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Chapter 14 Study Guide

Pluralism: many clerics, especially higher ecclesiastics, held several benefices (or offices) all at once, but hardly visited all of them, let alone perform the spiritual responsibilities. Instead they collected revenues from all of them and hired a poor priest, paying him just a fraction of the income to fulfill the spiritual duties of particular local church. This made the people who went to church upset Indulgences: papal statements granting permission of priest imposed penalty for sin. Popular belief, however, held that an indulgence secured complete remission of all penalties for sin, before and after death/ began when the archbishop of Magdeburg, Albert, held benefices in multiple places this required papal dispensation so had to borrow money from a rich banking family the Fuggers, in order to pay the family back, the Pope gave Albert permission to sell indulgences/ indulgences could be bought no only for the person buying them but for deceased family members, and friends Martin Luther: a German Augustinian Friar who launched the protestant reformation of the sixteenth century wrote the 95 Theses, or propositions on indulgences and prompted his fight with Rome rejected the idea that salvation could be achieved by good works, such as indulgences criticized the papal wealth was later declared an outlaw by Charles V at Worms in 1521 believed that salvation derived through faith alone, not faith and good works stated that religious authority rests with the Bible, not the Pope believed that the church consists of the entire community of Christian believers believed that all work is sacred and everyone should serve God in his or her individual vocation also believed that every believer was his/her own priest while catholics believed in transubstantiation, luther believed in consubstantiation Luthers ideas were popular because of widespread resentment of clerical privileges and wealth Luthers ideas attracted many preachers and they became Protestant leaders Peasants cited Luthers theology as part of their demands for social and economic reforms peasant complaints about landlord seizure of village land and over crop failure lead to revolts, which Luther initially supported: in the end, Luther did not support the peasants revolts, he believed in obedience to civil authority Luthers greatest weapon was his mastery of the language, and his words were spread by the advent of printing gave dignity to domestic work, stressed the idea of marriage and the Christian home, ended confession, and encouraged education for girls held enlightened views on sex and marriage, although he claimed that women should be no more than efficient wives 95 Theses: a letter written by Marin Luther to archbishop Albert, argued that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance, computed with the preaching of the Gospel, and downplayed the importance of Christian life/ posted on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517/ invited other scholars to debate him/ got copied and quickly spread all throughout Germany/ originally intended for academic debate/ Diet of Worms: series of imperial meetings at the bishops palace at Worms in the Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V. On 18 April Luther
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declared his final refusal to recant those doctrines, and on 26 May Charles V issued an imperial Edict condemning those doctrines Indulgences: papal statements granting permission of priest imposed penalty for sin. Popular belief, however, held that an indulgence secured complete remission of all penalties for sin, before and after death/ began when the archbishop of Magdeburg, Albert, held benefices in multiple places this required papal dispensation so had to borrow money from a rich banking family the Fuggers, in order to pay the family back, the Pope gave Albert permission to sell indulgences/ indulgences could be bought no only for the person buying them but for deceased family members, and friends John Tetzel: a dominican friar hired by archbishop Albert to sell indulgences/ used catchy slogans to attract attention and bring in customers, this worked very well/ drew up a chart with specific prices for the forgiveness of particular sins/ Pope Alexander VI: Used papal power and wealth to advance the material interests of his own family/ real name Rodrigo Borgia/ publicly acknowledged his mistress and children/ Charles V: Emperor Charles V summoned the Diet of Worms (a trial) and declares it illegal to give Martin Luther shelter and food/ inherited much of Europe and was committed to the idea of its religious and political unity/ Charles V was a vigorous defender of Catholicism/ shared blame with German princes for the disintegration of imperial authority in the empire/ did not care about the constitutional problems of Germany/ went to war with the Valois kings of France about 5 times between 1521 and 1555/ finally recognized Lutheranism in the Peace of Augsburg Ulrich Zwingly: Swiss humanist/ introduced reformation to Switzerland/ preached not from the churchs prescribed readings but, relying on Erasmuss New Testament from A to Z, Matthew to Revelations,/ was convinced that Christian life rested on the Scriptures, which were the pure words of God and the sole basis of religious truth/ went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy/ disagreed with LUther on various theological issues such as the nature of the Eucharist/ Swiss reformer, Ulrich affirmed that the Lords Supper is a memorial of the Last Supper and that no change occurs in the elements John Knox: brought Calvinism to Scotland from Geneva John Calvin: Calvin believed that God selects certain people to do his work and that he was selected to reform the church/ under John Calvin, Geneva became a city that was a church, or theocracy, in which the state was subordinate to the church/ calvins central ideas expressed in The Institutes of Christian Religion, were his belief in the omnipotence of God, the insignificance of humanity, and predestination/ worked to establish a Christian society ruled b god through civil magistrates and reformed ministers/ believed that body and blood of Christ are spiritually but not physically present in the bread and wine, and they are consumed spiritually/ people are predestined for salvation; success on earth determined place in heaven; hard work and no leisure time were signs of success/ Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans/ Predestination: Calvins teaching that by Gods decree some persons are guided to salvation, others to damnation; that God has called us not according to our works but according to his purpose and grace Theocracy: a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the states supreme civil ruler, or in a higher sense, a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided

