NEW YORK • 1938


Preface by Alfred H. Barr. Jr, The Background of the Bauhaus

1 II
Note 16

Bauhaus Building Houses 101 108 110 r 12 1'16 124 The Masters'

by Alexander



From the First Proclamation Teachers and Students 1923) 18 20 22 32 39 40 41 42 49 50 54 58 62 68 12 Press

Other Buildings in Dessau Architecture Deportmenl Preliminary Course: Albers Preliminary Course: Moholy-Nogy Furniture Workshop Metal Workshop: Lighting fixtures, et cetera

r 28
136 142 148 154 158 160 162 164 110 112 113 115 180 206 201 211

The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus
Copyrighl. 1938. by Tho Museum of Mod"r" Art. New York Printed in Ihe U niled Siale. 01 America Typography end cover delign by H erbe rl Bayer

by Wolter Gropius (Weimar, Preliminary Course: hten Klee's Course Kandinsky's Course Color Experiments Carpentry Workshop Stained Glass Workshop Pottery Workshop Metol Workshop Weaving Workshop Stage Workshop Wall-Painting Workshop Display Design Architecture

* Typography


Workshop Printing, layout, posters

Workshop: Photography Exhibition Technique

Wall-Pointing Workshop: Sculpture Workshop Stage Wor.kshop Kandinsky's Course Paul Klee speaks Administration Extra-curricular Activities

Wall paper

Pointing, Sculpture, Graphic Ar+, 1919-1928 Administrative Changes, 1928 Spread

Typography and Loyout; the Bauhaus Weimar Exhibition, 1923 Extra-curricular Activiti,es Preliminary Course: Moholy-Nagy Preliminary Course: Albers Opposition to the Bauhaus Press Comments, 1923-32 The Bauhaus Quits Weimar: start at Dessau, April 1925

14 19
82 86 90 91 92 93

01 the Bauhaus


Bauhaus Teoching in the United States Biographicol Notes by Jan·ef Henrich Bibliography by Beaumonf Index of Illustrations


220 222

a fresh


*A. explained an poge 149 Ihi, and lollow;ng sections 01 the book are printed without capital leiter. is accordance wilh Bauhaus typographical practice introduced in 1925,

A. Conger Goodyear, President JO.hn Hay Whitney, l st Vice-Presiden Samuel A. lewisohn, 2nd Vice-President Nelson A. Rockefeller, 3rd Vice-President Cornelius N. Bliss Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss Treasurer and

Philip Goodwin, A.I.A., Chairman Mis.s Catherine Bouer, Director of Research and Information, United States Housing Authority John Cool;dge, Art Depa tment, Vassar College Prof. Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Jr., Wesleyan University Deon Joseph Hudnut. Graduate School

It is twenty yeors since Gropius arrived in Weimar to found the Bauhaus; ten years since he left the tronsplanted ond greatly enlarged institution at Dessau to return to private practice; live years since the Bcuhous was forced to dose its doors ojter a brief rear-guard stand in Berlin. Are this book, then, and the exhibition supplements it, merely a belated upon the tomb of brave events, which ginning our courses with gigantic renderings 01 Doric capitols, or ending them with elaborate projects for colonia! gymnasiums and Romanesque 5 yscrapers. The more radical American architects and designers in 1925, ignoring Frank Lloyd Wright, turned their eyes toward the eclectic "good taste" of Swedish "modern" and the trivial bod taste of Paris "modernistic." I is shocki ng to recall that only one year later the grea.! new Bauhaus buildi,ng at Dessou was completed.


Stephen C. Clark Mrs. W. Murray Crane The Lord Duveen of Millbank Marshall Field Edsel. B. Ford Philip Goodwin William S. Paley Mrs. Charles S. Payson Mrs. Stanley Resor Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Beardsley Ruml Paul J. Sachs Mrs. John S. Sheppard Edward M. M. Warburg Jr.

Design, Harvard University Winslow Ames, Di ector, Lyman Allyn Museum, New London George Nelson, Associate Editor,

The Architectural Forum Carl Feiss, Constructor and Coordinating Officer, Planning and Housing Division, School

wreath laid important in

their day but now 01 primarily historical interest? Emphatically, no! The Bauhaus is not dead; it lives and grows through the men who mode it, both teachers and students, through their designs, their books, their methods, their principles, their philosophies of art and education. It is hard to recall when and how we in America first began to hear of the Bauhaus. In the years just after the War we thought 01 German art in terms of Expressionism, of Mendelsohn's streomlined

01 Architecture,




II is no wonder then that young Americans began to turn their eyes toward the Bauhaus as the one school in the world where modern problems of design were approached realistically in a modern atmosphere. A few American pilgrims had visited Dessau before Gropius left in I92S; in the live years thereafter many went to soy as studen s. During this time Bauhaus maleriol, typography, paintings, prints, theatre art, architecture, industrial objects, hod been included in American exhibitions though nowhere so importantly as in the Paris Solon des Artistes Decorateurs of 1930. There the whole German section was arranged under the direction of Gropius. Consistent in program, brilliant in installa ion, it stood like on island of integrity, caprice, in a melange of chaotic modernistic demons rating [what was not general-

Mrs. John Carter Mr. Philip Johnson




Clay Bartlett

Frank Crowninshield Duncan Phillips Mrs. Rainey Rogers Mrs. Cornelius J. Sullivan


Einstein tower, Toiler's Masse Wiene's Cabinet of Dr. Co/igori. It

may not have been until after the great Bauhaus exhibition of 1923 tho reports reached America of a new kind of art school in Germany where famous expressionist pointers such as Kandinsky were combining forces with craftsmen and industrial designers under the general direction of the architect, Gropius. A little later we began to see some 01 the Bauhaus books, notably Schlemmer's amazing volume on the theatre and Moholy-Nagy's Ma/erei, Phofogra-

ly recognized at that time) that German industrial design, thanks largely to the Bauhaus, was years ahead of the rest of the world. And the rest of the world began 0 accept the Bauhaus. In America Bauhaus lighting fixtures and tubular steel choirs were imported or the des ig ns pi ro ted. Am eri co n 80 uhous stud en Is began to return; and they were followed, clter the revolution of 1933, by Bauhaus and exBauhaus masters who suffered from the new government's illusion that modern furniture, [lotroofed architecture and abstract po inting were

phie, Film.
Some of the yaung.er of us hod just left colleges where courses in modern orl began with Rubens and ended with a few superficial and often hostile remarks about von Gogh and Matisse; where the lost word in imitation Gothic dormitories hod windows with one carefully crocked pone to each picturesque casement. Others of us, in architectural schools, were be-

Alfred H. Barr, .Jr., Director Thomas Dabney Mabry, .lr., Executive John McAndrew, Industrial Art Frances Collins, Curator Manager of Architecture of Publications

Director and

ond Dessou. Bul this inevitable pracess of obsalescence was even mare active in the Bauhaus while it still existed as on institution lor. as Gropius has often insisted. thot a school of design shauld have on its faculty the purely creative and disinterested artist such D'S thaeosel pointer as a spiritual counterpaint to the practical technician in Ofder thatlhey mOly work and teach side by side lor the benef. weaving. it may be said thollhe Bauhaus really faund itsell only OIfter the move 101 Dessau. All the material included in thee"hibifion has been lent 0. in some cases withaut the con senl af the artist. spirtuol so thai he may function in society not as a decarOilor but as a vital participant. the Bauhaus principles. l. Mrs. Mrs. This baok is nat complete. artistic technical. The exhibition has been organized and i'nstol'led by Herber! BO'yer with the assistance ol the Museum's Deportment 01 Archifectureand Industrial Art.nend yet I think we can now so:y without exaggeratian that the Bouhous building at Dessou was orchitecturally the mast impcr+ont structure OIlits decode. inlo 0. BOIyer ond the Museum stoll. This book on the Bouhous is published in canjunction with the Museum's exhibitian.ft with bewildering rapidity. Paul Gl'Otz. The Museum ossurnes lull respansibility far hav. ond their colleoques to colbbaralein the book and its accompanying exhibition. but time and other circumstcnces ma:ke this impassible at present.molly o'rl. Allred H. with the help of the Iotherload. This book is primarily a collection of evidence -phatographs. ten yeors afterword. that because we live in the 20th century. for althaugh the expressionist end.Borr. the student orchilect or designer should be offered no refuge in the post but should be equipped for the modern world i. ta have token on the character of periad pieces. wha. as the Bauhaus did. 192 5 -1928.incain. formerly 0. thai it is harder to design 01 lirst rote choir than to point a second rate painting-Oind much mare uselul. Many Bauhaus designs which were once five years ohecd of their time seem now. Harvard University.1 the Bouhous. and. con'eM. a!ftides and notes done an the lield 0. photoqrcphy.. BUI. architecture. Mr. These divisions ind icote more than a change of locotion andextema! circumstonces. Professor WO'lter Grapius. Laaking bock we can appreciate more fully than ever certain magn. elc.glO preu il "'0. Mr.gn.n its various osoacts. 10ter. inlhi. Q!S volunteers.out I"a. Bauhaus ideas. Jahn W. Professor ol Art at BI. formO'listic experiments at Weimar were varied ond exciting. And thaugh the building is naw adarned with a gO'bled roaf and the brilliont teochinq force has been dispersed there ore certcin methads and ideas developed by the Bauhaus which we may still ponder. the ideo of 01 Bauhaus style Of a Bauhaus dagma as something /ixed and permanent was at all limes merely the inaccurate conclusion of superficial observers. Bauhaus 1919-28.intan Sherwood. book is being shown wilh. lar instance.! 011 the student. prepored by Herbert Boyer under the general editorship of Professor Grapius ond with the generaus collobororion Oil a dozen Bauhaus leO'chers. Bauhaus men. tyoogrO'phy. Jr. It is divided into twa ports: Weimar. like the exhibition it is for the most pert limited 101 the first nine yeOirs of the institutian.. Br. but. which token together form one 01 the chiel cultural contributions of modern Germany. economic. have been spread throughout the world. a well-ordered. a/ the Graduate Schaal of Desi. bring tagether the various orts af pointing. Bouhous designs. There are.1 actian. Mr. lor same material could not be brought aut 0/ GermO'lny. The Museum ol Madern Art wishes to IhOink especiaUy Herbert Bayer lor his diHicult. sociol. extensive and painstaking work in assemhling and installing. Nevertheless this boak. Far reasons beyand the contral of any af the individuals invalved .1 the Museum's request. Philip Jahnsan ond 01 the Bauhaus hod already Mr. camplete and corelully documented history prepored by a dispassionote autharity. have assisted Mr. and Josel Albers.' conlidered edviseble 10 dalele the IIom. the lost live yeors 01 the Bauhaus cauld nat be represented. else thase who hove generausly lent moteriol 10 the exhibition ond contributed phatagraphs lor repraduction in the boak. is by lor the most complete ond auIharitOilive occounr of the Bauhaus so lor OIttempled. In this way. At some lime a delinitive wark an the Bouhaus should be written. tha most students should face the foci that their future should be invalved primarily with industry and moss production rother than with individua! cro ftsmansh ip: thot teochers in schools of design should be men who are in odvonce af their proiession rather than safely and academically in the reargua'rd. the exhibition ond laying out this baak. Ise Oropius lor her ossistonce in editing Ihe boak. the fundamental chO'rOicter I been established under Gropius' lecdershlp. Wh. what have we in America today to lecrn lrorn the Bauhaus? Times change and ideas of what canstitutes modern art or architecture or educatian shi. lartunotely far the purposes of this book.licent achievements 01 the Bauhaus which are sa obvious thai they might be overlooked. one mOlYask. ond assembled here with a minimum or retrospective revision. During these five yeors much excellent work was done ond the internotionol reputcrion of the Bauhaus incraosad rapidly. And some of its ideas are no longer so useful as they ance were. Boyer.en the book "'0" 0. And we can OISkif in modern times there have ever been so many men af distinguished tolent on the faculty of any other art schoolar cccderny. Also Miss Sora Bobbitt. . thsotre. thot thoraugh manual experience of moleriels isessenriol to the student 01 design-experience at [irs! confined to free experiment and then extended ta p-octicol shap work.as 01' se¥ero·il 01 Ihe!e o'lilll.slly.$I$. thot the study or rotionc] design in terms o] technics ond moteriols shauld be only the lirst step in the development 01 a new and modem sense 01 beauty.ack Mountain Callege and formerly of the Bouhaus for their help in preparing the exhibitian.. even within its lield.'. Alexander Schawinsky..8 _ degenerate or bolshevistic. for his supervision 01 the baok and exhibition. It is only eight years since the 1920's come 10 OI. 1919 -1925.ing invited Professor Grapius. Director * 9 'The work 01 .1 Ihe point 01 goin. the period during which Gropius wcs director. This is history. Jo. thOit the school OIldesign shauld. modern synthesis wh' ch di sregards canven tionol dis!i nctions between the "line" and "applied" orts.

.m. The committees." on "Athens-on-the-Ilrn": anywhere in Germany it would have been much the some in the stormy cultural atmosphere following the catastrophe 01 1918. 09 to note thot the some phrase wos used in on cttcck on Ihe exhibition 01 Impressionist ond Post-Impressionist Po.. The latter. were drown to the Bauhaus as to a magnet."Men and women 01 Weimar! Our old and famous Ar School is in donger! to whom the obodes 01 our art and cui ure are sacred..lond School 01 Design Formerly Director 01 the l. Yet this very tension and alertness may have contributed to the quick and clear-cut development 01 the Bauhaus. Hcnover. This reception was not to be blamed on the radi ional "spirit of Weimar. 1920. It was remarkable with what . elected by he ci irens . The Confusion 01 the Post. but to those who clung to the post. are reques ed to ottend a public demonstro ion on Thorsdcv. As early as 1919 there was talk 01 "art-Bolshevism which must be wiped out" and even then there were appeals to the "notional German spirit" of artists who were to "rescue mature art. town living more in the post than in the present.ondesmuseum. On one side were aligned all those who could not understand that the pre-war world was dead. even outside Germany. the Bauhaus was like a red rag. and this fact in port explains the force of the attock launched against the Bauhaus. II is interest.nli. "Goethe lawn. and to find a new way of life." It was a feverish end tormented notion that drew such drcsfic distinctions between 'he old and new and mode peaceful growth impossible. " All citizens 01 Weimar THE BACKGROUND OF THE BAUHAUS by ALEXANDER DORNER Director of the Art Museum 01 the Rhode 1. Germany II It was with such alarms that the people of Weimar greeted the appearonce of the Bauhaus in their midst." a -0 unanimity post-war Germons found in every novelty a sign of some ideological program. ot 8 p. of course. the adherents 01 the old art academies .War Period German opinion was divided into extreme factions. January 22.ngs at Ihe Metropolilo:n Museum in New York in 1'121. First to protest against the Bauhaus were.. on the other stood men and women determined to learn from the debacle..

in some ways a retrogressive Romantic. Nowhere clear suggestions for occupied with Art Nouveau ornament. differentiated This "applied art" was carefully from "line art. Henry von de Velde of the engineer as the true architect It was the youngest of the Werkbund leaders. Purism and Dadaism.. reinlorced concrete. dieval He strove. 01 monuments and pertrc] s in the grand manner. These revolutionary movemens sessed were often no common mutually program hostile. and linoleum. Wal er Gropius. Hermann Muthesius sought 0 synthesis between the "machine style" and the Morris "arts and crofts" movement. hod drafted a Memorandum on their individual views. he was pre"Gropius' predecessor ond Crofts. called for a new type of logical structure. the Belgian our times. in Holland. they possave that 01 oppoartist. and of the bourgeoisie whom the academies supplied with art-an art carrying on the tradilion 01 eclectic architecture. he differed from his contemporaries in the driving earnestness with which he attacked the problem of reconciling art and on industrialized society. In contrast wih England and its "arts and crofts" movement. dared to banish all ornament from his buildings. different abstract and Constructivist movements. in Italy. Futurism. at Ihe Weimor Academy of Arts the Industriol Prefabrication of Houses on a Unified Arlistic Basis. inspiration to their European 01 the French official tradition. and announced that the new malerials developed by modern science. in France. The ideo of the prefab- Henry von de Velde: Weimer Bouhous build· ing. it was still the some Romanticism which lor a century hod been vaunting individualism in its struggle against academic traditions." who sow oeyond romantic experiments the purely personal and of artists trying to express carried further. hot time who "art for art's 13 production developed in the industrial revoluion. the ideal was the Gothic cathedral. by founding the Bauhaus. The cultural coordination against the artistic confusion of his day. The Deutsche Werkbund The Werkbund ideo hod been in the I BBO's by William foreshadowed in reaction He of Morris In Germany. with the means 12 as . co 1. who. began really to solve the problem. would have nothing to do with machine production. a country 01 Louis Sullivan and then Fronk Lloyd Wright were the lirst to insist that "form should follow function.1 ed Prallerhous . the creative geniuses al the 19th century and early 20th In the '90'5. from the very beginning. But. aluminum. either practically or esthetically. Called expressionism. passed into private hands." though equally contemporaries. proficiency. the depiction historical glory and decorative landscape-on or+ accepting almost any historical "style" eclectic stylistic melange. because it hod token place isolated Irom lile and its practical demands. The tide 01 Romanticism was rising to a new height in this post-war period. in solitude. achieving a new productive cooperation between art and lile. amazing technical In America. He founded the Deutsche Werkbund in 1907 in on eHart to effect real coopercrion between the besl crtists and craftsmen on the one hand. II would have been unnatural for the young Gropius to have been entirely untouched by late Romantic influence. As early as 1910 he and his moster." sition to the academies and the academic ideas were It is hard to think of anyone at thought in any terms other than soke.n Germany presented a bewilderingly confused picture. Products academies of or the to had to make their way were there any positive. on the Continent and in the United States. toward the end of the century. The "modern posed art" movements which were opas well to he academies all over Europe 01 the post. tapestries and other decaro ive material destined lor the courts and upper classes. for a revival of meof moss But. The progressive phases of Morris' hand- 01 art and econom- ics. somewhat proclaimed the Continent ond America began. rother. to glorify technology. (A the same time. Cubism." Their work was a great contem porcries. and with the new moss demand. a Viennese portly trained in the United States. Morris. At the first session of the Werkbund Theodar Fischer said. the spirit of engineering in a art. politics and religion all formed one living whole. Russia and Hungary. wherein art. both forms of unbridled individualism.. were for the most port still romantic individualists . But no one hod yet devised the means of absorbing. To him. hod originally been intended 01 their Irain designers lor the royal manufacturies of porcelain furniture. however. The purpose of that struggle hod been to enrich art and extend its horizons. was not to be achieved even by the Werkbund movement. called lor a fa urn 10 he cultural integration the great oeriods aependent on the accepted styles of the post." Therewith the fallacy 01 Morris' "croltsrncn's culture" seemed to have been overcome. "Moss production and division of labor must be made to produce quality. and trade and industry on the other. the architect Behrens. Architects and designers.) By 1900. mo- rality. his concentration on the obsolescent techniques of handicraft brought about one of the very things he was trying to prevent-the isolation of the individual ortis -croltsmon able to produce made objects only for a select lew. theoretically. such as steel. Mulhesius admitted: "We ourselves do not ~now where Wolter Gropius we are drifting. as well as pointers and sculptors. sought but not found by Morris. in the creation joined tagether in the role of which all artists ·01 croftsmen. The disappearance of court Iile and coste rule spelled the disappearance of the principal mar e of these sto e manulacluries which. consequently. handicrafts. In Germany there were Expressionism and Dadaism. until the handful of people who mode up the German Werkbund at last perceived this goal and directed their efforts award it steering clear bo h of the late academicism and the late Romantic Expressionism Adolf Laos. But. t 905 Students' s udio bUilding.

and the dual system of Instruction could be obondoned. The Bouhousat DessolJ In 1925 the Bauhaus wos moved frO'm hostile vVeimor to hosoitable Dessau. he was at work on a new project for ort educolion. loler. Re. Creative instinct combined with his strength 01 character mode his leadership unique. Her a. af Lilzl and Niensc he. familiar with science and economics. exploiting the new lightness of modern building construction." We believe that we hove only gllimpsed the great potentialities of this technicol' a'ge. encouraged by the Grand Duke 01 Soxe. it is osronishing to realize that it ever hod anylhing to do Goethe's garden neor We·imor house.Weimar who hod already discussed wilh him the possibility of his assuming the direclarship 01 the Weimar Art Academy. In 191 I he demonstrored Ihi 5 in his loctory building 01 AI/eld.mony showing lccction of Weimar and Dessou Goethe-Schiller Weimar monument. for no teachers were to be found with sufficient mastery of both phases. namely the functional foundation of design.s. .re. agoinst relentless opposition and the economic difficulties of the inflation period. By this time. The spirit ·of tunctional! design wos carried even into the "line orts" and applied to architecture. and from the Bouhaus of Ihis period derive many familiar adjuncts of conternpororv lile-sleel furniture. lamps. With equal perseverance he strug" gled to develop the rigihl program within the Bauhous irsell. por+iculorlv Cubism. 1918.un to make its woy. While still at the Irani. Wielond. a new generation of teachers hod been trained. begaln 10 unite erective imoginolion wi. Fortunotely. At Ihe very slart he stood firm. The press. during the golden ero 01 Germain poelry. This division of instruction was unavoidable at the beginning. and Dadaism. Schill . the 'N otionol Convention ossembled and ooopted the Constitution al the new Germon Republic. These buildings were the first 10 show cleorly the elemenls 01 a new orchitecturol style-free from traditional mossiveness. considering whot fhe Bauhaus eventually become. for every student at the Bauhaus was trained by two teochers in each subject-by on artist and a master craftsman.each of whom wos 01 once a creative ortisr. In the world of art his ideas stood alone amid the chaos 01 uncoordinated forces. a center of clossic German cult . a' croftsman and on industriol designer. ond. somewhat formalistic and crbirrorv attitude toward design.. Goethe's house. ond thai the 601uhous ideo has only beg. 15 Mop of Ge. ond Gropius' idea soon achieved reolizotion: modern ortisls. evidenced by 0. with Expressionism. the first products of the new education quite naturally showed the influence of contemporary "modern" movements. Weimer Weimar. The 'Early Bauhoius ot Weim. but Gropius' insistence on solving the pr6blem on a: "unified artistic bosis" was a new move toward the synthesis of technology and ort. ond thus 10 develop a new sense of functionall design. Bulla speak 0'1 0' cut and dried "Bouhaus style" would be 10 revert 10 the cultural porolysis 01 the 19th century with its "free styles. he took a most important and decisive new step.or Storting with mchilecture. quite understandably. sometimes con/used the aims 01 the Bauhaus with Ihe "isms" seen elsewhere. Gropius wonted to combine the Academy with the Weimar Arts ond Crohs School to creole a "consulting air 1 center for industry and the trades. OIlier the revol ution 01 November. New ideas began to !low forth in abundance. Because of the character of the artists on the faculty. To develop just such erective "ambidexterity" was the purpoSe 01 the Bauhaus.sidence 01 the poets Harder." By ochi evi ng this union in 1919 at the Bouhous. city and regional plonni. and debated the "entry 01 Expressionism into the Bouhous.ng. dishes. but it must be remembered how very confused the world of art was when Ihe Bouhous begon." Today. Gropiusextended his interests into the whole field of the orts. was just as full of chonging possibilities as our own "technical age. No one woul:d have prophesied success for Gropius. modern typography and layout. Set in charming surraundi:ng. the firsl and diHicult slag!e of development was over fairly quickly.. Goethe. r.14 ricoted house wcs borrowed from the United States. and ogOlin in 1914 in his oflice building at the Werkbund Exposilion 01 Cologne (both in collaboration with Adoll Meyer). modern textiles.th a practical knowledge 01 craftsmanship.." lis inlegral port.

