooder lines or the use of color.. briefly described sloge as follows: I indicotion of the tensions discovered In the composition-rendered in line-drawing.in exoct seeing ond exoct not of the external oopearance of but of i 5 constructional elements. to be carefully their logical lorces or tensions which are to be discovered in the objec s themselves the 0 limits to be determined the charocteris by the studen himsell. 3D) should be the method of the entire composi ion in a 01 in- 3 rendering simplified line-drawing. a grindstone and 0 pail). 01 form. studied separately and afterwords in relation to the whole composition. poi). instruction is based upon the method 'n my other courses. their weight. instruc ion at the bauhaus is train- ing in observation. 'op. above: . 3 exercises in the mas drastic simplification of the whole and of the individual tensions-concise. the main theme of a composition can be explored in relation to the most varied partial tensions.: 01 lhe teit. subjec s ond methods can be described only very generally in these few words. irs! analytical of the entire problems composition . .ions incicoted :n co. exact exoression. the composition 2 different vious solely os energyis reduced to orobdraw- \ possibil't'es of the composition: hidden construe ion (see \ \ \ ond ing opposite). essen iol scheme 01 the composi-ien .he comaosition ic forms of sin- gle ports of the still-lile. grindslone. lint stoge: cornbinetion 01 sing e. (11 third stage: I the objects rangements are considered of lines. handling of plone surfaces is prelirn'norv second sloge: oojects recognizob. 2 distinguishing and in he logical arrangement of them. shope. simila obiec 5 into o lorger for".ons. for instance. character. tensions. in mony cases there are more possibilities to be considered than hove been 'ndicoted here. such as the significance of single ports 01 he composition. \ \ \ \ ~ third sloge: left: objects com pletely ro sloted into energy tens. reduction ple. on object. major certain began with 5 the 101l0wing must be added: I d owing ill-lile compositions. (from bibl. 2 drawing the hondling of space. the obiects suggested are a sow. pri ncipol weig hIs in brood lines: loco poinl 01 the cons rucliona net in dottea lines above: essen ial schene 01 . \ \ \ 110 3 indication of the constructional net with its local or star ing poin 5 (see the dolled lines in drawing opposi e. grodual transition to the second s ruction. crs.dents and their .e (sow. moin construction indieo~ed by do ted lines.

t~e right to vole woo discorded in subsequent stotutes: in fact. without it we can do a lot. in mechanics characterize teaching direc ed toward the essential and the functional.000 -nerks. 100. the director hod far-reaching powers. art. a uncover.. it can get along as a matter of principle without intuition. o the stotu as provided. one learns to dig down. but not everything. decisions by majority vole were dropped altogether. it can boldly bridge the distance from one thing to another. it can remain logical. without intuition. oil on canvas.. has been given sufficient room for exoct investigation. in contrast to the opparent. to lind the couse. futl responsibility . oaul lee: holl c. 14) . and for some lime the gates leading a it have been open. the faculty had 0 nom ina I right to vote on vital decision s. is temporarily superior. ever. it can get along. at o esseu Ihe budget was prepored by the municipal council and subrni ted 10 the sledfpar/ament. exactitude. in the beginning it is wholesome to be concerned wi h the (unctions and to disregard the finished form. for the sale of models 10 indus rial lirms: the business mo oger [syndikus] who was in charge 01 the commerciol activities 01 the bouhous and loter of the bouhous corporation. that 011 decisions hod' to be preceded by discussion.. studies in algebra. he was given "Iull charge 01 the creative and cdrninistrn~ive activities of the bauhaus. the lormal consul onts were: I. do different things." in the early year. one may work a long time. mathematics and physics furnished the means in the form of rules to be followed and to be broken. if tempo is disregarded.. one learns to recognize the undercurren s. mode up o! moslers eaching probIems of form ond lee hnicol instructors in Ihe workshops (the loiter were included only at weimar). courtesy bucbbclz go ery 112 113 paul klee speaks: we cons ruct and construct and yet intuition still has its uses. for proble-ns of internal argo izo ion and teaching: the bauhaus council. and the student representatives. the who I. ot dessou. to analyze. ho . the annual budgel varied between I ]0.. winged by intuition. s granted to the director by 0 una ni mous vote. W05 under I~e jurisdiction of the ministry of public educotion. to grasp the root of hings. in Ihe belief that problems ollecting creative work can never be solved by a majority. one learns a look behind the fOCiode. but exact research being exact research. 2. but not everything. (from bibl. the antecedents of the visible. important things.. in he bauhaus itsell. what had already been done lor music by the end of the eighteenth century has at lost been begun for the piclorial arts.. institute. many things. this au hori y wos vested in the municipal council. the business manager. it can construct itself.000 and 200.. 01 weimar it was prepared by the minister of pua:ic educalion end submit ed to the thuringian /andfeg. when intuition is joined to excct research it speeds the progress of excct research. it can preserve on ordered attitude in chaos. including the director.administration w~ot authorities hod to be consul-ad by the director when it was necessary to make important decisions efiecting the internal conditions or edernol relcfions of the bouhous? at weimar. in geometry. all ins rue crs end the student representatives hod the right to por icipote in hese discussions. 1920..