Council of Trent: Pope Paul III called the Council of Trent/ an attempt to reconcile with the Protestants which failed/ international politics hindered the theological debates. nonetheless, the principle of papal authority was maintained, considerable reform was undertaken and the spiritual renewal of the church was begun/ Tridentine decrees forbade the sale of indulgences and outlawed pluralism and simony/ attempts were made to curb clerical immorality and to encourage education/ great emphasis was placed on preaching Peace of Augsburg: In 1555, Charles V agreed to the Peace of Augsburg which, in accepting the status quo, official recognized Lutheranism/ Each prince was permitted to choose their religion for their territory/ princes or town councils established state churches to which everyone had to belong/ whoever did not want to belong had to convert or leave Consubstantiation: the belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change whereby Christ is really present (in spirit) but the bread and wine are not transformed/ Lutheran belief Transubstantiation: by the consecrating words of the priest during the Mass, the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ, who is then fully present in the bread and wine/ Catholic belief Pilgrimage of Grace: in 1536, popular opposition in the north to the religious changes led to the Pilgrimage of Grace, a massive multiclass rebellion that proved the largest in english history/ the pilgrims accepted a truce, and their leaders were arrested, executed and tried Elizabethan Settlement: term applied to English parliamentary laws passed early in Elizabeths reign that required conformity to the church of England and uniformity of church worship. Act of Supremacy: Declared King of England as Head of Church Anabaptists: general name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism (and thus entry into the Christian community) and who therefore refused to have their children baptized. Because of their belief in pacifism and that the Christian could not participate in civil affairs (by implication the separation of church and state) Luther, Calvin, and Catholics condemned and persecuted them/ believed in separation of church and state, pacifism, adult baptism, religious tolerance/ beliefs and practices were too radical for the times, and they were bitterly executed/ What were the problems or the early 16th century church? The church in the early 16th century was not in a good state of being at all. The clergy were not exactly role model catholics. There was Clerical immorality, ignorance, absenteeism and pluralism, materialism, and indulgences. Some priests just ignored their vows of celibacy and had mistresses, children and some of them even got married. Most priests were less educated than the common people, didnt know how to read or write, and sometimes didnt even know how to speak the language of the country they were sent to. A bunch of priests held benefices in more than one place and collected revenue from each place in which they held benefice, and barely visited or practiced their religious responsibilities, which displeased people very much. The higher levels of the church even lived luxurious lifestyles that arent recommended in the bible. What circumstances inspired Martin Luther to post 95 Theses? The fact that the church was selling indulgences inspired Luther to post the 95 Theses. Luther was severely troubled that ignorant people believed they had no further need to repent once they had purchased an indulgence
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How did Martin Luther want to reform the church- how is Lutheranism different from the Catholic Church? Sacraments observed? Luther wanted to cut out the middle men and allow people to establish a relationship with God directly. Also he believed that everyone should be able to read and study the bible for themselves. He also wanted to reform the church by teaching people that salvation did not come from penance or external observances but from faith alone. Lutheranism is different from the Catholic Church in such ways:

Catholic Church
Church teachings held that salvation is achieved by both faith and good works.

Lutheranism
Luther held that salvation comes from faith alone. It is a decision of God. God, not people, give salvation. Luther believed that authority rests in the word of God as in the bible alone, and interpreted by the individuals conscience. Luther re-emphasized Catholic teaching that the church consists of entire community of Christian believers. Luther argued that all vocations have equal merit, ecclesiastical or secular, every person should serve God in their own calling. Luther believed that the scriptures have three sacraments: baptism, penance, and the Eucharist. Luthers idea of the church, invisible fellowship not fixed in any place or person

Authority rests both in the bible and in traditional teaching of the church.