1911 Woher Gropius: Cologne ExposiTion 0' the German Werkound. Munich 1905-1907 Studied orchtecture. Born.. honoris COJSO. Hochschule Jur Gestoltungl Resigno'ion Irom posl as Diredor 01 the 1928 Bouhous to resume private practice Member 01 Ihe board of the Reseorch In51. Wolter Grepius' mo. 1935 A. Berlin. Administration Bu'Idig. AppOinted Senior Professor. bvno. tig.posi.I.1 important worh belore the Bauhaus 16 Wolter Gropius: Dieseldriven locomotive cor oesigned for a !irm On Don. I B83 Studied architecture. 1914." by 1929 University of Hanover Moved 10 London 1934 Went into partnership with Maxwell Fry. 1914 Fro'" 0 p~otogro. 1903 Woller. u e for Building Economy of he German Reich Appoinled "Dr. Deportment of 1937 Architecture. Architect. ioined the Bauhaus comrnu~ity in 192'3 Woller Gropius cno Ado!! Meyer: Cologne E. Berlin 1910-19]4 Privo e ercetice 1914--1918 Serveo in 'he German ormy Appo inled Director of the Grossherzoglic he 1918 Soch.A. 19 4 " .i. ing. Berlin 1907-1910 Assis ani a Peter Behrens." 0' 1'123 I~e Gropius. Front view.GROPIUS. Harvard UniversiTY Wolter Gropius and Adolf Meyer: Fogus Shoe-los Factory.B. writer.eM K~nsTgewerbeschule and the Grossherzogliche Socnsisene Hechschule fjjr 8ilo ende K~nsl Union 01 he two schools under the nome )919 Beuhcus 15100 liehes Bouhcus Weimar) The Bauhaus moves 10 Dessou w:th a I 1925 !eochers end students (Bauhaus Dessou. Holl of Machinery. nee Fronk. . Harvard University Appointed Chairman 01 the Dapcrtrnern of 1938 Architecture.R. Alfelo-on-theLe·ne. 'ion of the German We.

between the Wolter Gropius 01 Berlin ond tha office 01 rnorschell 01 Weimar with the agreement 01 visieno] Republicon Government 01 Sore·Weimor sen. orchitect he Hoi. Architects.Eisenach.. the g ace of heaven may couse his wor fa blossom into ort. Therein lies a source The contract lor the a ireclion 01 the lkIuho us eluded 01 Weimor April I. like the crystal symbol of a The . is on exalted craftsman. moments beyond the conrol of his will.irst Bouhous seo Lyonal Fe ini ngar: Woodcut Irom Ihe proclomotion. There we must all Art is not a "profession. Together let us conceive and creote the new building of the future. coopero ive eHort 01 all craftsmen. But proficiency in his croft is essential fa every artist. was can. sculptors. Today they exist in isoloticn. ond I. Their noblest Was once the decoration of buildings." Architects.t .From the FIRST PROCLAMATION of the WEIMAR BAUHAUS: The complete building is the linol oim function 01 the visual arts. turn to the crafts dillerence The artist pointers. mus recognize anew of a building pain ers and sculptors the compasite choracter Only then will their spirit as on entity." is no essential between the artist and the craftsman. withou the clcss distinctions which raise on orrogant barrier between craftsman and artist. [Sechof he of creo ive imoginolion. the oro.Weimor.e Deoor ments Ministry 01 Store. 1919. 1919 fir.eo. Let us creo eo new guild of craftsmen. Iram which they can be rescued only hrough Peter Rohl Program a' Ihe opening celebra ions 01 Ihe Bauhaus 01 'he German otiono T. ter 01 Weimar. which will embrace architecture and sculpture and pointing in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hands of a million workers new faith. work be imbued with the architectonic which it has 105 as "solon crt.. In rare mo- 18 ments 01 inspire ion. 1919 the conscious.

1920. Thunder and ligh ning ore le loose uoon him a ge him inlo 0 so e of ogilo ion. oul I decided 10 join the Bau ous a once.000. I· wos during the post-war years.. Bauhaus members come Irom all social cIO'55es. Paul Klee. and L6sz16 Moholy. rio. three Ger ens from he Baltic coun rias. Replacement 01 cer oin members of Ihe old sloif. I mode inquiries as to whal the Bou ous really wos.00). 1919. lyonel Feininger and Gerhard More s in May.. This eno bled him !O hove three moslers opeointsd at he very beginning: Joho nes Uten.eo war. April. PAUL LEE GERHARD MARC S LYONEL FEINI GER JOHA NES ITIEN WHERE DID THE STUDENTS COME FROM 7 The s udents ol the Weimar Bauhaus come Irom 011over Germo~y. he managed 10 give some financial supporl to 'hose students w a produced saleable goods in ne Bauhaus workshops. LOTHAR SCHREYER OSKAR SCHLEMMER WASSILY ANDINSKY The s udenl body was composed 01 two hundred Germans. and Gropius herelore persuaded the Weimar Ministry 01 Education to cancel tuition lees. hall 01 whom hod served in the ormy during the lost years 01 the g.orions. led to bi ler conlroversy with the older genera ion 01 ortists in Weimar. 01 hough il exaggerated 1 e oclual lac s. ornemented wilh Feininger's woodeu. Oskor Schlemmer. But he happiness and fullness of those years mode US lorgel our poverty. The Bauhaus budget in 1920:20b. Wossay andins y.WHO WERE THE TEACHERS? During the . and Irom Au. who did nol lit into the new educo-io 01 line al e Bauhaus. 1922. t 923. LASZLO MOHOLY- AGY . Mos of the sludels hod to earn Iheir living. _ . most 01 rhem in eir early wen ies. January.+Ob marh ( 50. Some come from Ihe youth movemems.he Souhaus. lour een Aus rions. June. SOme barelool or in sondols." This report. nor hand sourh. some wi h e long beards 01 o· is s or osee ics. some still in unilorm.or some vaccncies occurred on the stalls of Ihe two schcols ( he Academy 01 Picloriol Art and e Acaaemy a' Arts and Crohs] which Grcpius lc er united in . I wos old hal "during Ihe enrronce exc minations every oppliconl is locked up in odor room. They were joined later by Adoll Meyer. They mode a vivid cppecrcnce. woo hirds 01 them were men. His being odrni ted de oends on how well he d ascribes his reoc ions. Furlh e rmore. They were Irom seven "en to lorty years old. 20 ADOLF MEYER FROM A STUDENT'S LmER When 1 sow the lirs Bauhaus proclamation. and to this day I wonder w' 01 rnosr Bouhcus members ived On.09Y. 1921. My €leona ic iUlire was lor from assured. lired my enthusicsrn. 1921. 1919. wo Sudelen Germons and two Hung.

Only work which is the product of inner compulsion can have spiritual meaning. and. Its abilities. was condemned too life of fruitless artistic cctivity. Olbrich. the individual will remain enslaved and society will remain disordered. With the developmen of the academies genuine folk art died away. Rus~in and Morris in England. fed upon false hopes and trained as one-sided academicians. Unequipped to function successfully in the struggle for existence. Lac of all vital connection with the life of the community led inevitably to barren esthetic speculation. But lately the artist has been misled by the fa 01 and arrogant fallacy. all sought. corogrop So thus deprived hem of vitality. therefore. in consequence. which isoI a ted a rtistic ph enomena (/' art pour art) and echniques or economics. its spiritual and material resources lind concrete expression. 01 life. for ol sen e nces been e 01 subadd- The dominant spirit of our epoch is already recognizoble although its form is not yet cleorIy defined. the buildings themselves oHer irrelutable evidence 01 inner order or inner confusion. finally. all arts. have been ed. not on the betterment 01 his outward circumstonces. New structural elements develop very slowly. whose wor reflects the attitude of the entire community. and draughted and rendered "design" remained in the foreground. The second half r DEE U"D AuFBAU DES STAAJUCIEN Published in 1923 al Ihe Bauhausverlag. No longer can anything exist in isolation. Mechanized work is lifeless. It has become mere scholarship. represents the interrelation of all phases 01 creative eHort. for new cre- The decadence 01 architecture The character of on epoch is epitomized in its buildings." It shut off the artist from the world of industry and handicraft. all techniques. of whom scarcely one in a thousand become a genui ne architect or painter. can be taught and leorned. talented individuals trained in industry and handicraft. This downing recognition of the essential oneness of all things and their appearances endows creative effort with a fundamental inner meaning. The old duolistic world-concept which envisoged the ego in opposition to the universe is ropidly losing ground. and because he acquired through cc ual practice as much adeptness and understanding as _WALTE. The art of orchitsc ure is dependen upon the cooperation of many individuals. Many 01 the heading. edge which is a necessary foundation for all ere. von de Velde in Belgium. 01 the artist Academic training. A vital architectural spirit.' by WALTER GROPIUS Translation 01 Idee und Aufbau . Architecture today has forfeited its status as a unifying art. the Deutsche Werkbund. The founda ions of this attempt were laid neither wide enough nor deep enough to avail much against the old l'or! pour l'or! attitude. useless. In the 19th century this dwindled to the production of individual po. brev:ty. but also upon he emergence 01 new philosophical concep s deriving from a series 01 intuitive perceptions. and the acceptance of this new principle is of decisive importonce ative work. At the very outset the new architectural spirit demands new conditions for all creative effort. Bauhauses Weimar. and in the end discovered. the artist enriched all the arts and era lis of a community because he hod a port in its vocational life. In its plcce is rising the idea. but the life-long preoccupation of a whole people. des Sfaaflichen many branches should be not a luxury. This quality cannot be taught and cannot be learned. lulled into a dream of genius and enmeshed in artistic conceit. that art is a profession which can be mastered by study. ers in Germany. in the productive life of the nation. fostered by the state. 01 a universal unity in which all opposing forces exist in a state 01 absolute balance. during Ihe -4 h year 01 Ihe Bauhaus a Weimar.• ative eifart. painting. The evolution 01 form. We perceive eve y lorm as the embodiment of an ideo. For this art-proletariat. and so for removed from life. whether the workman's or the crtis '5. certain other arts rellect only narrow sections any other worker who began at the bottom and worked his way up. however. arts and crofts (Kunstgewerbe) schools were founded lor the purpose of developing. In Germany. in the linal analysis. Schooling alone can never produce crt! Whether the finished product is an exercise in ingenuity or a work of art depends on the talent of the individual who creates it. proper only to the lileless machine. Isolation 22 23 01 the 19th century sow the beginning of a protest against the devitalising influence of the Behrens and oth- academies. On the other hand. In them. on the other hand. rooted in the enti re lile 01 a people. But the academy was too firmly established: practical training never advanced beyond dilettantism. So long. was being prepared for the "profession" of orchitec ure. The widespread view that art iso luxury is 0 corruption born of the spirit of yesterday. however. so alien to. What remained was a drawing-roam art detached from life. lor the evolution of crchitecturol lorrn is dependent not only upon an immense expenditure 01 technical and material resources. logs for behind the ideas which engender it. every piece 01 work as a manifestation of our innermost selves.THE THEORY AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BAUHAUS . Its utter confusion mirrors on uprooted wo Id which has lost he common will necessary for all correlated ellor . Since the academy trained a myriad of minor talents in drawing and pointing. The "academy" The tool of the spirit 01 yesterday was the A lew one occesien- "cccderrw. and. by virtue of heir schooling. were confined to a sort 01 drawing-pointing that hod no relation to the realities of materials. In vilal epochs. the basis 01 a reunion between creative artists and the industrial world. Munich. omit ed. the great moss 01 Ihese individuals. as machine-economy remains on end in itself rother than a means 01 freeing the intellect from the burden 01 mechanical lobar.intings tOlally divorced from Clny relotion 10 on architectural entity. in a new generation. In contrast. sculpture or graphic a t.R GROPIUS WEIMAR BAUHAUSES nove the ". manual dexterity and the thorough knowl. The art of architecture and its . The fundamental pedagogic mistake 01 Ihe academy arose from its preoccupation with the ideo of he individual genius and its discounting the value of commendable achievement on a less exalted level. brought about the development 01 a great art-proletariat desined to social misery. and thus brought about his complete isolation from the community. without being given the equipment of a real education -which alone could have assured it of economic and es he ic independence. The solution depends on a change in the individual's attitude toward his work. they found themselves numbered among the social drones.

A like concen ration of all our forces is necessary to give it form. Technique C. geometry of cons ruction 25 3. in the assumed the directorAcademy for So chsische A. it was logical to establish the following basic requirements for educational system which is to produce actively creative human beings is implicit in such on analysis of the creative process. the intellectual world and the world of the spirit function ond are expressed time. the unification of all troining in The brain conceive5 of mathematicol in terms of numbers space The art and design... Theory C. if distant. Instruction I. Elements all these lac tors in of boo -keeping.. Inst uc ion in materials B. Theory of Saxe-Weimar to discuss his taking over the Academy for Arts and Crafts from he distinguished Belgian architect. It is of them trained capacity in degree feel. The heore icol curriculum of on art academy combined with the practical curriculum of on arts and crofts school was to cons itute the basis of a comprehensive system lor gifted students. We become OWOfe 01 space through our undivided Ego. man discovers the immaterial space of inword vision and inspiration. Descriptive B. dynamics..A demand arose lor products outwardly attractive as well as technically . True creative work can be done only by the man whose knowledge and mastery of the physical lows 01 statics. to school one or another they must 01'1 be thoroughly i . the fulure Analysis of the designing process The objective of aU creative eHort in the visual arts is to give form to space . the craHs-and more especially . This conception of space demonds realization in the material complished world. AI the "State Bauhaus ot Weimar" the attempt was made lor the first time to incorporate a consisten program.ionin In an STONE Sculpture wor shop crolts (Werklehre): METAL Meal workshop and taols estimating. echnicians pearance. In 0 work of art the laws 01 the physical world. Only the individual's 10 execute Building-in which no barriers structural and the decorative Human achievement depends coordination of all the creative not enough separately: at the some the Bauhaus ion of this. and been accorded. The technicians and econamicalcould not satisfy hand masters moffer through the crofts. Observation in form problems (Formlehre): 2. coupled with sound theoretical instrucfion in the lows of design.' he industries-began 10 cost about for artists. 24 training 0/ all gifted individuals: a thorough prodicol. lor the artist was 00 much removed lrorn he world about him and too little schooled in echnique and handicraft to adjust his concepions of form to the practical duction. Conception and visualization are always multaneous. Analysis of materials 01 space 01 design B. At the some time. form? . and dimensions . In 1915. mind ond body. Although we may achieve on awareness 0/ the inlinite we can give form to space only with finite means . to reorganization. Since there was a dear h of artists adequately trained lor such work.." This was on ineffective substiute. The character and scope 01 teachings derive from the reolizc- into: lacked the insight 10 realize thO't apeHiciency and expense could be si- The simultaneously. Bauhaus 01 Weimar Every lactar that musl be considered I. opics. through the simultaneous activity 01 soul. Hoving asked full powers in regard for. a realize ion which is acby the brain and the honds. Theory of color spring of 1919 the author Drawing of plans and building of models for all kinds of cons rue ions ship of the Grand Ducal Saxon Pictorial Art (Grossherzogliche Hochschule fur Bildende Kunst) as well as of Ihe Grand Ducal Saxon Academy for Arts and Crofts (Grossherzogliche Sdchsische Kunslgewerbeschule) and united them under he new nome of "Stote Bauhaus" (Staotliches Bauhaus). through his metaphysical powers. on the proper faculties.nslrucl. who had himself suggested Gropius as his successor. during summoned 10 A.. and sito the Bouhous is he collective work of art-Ihe exist between oris. to know and varies The guiding principle of the Bauhaus wos therefore the ideo of creating a new unity through the welding together af many "arts" and movements: a unity having its basis in Man himself and significant THE CURRICULUM The course of instruction at the Bauhaus is divided only as a living organism. Its credo was: "The Bauhaus strives to coordinate all creative ellort. goal 01 . So monulocturers star ed to buy so-called "artistic designs. how can it be understood But what is and given a the war. ly acceptable. Representation A. manual training in workshops actively engaged in production.. in a new architecture. contrac ing CLAY Pottery workshop GLASS Stained glass war shop COLOR Wall-pointing war shop TEXTILES Weaving war shop I WOOD Carpentry war shop multaneously controlled only by planning and producing the indus rial object with the carelul cooperation 01 the artist responsible for its design. ocous ics equip him to give lile and shope to his inner vision. space. Henry von de Velde. 10 achieve. rhe au hor hod been with the Grand Duke on audience II..Dearth of industrial designers Meanwhile. The ultimote." the with the help of tools and machinery. Study 01 nature B. processes of prohe merchants and and in speed. 1. Composition A. Through his intuition. ..

Synthesis is the only solution: coordinated instruction by two masters. because 01 he disastrous secession of art from the workaday lile of the people. The preliminary course. one a craftsman. The principal difference between factory production and handicraft lies not in the machine'ssuperiority over more primitive tools as on instrument of technical precision. under the technical. lis aim is to odd to a many-sided education rather than to develop the specialized craftsman. (2) that instruction in crofts and in the theory oflorm are fundamental: no opprentice or journeyman can be excused from either. Duro ion: depending on achievemen General coordination [Harmonisjerungslehre) and spe- cial circumstances. a sixth in proportion. lis chief function is to liberate the individual by breo ing down conventional po terns 01 thought in order to make way for personal experiences and discoveries which will enable him to see his own potentialities and limitations. Free creative work in dillerent malerials Theory of form and color entirely by one person. The curriculum includes three departments (compare with the plan): '1. AI the Bauhaus. Contact with industry is 26 Bauhaus Research Deportment. Therefore the Bauhaus is consciously seeking contacts with existing industrial enterprises. the other an artist.Supplementary instruction lectures in fields relating to art and SCience. Architectural activity and experimental wark represent a continuation 01 ins ruction in crofts and form. combined with procticol experiments with dillerent materials in the workshops lor beginners. doubly trained. The teaching of a croft is meant 10 prepare lor designing lor moss production. by signing the articles issued by the Chamber of Crofts. the discovery and proper valuation of the individual's means of expression sholl be sought out. Instruction in crcjts and form problems In earlier centuries when there was no academic ins ruction in the crofts or arts. The creative possibilities become indispensable collaborators in the working life of the people. engages himself to work through the lawfully prescribed period of apprenticeship. All the work produced consciously sought. Elementary instruction in problems ollorm. he inevitably has. he gradually acquires ability to mas er more intricate problems and to work with machinery. a four h in materials. advanced instruction in lorm. Bu if industry is to develop. he preliminary course wos required as preparatian ior wark in the workshops. He would be stifled by the ma eriolisic and one-sided outlook predominant in lacto ies today. whereas he factory worker never gels beyond the knowledge alone phose of the process. Every apprentice. ano her in light and shade. under certain circumstances. Practical participation in buildings under construction and. 21 in the preliminary Instruction in crafts Training in a croft is a prerequisite for collective work in arch itecture. who work in dose cooperaion. Concen ration on any particular stylistic movement is studiously avoided. a future generation of creatively gifted workers may once more achieve a new produc ive coordina ion. The Bauhaus believes the machine to be our modern medium of design and seeks to come to erms with it. for the old trades are no longer very vital ond a turning bock to them would therelore be on atavistic rnis eke. "post and present. It possessesor+is ic quality only in so for as any direct and logically developed expression of an individual which serves to loy the foundations of creative discipline can be called art. he continued two to a third or fourth. Diploma 01 he Bauhaus. 0 seventh in volumes or abs ract space. Result: Moster's Diploma 01 the Chamber of Crofts and. Result: Admission to one 01 the workshops. while at the some ime he eeps in touch with the entire process of production from start a linish. But it would be senselessto launch a gifted apprentice into industry without preparation in a croft and hope thereby to reestablish he artist's lost contact with the world of production. with the feeling for war which. Nei her loctor is in itself responsible for the loss of creative unity which has resulted fromechnological development. During the entire curriculum a practical course in the fundamental relationships 01 sound. color and form is followed. to help him grasp the physical nature of materials and the basic lows of design. a craftsman and an artist. Croltsmanship and industry are todoy steadily approach ing one another and are destined eventually to merge into one.upervision 01 lhe r'espective mosters. it is by no means 0. A croft. a fifth in sound. on eighth in the relations between one and another. but in the fact that in Ihe faclory each operation involved in manufocturing a product is performed by a different man. Result: Journeyman's Diploma ion and representation-wi h he in ention of showing the desired identity of Form and Conen =deline the limits of the preliminary course. With this in mind the Bauhaus has ruled II) that every apprentice and journeyman is taught by Iwa masters. Such a new productive union will give every individual that understanding 01 and desire lor cooperation which is essential to creative work. students were taught independently by a master who was a craftsman as well as an artist.0 end in itself. as on ortist. It'en. or between the Synthetic sjudy 01 'pace ( Synjhetisehe Raumlehre) much too materialistic attitude of our limes and in the loss of can oct between the individual and he community. One finds his elementary expressions in rhythm. Bu . The teaching 01 a croft serves solely to train the hand and to ensure technical proficiency. and it is therefore his best opportuni y for practical train ing. Three yeor course. Observecourse was develooed by Johannes a d enlarged at 'he Bauhous the courses he "od alreody been giving in 1918 in Vienna. lasting half a year. Instruction in orchitecture. Above all else. 2. in our time such creative versatility no longer exists and it is therelore impossible for one man to underta e a studen 's entire art education. cannot conllict course is done under the influence of ins ructors. for the sake of mutual stimulation. under special circumstances. In this union the old croft workshops will develop into industrial laboratories: from their experimentotion will evolve standards for industriol production. 3. Thus. II follows that Ihe Bauhaus does not pretend to be a crofts school. whereas the craft product is mode 01 the Studies in meterials. This training purposely combats the dilettantism of previous generations in the applied arts. and may gradually The preliminary . Productlon work in the workshop of the preliminary course. designed to horrnonize the physical and psychic qualities of the individual. however. Both subjective and objective abservotion will be cultivated: both the system 01 abstract lows and the interpretation of objective matter. the use of machinery and the division of lobar must be maintained. The Preliminary Course (Voriehre*J Practical and theoretical studies are carried on simultaneously in order to release the creoive powers of the student. Instruction in a crolt in one of the war shops a her 5ig ning legal art ides 01 0 ppren ticesh ip. Work in ell the croft. Such instruction would still be the best. For this reason collective work is not essential in he preliminary course. for especially talented journeymen. Sorting with the simplest tools and least complicated jobs. a third in color. independent architectural training in the 01 Drowing from Nature Mathemetics PhysiC$ Mechanics Draughting c nd technical Construerien individuals vary. Diploma of the Bauhous. The root 01 rhe evil exists rather in the Chomber of Crafts (Gesellenbrief der Handwer skammer) and.

In so for as the Bauhaus curriculum does not provide advanced courses in engineering-construction in steel and reinforced concrete. mechanics. it provides the common basis on which many individuals are able to create together a superior uni. to a further lest as "Bauhaus journeyman".it is considered desirable lor promising architecture students. and hus has the means harmoniously to coordinate his independent. schools. Only an apparent unity can be achieved if many helpers corry out the designs of a single person. Its chief concern has been with ornamentation. estoblishing a basis on which dillerent individuals can cooperate without losing their artistic independence. as it is on the creation 01 individual compositions. on the exoct representation or reproduction of nature. an architeclure whose function is cleorlv recognizable in the relation of its forms. theory is not the achievement 01 individuals bu 01 generations. as well as to all the war shops. only then can we communicate our houghts. of light values and full or empty space. The new approach 10 architecture and to resolve the opposition and this process is consummated in the fight of the spirit ag!a'inst the material' world. Without this knowledge. Every journeyman at the Bauhaus who is publicly certified is entitled. After hree years of thorough training. evokes in us other emotions than does blue or yellow. alter consultation with their masters. prepared by proper schooling. his ideo will never emerge from chaos. round forms speak differently to us than do pointed or iagged forms. industrial methods. We wanl 10 create a clear. lost touch with In this decadence architecture The lost and most important stage 01 Bauhaus new methods and materials. Instead of studying the arbitrary individualistic and stylised formulae current at the ocademies. the individual's labor within the group should exist as his own independent accomplishment. its ultimate aim would be impossible. a iginates in the creative powers 01 the individual. unencumbered by lying facades and tric eries. is capable of understanding the ideo 01 the whole. We must know both vocabulary and (machine work) in manufacturing other than those at the Bauhaus. who creoles and const-ructs. the academic superciliousness of another day constantly dwindles. Drawing and planning. Instruction in the theory of form is carried on in close contact with manual raining. The academies ceased to discriminate between them. we wont on orchitec ure adopted to our world of machines. later. with the formalistic use 01 29 mo ifs. The Bauhaus is consciously ormulating a new coordination of the means of cons ruction and expression. ments: hey have no importance of their own.'" Depa'tme~1 o~ty per 'a tty re"tiled. thus losing their purely academic character. In fact. The mind must now them and conlrol the hand if a creative ideo is to be mode visible. This raining opens the way for the creative powers of the individual. and t e planning of cities was no longer his job. In the some measure. archi ecture. and or -though antithetical. especially in regord to the journeymon's creative ability. No appren ices are admit1ed to the Research Deportment: only certified journeymen capable of working out by themselves technical and larmal problems. The opprentice is ocquointed with his future stock-in-trode-the elements 01 form and color and the lows to which they are subject. at the some time. in carrying out their work. The academies. the architect was engulfed in academic estheticism. Its vocabulary consists of the elements 01 form and color and their structural laws. the journeyman learn not only to extend their technical experience but also to consider. The spirit creates lor itself a new lile other than the life 01 nature. Forms and colors gain meaning only as they are related to our inner selves. whose task it might have been to cu!tiva e and develop such a theory. even if limited. Architecture during the lost few genera ions has become weakly sen imentol. For collaboration in a group is not to be obtained solely by correlating the abilities and talents of various individuals. the g ammor in order to speak a language. earn their living. Theory is not a recipe for the manufacturing 01 works of art. must learn the specific language of construction in order 10 ma e others understand his ideo. A corresponding knowledge of theory-which existed in a more vigorous era-must again be established as a basis lor practice in the visual arts. Red. Thus everyone engaged in the war must understand the meaning and origin of the principal theme. by repetition of its integral proportions in all parts of the work. Each of these departments in the course on the theory ollorm functions in close association with the workshops. Real unity can be achieved only by coherent restatement 01 the formal heme. comple ely foiled to do so. This kind of architecture we disown. Man.t 01 work. plumbing. in order to enable them to study other crolts than their own. so that they may have the experience of caopera ing with 011 the building trades and. on association which prevents their wondering off into academicism. Without this. Hoving passed this. statics. healing. confusing nature by their very origin they are wonts to riumph over Nature in a new unity. but the most essential element of collective construction.periman!"I' work was a lod of spcce and funds.From these contacts wi h industry the appren" tice and. The musician who wonts to ma e audible a musical ideo needs for its rendering not only a musical instrument but also a knowledge of theory. Used separately or in relation to one another they are the means of expressing different emotions and move. The most important condition for fruitful colloborcrion on architectural problems is a clear understanding 01 the new approach to architecture. ornaments and mouldings on the exterior of the building-os if upon a dead and superlicial moss-not as po of a living organism. technical chemistry. whose inner logic will be radiant and naked. . activity with the collective war. organic education is the course in architecture with practical experience in the Research Deportment as well as on actual buildings under construeion. as soon as he considers himself sufficiently advanced. They have access 10 the The Re. Ar draughting office adjoining the Research Deparlment. They are jnvited to collaborate both on the plans and the actual construction of buildings lor which the Bauhaus hos been commissioned. the unavoidable demands which industry makes on the individual a economize on ime and means. esthetic and decorative. due far a. of proportion. having los contact wi h reali y. the requirements of this test are more severe than the public test. These two activities are profoundly different. lor instance. radios and lost motor cars. physics. he is given the mental equipment with which to shope his own ideas of form. The practical training which accompanies the studies in form is founded as much on observation. Collective architectural war becomes possible only when every individual. Vocabulary and grammar can be learned. but the most important factor of all.aa. Instruction in architecture Only the journeyman who hos been seasoned by workshop practice and instruction in the study 01 form is ready to collaborate in buildIng. As a matter of workshops journeymen should hove experience apprentice undergoes a work-test in the presence 01 a committee of established craftsmen. 28 Instruction in form problems Intellectual education runs parallel to manual training. The elements which constitute the "grammar" 01 creation are its rules of rhythm. gain new signilicance as auxiliary means of expression. a slave to narrow conventions. the organic Iile of the created work. 10 complete their education with courses at technical and engineering arinciple. and respect lor hard realities unites individuals engaged in a common work. he becomes a publicly certified journeyman.