01 some pointers con't make up -heir minds whether to pain' nolurolis(colly. but between the faculty and Ihe siudent body (see klee's leHer righlJ..nogy: wo II· oisp oy for 0 bouhous :es ivo 1925 peul klee: leiter to the faculty eou neil i welcome Ihe foc Ihot forces 50 d'versely insp.toltung..'ns y: birthday greet" "95 man oge 1928 iron gil clb . 'ng of responsibility lor the worl as a whole. Ihere is no rig hi nor wrong.. o ostroc Iy or no' 01 0' does not Mean chaos. "n o assuu. (signee) peel klee december. . 10 ottock on obs oc'e 's a good les' 01 streng'h. 1921 Irom a manuscript u. me-eel bre..eO for a covhcus eve~'n9 niscussion: eve s 'I i try. ore or two siudent representotives alteno eo all meeli ngs of the laculty cou ell. i~ Ihe course of titre 't become possible 0 g've the student oeoy more and more direct i :Iuence in he olfoirs ol tne whole orgenizo ion. I e educational syslem ond "5 orgorizo· lion were Irequent·y reviseo as a result of hese discussions. still 10 er.ns . 10'er on..lty council when vi a decislo s were to be mode.rer-t successes.n general. . Ih's gave eoch sl~den " leel.nued for several yeors.e on ecfve pori in she pi ng I~e oolicies of the bou hous. edited o 9rooiu5 end monoly'nogy. Ine moi . thing is to lend a hond where some h'ng needee is [oc ing.eo ebstocle. oporove a' the conHici between hem ii 'Is eHed is evioent in the lino produc. the s udents were granted Ihe rig I to seod one delegete 'rom each workshop 10 Ihe loc!. . tne wor~ as a whole. i see no choos in our tiMe. reo are worki~g oget~er 0' our bouncus. . or"g'nolly here woo o sh. nillconce fa. the stuo ents were permi ted 0 'o. clrer 1928 under vorying edilorshio. and to -neve wi!" w otever forces we can commend award o singlerrindeo economicol solution. o~r needs are c1eor eoo"gh: the pO"'oili ies are lim'ted only by ourselves. . I ere con be no douor Ihot this ospect of ne s uoenls' erective oC'ivily eontricutad lorgely to 'he .lol"ng everyona." . in accordance w'lh these views. publica io wos cont. ond mace "t easier to clarify I~e problems og. rhe bou hO~5 bo no I. but Ihe wor~ ives o"d develops Ihroug~ the oloy of oppos' ng lorces ius' cs in no ture good and bod war together proci uclively in 'he loeg run. cs 'he years possed.dent council which wes co sui eo Irom time a time by Ihe director. W05 published. rr onoly. ~ ion s subsec. 'the school is ~e servonl 0' the workshop: ard the oay wi come w~en he school will be absorbed ir to the wor'shop"). er i" 926 tne 'irst issue of the bouhc as periodical.extra-curricular activities discuuion in the beuheus: influence of the student body III the basic conception oi the bouhous hod so many rornificotions Ihot it gave rise a 0 vosl nu mber 01 prob ems demanding solution.. gropius ir'ended thai the process of learning shou d merge imperceptibly in a a comr-iueol ask (as Ihe firs monilesto pu' i . -1. the early yeo rs and even to via en' eonfroversies. not only among foculty membe .. wi" he eelleborc io 01 all members 01 Ihe bevhcus. i: i o .. this led 10 spir'ted ciiscussions in . beuIeitschrih fiir ge. heus: alexander 5cl-lo". cri icol estiMO'es ore olwoys subjective and thus a negolive iudg'llent on oncther's work can have "0 sig. Ihe cri icol were cho lenged 10 formula e prccli col suggesior-s fer 'mpreverrenl.

oerger: ligure baked doy porty g'ngeroreod ior 0 bi rfh- . 1925 116 : page irom o bitlhdoy album. mal' 09'" \92b a bouhcus costume patty at. 1925 _ -: visual re- port 01 a lrip a jugoslavia.n inger beach Iii" herbert boy e r: invitation dOlled and 10 the while feslilla!. montage 01 pictures and newspaper clippings. Iheme: while checked. striped.costumes porty lor a bauhaus DAS WEI SSE FE r photogra ph by lux le.