Medieval church men had identified the church with the clergy.

The medieval church stressed the superiority of the monastic and religious life over the secular.

Catholic doctrine support that there are seven sacraments.

Roman Catholic practice of a clerical, hierarchal institution headed by the pope in Rome

Transubstantiation vs. Consubstantiation Catholics- trans.: Catholics hold the dogma of trans. by the consecrating word of the priest during the mass, the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of christ, who is then fully present in the bread and wine Luther- cons.: in opposition, Luther defined that cons., the belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change whereby Christ is really present but the bread and wine are not transformed Why was Luther successful? Luther was successful because Luthers linguistic skills in German attracted the literate and thoughtful middle class parties because Luther appealed to their intelligence. Luther also
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became successful because printing presses spread his messages and teachings all over Germany; he and his teachings became known. Luther attracted peasants also because he was a peasant himself when he was young. Peasants like Luther and his teachings. Luther also became successful because city governments resented clerical privileges and immunities that nuns, monks, and priests had. They did not pay taxes and had lots of land. So city governments could relate to Lutheran's teachings and his feelings toward catholic clergies. Educated townspeople condemned irregularity and poor quality of sermons. So they established preacher-ships. They were men with superior knowledge and they had to give about 100 sermons a year. Luthers ideas attracted preacher-ships. Impact of the reformation on the political establishment in Germany? The Protestant Reformation stirred nationalistic feelings in Germany against the wealthy Italian papacy. Luthers appeal to patriotism earned him the support of the princes, who used religion as a means of gaining more political independence and preventing the flow of German money to Rome. The Protestant movement proved to be a political disaster for Germany. What other areas of Europe were impacted by the reformation? All of Scandinavia, England (except under Mary Tudor), Scotland, and such self governing cities as Geneva and Zurich in Switzerland and Satsbourg in Germany had rejected the religious authority or Rome and had adopted new faiths What were the ideas and who were the leaders of the new religious sect- Presbyterians, Anabaptists, Calvinists, Lutherans, and Church of England. Presbyterians: Leader- John Knox, Scotland; Presbyterian is the same religion as Calvinism except in Scotland. The Presbyterian church became the national church of Scotland Anabaptists: Leader- John Calvin, Geneva, Switzerland; They believed men and women are sinful by nature. Calvin said the God chooses a few people to save, which are called the elect. Calvin believed that God selects certain people to do his work and that he was selected to reform the church. Under John Calvin, Geneva became a city that was a church ( a theocracy), in which the state was subordinate to the church. Calvins central ideas, expressed in The Institutes of Christian Religion, were his belief in the omnipotence of God, the insignificance of humanity, and predestination. Austere living and intolerance of dissenters characterized Calvins Geneva. The Genevan Consistory monitored the private morals of citizens. Michael Servetus was burned at the stake for denying the Christian dogma of the Trinity and rejecting child baptism. Calvinists did not view women much differently that Catholics: women were to be obedient to their husbands-- and unmarried women were upsetting the natural order. The city of Geneva was the model for international Protestantism, and Calvinism, with its emphasis on the work ethic, became the most dynamic and influential form of Protestantism Lutherans: Martin Luther, Germany; They believed that people could win salvation by faith and forgiveness. Church teachings based on bible alone. All people are equal. Church of England: Queen Elizabeth I- Under Elizabeth I, a religious settlement requiring outward conformity to the Church of England was made. English reformation- How did this happen? the Lollards, although driven underground in the fifteenth century, survived and stressed the idea of a direct relationship between the individual and God. The English humanist William Tyndale began printing and English translation of the New Testament in 1525. The wealth and corruption of the clergy, as exemplified by Thomas Wolsey, stirred much resentment. Henry VIII desired a divorce from his queen, Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella
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of Spain so he could marry Anne Boleyn. Pope Clement VII (who did not wish to admit papal error) refused to annul Henrys marriage to Catherine. Archbishop Cranmer, however, engineered the divorce. The result was Reformation Henry needed money, so he dissolved the monasteries and confiscated their lands, but this did not lead to more equal land distribution. Some traditional Catholic practices, such as confession, governmental administration, resulting in greater efficiency and economy. Under Edward VI, Henrys heir, England shifted closer to Protestantism. Mary Tudor attempted to bring Catholicism back to England. Under Elizabeth I, a religious settlement requiring outward conformity to the Church of England was made. Tudor Dynasty- Order of succession: King Arthur -> King Henry VIII-> King Edward VI->Queen Mary->Elizabeth I