The special space. so that Ihe elfects of new experiments may be s udied. Conclusion: the Bauha us in ed ucati on An organization bosed on new principles easily becomes isolated if it does not cons antly The lorer Bounous seal. echnicions and artists participoe to determine a standard type. But when. glass-and "with the new boldness of engineering. It would. They will compel industry to serve their ideo and industry will seek out and utilize their com prehensive training. ortists who sense new creative values have hod practical training in the industrial world. of long systematic research. A new 'esthe ic 01 the Harizontol is beginning to develap which endeavars to counteract the ellect of gravity. The gilted student mus regain a feeling lor the interwoven strands of practical and formal war. But even he construe ion of absolutely necessary housing is at a standstill thanks to the mo eshilt ecanomies o] our time. Ihey undertake independent research and experiment. c s- 01 his development must find for himself the field of activity best suited to him within the circle 01 the community. the few extraordinarily gifted ones will suffer no limits 0 their activity. Therefore the buildings which are to be thought of os autgrowths af modern technique and design may be canceived as an assembly 01 prefabricated and standardized par's so applied as a fullill the varying requirements 01 those to' be housed. in busi- in production. they will themselves possess the means for realizing those values immediately. in art. in the modulation of musical and sooken sounds. of form. he must recognize as a guiding prinForm ele-· spirit 01 the new architecture wanls inertia. Architecture unites in a collective task all creative war ers. which has a kind of orchestral unity.. the ponderousness af the old methad of building is giving way 10' a new lightness and airiness. Such cooperation would be a real demonstration of farsightedness. training is given in body movements. 01 movement. A 31 student who has achieved technical perfection and absorbed all that the Bauhaus can teach him can be certified a master.goed by Q. The Bauhaus has token the first steps toward such colla bora ion with the building of on experimental house at its 1923 exhibition. To on even grea er degree. The Stage Thea rical performance. The Bauhaus keeps in touch with new experiments in educatian. the s age space and figures are given form. As in architecture the character eleoch unit is merged into the higher I'fe of the whole. For this reason the educational lield must be enlarged on all sides and extended inlo neighboring fields. many ideas and problems have evolved from the original ideo of the Bauhaus. in which business men. 1922 . in the broadest . Their fruitfulness and salutary effect on all phases ness. In its origins the theater grew from a metaphysical longing' consequently it is the reclizotion af on abstract ideo. The old conservative schools were opt 10 destroy the horrnonv within the individual by all but exclusive headwor . The majority become interes ed 01 building . light color and sound are investigated. of he body. The education of children when they are young and still unspoiled is of great importance. which was on actual demonstration 01 new conceptions of housing as well as o] new technical methods. This the Bauhaus attempts 10 do.. concrete. After they have completed the course of practical ond formal instruction. instead 01 mere esthetic pleasure. provide on excellent preparation for e constructive program of the Bauhaus since they develop the entire human organism. to bolance controsts. Every archi ect must unders and the significance of the city in order to be able to engage actively in city planning. its welfare depends on the whole community. They have been tested in the face of fierce oppositian. The new types of schools emphasizing practical exercises. prove mare economical than he use of substitutes. in engineering. The goal 01 the Bauhaus curriculum Thus the culminating point of the Bauhaus leaching is a demand lor a new and powerful wO'rking correlation of all the processes 01 modern life have been demonstrated. All the building ports should be lunclionol limbs 01 the comprehensive organism which depends simultaneously on building. the individual in the course 01 peculiar to the stage. Its responsibility is 10 educate men and women to understand the world in which they live and to invent and creote forms symbolizing that world. In spite 01 all the practical difficulties. The artist and the technician must collaborate in carrying au this task. At the some lime the symmetrical relotianship of parts ol the building and their orien otian oword a cen rol axis is being replaced by a new conception 0'1equilibrium which transmutes his dead symmetry o] similar ports in a on asymmetrical but rhythmical balance. Its program consists in a new and clear formulation 01 all problems problems maintain a thorough understanding 01 all the questions agitating the rest of he world.or Schler-i- mer. the standardization ciple in the shaping of its character. During the first four years of constructive work. The Bauhaus heater see s to recover primordial joy for all the senses. the monument is only significant when it springs from the will of the whole nation. The investigation tutes the finol sage 30 01 the of these problems consricourse in building. The power of its effect on the spectator and listener thus depends on the successful translation of the ideo into opticolly and audibly percep ible forms. ments of typical shope should be repeated in series. must replace the paper work of design. Standardization 01 units For this reoson the Bauhaus has set itself the task of creating a cenler for experimentation where il will try to assemble the achievements of economic. the basis 0'1 the growing work of the Bouhous can never be too brood. meaning 01 that word. in the future. the basis of collective education must be sufficiently brood to permit the development of every kind of talent. technical and formal reseorch and a apply them to problems 01 damestic orchitee ure in on ellor a combine the greatest possible s ondordization wi h the greatest possible variation of farm.With the increasing lirmness and density ol modern materials-steel. Since a universally ooplicable method for he discovery of talent does not exist. in the end. overcome "simplicity in multiplicity" Since architecture is a collective art. Any industrially produced object is the result of countless experiments. street and means of transportation. is closely related to architecture. Nawhere are the fundamental problems 01 building studied as such. This will does not yet exist today. Far this reason. Modern pointing. breaking thraugh old conventions. so in the theo er a multitude of artistic problems form a higher unity wi h a low of its own. hos released caun less suggestions which are still waiting to be used by the practical world. The joy of building.. such as the Montessori schools. The 10 units for industrial production generous cooperation will require the of all concerned. As on ex reme instance. from the simple a tison to the supreme or is . 01 ere- a ion.

Exercise designed to develope sensa of touch a nd subjective leeli n9 . HoHmon: Drawing from ncture.. where he was directing a private school.. especially: (a) represen atian of materials and (b) experimens with actual materials. The following fundamentals of ltten's eachings were re ained in port a the Bauhaus. I 'f2Q E. I Detailed study 01 nature (see plates opposite)..PRELIMINARY COURSE PRELIMINARY COURSE: IDEN The backbone of the Bauhaus system was the preliminary course. Vorious moterlo 5. wi h various materials (see plates. page 35). 2 Plastic studies of composi ion. Diecltmonn: Cornposition using commonplace meteria 15.0' . in spite of various additions and changes made by other ins ructors. the foundations of which were laid by Johannes Itten. 1921 Drowing rnotericls of con'rosting . ond-s'mpressed by his theory of educo ion-Gropius called him to the Bauhaus as the first collaborator. page 36).te' c I 32 Herber1 Boyer: Drowio9 in various medio 01 dlllerenl ledure5. H. Gropius hod met Itlen in 1918 in Vienna.. 3 Analyses of old mosters (see plates.

J r ... 1922 N. Vorio~s moteriels di:ferer' ·n cho rcc er.Engs leld: Ludwig H... Ink.n c0r:'b.: J ! <:> '--Ludwig Hirsch'eld-Mocr: Li e drowing !curved shepes}.01 . 1922 L Leuoesoori!.\ ~ ell (1'\ ) ~ 1"'" . g f stroight n li es). Exercise ._/ I '..rschFelo·Moc~: Line dro . 1922 ()'~ "-. 1922 . 1922 Drawing showing chcrccteris ic structure 01 wood.. tion 0' simolest olos rc ono rn hm'c :or"T1S.. -I 'I' rP. ~J I \/ . Wossiliefi: Compos> tion.~ified by rh hrric errergemen.Mox Bronsle'n: Com ccsiion. but I. no. Ink.

combining and corr-posinq them to make their relationships fully opporen . At the eonelusion of a second success lui 'riol period of . 11 he is to work in wood. may be e. Preporo ory work also involves exact depicfon of actual moter'ols. The preliminary course concerns !he student's whole oarsonolity. and a acquaint him wiTh ne basic orincip. 1919.ter Franc ke. [l he has a tolen' ior wood. Three years as a oopren ice maic. WEIMAR Apri /Moy. Urom Bibl. no."onths he is definitely cdmittsc 10 the wotlshop as on cporentice. he musl know his material Ihoroughly.:~ months 10 work in the preliminary course. 1919. with hese motericls as wei. . MOSIer Franke or Grunewald also olfers instruction in Ihe study of form. This i-istrucrion is inra nded to enable the stude nl 10 perceive I he harmonious relationship of different rhythms a nd to ex press such !'ormony Ihrough Ihe use of one or several rncterio s. 11'~"'s Toqeboc« Johannes It en: Georre'ric ana ys's of the Aoorafon of the Magi. Consequently.-(- Johannes l'len: Diagrommarc onolysis o· the Adoration 0: Ihe Magi b)· Ma. I q 19 From Johonnes Itter s Togebuch PRELIMINARY COURSE. KLn. not even designs mode by Bauhaus masters. . each opere-nice nos to do his own design'ng_ No outside designs. and makes i possible lor him a go'n a knowledge of both moteriol ond form through di rect experl ence. A student is lentotively admit ed in a a workshop o:ler a 5:X months' trol period if he has suHieiently rnostereo lorm and 1"10 erial.i. eligible for examinations to become a [eu-nevmc . to give eim on understanding 01 nctera's materials. 1921 Johannes It en: Sluoy of hand positions while drowing the figure eig~'. 10 slone a d gloss and wool..mderstond its reloion to other rnoterinls. II a sludent draws or points a piece of wood rue to no ure in every de oil. 10 specialize in work wi'h one material only. c. .he studen 's cractive oower. such 0' Bosch. io ae onclvsis Light and al an Ann"nciotion. by Moster Frone e I HO'TIb rg. From Johannes Iiten'. i will help him to unders and the 11'10 erial. he goes lnto the carpentry shop: if his preference is for wo"en rnaleriols.ecJled in he wor shoes.e hi". From Johanne. The work 01 ad mosters. he goes inlo the weaving wcrkshop. since it seeks a liberole him. This course Is intended to liberate . Tagebuch . for exernple. oj 36 Erne I ·emeler. he work. he must have a "leeling" 'or wood. As a -ncr er 01 principle. which is an essen!iol port a: the preliminary course.. He must 0150 .lho Ie). c. to mo e him s and on his own leet.es which underly all creative activit in he visual arts. 1922 Each Bauhaus student is at lirst admitted lor a trio period 0. Every new sludent arrives encumbereo with a moss 0: occumu oled inlormotion which he rnus abandon belore he cc n oc hieve perception ana knowledge Ihal ere really his own.

His irr'luence on a grouo 01 the students gradually waned. the octive line (oroduced by o moving point). Exercise in observeion 01 so ie-dynomic ra a ions. 1921 StJdy in E..The 'Sli'l" g'oup 10'0' lcrmeo 01 Leyae. "00_ 20 21 and 2S _ Fer on Occe. The QQuhous puoli"'"o booh bv all the leodirg "Sr"[l" designers (B'b. (II) I e mil wheels (in ermea ia'e).ry.. . (III) the :rip hommer (possive) Peul lee: Earth.KlEE'S COURSE Thea va Doesburg and C. 38 Po. is expressed by (II) t e diogonol wolerfall (in ermediate loctor) which turns (III) he mill [passive foe or) 39 K.. 1923 ·THEO VAN DOESBURG: Attracted oy tke endeavours 01 the Bouhou. 1'136 np. in 19 7 a. see Cubism and Ab.h the principle lorrn was the rec~o~gle. intermediate end ocssive icetors: tne wotermill. 01 right. von Easterlin: House lor on crtist. Deesburg's precccupction with problems of pure lorrr was nol in harmony with he Bounaus ideal or educating the indivioJa' in the in erests 0' he whole co-nmunitv. t~e principle eeters pure red. Schwerotleger: space.. .n' c· Ine S'.I'll! Doinler Piet Monar~on ~'e erchireet J. (I) T e conllict of the t'. clue and vellow ood princi pie ccmpcsificnol device a co. (0) grovity and (b) he resis ing rncun ain Ibot octive foe crs]... he M.o Iorces. which points toword the center of he eorr 0 cd the 00 once .ad Arl. P. though there is liHle doubt thai his vis: 10 Weimar he ped to clarify the problerr 01 creative design.ymme. 1922 lee: Ac ive intermeoiote ond passive factors: (I) he wot8r:oll (active). intermediate or ronsitionol territory with linear forms giving the elfect of pia nes Paul lee: Active.d include<! in odcl'tion 10 Doesblirg.jl.seum of Modern Arl.1 Klee: Line 0 d plone: three stages. Ine active plene I pre- duced by 0 moving line). Quo one mony others. 140-t52. Symbols 01 ths province of statics ore he plummet. Theo von Deesburq ono severo otner or ists not belonging 10 I~e Bounous orgonized a section 0: he "Stij" mover-ient " in Weimar in 1922. J. nor with is emphcsis on technical Iroining. The "Sri]!' ar'it.~s devetoaed c s·y e in """"Iic. Mogeli : Cueic compcsition. A Ie ./. in Ihe middle.eful'v be anced o. water and oir.

H'rschi"iO-I. 01"10 centricero sto·j-:..'es 'n +e Exre:r"rren"s ".~cpes if' ·On!!.!JOe r ir-t ccsed .. Co or..'.icn they ore '. shoo'ng iro'T' cod to. I -t. 1922 0: b cd. ..rref'TI OJO __ohig Hi"d'relo. linear o"olysis. mi~eo ""j'h bloc to receOe' colo" rri~ed w ·T~ '~' te tee a '0 00/0 nee r' E'oe'..ocnc.. 5im: 'lor .. oovonci"9 centrilugol o"d dy~om·:· o 0 ck is cossive: re~eo irg.hi·"..rom Construcriono ono vsis..·od: :"oef"'men-5 i" the 0 cni··es blod ond ... V.and "r-t~...ig 0: H'"c~ ~Io-I. Study . +en rr ixed '" 'tft co ors.....e '5 oggres've. / / / I I 40 M..KANDINSKY'S COURSE COLOR EXPERIMENTS l"d."rg 0" recec"ng occor::l"ng c 'he order i~ .:I L Kerko\'ius: 5t d I :rom noture. 1922 L~d. d: o C ·. "n the c .'h'.od: ig 't'es of blod ono wni'e v..n' e c opacr '0 ~e oo'. Rosch: norure.

Diedmann: Sed. the Bauhaus emphasized ine method of creative approach. But Grcoius stud to his gJns.try hod any use 'or hondicrofls. 1921 -<----f E. 1923 Dressing 42 FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE BAUHAUS "lid OTHER CONTEMPORARY ART SCHOOLS The discrepancy 01 form 'n Bauhaus produc s 01 the lirs' iew yeors was 01 en misin erpreled by the pres.. and even by Iriends oi Ihe Bauhaus who lailed to recognize in this variety a logical result 01 the director's edu(afonol pion.el Breuer: obi e.CARPENTRY WORKSHOP THE ROLE OF HANDICRAFTS AT THE BAUHAUS Grop'us we.crolt was e nee nrani.ec:tive education in design in which he institution as 0 whole perlicioc ed. his own woy toword he common aim. even irom hose whe took e friendly in erest in his wor . rod a lind. 1923 '0 -<----t Morcel 1922 Breuer: Chcr. subjected 10 numerous otloch. -<----. They denied that ino u.'luered wood. Marcel Breuer: Polished block table. Alma Buscher. His iniliotive end erebccie delou's were no a be oostruc 'ed by 0 J hori otive outside eressura: no seeming harmony i style was 10 be ochieved premoturely by the odao ion 01 reody-mode forms. Jesel A oars: Shelves lor mogazires. In conlrost 10 other conlem'pcrary ert IC heels whose I ud e "Is were Iroi ned 10 learn from ekisling forms produced by artists 01 lorrner periods or by their own teachers. It st ove provide On ob. He concluded Irem his Hlot Ihe hendicroit 1001 and e 'ndll'riol r-iocnine dilfered in scale bu a in ~ind and Ihol even the most relined machine could be operoled proouclively only by 0 man whose unaers onoing 01 irs development derived 'rom is own Ihorough cnotvsis 01 the relntion between 001 and ma erio Hance he consid· ered 'nstruction in crohs el ne Beuhol!' a rneo ns 01 ochieving tnol unde-s a~ding and estebtished sirnulto eous schooling 01 hono end mind as the basic pedagogic principle 01 ell Ba". on the " g(ouno thet his insistence on the value of 'reining in a . ook. 1923 . even il ind'reclly.lic.haus ·roining. trying 10 give crolt instruction in its own wer shops. Each individual. Brigh Iy lae. He sew mot there were no e eugh -nen Iroined as era'tsmen a supoly induS'ry wi h lne specialized wcr ers it needed and tho industry wcs herelor . 1922 Mare. These pedegogic melhods insured a slow orgon'c ceveloorr an and breught abou 1 ~e genu' ne Jnily 01 'or""1"l w hie ~ 01 Sou hous p'ao ue's one ined in lerer years. Toys. accordingly. light and dar.

d do·. 1923 . '00""'.-Josei Albers: Conletence toble. ook. Fobric seot ond bod res'. 1923 Moreel Breuer: Bed. 19"24 Wo ier Grooius: V/ei". Light o. 1923 44 Moreel BreCler: Choir. lemonwood ond wolnut. Diree tor.or Bouho us.

a nd co''. Hor wig: Cess 1924 se. c hair.. Ch"" !able.'g: 1924 Chess se'. Wood locqvered in color. cod. Pc. the most cctlve piece. Brigh-Iy locque ed .bol of weighl and moss. 1923 Alma Buscher: Nursery co-nrncda.. Knight moves on a right ongle: righ ong e surmoun ing square. Castle and Pow».. 1924 AlMa Buscher: Ploy cu pboord in use. • Morcel Breve: Kitchen cabinet. stroight or diog. Nossell.H. ° moves 0 e square .hop moves diagonally: cube wi h cross cu from op diagonal.traight or diogo oily: ''''011 cube set diagonally on a larger cube. . portly sloi ed bloc. Sioroge cobine's can 0150 be used as lobles.n and Costte move on lines porollel to he edges of Ine board: expressed by the cube.. 1925 J.~. Red beechwood. onolly: cylinder and boll. Bi. which che roc erizes ~e King. sy". ln sharp can rosl 10 he cube. Quee. moves any number of space. King ° .~.. J. Horl".

c .crc.. 1923 49 . /·/.. Josef Albers: Sal'ned glo ss in the stair well.. cner . 102(.e Breuer~ Wooden seol ond bod res·. 1925 Berlin. orcel Breuer: Snowcose. Sommerfeld 1922 house 'n Gloss ond wood lecouerec "n block a d white. Plywood locquered in two colors. by Gropius. 1924 S oined gloss workshop. Fccr.STAINED GLASS WORKSHOP Morcel Breuer: Desk boded with boo shelves.

e Oornburg.or 0 tredtiono cO"ery cen er 0. OORNBURG. l.'nolc: P cs er model 01 0 c:olf~e pot designeo 50 for moss prodJction 0. ... Lindig: Eorthsnwere iug.. 1922 0. One c· Goethe s :ovorire retree-s. Lindig: Woter pitcher Pol'ery . town Ro ncntlc on Ine river SO" Ie. rkshop.POTTERY WORKSHOP In Dornburg neor We'". Decorated by Gerhard Morcb.

Lindig: Left Cup. b:ecuted by the Steingutlabr ik.. 1923 O. Lindig. E. Eerthen· .. 1922 T. Bogler: Earthenware ilchen containers designed lor moss preduct" on. BoHom T.T urned. Ccccc set. Bogler: Teopot.. Bog er: Connislers. Undig: O. Executed by the Al'asle Volk-tcdter Porzel.igned ler Mon production. Li~dig Col-ee set.ecJled by the Stcotliche Porte llcnrnc nuio 'ur. 1923 RigM O. 1923 O. Lind·g: Glozed eorthenwore cocoo po'.Left T.en'obrik. Cost. 1923 . Berlin. Cost. 52 -<1= O. Right Morgorete Fried'onoer. Bogler: CoHee mochine designed lor moss preduc'ion. 1922 T. ore coliee pots designed for rross produc ion. Porcelen oe. VeltenVordomm. Mugs.

Knau: Samovor wi h spirit lamp and small pot for teo essence. 19"22 ororne and brass. 1'124 Noum Slutzky: Pendant. . 1924 . Component ports and the whole.. Jucker: Bross samovar lined with silver. 1924 J. Silverbronze wilh silver lining and ebony handles. 1923 J. c. Pop: Steel and nideled brass /loor lamp.ky: Ring with selling designea to permit c ho "ge 01 stones. ivory and quartz. Silver.ki: S'Iver-brcr ae eo-glo . Metal teapot.METAL WORKSHOP M. Pop: Woler pitcher. holders w] h ebony ~ondl es. 1'123 Naum Sluh.. Kraie . 1922 J. 1924 Morianne Brandl:. Copper. 54 K. wooa.

. Wei"". 1923 Meto workshoo. Ti:mpe : Silver-bronze teo bol s ond ste nd.o'_ • JLC er o-id 56 W.ood en be I leet. O. 1923 -1924 -)-- orionne Brondt: leo se 1924 Silver-bronze with ebo y hondles. 1924 Josef Alber<: Gloss berr\. R'l'weger and W. 1923 . Dishes wilh metoli rims cno . W'red throlJgh 0 silverbronze tube with in the gloss >ube. 192b Wolter Gropius: Lighting lixlure 01 tubular bu lb s. Wogenield: Gloss omp.Morienne Brendl: Colieeeno teo pots designed for moss oroduction. Shede or mil~y gloss. Wired tnrough thin aluminum uoes.

violet. 1923 . Wool ond rayon. Gray cod whi e. Ye low. \924 R uth Citroen- Vo lIent' n : Applique ond embroiaered honging lor child's room..1 58 59 Guntho Shcron-Stohl: Wall hanging_ c. Cotten. gray. 1924 '~l B.atl.. Repeo ted paUer n odacled tor .WEAVING WORKSHOP G n'ro Shoron-Stoln: Woven cover. brown.ne mod ucr'o n deriveo from handwoven cover 0' r i91.. \923 Ruth Holies: Woven cover. 01 e: Wall hanging. white..

.. . Ho ntschk: S". 1927 60 61 G.' Gunlna Shcron-S olll: Topest rv. Martha Erps: SMyrna wool notted rug.yrno woo _ Knotted In" reg.

1923 .STAGE WORKSHOP . Secon(l Ve. 1924 T. 'ro rr.io~..'e Hunchback Kurt Se hrr In . or Ihe Pantomime of PIOCe5. of La. Bog '" and Georg Teltsc her: FigtJres 'or The Mechanical Bol/el. Firs' produced in We'mor...' K~.01... acution. 1'123 Oskor Schlemmer: F'g"r . Morioneltes :or The Adventure. Herg': . W. Jr1 Scnmidt with F. PnOTomonloge.The Trioaic Ballet Os~or Schlerr ner . Tlte Figurol Cabinet.. deiign' . 1922 Os: or Sch emmer: Design lor 0 scene 01 Melo. Schmidl: Sloge se lcr The Mecitooicol Bollel. 1922 62 Osker Sch emmer: CosTume designs lor The Triadic Bollef. F'r51 produced in Jeno.