1928 nde' 5C nowi""y: ooster lor me beo'o. nose ond heart festival. 192b le!ler 119 j ! I I - • ... prin eo at 1 he bou hous war shop._ - herber bayer: invitation o the beord.31.. bauhaus band.n" £ 01." s'udeols ond -ncsrers."hauskllp.ted w"h ki"es ira. screen irrprir. ncs e cno heor' 'esrivo _ 1928 . "e' b.. photog'aph by lux feininger 118 heroe" ooyer: birthday gilt 10 wol er gropius.lh . 0 • ...

neurno nn poul klee: orcflc InOW. nor would it have includee SO many poi ntings in i15 exhibition. 180 181 poul llee: outdoor sport. he bouhous 1001 the eenest in eres in poin'ing and sculpture. the bauhous lelt Ihot the "woll" itsell hod to De rediscovered a"d its tree men! experimented with in many 1N0y'. watercolor. courtesy nierendorl gallery . oil on cardboard. 1923. so lno~ interest could be centered on Ihe murol or reliel "''lieh would exis as on in egrol 'eoture 01 the room rother rnon on framed pic ures which W!!re 00 chen casual oiter· hougnts." for insto-ica. Irorn Ihe very beginni ng the student boo '/ indud ad 0 nu mber of ortists who were a owed a devole themselves exc usively 10 pointing. 1919-1928 "iconoclasts" -the "house without pictures" he opposition 01 the bauhaus to conventiona and acoaemic ideas led to the charge 01 "iconoclasm. 1910. b. otherwise it would hardly hove invitee world-famous ertisls 10 ioin its faculty.. sculpture. courtesy i.painting. at one period Ihe bouhous reocted violently ogoinst the custom of overloeding the walls 01 a house wi h all kinds 01 pictures. graphic arts. 05 a metter or lact. the "house wi houl pictures" (hous ohne bilder] wos merely the shor -livsd bot Ie cry 01 a lew ex remists lor.

courtesy nierenaorl gallery vcnel leininger: villoge. oil on canvas. weterce or. 1919.Iyonel lei ni nger: nieder-reissen. 1923 . 0'1 o~ convos. 1924 182 183 Iyonel leininger: go!hen.

ky. 0. b... y: colored woodc~t. courtesy n'srendorf gal sry .ilion booro.y j.ily c-id'ns t: camoosition 307 11'0di'ied.ns y: graduated blccs. ossily kanain. ne rma nn 185 ~as.. 1927_ courlesy [. courte. oil an camoo. ail on cor-vcs. oil on ccnvos. serene . 1925.' 184 wassi y ond. 1924. neumonn .. 1922 'Hossily anain.

1923 . gloss and elester. torso. schwerdtleger: reliel. 1922 ty olean k. 1922 os Or sc nlernrner: Iree sculp ura." 186 181 johannes itlen: cubic composition. 1919 k. schwerd lege: morble. closter.

30) k_ schwerdtfeger: crchitectur el sculpture.gernard more s: the you+. lithograph_ 1921.• 923 I'" 00 uhous. no. 1922-1923 wei "nO esker schlernrner : orch -lee .'0 r schlerr mer: figure ~I. sc ulpiure workshop 1923 0.onic relia: . sondstone . oskor schlerr mer: orehhectonic rel·a'. ('rom blbl. otoster.

woodcu • 1922. no. wooocu·. 1922 . 5: mother cot. woodcu'. b. oeuman~ gerhard mcrcks: he owl.190 gerhard marc. 1923 friedl dicker: lantostic animals. (lrorn bibl. 30) 191 gerhard more s: coin and abe. 1921. COL' esy j. lithograp .

c. sy philip [chnson . moholy. tempera on cerwos. 30) I . (irom bibl. empero on convcs.. 0'1 on canvas. 192b . 1923 cs or schl ernmer: 'he bauhaus stoirs.·· . construction a II. c. COL' . 1924 192 193 esker schlem 'TIer.I~:J OS «: ./' I. 1921. moho v-nagy: cens-rucrlce ..nogy. 192'1. oi on convcs. no. do neer. lilhograph. 1 ~~ or schlemmer: ligure h~.

1923 I.ter oreque. menoly-nogy: constr ~ction b 100. !empero on ce nvos. .1922 195 pou ci roan: o. 1926 194 herbert boyer: the live. Ii ogroph. we lercolor . 192B ._ colored :slilliie. s·c" ing.

Inb josef olbers: lcrtice nicrure. •rogmen s ot colored gloss boo as. etching. 1921 191 jose' 0 loers: gloss oic ure.196 iosef 0 bers: Die ure . single pone. stoineo g1055. 1921 r~do I boschcrn: composition. 1922 . mon"oge. 192 pou citroen: -neircpc Is.

. 1924 paul klee: vorlcf on. moholy-nogy: variation. 1924 199 I. wotercolor and ink.1 esker schlere <ner: varia io . 1924 x 1 198 photograph from magazine showing crowd ana oudspaoker. pencil and wash. 01 er on ideo 01 rnoholv-nogv. tempera. watercolor ond in . 1924 .ossily ke nd insky: variation. 1914 ~ : vcr ioricn. pencil a no was n.. 1924 . Iyonel !eininger: varia ion. the pia as on this ond the opeesite page am individual vorio ions on his photograph. red and bod' nk. which were rnade up into a portiolio as a oirthdoy g'" to wo"er grapLu.

1928 . Monotyce. Me. 201 1922 werner drewes: ce cil.g. 200 campo5i"on. ludwig h.rschleld-rncek: wcrerco or.i fischer: cbstrcctlon.o oe"· b-e ~: wol~rco 1927 0 r. 1927-1928 composTen.

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