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SEMESTER-I Student Name Registration Number Subject Name Subject Code Country Name Faculty Name : Henry Osei : : Computer Architecture : PITA : Ghana : Mrs.Caroline kalaiselvi

INSTRUCTIONS a) Students are required to submit both the assignments.

ASSIGNMENT Assignment A Assignment B

DETAILS Subjective Questions Subjective Questions + Case Study

MARKS 10 15

b) Total weightage given to these assignments is 25%. ( 25 Marks) c) The assignments are to be typed in word/pdf. d) The two assignments are to be completed by due dates (specified from time to time) and need to be submitted for evaluation to the University of Madras. e) The marks for the assignments will be made available within one week. f) Students have to affix a scan signature in the form.

Signature Date

: :

_________________________________ _________________________________

Assignment A Answer all the Questions (Answer Each Questions not less than 500 words)

1. Explain general register organization 2. Perform logic AND,OR and XOR with a 2 binary strings 10011100 and10101010 3. Explain Array processors 4. Write multiplication algorithms 5. Explain the multiprogrammed control unit for booths multiplier.


Registers are essentially extremely fast memory locations within the CPU that are used to create and store the results of CPU operations and other calculations. Different computers have different register sets. They differ in the number of registers, register types, and the length of each register. They also differ in the usage of each register. General-purpose registers can be used for multiple purposes and assigned to a variety of functions by the programmer. Specialpurpose registers are restricted to only specific functions. In some cases, some registers are used only to hold data and cannot be used in the calculations of operand addresses. The length of a data register must be long enough to hold values of most data types. Some machines allow two contiguous registers to hold double-length values. Address registers may be dedicated to a particular addressing mode or may be used as address general purpose. Address registers must be long enough to hold the largest address. The number of registers in a particular architecture affects the instruction set design. A very small number of registers may result in an increase in memory references. Another type of registers is used to hold processor status bits, or flags. These bits are set by the CPU as the result of the execution of an operation. The status bits can be tested at a later time as part of another operation. MEMORY ACCESS REGISTERS Two registers are essential in memory write and read operations: the memory data register (MDR) and memory address register (MAR). The MDR and MAR are used exclusively by the CPU and are not directly accessible to programmers. In order to perform a write operation into a specified memory location, the MDR and MAR are used as follows: 1. The word to be stored into the memory location is first loaded by the CPU into MDR. 2. The address of the location into which the word is to be stored is loaded by the CPU into a MAR. 3. A write signal is issued by the CPU. Similarly, to perform a memory read operation, the MDR and MAR are used as follows: a. The address of the location from which the word is to be read is loaded into the MAR. b. A read signal is issued by the CPU. c. The required word will be loaded by the memory into the MDR ready for use by the CPU. When a large number of registers are included in the CPU, it is most efficient to connect them through a common bus system. The registers communicate with each other not only for direct data transfers, but also while performing various micro operations. Hence it is necessary to provide a common unit that can perform all the arithmetic, logic, and shift micro operations in the processor

Bus System
A bus in computer terminology represents a physical connection used to carry a signal from one point to another. The signal carried by a bus may represent address, data, control signal, or

power. Typically, a bus consists of a number of connections running together. Each connection is called a bus line. A bus line is normally identified by a number. Related groups of bus lines are usually identified by a name. For example, the group of bus lines 1 to 7 in a given computer system may be used to carry the address of memory locations, and therefore are identified as address lines. Depending on the signal carried, there exist at least four types of buses: address, data, control, and power buses. Data buses carry data, control buses carry control signals, and power buses carry the powersupply/ground voltage. The size (number of lines) of the address, data, and control bus varies from one system to another. Consider, for example, the bus connecting a CPU and memory in a given system, called the CPU bus. In addition to carrying control signals, a control bus can carry timing signals. These are signals used to determine the exact timing for data transfer to and from a bus; that is, they determine when a given computer system component, such as the processor, memory, or I/O devices, can place data on the bus and when they can receive data from the bus. A bus can be synchronous if data transfer over the bus is controlled by a bus clock. The clock acts as the timing reference for all bus signals. A bus is asynchronous if data transfer over the bus is based on the availability of the data and not on a clock signal. Data is transferred over an asynchronous bus using a technique called handshaking.

Control unit
There are mainly two different types of control units: micro programmed and hardwired. In micro programmed control, the control signals associated with operations are stored in special memory units inaccessible by the programmer as control words. A control word is a microinstruction that specifies one or more micro operations. A sequence of microinstructions is called a micro program, which is stored in a ROM or RAM called a control memory CM. In hardwired control, fixed logic circuits that correspond directly to the Boolean expressions are used to generate the control signals. Clearly hardwired control is faster than micro programmed control. However, hardwired control could be very expensive and complicated for complex systems. Hardwired control is more economical for small control units. It should also be noted that microprogrammed control could adapt easily to changes in the system design. We can easily add new instructions without changing hardware. Hardwired control will require a redesign of the entire systems in the case of any change.

2. LOGIC OPERATIONS A common reason to manipulate a logic expression is to simplify it in some way so that it contains less terms or less connectives. A simplified expression might be more opaque, in the sense that it is not as clear what it means, but looking at things computationally it will generally be cheaper to evaluate.

3.Array Processors Array processing performs computation on a large array of data. An alternative approach is where ILP is made explicit somehow; the use of vector processors is one example of this approach. Conceptually, this is an easy step to make. In a scalar processor, the natural units of computation are single values held in registers. In a vector processor, one operates using registers that contain p separate values.