..terious.r: Di. rigid pc pier-mocha forms. The costumes consist 0' podded tigh s on one sioe and. goy a nd burlesque. No. 19) A as or Schlemmer: Delinection of space by humc-i ["gures.. [Irom Bib!...Herent costumes are exacu ed by three dancers in 'urn..: in cction U-Tneoler Co. the meoning of which is inlensi:ied as iest becomes earnest The lirst oct. w'lh colored or me ollie surjcces..Oskor Sc"I". The second oct is a restive ri uol on a pid stoge. on the 0 her. The! ird oct on on 0:1 bloc stage has a my. Bollel in three acts: a climactic development. 1925 1 64 65 Oskcr Schlemmer: Farkas Maino. :ortoltic cncrocter... two mole and one femole. 1924y >..k eoncers "0"" [he Triadic Bolle. is do nced ago i nSI lemon-yellow stage 5£1'5.st~ "'es for t he Ih ree octs of The T'iodic 8011£11 . Tne -welve di. begun 01 Stut go rt in 1912. PhotO'TlOrloge Oskor Schlemmer: The Triadic Ballet ( Dos Triodisc e Bolie 1"').. donce scenes.lerent oonce scenes in eighteen d. Theorelico drow·ngs. t A elonaer Scnow'ns~y: Top doncer and lop oancing robot.

control woo successfully oc h'eved over w hot hod originally been occidental and by ths fme it was ready lor public disoloy. Firsl oroduced 01 the BouhoJ"ln4 '1.1 j Ludwig Hi"chfeld-Mad: Color sor-ct' no in red Ludwig Hirschfeld· Iv oc : Cen er ond bollom R"flected . blue. Scnwerdrfeger: efleded lig~1 compos'!"on THE REFLECTED LIGHT HIRSCHFELD-MACK Analogous 10 he obstroc' films of Egge"ng. in glowing intensity.9h' composi ions . Photomontage sqLores. innovation os follows in he Ber/iner Bersenkurier 01 A~g.triangle s. the process hod been matured technico Iy end oristicolly .menl.che lichtspieIe) of Ludwig HirschfeldMod. and over opoings and coloro endings result.. ... down. which hod begun cs a chance discovery during a <"'pie shcdowpay entertainment . 1'124: "Ye low.. green.JS 2'\. They join.1 produced lhese 0 the Weimor Bauhaus in 1922 and 10 er 01 the People's Theater (Volksbuhne) in Berlin. rneva about on the dar boegrO\l nd of c tronsporent linen screen . orcs ond wova-l ike ootterns. "A' tne Bo uhcus in We:mar we war ed 'or two yeors on the development 0: these re. red.. " 66 Osler Schlemmer: Figural Cabinet. "After much e~per.lec'sd light compositions. sideways-in vorying tempi.uo.. He oescribed hi. Rich er ana Rutlmann were me reflected light cemoosilions (Reflel:tori. They opoeor now cs angular lorms . He 1. COMPOSITIONS OF Oskcr Schlemmer: in space FigJres lor The Tr'cdie Bo/let.and again in curved [ormsc i rc les. polygon.. version The Later Schowinsky and Fritsch: Scene irorn The Circus.

from design. Berlin. 1922 (building by Gropiusl Somma r!e.h collaboration of tne Bauhaus Architec ure Deportment) MOMY privc e residences Oskor Sch err mer. Berlin. Wei"'ar Bauhaus. Murcl in Irasca and oils in the entrance holl. 1921-1922 Oskor Schlemmer. 1922.WALL-PAINTING WORKSHOP The following in eriors were exacu eo in color oy the wall-painting workshop: Theoler in Jana." Weimar.d House. 1922 I but Idi ng by Gropius 1 Otle House. 1922 I buildi n9 by Gropi us 1 Room 01 'ne a-jury chibition in Berlin.. by Kandinsky House 'Am Horn. Mural at the nead of Ihe stair we Weimar Bouhcus. Weimor BauhoJs_ 1921-1922 68 Os or Schlemmer: Murals and relief in the entrance hall. 1921·1922 . 1923 (building by Muche wi.

Wei or Bouhcus. Fill in Ihese ) forms w'ln 3 colors: yellow. Various techniques. . Ao· plication of exoeriments: ir Ih. colors. 2." s. 1921-1922 Herbert Boyer: Design for murals in Ihe sloir well. Menze. Wei". We'mor !lounous. Each form should be completely filled by one color. red and blue. circle.ond color..-oe:Questionnaire given to 011 Sauhau. ground f oor..ng wer shop. For experimentol purposes the woll-poinling workshop 01 Ihe Weimar Bouhous asks you 10 do the following problems: I. First 1Ioor: composition in dor~ blue. relotions:nip be~eer colors ond 'or. Second llccr: ccrr pos. Herbert Bo er: Sgreliilo Right woll: R. II possible.lion in brig hI red: squc reo Third floor: comoosi ion in lignt yellow· lriongl e.. Explonetion: 10 W.. explcin your dis!ri ution 0.. Weimar Bauhaus.or Osker Sc hle-nmar: Reliel in Ihe entrance he II. 1923 . 1923 Herbert Boyer: M ural in he s:toir Nell. members 10 investigate psychological relofionship belween ior-n . Paris: Colcimine used in voricu • ways Left wal]: Specie lily (Prolession): Set NOlionolity .: Fresco in Ihe woll-oo'nl.

rction.h·oilion POVI ion ot on ind~striol fair. 1924 Exnibition tower odvertising eleelrcol orad ucls.. new ie ees were developed and 'urldomen a prnc'ple. 1'124 Herbert Beyer: Herber Boyer: Exnibi ion eovi ion. Small bose supporting loll engule. Revalv' ng spnere ceve-ed wi' e eel' c bulbs. suoerstructere w' h many diHeren colored Oleo. r in e' ec'ric bu lbs revo ve ccout the shalt. (2) e ectric sign. Colored odvertlsements lor various products on the roo'. (3) loud soe c ker . Let... 1924 . S'mple construct'on adopted 10 moss prod.' DISPLAY DESIGN A 1nough here wos no speciiic wor shop for eXhibition technique.. 1924 Herbert Boyer: K'os aesigned for the sole ana edvar+isemenl 01 a bro~d of cigarettes.ask d esignee jar Ihe sa Ie 0 d odvertisernent of newspc pers. 1924 Herbert Boyer:Open strae cor waiting room wi~h news sand.i ). eutlineo 12 Herber Bo ter: Proiect 'or small e. Toothpaste lor so e inside and advert'sed Outside by ll) c lilm (projected Irom wi!. ('I) le!'ers larmed by sma e. lor posters. 1924 Herbert Boyer: .

ARCHITECTURE W. do 'The Eleuhou." IFro. Drawing shows the various units or which he houses are compa.e"AmHorn.h·ng the roorr s. A plan was being evolved for single houses ond apartments for Bauhaus mem bers in a beautiful section of Weimar. ne construction at these community buildings W05 to be directed by the Bauhaus and to orovids contracts for the worksho os.eHlemen' wes also born [rcrn necessity.S. was worked oy the Beuha."" Bibl. 1921 • ~ c % II: . Inquir ies concerning the Bauhaus settlement were answered by the 'Bouhaussiedlung G. " Wolter Gropius arid Adolf Meyer: Model 01 proposed ocademy or philosophy.: S oatliehes Bouhaus. Archi aefure deportment: Below models showing variations of houses comoosed 01 standardised units' above plans. A 'lege able ana frui' form." 1923 !lower left). in order to assure the workshops scrne rnecsure 01 prccticol build'og expe ie ce. 1921 . including the cons ruction 01 the heo er in Jano and the Sommerle!d residence in Berlin. \II~en the -progr. wor sshops ectuelly collaborated in decororlnq and 'ur· ni.e. and typico near pie Three studios and adjacent bedrooms. Grcoius. gord.."" and mooe the kitchen indepenoent of price Fluctuations in the morkels. Thehou. . kilchenet e and lavatory. o~d linen which hod belonged to Nopoleon. leased lrom he S ate. Gropius employed them on his private orchi ee ural cornrrussroos. 1922 .n produce wo' sold in the 8cuhous cont •• n. 4FI n. adjoining tne form.. but he wcs hindered in this by lac of understanding on the por of the authorities and by the eHects of iniloion. Berlin.pore lime a. H. b. " service to Ihe Bouno.: Sammerle a House. m. Weimar. * The correspondence between the Bou hous administration ond the various political regimes reveals both the bureoucrotic indolence and the tragic linenciol impotence which prostrated Ihe coun~ry at Ihe time.j. He roised money privately 10 build the house "Am Horn" for the 1923 exhibitio . For he firs' time BeJhe". 1913 WIll • . Drawing by F. II: Fred Forba : Atalier. Moln6r. Nevertheless. no.I C WO"er Grapius and Adoll Meyer: Model ior e house 1921 ~ II: 0 > 14 THE ARCHITECTURE Architecture department: Standordized serial houses. to be cultivo~ed in their . was the onl building comoleted. ".u"ve cotoalrcphe of infia'ion menaced this cc. Architecture dBoortn"ent: General view of the Bauhous com"lluni'y planned lor Weimar.nOJs. The Th~rin9ian government leosed the lond surrounding the house "Am Horn" to the Bauhous ond on eloooro!e building scheme lor additional houses was drown up but the lu nds ior t heir construction were never lorl~coming. . community. -:... • In crder fIIDlhing bu to use the lond I e director could. OEPARTMENT I hod been Gropius' inten ion to reinlorce the courses i orchi eclure with a brood program of practical wor .ed according 10 he needs of the inhobitan s. 1921.1i'Yi'Y Gropi IJS sold an historic Forni y heir oom-a si ver table service '0 therelore. hooi g thot i would mark he beginning of on ex ensive housing development. turn it oyer 1he students.

. 1922 1922 For' os Molner: Pions lor "The Red C~oe." Lelt: lirst llocr.. 1922 '" . Herbert Beyer.. ~ ... ........For os Molnor: Pro' ec lor o house. ~ For~os Mainor: a U-theeter Project lor Welter Gropius: Design lor o stucv. Riaht: second 1I00r.. .... . ' .. " Welter Gropius one Adoll Meyer: Entrance (olioda a remodeleo municicc thee er Jeno. 1922 - ( . "Tne Red Cube.." Farkas Moine.. Projec for a wood freme house. ./~ " . 1922 1922 .. Drawing by Wa rer Gropius end AdaIr Meyer: Proiect submit'ad to the Chicago Tribuna Cernpetirlon.. Re'nforced concra-e.

\~o:c~ 5 . 1921 .TYPOGRAPHY AND LAYOUT Albums of Ii hogrophs ' Frovings [Bibl. 1924 Morcel Breuer: Mode proposed cpor+nan] house. 1924 01 Johannes IIten' Typo.opCrlmeol house. Woodcut... . .nd copperplo e enn a workshop equipped with' h' . 1111111 _ : Project lor cn.::M:.!E~N!.5.. nos.eoenbiae"""""""uat ••••••• -. 1.!. Poge ! rom Utopia. on.' ..!orced concrete. The olbums equipped Bouhous bi d ery. Rel.R _=~=. 7) were printed were bound in he well . LyoneJ Feininger: Tille poge..::!·•".d presse s... L L •• n .' grophlcol design .. 1911 19 'F''0" .. EurOpOi5c~e Grapnik.

' c L Moho y.l hero im 011he Bo uncus Press wos 10 lid i. Moholy-N09Y: -itle pc g". Sioo/liehel Bauhaus in Weimar 1919. edoled oy Gropius ono Moholy.Nogy: Die pO'ge. in collobororion w'tn Karl Nierendori.GY It must be cleor communication in its most vivid form. THE 14 VOLUMES OF JH.1923 D:: . byMOHOU~N A.cphy. -·~ ~ .. [Irom Bibl.AUHAUS t-lt: .. first of aU: absolute clarify in aU typographical work./923 BI : Tirle ooge.: . Herbert Boyer: Cover design.." ""ber Junge Me"cnen. Bo u no us .r 1919-/923 STAATLICHES AUHAUS " mJill 1919 . A new typographic language must be ereated.. o~c.z :: w Specie] 0' I " . L. Peo. . Weimor-Mun·ch [lcrer A'bert Longen Verlag. Cologne.t. the iirst BoClhou. ~ .c.1923.rhcus activities duro ng 'he lirsl three yeors.E BAUHAUSPR:ESS _. Bauhaus in We.0 series 01 becks os evidence at Inll 'otegro. SlooJlicnes Bauhaus in Weimar 1919-1923 . is chiefly 0 record of Bo.in 9 Sloat Jiche.on oi c~ll"ro oroo ern.Nogy. publicotion was issued by the newly founded BOClhous Peess [Bounousvar og). a. variety and a fresh approach to the materials of printing. > The lu.. HAUS IN WEIMAR 1919. S TAA iLl CHES 'BAU. Firsl Bauhaus book. no. The book. 1924 80 81 THE BAUHAUS PRESS On the occosion ol Ihe 1923 exhioition. Communication ought not to lobar under preconceived esthetic notions. These Be u nous booes ore isted in 'n e tl ibliog. combiningelosticity. Munich). leiters should never be squeezed into an arbitrary shope-like a square. Ionguo'ge whose logic depends on the oppropriale application of the processes of prinling.fJfC1919 :11923 . MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 1923 L Moholy.". ad verti ..Nogy: Page loyout. Clarity must be especially stressed for clarity is the essence of modern printing in contrasl 10 ancient picture writing" Therefore. TYPOGRAPHY AS A.

persons visi'ed he Bouhn u exhibitior I i Postea rds printed 1923 Exhibition lor Ihe George Teuscher LJdwig Hirsch:eld-Moc Herbert Boyer Herbert acyer Farkas Molner Lyonel Feininger Paul Klee Wa"i y Kondin. 1923. o /' Entronce to Ihe 1923 Exhibition. in voroJS vestibules.] Every depot" rre'! I\"mmed w'lh oc i"ity in oroer 'hot Ihe exhibition mighr ce " tncrouqh presentation of he ideo.h Busoni.dor.ky .'. J. EXHIBITIONS IN THE MAIN BAUHAUS BUILDING. Krene . sro'rcases o"d rOO'05: 'nterncrionol e~h'b'lion of moderr orchilec'ure.WEIMAR EXHIBITION.." Tne e. "Des . relief. Ifoudev'Ue 'T1S och. pre- theoretical siudies'lhe imi. i the clossrccrns: useum 0 product a' he wc-r snops. who .l'vol. 1923 In I 23 "T h~ri~gion Leg' slotiva Assemb y ILondtog) asked for 0 Bo~hous .r' 00 isc ne BolIe'l he eloss mechanical C. a New Unity Wossily Konoin.." b~ilt o"d iurnished by the BOL. rei ecfed 'gol composilions works. lireoonee wi h m~." ew Bu'ld'ng in Ho ono" Oskor Sch ernrr er.shops.. [This wos conlrory 10 the in'antions ol rne O.~y Synlhe'ic Art" "O~ WEEK" J.onous ork. h I"e workshoos.hibition inc Jded.. .. murals. Bouho~5 oo'n'ing scu " ere. hibi io -which would serve os o repor: on ""hot had been occomplished in iour yeo . Poster by Heroe" Boyer Oskor Schlemmer: Cover design fer prospectus 01 Ihe 1923 Exhibi ion ERSTE BAUHAUSAUSSTELLUNG IN WEIMAR 1923 Ff een 'ho~50nd "n Weimor. Srrcvins~y 1 Mas 01 T e composers were presen' 0 t ne concer-s. A NEW UNITY. concerts Scherchen 'I s ogecrolt. oesig s. wou d have oreferred to postpone 0 pu.c disploy until rrore morure resu 's hod been oblcined.ie by BaJhoJs [orr-bond. P. e heme' "ART AND TECHNICS. Progrem: HinoeMi. Ouo. and in the S a e Weimar: on II-e ground of Ihe Bouno~s sartlernern' (SiealungJ: "BAUHAUS ecturas: one-Iorrily house "Am Horn. which onimoted lne Bouhcus. w PROGRAM: Woller Gropius "Ar' ana Technics.] poper Ion ern le..ory course. Grooius stoled ... lecture with ii 83 cond uctac by H.

forty·. Herbert Boyer: Poster lor 1923 exh:bition 85 WEIMAR." But Ihey were unexpec. tne house "Am Horn. oteness 01 the "Hous am Horn. 1924 The 105 leipzig Fair was a distinct SUCCess. ' Weimar. Conservative critlcs mode much of Ihe lomous Weimar "Goelhehaus" as on orgumenl ogoin51 Ihe oppropri. America. Righi Ki·cnen . Miss G. In 1923. Five hundred and twenty-si." Weimar. Orders were received from obrood.. He hod to recreole Ihe world around him with limited means in a limited space: a losk pre. 1919. At this time more than fat)' firms were buying i)ouhou5 produc s a such on extent tho he scarcity or machinery and copi 01 ode i impossible 0 fill 011 orders. Floor pan 84 EXPERIMENTAL BUILDING "AM HORN" It is hord 10 recl'ze lodoy to what impassioned pronouncement.. This man hod 10 cons rue 0 new way 01 life Irom Ihe debris 01 a wreded world-o way 01 life utterly dilierent from tnol 01 pre-war limes. Their opinions reHeded h. All Bauhous workshops were busy for five months filling orders. ceded 01 necessity by psychological reodjuslmen s. ona April.! experimento IBou hous buildi "g." inspired its critics. conllict between their prejudiced conception of 0 ho me and Ihe eHect prod uced by a new type of house conceived in new terms.ledly counlered by a young unorejudisted Canadian. in order to moin oin Ih" highest oossible 5 and. ord. Formulated desires 0: 0 new mon-the post-wor German -who hod not yel realized whol he needed.bperimerto builoing house "Am Hcr-. the H. from Austria. 1924. who observed thot Goe he's garden house in the Weimar pork was the only building in Weimar thot possessed a certoi ~ conge nia I relotionshi p to the Bouhnus. Hollond. me Bauhaus had attempted 10 crystallize the s ill un. Wookey. s udents were trained in the Bauhaus between October. The house "Am Horn. 1923 l~e The house "Am Horn Weimar. A large number 0 0 hers 001: only he oreliminory course. 01 the University 01 Toronto.even of these students were not odm 'tted to he odyo nced courses. England. LeH Corner 01 bedroom.

... Professor Freundlich 01 Ihe Einslein Insti u e. III this way they served as a link between Ine Bou ous and Ihe eornrnunitv.E MILLION MARK The rapid oevoluo ion of the German mark during he inllction year< led to incredible 9(0 esquens ss in dc'ly life. therll were parades 01 night through thll peaceful ~treets oi Weimar with pa'per la~ ems 01 thll students' own invention... trumpet. rumen otian wos exponded 10 include twa pianos. Every outumn a troop 01 Bauhaus studer s we t out into the lie Ids to :Iy the amazing ites which they hao bui I. The one million ". Accordlon-rnuslc and he pounding 01 chairs.. This donee music soon become know~ all over Germany and wes played 01 or ists' festivals everywhere. EVERY MAN A MILLIONAIRE .. il remained goily impromptu. 1923 IffifHT Ludwig Hirschfeld-Moe : S Oonce Peter Rahl: design program. Agne endarl Josef Hollmann. clorinet.iec 5 Oud.. Vienno Oskar Koka5Chko. .':.. ate. Ihe rhythmic srncc ing 01 0 loble ond revolver shots in lime wilh Irog'ments of Gerrnen.ig. trombone bonia" traps. PotscorArnold Schonberg. The lectures. a m" lion marks in paper money equaled in volue one mark lorly-seven pfennigs in gold. Berlage.EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES The Bauhous bond storIed wilh ne musical ·mproviso. Berlin Gerhart Hauptmann. Hirschield .:.th~ heigh of the economic crisis in 1923.l Adolf Busch.e interested in he school." Among them wllre Such celebrities as the erch. nrc Franz Werlel. Ihe composer Bela Bartok.. scholars and pointers who were in sympo'hy wilh the iaeols 01 Ihe Beuhcus generously canlr. !wo saxophones. . Feininger. The" ite-Ies ivai" was a big yearly even. Slavic. even later when he ir>. Vi.. and Ihe biologist Hans Driesch... lis council waS composeo oll"e :ollo. money received In he morning hod to be disposed of before evening oi Ihe some day ier by Ihat ime il was likely to be valueless. Serloge and Poelzig. Two <lay. Thus tne Bauhaus strove to keep:n ouch wi h the besl and newes in other fielos of science ond or.ark note was oesig ned by Heroerl Boyer in 1923 lor the Srcte Bon k 01 nuring-o. concerts and dance recitals oroug" loge ner no only those ac uolly connec ed wilh Ihe Bauhaus bu also the townspeop. P. lee.. Berl'n Adolf BU5Ch. 0< THE FRIENDS OF THE BAUHAUS The cssociction nown cs "The Friends 01 Ihe Bounous proved of 'nvoluoble more: and linonciol help during he s'o''''y years of development. The Hogue Peler Behrens. Pcris Hans Drieseh.Moe . 1921 for 0 BAUHAUS EVENINGS 86 Archi ecrs..~. Berlin Harber! Eulen berg. the pianist Rudoli Serki nit he violin i. Vienna Hans Poeh.:-~'. Postcards desig ned lor kite-Iestivo Is and lantern poroaes by lee Mo n6r. st'!l wet. Four months later one reckoned in billions. loter it was iSSued with he in. the physio-chemist Wilhelm Ostwald. Koiserswerth Edwin Fischer.::. ? -. Vienna Adolf Sommerfeld. but since il could never be successfully rons/erred to poper. Jewish and Hungarian fol songs would swing the com pony into 0 donce. Vie~no -. Be' in Josef SIf'lygow." :_ .auled their services far BOlJha~$ evenings. ...: Et . In the summer. Leipzig Alberl Einstein.ki. lions 01 a gro~o 01 poinlers and sculp ors on rips around Weimar. tne writer Thecder Doubler.~~~ .:ng: H. a man paid for his lund in billion mark noles.Berlin Marc Chogoll. l-e cancer Polucca. When the BOJ aus &hibilion a' 1923 ooened.

The Bauhaus canteen enabled the students 10 eot well lor lil1le mo ney..ink of record'ng in word or pho ogroph I e life of those lirsl law colorful and exp osive years at the Weimor Bauhaus. PorI y Ihrough pure 'cotosy. loa. seer] held by c pin.At/SivER Tne Bouh<iusier presenled a higfdy curious appearance fa the provincial eyes of he Weimar citizenry. these unconvenliona and imaginative designs played on imporlan pori :n the develcpman of loy-out and typography. rnechonlcs or pointers. Oskor Schlemmer. Top.tuoent did tailoring work. like v090bonds. He wcs so wropped up in the fascinating los of discavering and shooing his own ego and his environ"'enl Tnc he scarcely observed the radical contrast between his own i Tensive existence and Ihe ordi· nary small-lawn liie which surrounded him. The poverty of a greot mony Bau hous oporen ices and journeymen maoe tne can een 0 vital necessity. and pori y throug" entnJsiosm for clothes inlenaeo to forecos :uture sty. 1922: baHam. a special kind of "gilt design" (Geschen grophik) Wa5 devalopec. l-norovised. were the oosters which oppscred in the Bou hous lobby every week to onnou nc a the dances. 1923 . BaJhaus students went sou h to Italy. such cs birthdays. Aosorbed in living. The greol enthusiasm 01 he eorly doys in Weimar found on outlet in soontoneous shows and parties lor which lontostic masks a nd costumes were irnprovi sad. Alter the lirs romon ic years 'hese clothes were discorded in accordonce wi h Gropius' opinion hot the artist 01 lodoy should wear conventional clothing. Under Illen s inHuence he mode fantastic Bauhaus clothes: wide trouser.onder Schowins y. II W05 mode possible by the unseliish aid 01 Bauhaus members and Iriends. Marcel Breuer: Portrait 0: Josef Albers. Some of he conteen work wcs done by the Bauhaus members hsmselves. Lika so many generations of young Germon. they earned their livi ng a long the way as craftsmen.e'. Etching One . Ale. Mostly on foot. he fauna no ime for the task of observing and recording. press in dress his entire . Somewhat inl uenced by Dadaism. Sfli less did ha t. high closed joe eT wi a bell. 1924: lmnroVlseel sketches at Bauhaus dances Marcel Breuer: Birlhday greerirgs 10 Woller Gropius Herbert Boyer: Poster for Bauhaus dance. narrow a Tha lee.noe'oend e nce 01 conve nlionol modes. he wonted 10 e. For private celebrations. Every Saturday a Bauhaus donee was held eitner in Weimar or in one of the any nearby ccun ry inns. wi h· out creases.

eh he Souhous in Ihe spring of 1'12]. stone. and without workshop equipment. of first. of corpenters and cabinet-makers. split. Albers was formally oHered a posi ion as teacher at the Bouhous of er the ins ilulion hod moved to Desseu.'he development of the preliminary course. without anticipating Tomo G'ote: Study in balance cased On specific gro/ties of vcricus woods. To this end we analyzed typical treatments end combinations of materials. The war with materials in this course was 1923 planned to prepare the first semester students for later craft-studies in the various Bauhaus workshops. we expanded our practical work to allow more inventiveness and imaginoion. to develop on understanding of the fundamental properties of materials and the principles of construction. began to work actively on . About th's time Josef Albers.PRELIMINARY COURSE: MOHOL y.ndepenoently and hU5 widened the scope 01 The ·eoching. Rig. The students were intraduced to a simple and elementary. we studied malerial more or less on a traditional handicraft bosis. n perfeel ba a nee upon a sing e point. in order to learn the different uses of wood. the dillerent characteristics of flat groin and quarter-sowing. metal.t ha. of coopers and cartwrights. Thus. 91 We tried to apply our nawledge to the making of useful objects: simple implements. but. later of several combined materials. Gropios and Monoly-Nogy left the Souhou. as already indicated. he directed the preliminary course during Ihe lirs! term. 1924 Construc- ized design. Gloss and calico. containers. gloss. such as wood. toys and even toy furniture. . Chorlot e Vic oria: S'udy in volume and space. " mode 01 heavy wood to be once projection of left half which is 01 light wcoo . textiles and paint. we visited the workshops 01 box. bu appropriate use of the most imporfont croft materials. 1924 later work- shop practice. Alber. continued to teach in bOlh prelilTlinory classes until the closing of the Bauhaus in April. 1933. In this way we tried. Each aug . 1923 192+ chines and only simple everyday tools. Because 0. He too charge of fhe studies in moteriels and conti n ued this war: even w"en Moholy-Nagy was called to the Bou· • IlQUS shortly of erword to direct Ihe preliminary course. using no maIrmgard Sorenson-Popi~: Suspended construction. For instance. choir and basketmakers. PRELIMINARY COURSE: ALBERS wn Susoended construe ion. (page I 16). and to learn the various methods of joining: pegging and screwing. and worked them out with our hands. Whole construction rests . as a fundamental training for later specialPoul Reichle: tion. NAGY Owing 0 di!ferences of opinion 05 0 Ine cctuol conduct of the course ITTEN . bent and laminated wood. Whe. first of one material alone. This development is briefly described in my article on our more developed preliminary course ot Dessou. however. .' a stud e "lot the Bo uhous. his unusual pedagogic gifts. in 1928. 'Ie Moholy· Nogy look over Ihe second term. From hen on. nailing. end to on understanding of their relationships os well as the differences between them. Soon. glueing. who hod been .

obtuse and so inllexible as consto ntly to endanger the growth 01 ths i nsfitution. nor Eng 10nd nor 0 n yw h ere else wo. on the inauguration oi the Bounoes a Dessou. bu' 0 wall is no' 0 p. in Dos WerA. 05 0 whole it sho I not and mest not be otToded" I.e most it m"ght orovide fleW impulses. 92 Nt //.us' oon n.m.". should rot proceed withou clashes of o oinio .".. /.. Grcpivs dreorns. I wOs not on y c-nczeo but e"Ihusiosfc. they fo~ghl 't." Ihe forerunner 01 the otionol Socialist Pony.lory au hori ies] they never succeeded in producing any convincing proal.. 1926-_ "0..or " is to be leored tnat his met~od o· tne Bcul-cus conno ovoid ereoting again Ihe scr-ie oongerous diJeHon:i. one of the many i·h d"f. . Not only was this in accord wilh Ihe originol conceoHan 01 he Bauhaus..'y the ne" desire lor a sys eMO'"C er! educotion. wl>ich hod hitherto been indiilerent. furthermore. lor your lelling words o.Iem can ne¥er eoo to tho I In"tl' of art ond -echnics 01 wnic. a schoo for crchitecture. the inslil~tion would cerlo:nly hove come to a premature end" The shortsiqhted olt"lude 01 the ere] srr-en 5 or gcnizct"ons in Germany wos one 01 he greo es obstacles ne Boynous encountered. this attitude hos enlo iled financial loss" Until recenlly il wos possible to overt the most pressing dongers. Ihe Bauhaus found itself •nvalved in the political convulsions 0' post-war Germany." n Ihe comprehensive BOJ~oUS p'ogrom "n order to make it liT in ..cns on tne '''0 S of heir rooms. is open 0 cr"ticism in mony re.soired oy '~e BOJ~aus Exhibition a' 1923 Dr" Horkort. as 10ng 05 il is sti I concerneo w"tn the queslio~ 0: opplied or s or 'art' as such" Any ort school. ond even by oersonol diHerence.. ii he assumes 'he machine to be '. oicol of Ihe parled. t e croorietor O"d monoger or a ceromics pont 01 Vel.oec'S. I have done my utrnos to further the development of Ihe Bou ous.apored designs much in he manner of a laboratory lor indus rial and crof use. to narrow do..'. itu ion w~er" the studen s themselves ere encouraged :0 create in'leOd of being o"g"t merely to repeot hot w "ch hod olreody been creoted" " " He Bounou.. ere. 1938-1939" cno lecTurer 01 Unive. t"Nt/i1 The Beuho"s worhhops o. 1924: ·When I iirs become acquainted with "he oirr-s 01 the BOJMa.ng" The Bou ous is 01 net'onc i--noo"+c"'Ice' i co ocerr s ell Germany. never chose a coliey pre'T\oturely and preser ed tnereby its moin SOl.'" /..3: "Aopren ices 01 rne f!o~ho.t'fl'/ r/ r". toooy be 0 lyon cncchronisrn ond non. theorelicolly as well os procticclly." (signed) Emil Longe nd}en mom contra" Bravo.'J Character of the Bauhaus The Non·Political T~raughout its e~istence. Where else i the wor"d wos .i1.. the crof 5 ore nothing bul 0 luxury.u ties 0: Ihis novel met nod or educotion begin here" The ouollsrr. In Thuringio. 19J4" no"" Technicol Drrec:rcr of Re:seorcn Station Su'folo Cr·).. " _ " Bwt '~oi "s ~o! the main I". why does he suppose a know:edge of tha croh 0 be essen "01 lor ind"s·riol monJioe ~re? Crcitsrncns ip ana industry hove a :ur. The problem remo. o crolts'T1cn O'd on or'. homoered by tne cheap derision ond moliciOJs 0 tocks of he reoctionories.'sc. "'fO·9 in the periodicol Die Kochel. within "ts own gro~o" "He Bouhous is under a "ng Ihe bold and. suopor'ed by ·he bourgeoisie with ·~eir individ"olism o~d snoboery ana the"r purely decorotive point of view" L"ke any olner art school.o 1-10-5ee. He lound it necessary alan early dote 10 prohibit poriticcl octivity of ony kind in the Bou hous. The fact the the Bouhous hapoened 10 open during a Socialist regime (the progrom hod been initiated earlier und er the 00 ronoge of he Grand Duke of Soxe-Weimor).lf years of ". i. recognizing he Bounces cs a natural i~ berween cror· and indJstry..c~ur9 and 0 pictoriol composition is no solution of Ihe problem 0: scoce_ " " " Modern orlist:c vitoli y has 01 los: come to deny oainting ond sculoture as such.urich. II is poss" p e TO stc te q"" te SODer y who' he 5oJhoJ5 's wor'h to Germany ono who! it "'oy be worth 'n rne '"lure. ins!"tut"on for crecticc expermen! in new moterio s.enSe" " " " II Gropius wo nts his scnoc to figh ogoinsl d"le'tonlism in the arts. Since October.. 1823. wor ing in C ose coooero ion.'" /. no mo·ter gooo. the a i ua a shown by su oerior ollie iols is malevolent.S'. 1923: "Aher 'hree and a no. . nizes ono emphasizes Ihe common rool 01 a I 'he arts"" The op"nion of 0 GerMan rooe oooer..OPPOSITION TO THE BAUHAUS 011 1. t here on "n.. >iorvcrd Unive"ilv.r". cs be'ore.isterce Ihe Bo'uhoJ5 a! Weimor coiled "n ils Iriencls o. near Be.'e modern means of production. in 1924.. " " And 0 r'er e ccrelo I scrut' ny of the resu I15 0010" ned in W"". 0: this s . COMm er Iin9 0 nih e exh ibition of 192. u"t"l now. eoo 10 Inis goo 1_" " " 'e¥er'he Ie5S. co.! Quousque tandem? 14. it 0150 took the sling out of the a tacks (foreseen from the storl!) of croll orgonizo ions."ty of hffolo.. ns.r at Da~''''cu'i Co ~. how a educo e human oei gs to rr eet the mas JrgeM needs in the fie d of industriol prodUCTion" T " rood chose" by the Bouro"s wi. Ihe Beuhous is inco coble of improving indus rio orcdcction: 01 .e I""t end. the leoding orchitecturol periodicol i1 Czechoslcvc ic.6Top/erkunst (The orIs of tile and pottery): 'Spedal lee'". which should hove been a matter of course on the por of Governmen officials.or was a generot"on struggli. Siegfried Giedion*.iation . It shou a be \rolued cs t. Cooperation. Ins'eod 0..d foes 10 judge for Ihe'T\selves is aims ond achievements" It is ossured o' respect in any cose. the Bcuhcus is not consiste . " . notobly the Deportment of Fi once. blind re:u. 'The crchitac s ot tne Bo"hous propose 0 poi I ural cornpcsi+... 0 des're whic . It recog. produced object. 0.n Slovbo.i"n. but since Ihe odven of the new government he olliciol altitude. Gropiu./ -I' /Jf. It is IJnderstordoble cno ~u"'on tnol such on exoeriment. Lac smilh Arno Muller.. . . we be'ieve.. I. Decerroe 4 h. .he Allgemeine Zeituog. . foresaw these dillicul ies. e .4'.'r". the govern"'ent ron he gomut !rom Lei Sociclst to Ihe ' People's Potty. Ihe ex oerim en I oeg . Teig. 0 be reconciled with indus'riol me-roos of producfon" The 50u ho us is co~d uc·i n 9 Ihis seo rc h wilh sea nl su p port in On irr ooveri5~ed Gerrrony.. ond leo reo it es a MW :octor Ii ely 10 occa ero e thO decl'na of 'he erohs w"ich hod resulted from 20th century incus r'o development. However.//." ao ." ". PRESS COMMENTS 1923-1932 The cri'Ic s 01 the Bo"~o~s snowed 0 tendency.. and iocli Ily ond students he d themselves 01001 Irom participation in the work 01 any political party" AI hough the enemies 01 the school tried in every conceivoble woy a confirm their suspicions (they even went so lor as 10 order house. hos no been forthcoming.a-house searches by the ". could nol be denounced as competition wilh the hondicrofts" In con!ros' to t e above is a review of he e. he Bcuhous never forced its noturo growth. unforlurolely. Slein Ho" Eisen (Stone Wood Iron).. d be 01lowed to cant" nue unoer all circurnsrcnces. ibition of 1923 by he SW"5S0"1 historian.. pursues wi h unusual ene gy Ihe seorcn for Ihe new ori~cipla5 which will hove to be found ii "ver the c-eo'ive urge "n numonity i. Thee von DOBsburg. 1922..g for selr-e<pression ollered the pos· sibil'ty 01 develop" ng i!s creo live powers? Neither in Fro nce. !en. Ihe formal inougurolion of 'he new • Cnorles Eliol Nor'on Lec'uter. in the mOdS!01 presentooy cheos.9 wrote: ~ "" " .. tos of reviving orl" II ears oow ~ the borriers betwee n "no ivi d~ol oris. has changed inlo open animosity.he problems it raises ond it shot... olmosl presump'uou. ce of srre g h..'.l no ." her -he rose-co oreo 9 csses of COU"d'9SS enrhusicsrn nor he bod scsctoctes 0.. he odmi s the division of looor. 'he only ins!"tution concerned with Ihe inlegrotion 0: 0 e soects 01 contemporory cult.domen a Iy d'Herent opprooch. The diff'{... Kanl./ r/ r/. caused iT to be a toded by all subsequent governments on Ihe grounds !hot he Socialists hod slorted il.'s. virt ro Iy 'ne onl. hous bu"ld'ng wi"1 10 e pace" Tne ~oro BOLhou< hcs ceCO'T1e a ro v"ng-cry ior friend ond foe" To do it jus'ice .goin$1 the 93 Bouhous! How long" . Manager (Syndikus) of From 0 newspaper: From 0 letter Irom the Susineu the Bo uheus 10 the Director E!fJ(onenneirtet ano !Riln filr bit tnff= 1\aufJQu. Sa ptemb"r. Bul without ils nonpertisnn oHilude. ne·" methods ono raw forms. n here by 0 few courogeous ond stecc lest men rernc ins 0 voluob e one in spite of 011 . October 2. Toooy.. "'0 ..t oossible to soti.rre.. Z. Planning Auoc.. hoo begun to ossert iTse ! in 0 countr" es in ne 'ieldS of ort.... A chorocteris ic critico estimate coc ecr ed .erent cu 'urol ideologies !nen current.s are tough' by two rr esters. in these ti'TIes. which opposed he sale 01 actual obiec s produced al publicly financed schools os unfair compe ilion wi h private enterprise" But he sole 01 Sou Ous design' in re'urn lor royolties on mo .cience o~d technics? Where e se bu· nere in Wei".il. 1 29/3/1924 MI //. Wolter Curl Behrendt" in the De.

,-J ....

~<CI'.. v.~

\0<;' -ott'


. I 's "viae~i • at a 1undomentol improvamen in i dusrial production, which all i formed persons agree is nece ss crv, ceoencs largely on the wide.pread and enthusiastic oor+ic.pctien 01 cr-is s, The~ should not remain olcol Irom -h' s important lask b wt u nderto k" it a 5 he ma,t pr essi n 9 orcble-n ol rhe eress nJ dol'; for its be neiit they mus socrifica heir own p ecsnn inoividual praeecupo ions. "The Bouhous wonts to en isl on en ire generation crtists in a s nIggle 10 solve the erective problems 01 ind ~s',io Iism. It used to be mare or less e cha nce occur 'e nee [or a creative a rtist to Iind his way irlo a lac ary ord rnester the problems PJI to him. This will now be done censciocs yond 10 on ex-ent worthy 01 the importcnce 01 these proo ems. "The ceramics indus ry in oortlculcr, where esthetic ccnsiderorlons are so im oere!"ve ana where industrial requ ir arn e nts MOve had a porticu lady d svcstcf ng i nil u· enee on orrisrie quo ity. should lee obliged to pcrtlclpa'e in he elfor' mode 01 Weimor ond should be eoger 10 accept and develop who, has been begun there."


cution in on e,hioit"on hon the one submned. A. 0 mo er of princ'ple, I am • ep icol obout the construe ion of houses 'or display purposes. but in this case it is a question a' a new tyoe of builaing, ihe r eolizo ion of which is Iikely to hove for-reaching CU Itural and econom ic ccnseq renees, Tna need lor a strictly economical ",ethod 01 ccnstruction. as we I as our altered way of life seem 10 call or" new treatment of Ine one·lam·ly house in which i cease. a be on imitc-ien of he villa with rooms oi equal s·.e. There is evidence tho a type 0; oe,ign is develap'ng whie~ orgonically unites saverol srno! rooms 0 rou nd a lorga one, tn us bringi n9 a bout 0 comp~ete che g9 in form as we as in manner of living, Of oil tne olans I have seen, none appeors 10 me to be so apt to clady and a solve Ihe aroblem as Ihe one suomitted by the Bou~o~s. me aligh "n which we f'nd ourselves as a cricn nece,si'ates ovr be'ng t~e first of 011 notions 10 solve Ihe new problems of bu! ding. These olons clear y go 101 toward blOl'ng 0 new loil.' The re otion between I.e Bcuhous ond ·he Sate Governmen presen'l'd a problem which conlron'ed almost all publiciy appointea airec crs of cultu 01 ·nstitution. in Ihe new democracy: how for the democro'ic orincip e of the VOt9 should be a Ilowed to i oteriera with non·politicol rT'ot ers. Koch. a de-nccrot'c Secretory 01 Slate finally settled tne dispute by declaring hot any ind of puolic vot"ng on questens of art was On obsu dity. The Deutscne WerAbuno'. u der the leodership of 'ts president. he crcbtact Hans P,oel.ig. aaopted the some point 01 v'ew, in a leiter addressed to the government of rhe iree s'o'e of Sare-Weimor: "The pLolic cor-iroversy now rog'ng around the BaJhous 01 Weimar is no local mot er: in more ways than one. it concerns all hose interested in I~e growth and dave]oamen! 01 our crt. I is always undesiroble to confuse pro olarr-s 01 art with portical trends. The fury of politico I ,\,ile iniec ed into oil aiscussion of the work and purpose 01 the Bouhaus impedes y real consideration of he greot and imper ant experiment be dly going Io...-.'ord here. We trust that the oilieiels and departments having jurisdiction over this motter will do their II 0' a prevenl poli icol pa .. ions from destroying on underta jng whien should not be meosured by personol a'rejud'ces or by considerctlons foreign to art, bi.t solely by its own s ,oignlforwardne5S a~d its own unimpeachable objec-

Dr.E. Red.lob. Nationol Art Director of Germcny, cornmenting On the p on. lor the House "Am Horn" to be eree 'ed for ' e proposed exhibitio" in 1923: "I nviled by he Director 01 the Ba IJ ha,",s 10 rnc ke a s a emen concerning ne plans for 0 house in the pro DOsed exhbitio n 'n 1923. I a1!irm hot I con hardly imagine. under present circum. o nces, a plan "'are suited for exe-


A FEW HEADLINES The Collop.e of Weimor Art Disintegration 01 the Staalliche Bouhou. in Weimar Swindle-Propoganda Storm over Weimar Stootliche Rubbish Bauhau. Scandal Save the Bouho U5! The Menace 01 Weimar The Art War in Weimor The p.".a ult on the Bou haus Culture Demolition in Weimar The Cultural Fight in TIluringia Protest 01 the Weimar Arti.ts

l{.,ltur .. lb"a" in ttt,uringen l
sne Dolfi'cf:ien oerl .. ltgen Oen 1166.... Oe. St .. Qtlicf:icn. tJa"",, .. 'e.





F. H. Ehmke, 0 wei nown ort teoc~er and poqrcpher, com menti ng on I ~e cover of th e book. Sioo/lienas 8auhous Weimar I Bib!. nc, 8). 1923: "Wholly concerned with shopwindow eHec s, or, il one wonts to be nasty sheer bluff; bru 01 in coloring. without rernament of form ... " Br'uno Tout. architect. com men ing on e Preliminory Course: 'The me 00 01 test'ng a studen by lal1ing him a.peri-

qibt r~ c~lIm
",:,,":... a,;j\lUll~T'



me~' i"dependen'ly ord [·eely 01',," seems curious 0 the 10 mon; b~' :0' Ihe leocher it is he MOSI in!ollio e indico!ion 01 wh,,'hor a studen ~os ony creative obil"ty ond whether he con prol'to o y be oomitted to a speci'ied wor~shop. Tnis met nod of se ection 's, oerhc ps, one a' ..e most 'rrporton ochievemen-s of tne Bauhaus, Kole KoH in the 8 Uhr AbendbloH, Berlin,. February, 1924, ....o·e or 'Ie Bouho as donces: r 'The IImschlosschen [on inn) is lor au! i the country, in Ober .. ai-ncr. What a dercole pcelic nome. and w~ot a shod the. c eccrcred! Throug~ a norrow passageway one aene role, in 0 a dance holl 01 medium size, 0: "X urio nt ugli ness, The decorative rnu '0 I. dOle assuredly from 'he '80 s: 'hey represer rnoidens ploying the harp On some green meadow 'n porooise, Cor it be 0 he pupi's 01 l·on .. 1 Feininger, oi Kcndins y or Pou Klee Ore going to conee ~ere? Idle deuors disopnecred oiter or hour S en husics ic oorticipotion! In 'his throne-room 01 itsch [cheop bod 'oste 1 here is more reol yo"thlul erris ic atmosphere t~on in 011 'he sty'shly decorated nrtists' bolls of Berlin. All is arimitive 'here is nol the leas refinemenl, nor is there hot yown'ng blase o emeoncr nor tho overheo'ed ormosphere "hich necesstotes the stofoning 010 oolicemon in Iron 0; every dor~ recess 0' our bolls in Berlin. Everytl,ng bos bee!'! done by 'he BouhoJS srude nts themselves, Firs or 011, rhere is tne orchesirc. the bas ion bond thet I ever heorc raging' they ore musicions to Ihe'r finger ios. In inven 'on o,d glorious colori~g 'he costumes eave ior benind anything tho' con be seen 0' our periormonces .. , , T'e BOJhoJS ccmr-iunitv, mo. ers, journeymen, oppre tices, form a small islond ill 'he ocean 01 he Wei",or bourgeoisie. Four years 0: serious iobors have ot been oole ro oc custorn the Bauhous peop e lo '~e good 10 ~s of Weimot--ond vice verso ... :. S'x years 101e' the Solon des A,fisi e, Decoroleurs in Poris included on exnibirion 01 Ine Deuische Werklll/Md, organized under the direct'on 0: Wo er GropioJs with Ihe colloboro'ion 0; Herbert Boyer, Marcel Breuer ond lodislo~, Moholy-Nogy_ On ~is oecos'on Poul Fieren, wrote in the JOllrno/ des Deba1s. June 10, 1930: "In oil EJropeon coun r;es. he some ideas have been odvonceo, Ihe some e=lorts ore being moae_ In our own coun ry ney are too disper5ed, In Germany. 'hey ore more concen'ro eo; ods. and ind~s:riolis. are wor ing togelner i Ihe some spirit. The Bouhou. 0' DessoJ represents a woe generotion of explorer, co poble oi e'ploirng he numerous resources of modern 'ecilnics: it is 0 school and 0 laboratory at t"e some time, Germony hos reolized Ihe impor'once 01 the problem, which she has considered in connec ion wi'h the social reodjuslment now going on. And tho is ",hy, in h.. ni.ory of orchitecture ond Ihe 'naustriol orts 01 -he 20ln century, Germany will have the I"on', .hore," In June, 1924, Dr. August Emge, Prolessor 01 NO'ionol Economy onO P'lilosophy at 'he U nivers' yo' Jeno. oub-


ished !wo lactures ent'j ed The Conception of fhe 80uhcus I BioI. xu). Bo;ing his v·"w. on 1M theses set forth by Gropius in his essoy. The Theory olld Organization of fhe Bo"halJ' IBibl. xxx) D·, Enge compored -he 'esthe'ic synthesis" of the BouhoJ, wiT its "social synthesis." Ai er quoTiog the Grocius thesis .. -nechenired war is neiess, proper only 10 the ifeless machine ... _ Tne so ution aepends on 0 c ho ~ge in the individ JO s at'i'ud e 'oword his war. not o~ Ine ae erme'll oi his o~tword c' rcurnstonc es. Dr. tmge wri es: • A blun er rejec ion 01 Morxism ana kiMdred Utooras is inccncalvob e, I 's clear y sto'ad here -rot hormonious creation is or ethicol problem 10 be solved Oy he individ"o'.' later I,e alludes to the relcrlon 0: Ihe Bauhaus coneeolion to ·he contemporory world: "A movement which is limely in the ~est sense oi Ine word con not be said to deny history .... It is dHicult a delerm;ne jusl how the or+is: is o'leded by rrcditin-. Trodi'o~ must live in a no~-j conno' be cultivo\ed in him. 'Once spirt hos to en or mo erial forO": soY' Heg .. l, "t is lufl" to try to 'rnpose on it forms evolved by earlier cUlhJfes' hey ore Ii e ..... ithered lecves 'hrv", de by bJds which have oeen nc arisned lrom he some roots, I -nev be true even in a her lielos 0: endeovor thcr rrooilion ""US make itS9: let ho-menicusly, unoblrJsively ond subconsciouslv, bu- i' is esoeciol y opcloble 'n he reolm of ort. Es'nelic 'odi ion 's embod'ed 'n 5 le, But 0 s yle must be "nborn in tho o"is' ond generic to "Is epoch os were the great sty es 01 the post, All conscious a tempts \0 £loin insigh inlo 'he essence of a s·yle. 011 onil'c'o preservetion, eoo to on ~isloricol o!lituoe which is hos-ile 0 liie o nd consicerinq the MU Ti lic ity of choice, 10 a c hoos n 01 style, in One ond the some period."


The iollowing persons and sociefias par ic'pcred i • e flood 01 pretests ogoins tne discontinuance of Ihe Bauhaus 01 Weimor whic were addressed to the Government of the S a e of T uriogio: Prolessor Bernhard Pon~ok Dr. Mo~ Osborn Prafessor Dr. Hons Thoma Professor Josel HoHmonn Hugo von Hoffmonn. hoi Professor Oskor Kokosch a Professor Mox Reinhordt Arnold Schonberg Prolesso S rygows~i Fronz Werlel Grolin Kolkreuth Dr, N, Muthesius and many others

Professor Peter Behren. Prolessor lovis Corinth Proie .. or Alber Eins ein Dr. Alexo·nder Dorner J. J. P. Oud Professor Dr. C. Fries Dr, Gerhart Hauptmann Lud wig J usti Mies von oer Ro e Dr. Roland Schoch Hermann Sudermonn Prolessor Rohl's Prof. Dr. RiametSchmied Prolessor Hans Poellig




26th, 1924

leiter to the Government

01 Thuringio


Leogue 01 German Archi ee s (Blind Deu+sc er Archilekten) Architects Society "Architecturo et Amici ie." Amster. dom German Werkbund (Deutscher Werkbundl Austricn Werkbund (Osterreichischer Warkbund I Soci .. y 01 Social BJilding Trade, [Verbond Sozio er Boubetrieoe) Society of Ger on Art Critics (Verbond Deutscher Ku"'Tkritiker) Newsoooers from tne following continuo nee of the Bcuhcus: cities recom end he

Th e Director ond moslers 0' the S ote Bouhous 01 Weimar, comaelled by he otti"'oe of the Governmenl 01 Thuringio, herewith a "nou nce their d scislon to close I e insti tion creo ed by them on their own initiotive ond according to their conviction s, on the exoirotion dote 01 their contracts, thai is. April lirst, ninete~n hJn. d red 0 nd twenty./ive. W_e accuse the Government 01 Thuringia of hovi g per, mltted and approved the Irus rotion of cui urolly irnpor. ton ond olwoys non-political ellorls Ihrough the intrigues 0' has ile politico I porlies. , .. (signed by 011 the mostersJ From a leHer ta the Government Weimor, of Thuringia Jo "ory 13th, 1925


BielFeld Weimor Dresden Dorms 001 Jeno Bremen Chemnitz Magdeburg Edun

Attocks on the Bou hous Th e lollow'og quercrion Irom on o"ic e by H, PIlug. prinled in T e ooli icol wee Iy "Die Tal" in 1932. de." ribes the "nceosi.'g ·... . orlore he Bou nous was forced to "'oge ogo,ns' 'ts odversories. "DiHe"en' vo Jo'ions moy be p aced on ~e role of the BaJhous 'n Ihe developMenl 01 moo ern orcni eC urol de"gn. bUI urdoubled y tha: role wo, 0 great one. The v:oJence of the oltoc s 'esti'ied a Ihe s'renglh and historical sig"'ficonce of Bounol.;s ideos. The polTcol otlocb ~od as their oosis psychologicol o~d phi osophicol re,entment. Those no longer oble or nol ya w'lling to chonge o.,d leorn, realized Ina Ihe Bauhaus ,1000 lor 0 new li'e and 0 new stye in 0 new lime. Philistines and reoctionories rebel ed. All the animosity Ihey could not ,,,,Iood e sew here wos oirac'ad ogo'ns he visib e embodirrent of what Ihey feared."

Apoldo leipZig Homburg Munich Fron lort Stut gort Heilbronn Honover Korlsru e school 0:

We notify the Go~ernmenl of Th"ringio thot we, collebe-c ors at the Slole Bauhaus ot Weimor, sholl leave the Bauhaus together wilh the leaders of he Bouhous, because 01 Ih.. actions of the Slote Government .. _ [signeo by all Ihe studsnts ]

Also orolesting he discon inuonce of the Weimor wete the following publications: Germany: Die Tot Der Cicero e Weltb~hne Die Bou..... el Kunstchro i in Sc hO'Lkommer

Holland: Tefegrool. Bouwerbndig We .. kelo". Nieuwe ROI erdamsche Courant u s morkt Czechoslovo ;0: Progertageb'olt Hungory: A II ogyor, BJoopes

S'"i/zerlond: eu" Zuricher Ze'tu Dos Werk

U. S. A.: The Freemon.

New York

Menaced by on uncompre enoing ond antagonistic go~ernment and co sciolI' 01 Ineir solidarity ana rights as tOenoers of the institulion, the d'rettor ond counci 0/ mo" .." decided, at Christm", time, 1924, on the dis50Iu"on 01 the Bauhaus in order to orestoll is destruction. In spile of 011 proohecies 0 The co Irory. h's, eo proveo to oe wi, e. The e'pril de corp~ whic h hoo g.rod uoily develooed among Ihe student. and masters withS ood this riol. or eir own occord the s'udent. infor ed the government that they stood with the direc or ond mo,ters and intended 0 leo'le w'th t em. This ~nited o-t"tud .. wos ",lIected in ne entire press and oecided 'he fUTure of he Bo"hoJs. Vorious cities, De .. ou, Fran _ For, Hogen, Monnhe'", DarMstadt opened ~e90tictionl with 0 view TOtron'planting Ihe Bouho~s, On • e 'ni ia. t;"e o· Moyor Hesse. Dessou. in the center of the midGer'T1an caol bel, iovi ad the en ire B.ouhous to reestob, lish itself there. This invitotion wos occepted ond. ofter carrying o ... their can roct. in We·mor. mosters ond t students Oiled a Dessou in the 'prj 9 of 1925 and t"'ere bego n the reorgon ilOtion of 1 he So u ho us,

Only once why site nu hose of of the ber on two ne

wi h Ine cvlturo] Gerrran a srrall town nos and quality con wos on ond irr-porcrov;ncial lawn unaerstood large in chor-

ferni'ior occasion,

chosen as ! e

Bcunccs, Germany

of srnc


towns unique


octer. Thanks 10 the;r civic structvre ana their splrituo] vitol'ty, they provide on ideal envircnr-ient lor culture] movements o lo ...orcble tro!ivemo,ch which req"ire c+ncsphere. in ery;

: cover a prospectus Desscu. 1928 edver'ising from

stro g personal direction end Co.,.,porot"vely sirr ple odminis,
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Moree Breuer. udents. The Mayor or Dessou. was begun at once. 2. were appointeo masters.lts School. for industrial and manual pro· duction. Ihe Bouhc as hod to move into !"moorory quarters in Desseu.. pending he comole ion 0: its new bu'ld'ng 01 he and of 192b. A business organization. however. Fritz Hesse. THE NEW CURRICULUM 100 T e curricu urn underwent several changes: joi nt instruction by a crohsrncn and on orris was abandoned. especiolly building and lntarier deeoroticn.es: and thanks to him it was able to develop relatively undisturbed for a number 0: years. The workshops were set up on a floor 01 the Seiler loctory. from northwest. from Groaiu' designs. laundry and ain'ng holl for he studen s. Kondinskv. a the t: me. Henceforth each workshop was directed by one moster. Joost Schmidl. end neorly 011 the Bouhous studan s moved Irorn Weimar a Desscu. one 01 hose notable individuals who demonstrote the imparlance 01 he smolt German cily os a celturo loctor. ond lor a new building to house boih Ihe Bo~ ous and the Municipal Arts ond Cra. A dapcrtmen 0: typography ond lev-out W05 added.! supervision. and ateliers were provided for 'he artists in Ihe old a nd. Josef Albers. the Bauhaus Ccrporo-icn. He encouraged culrurol activity wHI the some tenacity. Gerhard Moreks.. Vie . The principles 01 the Bauhaus were again c:lorilied: The Bauhaus is on advanced school lor creative work.FACULTY AND STUDENTS . Ihe Junkers airolane worh moved to Dessou. Construction. was established a handle I e sale to indus ry 0' mod "Is created in lhe Bauhaus workshops. The deporlment of architecture wo s considerably e nlorged a d l~e leochers of the Municipal School cooperoTed with it. Its ouraose is: I. Gropius. wcs on eminently farsighted person.1\g Weimar. where wor c W05 imme· diotely begun in provisional quor+ars. the Bauhaus 100'05ronslerred Irom Weimar to De550 u: he 101'0lIy 5U poor1ed its orinci p . boths. manual and technical raining 01 men ond women of creative talent [or a I kinds of erea ive war. Mahaly-Nagy. Herbert Boyer.' Almost all the former rnesters.. Owing to his energy ond cour09".. Schlemmer. which hod 01. Hinnar Scheaer. os well 0' the development 01 model.. e"ll ply Art Museum. On his initiative. 1925·192b A er eO. . classroom ins ruction oak place in the rooms 01 he existing Arts and CroiJs SChool.0 been placed under GrODi. Muche. Five former. Dr. Feininger. The execution of oroetico experimen 01 work. Especially noteworthy was he city's decision to odd to he Bouhous building proper a wing wi h twentyeight st dio opor men s. The in ellecluol. NEW BUILDINGS The mayor !or seven 01 Dessou hod o oproved on appropriation houses with studios for the former Weimor mosier. especially building. The Transitional Period al Dessau Wolter Gropius: Dessou Bauhaus. want 10 teach near Holle since there W05 no money or room to reinstall his ceramics workshop in Dssscu. Kle e. remained wilh Ine Bouhous when it moved a Oe'50u..

lar steel furniture of the assembly hall. 27) Dessau in the autumn of 1925 and was cornpletely finished in time for the formal dedication in December. These ore housed in a three story block (with basemen ). dining room and s udios was executed from designs by Marcel Breuer. pointed with mineral paints. or rouqhIy twenty cents per cubic foot. and two lecture halls Wolter Gropius: Dessou Bauhaus. In the basement of he studio building there are ba hs. laid on insulation boards 01 "torfoleum" he tile (com- pressed peat moss).) leads to laboratory workshops and the classrooms. In the basement. On gala occosions. containing the adminis ration ofIices and Professor Gropius' office. c. On the third floor. The flat roofs designed to be wal ad on ore covered with asphalt tile. all the walls surrounding the stoge can be removed. and in addition each floor has a kitchenette. stage and di ni ng. The bridge conecting buildings I and 2 [oins this floor . ii or90 nizotione I changes make this neeessory. In front of the dining hall is a spacious terrace. 1925·1920 THE BAUHAUS BUILDING designed the bridge. stage. welded together. In the live upper stories there are twentyeight studio oportments for studen s. Lettering was execu ad by the printing workshop. w' h he entrance on Ihe cent'. The tubu. the design and execution of all lighting fixtures by the metal workshop. a large lecture room. On the ground (Iirsl) 1I00r are the carpentry shop and the exhibition rooms. The wing which contains the Technical School (later Professional School). on electric laundry. library. auditorium and vestibule can be cornbined into one large halJ lor the occasion. can be opened on bo h sides. no. The .150. A Stucio wing B Auoitorium. a large vestibule leading to the auditorium with 0 raised stage at one end. room for models. the weaving room. A builaing express-n9 the modern splrir reiec s sym. The bridge (D.southwesL 1925·1 '126 which can be connected to make a large exhibition hail. and. the wall-pointing workshop. the servants' quarters and the furnaces. One must walk around tnis srrue ure in three-dimensiono character of its form and the function of its ports. Drainage by cast iron pipes inside the building.200 marks. portment. so that spectators can sit on ei her side with the stage betwee them. metal workshop. Pia n of Ihe Bouha us: Ground Floor Considerations 10 be hp in mind in orgoni1ing a pion: proper orenrction to the sun . mo ing possible a reossignmen of roomuses. regular roofs hove the some type of insulation mentioned above. the architectural de- 102 ~- gymnasium and locker-room. Air view. the volume is approximately 1. The stage. and thus all the space occupied by the dining hall. physics hall. carried on piers. situated between the auditorium and the dining hall. hollow tile floors. the sculpture room and the packing and storerooms. the dye-works.) on the ground lIoor. Steel window-sash with double weathering conlocts. Ex erior finish of cement stucco. me ry and ihe ron is piece facade.ol axis. are the printing plant. On the second lloor.000. 1926_ The whole building occupies on area of about 28.300 square feet. 0 The building consists of (see plate opposite): E. On the lower floor 01 this bridge are the administrative offices of the Bauhaus. only one story in height. time-saving communication clecn-cu separation of 'he different par soil e whole flexibility. The dining hall communicates wi h the kitchen and several smaller rooms. View Iror. The auditorium (8. brick masonry.pointing war shop. The cost of furnishing the building amounted to 126. and 103 . half below and half above ground. The view olieree 10 Ihe spectotcr as he drows near is 1I0t a a two-di· mensiono . instructors' rooms.000 cubic feet. The two upper Iloors are connected with a bridge across the street. on he upper floor.ho' I C Laboratory worbhoo o Bridge lodmi~istrotion oHices) E Technical sc 00 (from B·o.hor . is connected with the by WALTER GROPIUS A.sou 60uhous. A dents' quarters.. rooms for preliminary courses (grundlehre). ping. covered with lacquered burlap and a cement top.. T is leads to the upper story of .00.500 marks. The total cost amounted to 902. its classrooms and administrative quarters. Studio wing. The Bauhaus building was begun by the city of A characteristic bui ding of the Renaissance or Baroque nos a symme· rico I facade.Wal er Gropius: De. Material cnd construction 01 the project Reinforced concre e skeleton with "mushroom" columns.Cl c. about $230. which contains scholarship stu-. The interior decoration 01 the entire building was executed by the well. which in turn leads to the sports areas.

1925·192b -<--. Wolter Gropiuo: Dessou Beuhous. Re oorls in 'he press indicaled that only few c rilics understccc thaI he . 1925·1921. 1925-192b Wolter Gropius. View towerd s age end..eore. The 'naugurel ce. the Beuhaus wos formally inaugure ed.-<---e On December 4. motion pictures. lectures. from ! e very beginning. Dining ream. Wolter Grapius: Desseu Bau~ou s. 1925·1926 Welter Grooius: Dessou Souhous. 1921.'"Iler. Six y pre ss .entotives were present a the Bauholls ooe ing in 1925. View from the steirecss toward the workshop s.=: Walrer Gropiu5: Desseu Bauhaus.ibi ion. as well as a do nee in he new cuilaing.oos ·hemselves. 1925·1926 ° 104 Wol er Gropivs: Oesseu Sol/hous. . Corner 01 the workshop wing. The inaugural oddress was de ivered by NOTional Art Director [Raichsku nstwor"] Erwin Red· sleb who hod been born in Weimar and who hed. Most 01 Inem believeo il hod been designeo by the o-chirae s and only executed by Ihe worhhops. Staircase. 1925·1921. Oliice 01 the o: rector. shown greel interest in the 80u ous.ebrotions i eluoed an exI. bridge and techn ico I school beyond. Nigh view.or hod been designed mainly oy he war .!. The reopening of the Souhous under more orosperous condition.. Two thousand 0' ended a Bauhaus bell Ina evening. Desscu Beuhous. was regorded as e greol cui urel event and brought mor a han 1500 visitors to Desscu.

olter Grcp'vs: Desscu Bc. 1925-I92b Life 0 he in Dessou 801.ng n the studio Wolter Gropius: Dessc u Bcuhcus.judio ouiiding. View of studen s' studo build'ng from southeast. 1915-192b . Balconies of the students' .1'00' 106 Room w.uhoJs.

Desseu... hou se. Dessou.Wolter Gropius: View 01 masters' houses. 1926 . The interiors were designed and executed by the Bauhaus workshops. rs' houses. 1921> Wo or Grepius: Mo . Walter Gropius: Living rccrn in moster's house. Dessa u. Dessc u. 1. Dessc u. 1925·1921> A few hundred yards from Ine main Bauhaus building were three double houses and one single house built by l~e town of Desscu for the Bouhaus masters.925-1926 Wo'Ter Gropius: Studio in a mosler's house. 1925-1926 Woller Gropius: Dirac or'.

'olei'ng "Minimal Wolter Grcpi. By 1928 he hoc comole'eo 316 houses. 1929 Wolter Grooivs: City EM. ployme~1 Or:ice. S'r.}n in Torlen.. Wolt!!r Gropius wos the orchi'ec~. Desso~.e.Woller Grocius.. Generol ..~e. cs per: 01 0 -ew ho~s'ng crojec' ior Ihe city or Dassou.'ew.. ""or ..Jc!uro' sche.e of 'ypico I U nirs.. 1926 60 one-:omi y ~o ~. lnterior view.s e ons . Dessou. 1926 Anonymous: d'. 1920 \"/0 I ler Gropi us: Desso W· Torten. 1')'29 II D In Mid·Sa olember.!!5. Ciry Employment Olfiee Dessou.. which we'" pori y lurnis' ed by th!! BouhOJ. using 5'oodord'zed units were peg.rs: DessouTor e«. Sire pan. III Woller Gro oius: Dess'lJ' Torten. View showing rodioling en ranees :or voricus vccotiono groups. 192& . I'?29 Wolter Gropius: CilY Emoloymerl Ol'. 0 co-nrnu-iity 0: wor~ers "OW.

1927 Hans Witwer: HOJse 'or Dr. was the indUC'iv" method. S otics and Descriplive Geometry were oopointeo 10 he s a. Some oi t ~e po' nls 0: Gropius' program were never realized.ge rooms. ec ural courses. alter Gropius left in 1928...l in Dessou 'n order wioen he scooe of the orchitedural troining.Marcel Breuer: Bernbcs Houses. os in a o hers. An elle 01 wos mode to ne oort lrorr the rigid horzornc l=vertico. seDOroled as we os co"nee'ed by Ihe en . beccusa 01 tne shorloge of lunds. In 1927 Gropius succeeded in bringing he Swiss Hannes Meyer to Ihe Bouhous as ins raetor in Architec ure. '0 HANNES MEYER. Tne pedagogic procedure Iollcwed in he oren.r. 1928 .ometric drawing of small metal house designed for preiabrieotion. A voriction 01 the pion below 'ndudes a stud'o unit. A project to house Bve Bouhous masters. hus increasing !unlig t ono adding interest to the inlerior design. which enables Ine pupil a lorm conclusions on the bests of nis own ebse'voliol) 0 nd e~ periance. composition prevclenj in mod ern a rchitacture.nigh!). Two lo.once ho" and the itchen and bo hroorrunils are pia 'led wi n on eye a the d ua phases a.Jer. 1928 112 Moreel Bre.chi dren: day . Hennas Meyer become head of the Architedure Deportmen and.v . Director 01 the entire Bauhaus lor a shon oeriod. olden. Plan and i. Moyen. 10m'Iy lile (husbonowife. The sew-tooth design of he roofs 0 "ows for clerestory wi ndows. porer+s . how . 1925 ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT Specie lists in Cons ruction.

. .. 1928 .. He. . . '.. view.. I . Bernou Isometric.....nnes M e YIlf' Trede Union School.r I ./' ~ :~ ~l I I \ g.1. I I :. ..(' 'l~ . . .. _. • ~.1 • fi . . r. .. --L-- I' .. .. 114 \ ~ L!-.. t »: .' . j~- -: \ \ 115 " .

we have arthem independently. Industrial methods of treoling raw materials represent the results of 0 long technological developrnent. To experiment of materials without practithan is at first more valuable innovations in the application or treatmaterial. monuol knowledge 01 the material we restric the use 01 tools. perience and they are our own because they have been re-discovered rather than taught. uninfluenced and unprejudiced experiment. In other words. naturally. The study of the material must. has consisted chiefly in the teaching is given alone.. by a free handling cal aims. alter having ried all other methods of fastening we may. to pin it. through direct ex- Marg. or even material: we reinforce il by com- /\~ CONCERNING FUNDAMENTAL DESIGN by JOSEF ALBERS Learning through experiment Economy of form depends on function and material. The ability to construct inventively and to learn through observation is developed-at least in the beginning . If such training G.tures to produce: free ploy in the beginning develops courage. we fasten it in a multi ude 01 different ways. is generally used edge is rarely utilized.. Cu without wOS e Iromane piece of paper. The most 10miliar methods 01 using them are summarized: and since they are already in use they are for the time being in hondic oft lying fiat: the reason we try as a building JOSE F ALBERS.by undisturbed. to train ourselves in "constructive thinking. Our aim is not so much to work differently as to work without copying or repeating others. 4 feet hig h liT ation ond invention. therefore.. We try to experiment.i! Fischer: Study in materials combining similar and diHeren le. For example: paper. For his paper standing upright. At the some time we learn by experience its properties of flexibility and rigidi y. for instance. 1921> forbidden. As the course ocvonces the possibilities in the use 01 various materials os well cs their limitations are gradually discovered. Hossenpllug . of established it hinders creprocesses." Constructions To increase our independence of the traditional use of materials we solve certain given problems in technique and form by making original constructions out of a great variety of materials: out of corrugated paper and wire netting. Sometimes the results represent men! of methods rived at of these experiments Exercise in transformofon on one plone 116 01 materials. or with match-boxes. Cut without woste from OnB sheet of po per. to rivet it. we do not begin with a theoretical introduction: we start directly with the material.ished methods 01 manufacturing develop discernment and skill. The twisting is outamotic resu It of lihi ng or stretching In order to insure first-hand. Therefore. to sew it. phonograph needles and razor blades. Study in plastic use 01 paper . precede the investigation of lunction . pas e it. These constructions must demonstrate the qualities and possibilities of the materials used by fulfilling he techn' col requirements set forth in the wording of the problem.PRELIMINARY COURSE: ALBERS S udy in plastic use of poper. of course. in other words. The learning ond opplication of estobl. and its potentialities in tension and compression.. but hardly creative po entialities. Paper is usually posted: instead of posting it we try to lie it. Therefore our studies 01 form begin with studies plicated folding: we use both sides' we ernphusize the edge. Then. But even when we evolve which are already in use. entails detours and in- . Technical education. We know thai this learning through experiment lakes more time. linolly. . and industry.

hue and intensity. It counteracts the exaggeration of individualism without hampering individual development. . stretching ond co""' pressi ng. which we differentiate carefully. with emphasis on technical and economical rather than esthetic considerations makes clear the difference between the static and the dynamic properties of moterials. Economy is the sense of thriftiness in labor and material and in the best possible use 01 them to achieve the ellect that is desired. facture and texture. by the correct choice 01 tools. that is to soy. CJr~ed laid. rucMatchboxes S·udies in plastic use of Ii . can be related. Cut withou waste from one sheel 01 paper. Texture Experiment with surface qualities is another method lor the study 01 form ond the development 01 individual sensibility.s to be used. but with its appearance. . an essential point in our teaching is economy. It shows that Ihe inherent characteristics 01 a maleriol determine the way in which il . Tronsformo'ion of a cone by cutt"ng. but no beginning can be straightfor. It encourages the interchange of experience and the understanding of the basic lows 01 form and their contemporary interpretation. by the use of ingenious substitutes lor missing implements. board plastically Study in plastic paoer use of . We classify the appearance of the surface of o malerial as to structure. Economy allobar is as important os economy 01 material. Just as one calor inlluences another by its value.nol examinations S'udy -n plcs ic ~se of paper. by the constant use 01 ready-mode and easily procured means. As the proportion 01 ellort to achievement is a measure 01 the result. It is fostered by the recognition of quick and easy me hods. -+ leet high First oUem pis 10 use cord. These exercises in textures alternate with the "construction" studies described above.. II trains the student in constructive thinking. These qualities of surface can be combined and graduated somewhat as colors are in pointing.-«directions. They are not concerned with the inner qualities 01 the material. S'udy in plastic pacer use of 118 119 Study in plastic use of paper. by the combination of several processes or by restricting oneself to a single implemen . bend'ng.ward. The sysleWerner tion. Learning in this way. so surface qualities. This sort a: exercise replaced I. Feis : Can.. Consciously roundabout ways and controlled mistakes sharpen criticism and promote a desire lor improvement. both tactile and optical.

Transformation 01 a cylinder through cu ins and bending -<-6 Study 01 three dimensions. 1927 S udy in plestic use 01 paper.d. Otherwise eaching is a sour bread and a poor business. We must. 1928. "Foe ure' r. Through discussion 0/ the results obtained from the study of the problems of materials. learn from each other cantinually. octuol and illusory Study in optical illusion . or the wavy surioce 01 corrugo ed po per. Flat wire nelling mTong. or is [errn . in choosing his vocation.. It develops lIexibility. These surlcce qualities co n be perceived usuo lIy by . warm to cold." but only i bolh are present. he" exure" 01 pelished wood reveols both he "srruc re" Ismin) and he "lecture" (polishing l. such a. To summarize briefly: the inductive method of instruc ion proposed here has as its goal selfdiscipline and responsibility toward ourselves. for more easily by the eyes: the le. mysticism or science. It leads to economical form. beauty or intelligence. to recognize which lield of work is closest to him.ed in one plane . free or measured rhythm. E.rlvre 01 0 carpet is eosily perceive" by both hand and eye. It helps the student. 01 course. stroight·edged to shapeless. in stimulating cornpetition. clear and clouded.ish' and ol'en by both sight a d touch. geometric or arithmetric proportion. These ore chielly s uoies in the properties 01 wire. 2. Examples: the stTvelura of high Iy polished wood co n be perceived by eye but not by touch: the fodure 01 0 orinled poge can be perceived by sensi ive IingeMi ps but.3) "Struetura' refers 10 those quo I itias al . which reo veal how he row rna erial has been treated technically.hibi ion of 0 student's lirst semester work. We discover what chiefly interests us: complicated or elementary form. nos.l92b S ud yin illusory three dimensions Studies in plos ic use of paper. row material grow. polished to mot. the hammered or polished surlace 01 me 01. central or peripheral emphasis.Iars to those quoli ies of surioc . such os: the grain of wood or the composite' ructur e 01 groni:". olso in the visual quali ies of surfaces such as wide-meshed and norrow-rneshed: transparent and opaque. 3D." published in Bib!. (from "Werklicher Formunterricht. For insronce. no. as students and teachers.urioce which reveal how th . "Texture" is a general term which refers to both "structure" and "Iccture.. We learn which formal qualities are important today: harmony or bclonce. symmetry or osymmetry.. smooth 10 rough..120 matic arrangement of surface quofities in scoles ond series makes one sensitive to the minutest differences and the subtlest transitions in the tactile qualities a/surfaces. such os hard to soh. we acquire exact observation and new vision. toward the material and toward the work.

G. eeP.929 re. Hossenpllug: Study in between colors ond lorrns. Wooden stids lostened osether with r070r blades. Hessenpiluq: S udy in plostic use or gl055 Study in onticol F at wire netting il usicn. Inverse use 01 colors ond forms.els ccbsved by repetition oi wc-drnens'onct elements: circ. 122 G. To' ner: S "dies in optical illusion..cfionship Above G. Threedimensional "'f. 9 feet high 10".es ond ports of circles Deto il 01 construction right at 123 .earge Grosz.. Construction. 1.

just as in every other field.teneo tegether with thin wire. 1928 Co. shapes which represent the fluctuating ploy of tensions ond forces. those who learn by the historical method can seem to know a 101 when all they have really learned is to classify and dote the monuments of the post. But these are only the togs 01 architecture. how you live in it and how you move in it. or 01 the flow of interweaving space.- . Today spatial design is on interweaving 01 shapes. as other capacities do. Neumann: structien. 192a --(-- Werner Zimmermann: Censtruction. For architecture is the functionally and emotionally satisfactory arrangement of space. Gothic rosettes. but in principle space can be experienced by everyone even in its rich and complex forms. just as we are equipped to experience colors or tones. Wire end tubes. Be/ew: An ettempt at graphic rronscription. Naturally.PRELIMINARY COURSE MOHOLY . shapes which are ordered into certain well defined. differ in degree in diflerent people. unfortunately. for he has no ideo 01 the real ellect of pure space arrangement.. This capacity can be developed through practice and suitable exercises. Gloss tubes ia. Most people. Pure space arrangement is not a mere queslion 01 building materials. In reolity. 1923 S udy in 124 125 Gerde Marx: Study in tex ure. Hence a modern space composition is not a mere combination Klau. In general the "educated" man today is incapable of judging works of architecture in 0 true way. The way to learn to understand architecture is to have direct experience of space itself. It will. still learn architecture out of books. that is. Romonesque orches. if invisible. 01 course.NAGY -<----. Corinthian copitols. 192a . of the balance 01 tense contrary forces. only a very few ever learn really to experience the miracle of esthetically arranged space. Hinrlck Bredendied: Suspended cons ruction.i THE CONCEPT OF SPACE by MOHOlY-NAGY We are all biologically equipped to experience space. space relationships. etc. long preparation is necessary bela e one can appreciate this essential character 01 architecture. 1928 -<--ci Merionne 6'endl: belence. They learn how to tell the "styles" of the great monuments of the pasthow to recognize Doric columns.

Below. no. to be used as for as possible in expressing the artistic relations 01 created and divided space. 1927 --: Construct. o. icribe.: George Gros~: ConS'rJC' ion. Herelo. but also how to mo e 'he mochi. 1927 G..01 building stones. artist as well cs orti.ure 01 various mote. as on unalterable arrangement of rooms. but as an orgonic component in living. rials. Wire and 126 SCOPE OF THE BAUHAUS Gropius: TRAINING Bri"ge '11u5 '0 ing vibration and pres.ind 01 tolenl on equal chance.e 011 olike. I e oasis 01 thot lreining should be breod enough to give every . men citizenship 01 all [orrns of creoti v e work. 29) Ab". 321 12T .cod . (Adopted from Bibl. and rna e him leel the he drowing.es S odbrokers co I 'Iv u res. ~Iotive reseo eh 0 which humon'ty owes the sort of vol.on . As varieties of talent conno be dis ingui. not merely as a shelter from the cold and from danger. t e individual must be able to discover is proper sphere of activity in '~e course 01 ki. not the putting together of dilferently shaped blocks and especially not the building of rows of blocks of the same size or of dilferent sizes. monding brains will have been through he some indus'rial mill they will know. The primary means lor he arrangement of space is still space itself and the lows of space condition all es hetic creation in architecture.heo belore they monilest t emselves. nor as a fixed enclosure. Building materials are only a means. not as a complex of inner spaces. not only how to mo~e 'ndustry odopt their i"provements and inventions. 1924 "W at tne Bauhaus peached in prcc ice wos I e com. own de. 'ng uni e. as a governable crea ion fo mastery 01 life. etc.boord is merely a prelude 10 the active joy 01 fashioning. But Ihere will always be a small mi ority of ou S onding ability whoss legitimate ambitions it would be lolly to circum. Build.other Lang' below Siegfried Grlesenscblog: Studies in texture. And sinee all t hess com. inouslry. architecture will be understood. That is." {lrom Bibl. ond their logical in erdepe dence on ana ana her in the modern world. both monuol ond mentol war en in a common to s k. Ho. e the vehicle of their idees.o . ond 51 ce experimental and productive work are of equal "rocticol impor once. or tho inestimobly u5elul spec. velopment.senp!iug.e l. ". an 0 tempt oj graphic transcription. NotlJrorfy the greet mojori y will be absorbed by the building odes.• hould have 0 common Iroini g. As soon as this erte has linished its communol tro'ning i will be free to concentrate on individual work. con emporory problems. It wa nteo to help the lormol artist to recover the fine 010 sense of design and execution being one and e some.

l92b -(----'1f Mcreel B. 1'1'25 lor Mo. fn itself impersonal..euer: Fold ing choir. Morcel Breuer (Irom dos neue frankfurt." but only the imprint 01 the owner's character. or. rooms end buildings allowing as much change and os many transpositions and diHerenl combinations as possible. The room is no longer a sellbounded composition. so to speak. 192b A piece 01 furniture is not on arbitrary cornoosition: it is a necessory component 01 our environment. a closed box. This voriction is possible only if the very simplest and most straightforward pieces are used: otherwise changing will mean buying new pieces. One may conclude rhot any object properly and proctically designed should "IiI" in any room in which it is used as would any living object. A complete scheme is no arbitrary composition either but rather the ourwcrd expression 01 our everyday needs: it must be able to serve both those needs which remain constant and those which vo.ry.pring bod.Folding. the other holl. the new inferior should not be a sellportroit 01 the architect. lor its dimensions OInddillerent elements can be varied in mony ways. lnsteod they are more opened out. and wood.FURNITURE WORKSHOP Josef Albers: Wooden armchair wilh . Marcel Breuer (Irom Bibl. creates only hall 0 dwelling. like a flower or 0 human being. 15) G. 1·928 12. drown in space. the man who lives in it. Designed lora dining room. Fobric seol. 01 a complete scheme. Hcssenplluq: . let our dwelling halve no porticulo:r "style. And so we halve furnishings. os producer.8 . no.rcel Breuer: Choir. bad end arm rests. The pieces of furniture and even the very walls 01 Oi room have ceased to be massive and monumental. 1928 . The architect. wooden teble. opporently immovable and built for eternity. nor should il attempt to Iix in odvcnce the personol environment 01 the occupant. They hinder neither the movement of the body nor of the eye. Melal lube.. 1927) 129 Moree I: B'·euer: Firs! tubuchoir. it tokes on 'meaning only lrom the way it is used or as pmt .

Dining room. Morcel Morcel Brauer: Iurnitur e u its. 1926 Marcel Breuer: Pisco or House. 1926 Woher Grcnius: De. Fabric seal ond bod res. Berlin. 1926 Woller Gropius: De550u Bouhous Auditorium.. Choirs by Marcel Breuer.ln7 Morcel Breuer: Tubulor c airs. 1927 510 ndordiled Co. 1926 130 131 Breuer: De!so~ Bedroom in Directors house. Choirs by Marcel Breuer. Fabric seal and backrest. AuditoriUM. 1916 Bouhcus.Marcel Breuer: Tubular choirs. .rpentry Dessou worhhop.ou Bauhaus.

1928 133 -(- Marcel Breuer. 30. Fobric sect and bockrest. t926. 1928 1924 Morcel Bre. 1926 Coroentry wor shoo: Desk composed 01 toble and drower unit. Wood~n table wilh lubulor supports 1977 P. 1926 132 1925 G. S retched fabric sect. it. 1928 A Bou heus Moyie lo.ting Author: Operator: Life demanding Marcel fiye yean. . Below: legs without seot. 1928 Child's . I) Lotte Gerson: roder. in the end we will sit on resilient air columns. these right •• -( Breuer who recognizes Beller and beller eyery yeor. Mindon': Colopsi le srcc]. 1928 Corpen'ry workshop: Drawer "nit for desk. Plywood seal. no. Bucking: Choir.. (from Bio.1921 T. er: Dining room cobir. Hossenpflug: Folding choir. right s. 1. no.

and designs in co lor lor tha lollowing firm" Nierendorf aw Art Dresden COOPERATION WITH INDUSTRY Gallery. in vc rious lowns Kestner Society. which poid the designer.. lamps. rnatol. . including he masters' houses in Oessou and the new Bcuhous building.. large scale only ofter the Bouhow. Exhibition. Monnheim.A. ('\lSlB!.foc!ory from formo and technical poi nts of view whic h shOllld t hen be soJ it ad to inbm dustry 'or prod uction .wivel choir. 80. Half the royalty paid the school wos credited 10 the Bo"ho"s lund.. restcurcnt.position. 134 Moreel Breuer' S.and gI055-. Income from royalties rose steadily. Tokio. he lcctories oltan sent t eir tec nicicns a the Bouhous wor shops to keep them informed obou the development 01 designs. van der Rohe. Corporation." Berlin Children's Home. purchased Bauhaus products for their res peetive collections. Ar Museum Monnheim Werkbund Honover Trade Museum.'I33I-lL ~'~1 ~~ _. Todcv. tedile lcbrics. Steel tubing and plywood THONET~ 135 Stahlrohrmobel Bouhous products Gesolei. Berlin Fide" King Albert M"seum. exercising 0 decisive inlluenee on many other cscec s 01 interior design. Design' lor rurni ure._I . Some poges from colcloqs olloclories prod uci n9 lurniture designed 01 the Souhous ~f ~ ~ Uncle Tom's Cobin. It hos spread all over the world. Oronienboum The prcctico] objective of the BO. Conversely. lig hting lidu res.Jhous workshops-to evolve designs soti. Tokio The Bavarian Notional Museum.t which the Bouhous hod rebelled cs on inodequo e macns or communicotion between designers ond industry. When a workshop considered a design ready for sale i wos rned over a the Business Menager or the Corporotion together with all the necessery drawings ond descriptions of the processes involved '0 tho contracts could be drown up. Gallery. ROYA'LTIES Each worhhop hod the right to confer independently with indus rial [irrns regording technical problems. During J 925 the workshops of Ihe D9 •• cu Bouhous executed orders lor lurn iture. The income was divided between Ihe Boubous Corporo ion ond the school itself. Dusseldorl were exhibited at: Lei pzig Spri 119Fa ir German Society of Women's Apporel and Culture. the Art Museum. until.wos pursued on 0. the production 01 tubulor steel furniture hos lo~en on . The factories were Ihen olten visited by Bcuheus designers who 5 udied Ihe orocesses used and cooperated with technicions to simplify and improve the designs. Ihe Monnesmonn Works were osked 10 pUI steel pipe at our dispose! lor furl her experimenls. ad movea to Desscu. the Trade Muse"m of Basel.t wOS rei used on the grounds Ihol such exoerimenls were unir-rpor 001.n. This wos a greo improvement over he ineffective dependence on pc per orojects ogoin... under Ihe direction 01 Mie. Zwido" Showrooms of the 'A streets.NI\ ARMLEHNSTUHL and for a number of private oportmen s.. but commercial nego iotions were and led by the Bauhou. The reque.. while the other 11011went to a welfore j"nd used 10 poy lor desig'ns which were considered voluoble but which could not be disposed 01 for the time being.000 mark s. in t932 it elCeeded 30.1 (Kunstholle).AI er Marcel Breuer hod comole ed he :irsl steel cheir 01 Iha Bouhous. tremendous prooor1ions. 01 er !hi rtaen yeo r s. and the Werkbund E.. Berlin 1 1 . wore were accepted by monufocturers..

ng melol orionne Brandl: FROM WINE JUGS TO LIGHTING FIXTURES byM OH01Y-N·AG·Y When Gropius acpoin ed me to toke over the metal workshop he asked me to reorganize it as a workshop lor industrial design. Si ver-brome lineo w'ln 5i ver. From this originated the louvre sys em 01 concentric rings of metal and recen Iy.shop. Changing the policy 01 this war shop involved a revolu ion.. particularly for reflectors. 8. Bib. In addition to these innovotions may be mentioned one which even today presents a very uselul solution 0'1 ane lighting fix ure prablem. ond T~rrpe: Ind'YiduQI se·. cojustobta witn 1925 . page II b. heavy strips and rods of iran and brass. no.1I fixture ref ector.or. This principle 'nvolves the use of concentric gloss cyr nders to ovoid a glare.. room of the Desscv ·." teo Morionne Brondl: Ugh ing (i. Until my arrival the metal war' shop hod been a gold and silver workshop where wine jugs. were mode.* But even this was a great victory. calfee services etc . All 01 these were adaoted lor industrial production..METAL WORKSHOP t Droug~l. with devices lor pushing and pulling. done before 1923. 1925 teo -<~ Morionne Movable Brandl: wo. It took quite a while a get under way the ind 01 work which later mode the Bauhaus a leader in designing lor the lighfng fixture industry. samovars. 'ng chongl!d. Frosted end ploin gl055 g abe.. w. Egg boil e r . 01 translucent plastics. etc.. Choins hold globe whi e electric bulb i. elaborate jewelry. Josef Albers: Glo" set. Jucker. 1921. the use 01 aluminum. lor it meant a new beginning. After this we developed lighting fixtures introducing such useful ideas as: the close-litting ceiling cop: combinations of opaque and frosted glass in simple forms echnicolly deterrn'ned by the action of light: securing the globe to the metal chassis. 11121. especially in localities where the quic se tling of dus makes ordinary lighting inellicient. The metal workshop also handled 01 her probRl!prod~ced. 1'l25 las Morionne Brandt: Fish COS5ero e.IJrl!.. nickel and chromium plating and abhorred the ideo of making models lor electrical household appliances or lighting fixtures.ln)·1925 M. I remember the lirst lighting Ii ture by K. Kroie". looking more like a dinosaur than a functional object. for in their pride the gold· and silverSlT'ithsavoided the use a/ferrous metals.

192& Marianne Brondl: M'rror lor shoving or rna eup. Dessce Marianne Brandt: Ind ustrially produced lamp shodes. speciol one.ki: Chromium a~d Ira' ed gloss lighting fixture. The function of the metol war shop was 0 . involving simultaneously education and production. 1925 Morionne fixture Brondt: Ceiling . teo holders. 1915 Mor'onne Brondt: Night toole lorna with adjustable shcde. We therefore selected lor young oppren ices problems from which the use of materials. During those days there was so conspicuous a lack of simple and functional objects lor daily use thot even the young ap' prentices were able to produce models for industrial production (ash trays. Marianne Brandt: Chromium and frosted gloss lighti ng fi.. 1911> M.u reo 1914 Marianne Brondt: Wall fixture. Hoo 5 suppor ing the globe are easily odjus able. Krojew. Dull aluminum reflector Iii by electric: bulb behind mi ror. tools and machinery could be learned and which were at the some time of practical use. 1928 139 138 Me 01 works op. etc.) which industry bought and for which royalties were poid. c.-«lems of industriol design: utensils ond household oppliances.

. Brondt cnd H..tures from BounolJs designs .. 1'126 Morie~ne BrondT: Lighling fixture lor wells or low ceilings... --- . DeS50J Melol wor shop: Adjustoble desk lomp...:1_. 1925 Pages irom co ologs or loc cries monufocturing lighting fi. Aluminum shode.: .. 1924 Merionne Brondr: Spun chromium lighling fixture ror corridors. ere.. 1925 M.~- .Melol worhhop.. .. _. Pnyrembel: Adjustoble ceiling Ii..

a shift took ploce from free ploy with forms to logical composi- 143 t. Now. tex. Lit Ie by little the attention of the outside world was oroused and museums began 10 buy. It is no easy task to discord conventions. tiles striking in their novelty. however. their fullness of color and texture. Albers: c. Previously they hod been so deeply interested in the problems 01 the material itsell and in discovering various ways of handling it that they had token no time for utilitarian considerations.. Unburdened by any practical considerations. but gradually something grew out of their ploy which looked like a new and indeoendent trend. Courage is on irnportan factor in any creation. It was a curious revolution when the students 01 weoving become concerned with a practical purpose. They began amateurishly and playfully. to At the Bauhaus. The weoving improvisations furnished 0 lund of ideas from which more carefully considered compositions Were later derived. those starting to work in weaving or in any other croft were fortunate to hove hod no raditionol training. This freedom 01 approach seems worth reo taining lor every novice. Technique was acquired as i was needed and 142 as a foundation for future attempts. What hod existed hod proved to be wrong-even its foundations. 1927 . i can be mos active when knowledge does nof impede it at too eorly o stage. this ploy with materials produced amazing results. to be exparimental in a very comprehensive sense. nalurally. and passessing olten a quite barbaric beauty.WEAVING WORKSHOP THE WEAVING WORKSHOP by ANNI ALBERS Any reconstructive work in a world as chaatic as post-wor Europe had. They believed that only manual war could help them back a solid ground and put them in touch with the problems of their time. Ann. Weaving .I927 •••• Woven rug._ elms. however useless. Many students hod felt the sterility of the art academies and their too greot detachment from life. Si 1925 Anni Albers: Topestry. Red ond yellow sitk. Desscu Anni Albers: Doublewoven woll honging.

and rcvon 011. The work as a whole was the resul of the [oint efforts of a group. 1'127-t928 Ann. l"!P. terio . brown. The physical qualities 01 ma erials become a subject of interest. gray motericr. Berger: Textile. The interest 01 industry was aroused.I: ing. Bled. T "'0 shcdes of brown. Tal' cotton. red. and cellophane leroL Wool A~ni Albers: Drooery moBlue end while. Knotled rug. Wool Anni Albers: blue. 144 more instincive than conscious and only in re- 145 trospect does their meaning become evidenl. paper Iibre and cellophane Anni A bers: Drapery and rayon Drapery rno- OMi Berger. Light-reflecting and soundabsorbing materials were developed. As 0 result._= .The desire to reach a larger group of consumers brought about a transition from handwork to machine-work: work by hand was lor the laboratory only. The changing moods 01 the time aHected the Bauhaus workers and they responded according to their ability. Co Ion and reyon Anni Albers: Wall coverCotton Guntha Shcrcn-Stdlzl: Coot material. more systemotic troining in the mechonics 01 weaving wos in roduced. each individual bringing to it his interpretation 01 a mutually accepted ideo. Dessau lion. helping 0 create new art forms and new techniques.J"-~-. concentrotion on a definite purpose now had a disciplinary elfect.JJ ll!l".' ~e' feI ~. While ce 'Icphc ne a nd colton . Ton..lopnone a[. Many of the steps were . Ce. The whole 'ronqe 01 possibilities had been freely explored: . Albers: Wall cover- ing. as well as a course in the dyeing 01 yorns.. Wool Gun ho Sheron-S Cur'oin me eriol. wark by machine was lor moss production. Weeving workshop.

Whi'e.Lis Volger: Rug. I\lbers: Dreoery rr o'eriel. bloc" Smyrno. Heavy wool ond :ine hemp 146 141 Ott' Berger: Reg. Ce oohone ond cotton I\nni I\loer5: no'ted rug. 1925 . Albers: Wo COlfer'og. br'llion bi~e" red yellow. Bloc end while. woo. royor ond wool 1\on. Co'lon. red. clock. Grey. Smy'no wool oed heme Ann.

_QPII!L5CHRj._1. BAUHAUSBOCHER lille ooge. typographical experimen~ the balance of thiS volume... ~0ftGSIUi' UNOu>LEI!IIllAII:. for lants and type cases would be smaller. stationery and even colling cords. 1921> I.. bOJhcu. eliminating capitols from books. F{MUM ""'" . 192b cover . prospectus." .~~ ~~ KINDE. will be printed without using capitol letters. since the shift key would then become unnecessary. dropping capitols would be a less radical relorm in english.a..(Sl'R2" fhe triadic Ii hogroph bellet.... neue orbeiien de.. • . ..".I.~a.... it gives us practically the some result as the mixture of upper. to recall this. o DIENSTACi'iS FE8RUAR8~~ • DI ENSl AG 26. NEUE ARBEITEN NaJ&. 1925 typography by herbert bayer why should we write and print with two alphabets? both a Iorge and a small sign are not necessary to indicate one single sound. beuhells werksiaiten..~.M:.. typewriting could therefore be more quickly mastered and typewriters would be cheaoer because of simpler construction.IICM]( """..~_ 149 1924 - A hondbills.. 1925 I. ~ SCHAUBU AG .b gotijic alpfJallet customarily employed in german printing... we need only a single alphabet. this step toward the rationalization 01 writing and printing met with outraged protests.WCJit~ U ~~ eAUHAUSWERKST~TTEN .__ • 148 esker schiernrner: poster.. nevertheless the bauhaus mode 0' thorough alphabetical house-cleaning in all its printing. and at the same time is less of a burden on all who write-on school children. stenographers. catalogs..·N . VOI\'rI(AKAUJ' lUI tl(lI'H[if!. moreover..and lower-case letters.typography workshop ~erberl boyer: pege loyau . . bo uho us pros oectus. .....IILImIdiIto. 1~95 : ~ .:N eAUM .. 7 -.'" j herbert ooyer: cover oesign. the bauhaus had always used roman or even sans serilletters instead of the archaic and complicate..... I D... o .'Y'II L-M·O . especially because in german capitol initials are used lor all nouns.n lid a the bauhous war shop.IC '==::--... so that the suppression 01 capitols added fresh insult to old injury. . so that printing establishments would save space and heir clients money.. . to page 221..._. mchoiy·ncgy: design. 'I we do not speak a capitol A and a small a.... y • jlJl... with these common sense ecanomies in mind the bauhaus began in 1925 to abandon capitol letters and to use small letters exclusively... J i '~'" ...KOHLEPAPIER .O."....._ ----.. monoly-nogy: ~ .. ~'. it could be written much more quickly... printing would be cheaper. posters.:~~:__- ----.. indeed the use of capital letters occurs so infrequently in english in cornpcrison with german that it is difficult to understand why such a superlluous alphabet should still be considered necessary._ .-. especially on the typewriter. professional and business men. O"".. magazines. mogc!ine quolil"#. ~I. students.

1921> jaser albers: stencil leiters." d to. I~.a tt It tl. improveo... ~'I~ "'1' tla tI~ I~ josef clbers: stencil letters. 1926 magazine aflsel...aa.rs pr'n!i~9 shop. nree angles.. (r •• 4If.abcde'GhiiH I mnpqrstuvw he rber' boyer: univerSal tyee... herbert bayer: resao reh in the developmen 01 he universal type stuvwxyz a dd abcdefGhi iK mnopqr 150 neroert 1926 oyer: po.lu· .:J I t l ! I ~ herbert bayer: basic e ements Irom whie the universol type is b~i r up: a :9" orcs.. 1924 bco] P. nn rill L mohaly-nogy: jcc er...zo~tc line.. condensed bole.. 1925 nerbert boyero e~hibi 'an DOSier. 1928 !~ ! : cover design.. pi med in The beuhc.r. 1925 r. verticol and o.. basic elements Irom which the letters ore built vp. xqzaS dd l:i :4: 1: . design based on three fundamental shopes. 1925. chorccrers at oose show bold. It. rl'edium cnd lighf weights. uu U 151 U 'JU X MONDRIAN NEUE GESTALTUNG . cherecters 01 bose snow med'um ana j'gh! "eig'*. ·tril."'" ~~" I"If . la iii: I. er.. nertlerbayer: universaJ toe. ".

1928 T1 T T __:__j JT[ -% #'. given: form 01 leHer T c ononymous: 5 dies in illusion of dislance a d proximity for purposes 01 layout and display.. •• -:. e"ec<. <.Iled in :Ialy...... given: seven bars of equal size e anonymous: STudies in composition. u b 6l + --.. 1935 + 11-: 1+ :. .. given: a cross b anonymous: studies in contrasl. rr" . free choice 01 odd"lionol elemenl.~ I C IIIr ~III ~ ~ d 7 __U~§§III ----_ ~ + b 152 alexander schawinsky: cesser adverlising men's clothing. t M e 153 .. . . ...._ •• :\4 ••• '1 T c rpm T --. given: form of let er z..course a anonymous: slud ies in can rosr... 1928. d anonymous: studies in comoosi ion...•••• ••... given: nine squores of equal size I anonymous: rhemotic contrasts studies in and optic a + + olexo nder sc hawi ns~y: poster advertising hars.

the camero's objective presentation of lacts frees the onlooker from dependence on someone else's personal description and makes him more ap to form his own opinion. now. (2) emohotic contrast and variations in typagrophicalloyout. oheremor rcqe. mohol -nagy: led a ond The swon. a poster must convey instantaneously 011 the high points alan ideo. it wcs moholy-nogy who first encouroged the bouhovs to consider photogrophic oroblems. 1923 pho 0I.lel.. 1923 (from bib1. is course os well -cs his own photogrophic work (such cs the photogrorn. enlargement. "negative e1le<::5. double prinlinq. no. no only wos ehetogroohy thus considered 05 on eno in 'tsell. photogroo~y. eye ono worrr'. hod 0 very lmpcrto~ in!luence o~ 0 II bo ~~ous work." double exposure ond oouble printing microphotogrophy cno e~ orge. distortion. 1915 I.photography no technicol photogroohic worhhop was in e. eye view."us the bauhaus 100 on active oorl in Ihe development of pholograpnic orl. nowever. . ine bOlJhous stuoenis deeply concerned with new prob ems 01 spoce relations . or exposure without 0 comero I s im". on egyptian pictograph was the result of tradition and the individual ortist's ability. 8J 155 I. bu '1 wos pul to proclical US" in odvenising loyout. the two new resources of poster art are: II) photography.islen~e . the mechanical reproduction 01 photographs in any size. 1922 . enerogrurn. 1923 I. blanking auf. moholy-rogy: 1926 do s.loled ne s ude" s to rno e Ihei' own experiments.. until 1929. e c. which ollers us a brood and powerful means of communication. including the bolder use of color.ponded eagerly to the new ortisfc possibilities 01 pho ogrophy: bird'. thanks to photography. moholy-nogy: ~oSIer. by moholy~nagy 54 the most importont development affecting present day layout is photo-engraving. rroholy-nogy. the expression 01 ideas through pictures is lar more exact. the inclusion 01 photography in poster design will bring about another vital change.e 15. p~o omontoge I.e. the greatest possibilities lor future development lie in the proper use of photographic means and 01 the different pho agraphic techniques: retouching. ~' :stucio rellecled in gorde n cry. applied photography. moholy-ncgy: gram. oosle rs ood typogrophy.

mohaly-nogy: negative prin!. 1927 156 nerbert 1928 boyer: balcony. 1927 ____ anonymous. photograph lor cover of magazine bouhou r. herber boyer. 1928 . werner 1928 leist: the pipe.! ohatamantage lut leininger: photograph.---florence hetlry: photograph. new york. 1931 . awarded first prize in the exhibition af foreign advertising phatagraphy at the art center. o!fentior.

1928 wolter gropiL'.58 heinz Ioew and franz ehr ich: siudies in luminous adver ising. 1928 oi lh" lawns 01 d essou and lilrbs' berl' n. berlin. oer. 9lnibi'ie· oi the buildi ~g unions (502:01" boug"we'. berlin.bund elhioition paris.schol'eo I building e.s. ". colog-e. 1928 alexander sc:nowi~5l<yand joos: schmiol. 1928 -<:----. gas cnd wo'er exhibition. 1930 herber' boyer monoly-nogy welter 9rooi". 1931 Noher grop'us ana ole. e.exhibition technique 'i'n addit'on 10 e hibilions 10.~ oui Cling ex· oosition.ano e ' schowi~s. 1928 herbert baler and hermon Foulik 'ronsporsoble oovil'on lor exhibiiior purposes e"'7 i. gas o-id woler e. gos and water eXhibition. exec ~ted oy rne bo u hous workshops. oerli". 1928 : port of d'sploy lor i~ nkers go s water nacters. mOholy-nogy ole.>31 olexc ncer schcwi nsky: transparent oisoloy lor hot water boi ers. marcel brevet. 1928 olexonder st~o".'n' y: heo If.ion. 1928 ol"xo-de schowinsky: povilion ior ju ~kers 901 boi ers. eosrer in junkers pavilion.ter groo'u5 moholy·nogy.ander scho v(ns·t morce breuer.:i orexoneer sc~owjns. gas and woter exhibi'ion berli .k)': plosiic health pos'er in jun ers pcvilion. berlin. gos and we er exhibi'ion. 905 a nd wCJ~er e.hibi. herbert bayer wer.wi~g exh:bifan des'gns me"lianed: heroert ocver. 1928 '1. the 101pea? e may De herbert boyer. 1928 .posi'ior. design lor a tronsportoble exhibition pavilion advertising ogric ulturo Mac hinery.hio'tion oi hOL. noll of elementary 'Vpograohy. i~n ers Dov·lio·.h·c't"on. berl' n 1'.hibi'ion. Iq17 herberl DO yer.in. Iq29 wo.hiDition 01 the ba~ho~s by bouhcus 'Isell.ng orcble-ns (gogio) berlir . berlin. ot he press e.

gypsvm plosler. desseu. on Ine walls. celscrnine. he enphosis was not on potlern bu on lexlure: scud colo" were used. models wall-pain ing workshop. I technical composi ion 01 he poinling in heory practical ground 160 lime ploster. erection echniqves discov- lor given architectural ing 01 stencils ana cnrtoons. he mOK' perspec- preparing est:mo es. encaustic oil point lacquer. m. color and moleriols. 01 the post lresco. bookkeeping wall paper produclion was planned under 9ropiu s. varnishes. and horough training in oc ual pain ing. and a number 01 new techniques were introduced. plans and elevo"ons b poster work 7 knowledge 01 tools. octuol execution too place under ho nnes meyer and. late'. and chemical nature 01 oils. . tives. casein and mineral pain 5 tempera. exoerimenls in various echniques and MO erial. ploster 01 Doris. melollic point 3 lundomen 01 principles 01 color harmony lacquers. he influence on german Man ulocturers was very greo ' bcuhous woll paper was widely imitated.iis von der rohe. 1927 inslruclion in Ihe worKshop included instruction 01 'arm. preporalion ol Ihe ground lor panel pictures 161 2 siudy 01 all known po in.wall-painting workshop _ pointing " : wolldesigns. spa tier pointing (airbrush) on ploster. 0' 5collo ding working drawings. marble and a obosler dust plosters ior empero poinling. wood and metal. watercolor.i "g tech ~ique. pigmen s 4 prcc icol opplicotien of the new ered in he experi-nentol workshop 5 proiects !or color schemes models. 8 taking dimensions. dryer.

. lap lrc nslcrmotion 0' cyl ino er to hvperoololc. 162 L ahr ich: sculptured r"liel." S. 1926· 1928 - _ co-n oorisor-. I'ar a' arimary plostie larm s..lic 'or.. linear end __ : cemperotive .I918 163 . 1'1'16.. 1926··1928 ._ prlrnorv lorrns.sculpture workshop _ : pcrcboloic sculpture. negative : llJoy'n posirive '101'0 I".iaf'llatian a' in" and circle '0 hyp"r· boloic a no sphere plo.928 carr DO . boliam 'ran._ elosrie 'arm.. o..d '1'1 1926· na con co as.

1925 osl:or schlemmer: stiltwal ers. then all the requirements of spectacle. we are predominantly visual beings and therefore purely visual askor schlemmer: donee of gestures. c. if forms in motion provide mysterious and surprising effects through invisible mechanical devices. drawings 'or c es s in . stogecralt is on art concerned with space and will become more so in the future. not only he interior but the building as an architectural whole-on ideo which has especial fascination in view 01 the new bauhaus building-we might demonstrate to a hiherto unknown extent the validity 01 the spoce-sioqe. a theater (including both stage and auditorium) demands above all on architectonic handling of space: everything that happens in it is conditioned by space and related to it. as an ideo. siedoll. lights. no. now. where we hod no theater 01 our own. exec uted at zwidou. colors and lights. drowings lor co's in stage theory. 1927 164 experience can give us considerable so islcction.stage workshop olexonder schawinsky: 5 oge set ior a sho kespeoreo n oloy. light is of great impor once. danced by schlemmer. komins y. however. 1927. a noble "feast for the eyes. pp. involving no human being but the man at the switchboard. march 16. if space is trans/armed with the help of changing forms. the units con be combined in various wcvs." will be fulfilled. let us consider plays consisting only in the movements 01 forms. 3. published in bibl. design lor 0 ballet. no. the whole conception could have the precision -<-:i olexonder schowinsky: ligures lor robbers' bolle· in two ganl/emen of verooa. delivered before the friends of the bauhaus. t 927 alexonder s<:howins~y: design for georg kaiser's From mor« fill midnighf_ 1926 es or sell emmer: varia lions an 0 mcsk. in the new building at dessau we are lucky enough to have our own theoter. 2 in weimar.loge 1heory • . 1. form (two-dimensional ond three-dirnensionol] is on element of space: color and light are elements of form. colors. if the movement is purely mechanical. 1926 olexonder schcwins y: design lor" theoter curtoin from a lecture with stage demonstrations by oskar sch/emmer. we hod to use some one of the local stages for our productions. 30. if we go so for as to break the narrow confines of the stage and extend the drama to include the building itself. 1927. we are interested in interior space treated os port of the whole composition of he building..

alexander scnawiMky: s~ekh. can it dispense with man except as a perfect mechanic and inventor? since at present no such mechanically heinz loew: model 01 a mechanical stage set. heis the antithesis olthe rationally constructed world of form. with the -<-= o. the immediate. swinging.s~)": stage set. cutcmctc.of a vast automaton requiring 0 tremendous technical equipment. experiment with dillerenl way. perhaps i rnporton I-speech. produced by s10 gil class .which is meant 10 serve as 0 background lor per. the humon actor continues to be on essential element 01 drama for us. film projections. color and light· he is the vessel of the unknown. we admit that we have cautiously this problem so lor. not because it concern us. but becouse we are well its signiliconce ond want to moster for the time being we ore sotislied 01 on imthe most avoided does not aware of it slowly. how long can a soectoror's interest be held by rotaling. and since our own experimentol stage until now hos had even less equipment thon the regular theaters. of using light equipped stage exists. 1'127 esker scnlemmer: spire] figure from the 1riodic ballet I. not as literalure. etc. but in an elementary sense. . lcrmonces by human actors.glht ploy. but firmly believe that some day we shall develop soeech quite naturally From them. it is only a question of money_ but there is also 'he question of the extent to which such equipment would be justified by the effects obtained. as though they were heard for the first lime. lorrn and light? is entirely mechanized drama to be thoughl of as on independent genre. i am speak'ng af ccmplatelv independent mechanical not of the mechanization and rechnico renovation of sloge equi ome nt. humming machinery.exalnder schowinsky: preliminary sketch lor space theater. even if accompanied by innumerable variations in color. concrete and 9 ass with rolaling slage. modern engineering can produce such equipment. he is the creator portant element 01 drama. 192b 0 ISl alexander schowi r. with pantomime. l'l2b mute ploy of gesture ond movement. and he will remain 16& 50 as 10'1g as there is a stage. the rronscendentol-on organism of lIesh and blood as well as 0 phenomenon existing within the limits of time and space. as on event. we wont to understond words.the Ihealer 01 steel.

schlemmer. donced by s·"dol'. in 0 new psycho log lcol.. therefore. opticcl end ocoustica! relo ionshi p fa the whole stage closs rehearsing On the bouhous roo I.it olo"g the interior surface 01 Ihe g obe. produced by sage clcss andreas weininger: oe. each ovenooks Il. danced by siedoH esker schlemmer: donce. c. donced andreas OSKor schlemmer: drawings of the human body. heibig. produced class wives by sage os 0' schlemme-: by weininger musical clown. 1927 . drawings lor clcss in sloge theory U " 169 a exa oder schowinsky: sketch.OS or schlernrner : bOJ: ploy. do need by schowinsky.ign lor 0 spherical theo er.emmer: de'ineo ion 01 space by human figure. block ligure in cen'er: osker schlemmer . is drown toword the center ond is. the speclotors .e whole interior.::oskar scb .

in exoct seeing ond exoct not of the external oopearance of but of i 5 constructional elements. major certain began with 5 the 101l0wing must be added: I d owing ill-lile compositions.e (sow.he comaosition ic forms of sin- gle ports of the still-lile. and which in my opinion used in oll other fields. the obiects suggested are a sow. the main theme of a composition can be explored in relation to the most varied partial tensions. no. (from bibl. the composition 2 different vious solely os energyis reduced to orobdraw- \ possibil't'es of the composition: hidden construe ion (see \ \ \ ond ing opposite). were: to a simwi hin drawn rendering. grindslone. simila obiec 5 into o lorger for". cente .enema. to be carefully their logical lorces or tensions which are to be discovered in the objec s themselves the 0 limits to be determined the charocteris by the studen himsell. crs. pri ncipol weig hIs in brood lines: loco poinl 01 the cons rucliona net in dottea lines above: essen ial schene 01 . 3 exercises in the mas drastic simplification of the whole and of the individual tensions-concise. handling of plone surfaces is prelirn'norv second sloge: oojects recognizob. character. . poi). 3D) should be the method of the entire composi ion in a 01 in- 3 rendering simplified line-drawing. for instance.. etc. mo'~ len. (11 third stage: I the objects rangements are considered of lines. shope. in mony cases there are more possibilities to be considered than hove been 'ndicoted here. lint stoge: cornbinetion 01 sing e. 2 distinguishing and in he logical arrangement of them. \ \ \ \ ~ third sloge: left: objects com pletely ro sloted into energy tens. above: . essen iol scheme 01 the composi-ien . moin construction indieo~ed by do ted lines. \ \ \ 110 3 indication of the constructional net with its local or star ing poin 5 (see the dolled lines in drawing opposi e. 01 form. instruction is based upon the method 'n my other courses. subjec s ond methods can be described only very generally in these few words. briefly described sloge as follows: I indicotion of the tensions discovered In the composition-rendered in line-drawing. such as the significance of single ports 01 he composition. a grindstone and 0 pail).ions incicoted :n co. exact exoression. irs! analytical of the entire problems composition .dents and their . instruc ion at the bauhaus is train- ing in observation. their weight. reduction ple. on object. 2 accentua the use 01 ion of the principal tensions through brooder lines or the use of color.ons.kandinsky's course analytical drawing !irst stage: the sn. 2 drawing the hondling of space. grodual transition to the second s ruction. tensions. studied separately and afterwords in relation to the whole composition.: 01 lhe teit. 'op.

in contrast to the opparent. the annual budgel varied between I ]0. in geometry. the antecedents of the visible. W05 under I~e jurisdiction of the ministry of public educotion. exactitude.. ot dessou. 14) . 100.. and for some lime the gates leading a it have been open. s granted to the director by 0 una ni mous vote. the director hod far-reaching powers. all ins rue crs end the student representatives hod the right to por icipote in hese discussions. one may work a long time. one learns to dig down. without it we can do a lot. what had already been done lor music by the end of the eighteenth century has at lost been begun for the piclorial arts. and the student representatives. it can preserve on ordered attitude in chaos. that 011 decisions hod' to be preceded by discussion. institute. has been given sufficient room for exoct investigation. in Ihe belief that problems ollecting creative work can never be solved by a majority. without intuition. mode up o! moslers eaching probIems of form ond lee hnicol instructors in Ihe workshops (the loiter were included only at weimar). many things. it can boldly bridge the distance from one thing to another. including the director. but not everything. 1920. for the sale of models 10 indus rial lirms: the business mo oger [syndikus] who was in charge 01 the commerciol activities 01 the bouhous and loter of the bouhous corporation. important things. oil on canvas. it can get along as a matter of principle without intuition. is temporarily superior. but not everything. it can get along. futl responsibility . (from bibl. o the stotu as provided. he was given "Iull charge 01 the creative and cdrninistrn~ive activities of the bauhaus. in the beginning it is wholesome to be concerned wi h the (unctions and to disregard the finished form. the who I. 2. at o esseu Ihe budget was prepored by the municipal council and subrni ted 10 the sledfpar/ament.000 -nerks. oaul lee: holl c. decisions by majority vole were dropped altogether. winged by intuition. for proble-ns of internal argo izo ion and teaching: the bauhaus council. ho . it can remain logical. to lind the couse. when intuition is joined to excct research it speeds the progress of excct research. the lormal consul onts were: I. but exact research being exact research. in mechanics characterize teaching direc ed toward the essential and the functional. a uncover.. to grasp the root of hings.. courtesy bucbbclz go ery 112 113 paul klee speaks: we cons ruct and construct and yet intuition still has its uses. to analyze.. it can construct itself. art. ever. 01 weimar it was prepared by the minister of pua:ic educalion end submit ed to the thuringian /andfeg.administration w~ot authorities hod to be consul-ad by the director when it was necessary to make important decisions efiecting the internal conditions or edernol relcfions of the bouhous? at weimar.000 and 200. this au hori y wos vested in the municipal council... in he bauhaus itsell.. one learns a look behind the fOCiode. one learns to recognize the undercurren s. the business manager. t~e right to vole woo discorded in subsequent stotutes: in fact. do different things. if tempo is disregarded. studies in algebra. mathematics and physics furnished the means in the form of rules to be followed and to be broken.. the faculty had 0 nom ina I right to vote on vital decision s." in the early year.

01 some pointers con't make up -heir minds whether to pain' nolurolis(colly. but between the faculty and Ihe siudent body (see klee's leHer righlJ. o~r needs are c1eor eoo"gh: the pO"'oili ies are lim'ted only by ourselves.. o ostroc Iy or no' 01 0' does not Mean chaos.ns . i: i o . . rhe bou hO~5 bo no I. rr onoly. but Ihe wor~ ives o"d develops Ihroug~ the oloy of oppos' ng lorces ius' cs in no ture good and bod war together proci uclively in 'he loeg run. not only among foculty membe . Ihe cri icol were cho lenged 10 formula e prccli col suggesior-s fer 'mpreverrenl.extra-curricular activities discuuion in the beuheus: influence of the student body III the basic conception oi the bouhous hod so many rornificotions Ihot it gave rise a 0 vosl nu mber 01 prob ems demanding solution.eO for a covhcus eve~'n9 niscussion: eve s 'I i try. "n o assuu. nillconce fa. W05 published. ond mace "t easier to clarify I~e problems og. ore or two siudent representotives alteno eo all meeli ngs of the laculty cou ell.dent council which wes co sui eo Irom time a time by Ihe director.rer-t successes. . (signee) peel klee december. 'ng of responsibility lor the worl as a whole.. the stuo ents were permi ted 0 'o. cs 'he years possed. . I e educational syslem ond "5 orgorizo· lion were Irequent·y reviseo as a result of hese discussions.toltung. still 10 er. in accordance w'lh these views. -1. ~ ion s subsec. 10 ottock on obs oc'e 's a good les' 01 streng'h. heus: alexander 5cl-lo"... oporove a' the conHici between hem ii 'Is eHed is evioent in the lino produc. thing is to lend a hond where some h'ng needee is [oc ing. . tne wor~ as a whole..nued for several yeors. this led 10 spir'ted ciiscussions in . beuIeitschrih fiir ge.lol"ng everyona.lty council when vi a decislo s were to be mode." . i~ Ihe course of titre 't become possible 0 g've the student oeoy more and more direct i :Iuence in he olfoirs ol tne whole orgenizo ion. i see no choos in our tiMe. wi" he eelleborc io 01 all members 01 Ihe bevhcus. 'the school is ~e servonl 0' the workshop: ard the oay wi come w~en he school will be absorbed ir to the wor'shop"). clrer 1928 under vorying edilorshio. Ine moi . . 10'er on. me-eel bre. Ihere is no rig hi nor wrong.'ns y: birthday greet" "95 man oge 1928 iron gil clb .eo ebstocle.e on ecfve pori in she pi ng I~e oolicies of the bou hous. reo are worki~g oget~er 0' our bouncus. 1921 Irom a manuscript u. Ih's gave eoch sl~den " leel.. or"g'nolly here woo o sh. the early yeo rs and even to via en' eonfroversies. I ere con be no douor Ihot this ospect of ne s uoenls' erective oC'ivily eontricutad lorgely to 'he .. cri icol estiMO'es ore olwoys subjective and thus a negolive iudg'llent on oncther's work can have "0 sig. publica io wos cont. gropius ir'ended thai the process of learning shou d merge imperceptibly in a a comr-iueol ask (as Ihe firs monilesto pu' i . er i" 926 tne 'irst issue of the bouhc as periodical. the s udents were granted Ihe rig I to seod one delegete 'rom each workshop 10 Ihe loc!.. edited o 9rooiu5 end monoly'nogy.nogy: wo II· oisp oy for 0 bouhous :es ivo 1925 peul klee: leiter to the faculty eou neil i welcome Ihe foc Ihot forces 50 d'versely insp. and to -neve wi!" w otever forces we can commend award o singlerrindeo economicol solution.n general.

costumes porty lor a bauhaus DAS WEI SSE FE r photogra ph by lux le. montage 01 pictures and newspaper clippings. oerger: ligure baked doy porty g'ngeroreod ior 0 bi rfh- . striped. 1925 116 : page irom o bitlhdoy album. 1925 _ -: visual re- port 01 a lrip a jugoslavia. Iheme: while checked.n inger beach Iii" herbert boy e r: invitation dOlled and 10 the while feslilla!. mal' 09'" \92b a bouhcus costume patty at.

"e' b..ted w"h ki"es ira. screen irrprir. prin eo at 1 he bou hous war shop." s'udeols ond -ncsrers.. bauhaus band... nose ond heart festival. photog'aph by lux feininger 118 heroe" ooyer: birthday gilt 10 wol er gropius.lh ."hauskllp. 192b le!ler 119 j ! I I - • . 0 • .n" £ 01. ncs e cno heor' 'esrivo _ 1928 .. 1928 nde' 5C nowi""y: ooster lor me beo'o._ - herber bayer: invitation o the beord..31.

sculpture. Irorn Ihe very beginni ng the student boo '/ indud ad 0 nu mber of ortists who were a owed a devole themselves exc usively 10 pointing. courtesy nierendorl gallery . courtesy i. at one period Ihe bouhous reocted violently ogoinst the custom of overloeding the walls 01 a house wi h all kinds 01 pictures. 1910. otherwise it would hardly hove invitee world-famous ertisls 10 ioin its faculty. oil on cardboard. b." for insto-ica. the "house wi houl pictures" (hous ohne bilder] wos merely the shor -livsd bot Ie cry 01 a lew ex remists lor. neurno nn poul klee: orcflc InOW. 1923.. the bauhous lelt Ihot the "woll" itsell hod to De rediscovered a"d its tree men! experimented with in many 1N0y'.painting. 05 a metter or lact. graphic arts. he bouhous 1001 the eenest in eres in poin'ing and sculpture. 1919-1928 "iconoclasts" -the "house without pictures" he opposition 01 the bauhaus to conventiona and acoaemic ideas led to the charge 01 "iconoclasm. watercolor. so lno~ interest could be centered on Ihe murol or reliel "''lieh would exis as on in egrol 'eoture 01 the room rother rnon on framed pic ures which W!!re 00 chen casual oiter· hougnts. 180 181 poul llee: outdoor sport. nor would it have includee SO many poi ntings in i15 exhibition.

oil on canvas. 1923 . courtesy nierenaorl gallery vcnel leininger: villoge. 1924 182 183 Iyonel leininger: go!hen.Iyonel lei ni nger: nieder-reissen. weterce or. 1919. 0'1 o~ convos.

. y: colored woodc~t. oil on ccnvos..y j. neumonn . ail on cor-vcs. oil an camoo. serene . 0. courtesy n'srendorf gal sry . 1924. courte. b. 1927_ courlesy [. ne rma nn 185 ~as. 1925.ky.ns y: graduated blccs..ily c-id'ns t: camoosition 307 11'0di'ied.. 1922 'Hossily anain.ilion booro.' 184 wassi y ond. ossily kanain.

1922 ty olean k. torso." 186 181 johannes itlen: cubic composition. closter. 1922 os Or sc nlernrner: Iree sculp ura. schwerdtleger: reliel. schwerd lege: morble. 1923 . 1919 k. gloss and elester.

sondstone . 1922-1923 wei "nO esker schlernrner : orch -lee .• 923 I'" 00 uhous.gernard more s: the you+. otoster. 30) k_ schwerdtfeger: crchitectur el sculpture. lithograph_ 1921.'0 r schlerr mer: figure ~I. oskor schlerr mer: orehhectonic rel·a'. no. ('rom blbl.onic relia: . sc ulpiure workshop 1923 0.

(lrorn bibl. 1922 . oeuman~ gerhard mcrcks: he owl. 1921. woodcu'. 5: mother cot. 1923 friedl dicker: lantostic animals.190 gerhard marc. COL' esy j. wooocu·. lithograp . woodcu • 1922. no. 30) 191 gerhard more s: coin and abe. b.

lilhograph.I~:J OS «: . construction a II. oi on convcs. tempera on cerwos. c. 1 ~~ or schlemmer: ligure h~. 0'1 on canvas.·· . do neer. 1923 cs or schl ernmer: 'he bauhaus stoirs. no. sy philip [chnson .. moholy.. 1924 192 193 esker schlem 'TIer. empero on convcs. COL' . 192b .nogy. c. 192'1. (irom bibl. moho v-nagy: cens-rucrlce . 30) I ./' I. 1921.

s·c" ing. 192B . 1926 194 herbert boyer: the live. 1923 I. .1922 195 pou ci roan: o. we lercolor . menoly-nogy: constr ~ction b 100._ colored :slilliie. !empero on ce nvos. Ii ogroph.ter oreque.

192 pou citroen: -neircpc Is. 1922 . mon"oge. 1921 191 jose' 0 loers: gloss oic ure. single pone. etching.196 iosef 0 bers: Die ure . Inb josef olbers: lcrtice nicrure. •rogmen s ot colored gloss boo as. 1921 r~do I boschcrn: composition. stoineo g1055.

tempera. 1924 .1 esker schlere <ner: varia io . pencil and wash. the pia as on this ond the opeesite page am individual vorio ions on his photograph. 1924 x 1 198 photograph from magazine showing crowd ana oudspaoker. 1924 . 1924 paul klee: vorlcf on. 1924 199 I.. watercolor ond in . pencil a no was n. wotercolor and ink. Iyonel !eininger: varia ion.. red and bod' nk. 01 er on ideo 01 rnoholv-nogv. which were rnade up into a portiolio as a oirthdoy g'" to wo"er grapLu. moholy-nogy: variation. 1914 ~ : vcr ioricn.ossily ke nd insky: variation.

rschleld-rncek: wcrerco or. 1928 .i fischer: cbstrcctlon.o oe"· b-e ~: wol~rco 1927 0 r. 200 campo5i"on.g. Monotyce. 1927-1928 composTen. Me. ludwig h. 201 1922 werner drewes: ce cil.

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