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Long-term

athlete
rowing
AN OVERVIEW

DEVELOPMENT P L A N for

www.rowingcanada.org

We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through Sport Canada, a branch of the Department of Canadian Heritage.

Nous reconnaissons lappui financier du gouvernement du Canada par lentremise de Sport Canada, une direction gnrale du ministre du Patrimoine canadien.

contents
Foreword Introduction Why do we need LTAD? The 10 Key Factors Influencing LTAD Trainability Stages of LTAD RCA Long-term Athlete Development Framework Active Start FUNdamentals Learning to Train Training to Train Learning to Compete Training to Compete Training to Win Training to Win 2 Active for Life Practical Implications of LTAD Implementation Conclusion Glossary of Terms Selected Bibliography 4 5 6 8 10 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 17 18 19 22 23 24 25

table
des
Avant-propos Introduction

matires
30 31 32 34 36 38 39 40 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 48 49 50 51

Pourquoi avons-nous besoin du DLTA? Les 10 facteurs principaux influenants le DLTA Capacit dentranement Les phases du DLTA Modle de dveloppement des participants de RCA Enfants actifs Samuser grce au sport Apprendre sentraner Sentraner sentraner Apprendre faire de la comptition Sentraner faire de la comptition Sentraner gagner Sentraner gagner 2 Actif pour la vie Implications pratiques du DLTA Mise en uvre Conclusion Glossaire Bibliographie

Appendix 1 Long Term Athlete Development Model for Canadians with Disabilities Appendix 2 Sport Canada: Strategic Leadership for Sport

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Annexe 1 Modle de dveloppement long terme pour les participants ayant un handicap

52

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Annexe 2 Sport Canada : Leadership stratgique pour le sport

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Acknowledgements

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Remerciements

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foreword

he concept of LTAD has grown out of a recognition of the many gaps in athlete talent identification and development in the current Canadian sport system, a system that has been built in haphazard layers over time, that has a strong reliance on volunteer initiative and intuition combined with elements of sport science and coaching education, and that, by design, has had

to focus more on short-term needs rather than on the long-term health of sport and lifestyle programming. However, with the agreement by the major sport funding partners in Canada to better align and integrate their financial and human resources into a comprehensive Canadian Sport Policy, the opportunity to create clear building blocks for sport development has arrived, with LTAD being one of the key structural elements in a new Canadian sport system. LTAD is the product of many years of research and analysis into athlete development models throughout the world.The Canadian version uses the core concept of a training, competition, and recovery program based upon developmental age the maturation of an individual rather than chronological age but takes into consideration the unique nature of the Canadian sport system and culture. Many national sport organizations are now involved in the further customization of this model to meet their athlete develop-

ment needs and are taking this opportunity to re-examine the myriad of support services provided to support such development. For Rowing Canada Aviron, the implementation of LTAD provides a clear path for athlete and program development throughout the country, it reflects the unique nature of athlete development in rowing, and it identifies the most appropriate methodologies and structures to support both excellence in performance and life-long benefit to individuals who are touched by this sport. It is clear that we must be cognizant of somewhat polarized objectives in Canadian sport we expect excellence from our athletes in Olympic Games and world-class competitions, yet we must also recognize the importance of individual participation in rowing for personal growth. LTAD allows both these priorities it provides a measured approach to individual development, whether that be toward competitive or recreational goals. For true world success we, as an organization, must be prepared to embrace a more systematic approach to athlete development, as the other world leaders in the sport have done. LTAD gives us the framework to build a truly competitive program within the realistic confines of our budget capabilities. I commend our LTAD volunteers for their insight and leadership in bringing this project to fruition and I look forward to working with them and our membership to ensure that this model has the impact that it deserves within our programming. Ian Moss Executive Director Rowing Canada Aviron

love of sports is one of the greatest gifts parents can give their children. And being active for life is a joy that more Canadians deserve to experience. Without realizing it, my parents followed their own version of a long-term athlete development model for rowing as they exposed me to a fabulous variety of water sports, including swimming, canoeing, sailing, and rowing a row boat at the cottage. As a result, Ive always loved being in and around water and when I tried crew rowing for the very first time, at age 21 at McGill University, it felt so natural, easy, and fun that I couldnt believe it was a sport. Alison Korn, two-time world champion and two-time Olympic medallist

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

introduction
TAD is about making sure that athletes get optimal training, competition, and recovery throughout their career in order to allow them to reach their athletic potential. enjoy life-long participation in rowing and other physical activity. Training, racing, and recovery programs are based on an athletes developmental age rather than chronological age and are designed to optimize development during critical periods of accelerated adaptation to training. LTAD also takes into account the physical, mental, emotional, and cognitive development of all participants. LTAD recognizes that athlete development is long term there are no short cuts. Children need to build physical literacy the mastering of fundamental movement skills and fundamental

sport skills by participating in a wide variety of sports and physical activity when they are young. A solid foundation of movement skills and fitness is critical for everyone, especially athletes participating in late-specialization sports such as rowing. LTAD also contributes to health and a life-long enjoyment of rowing and other physical activity.We should be reassured that children do not need to start rowing early (that is, before 11 to 16 years of age) in order to excel. In fact, early specialization in rowing can harm long-term development. LTAD defines a clear, seamless development pathway. It gives coaches, administrators, clubs, and others involved in rowing a clear understanding of how they can best support the athletes for whom they are responsible.And it gives athletes a clear idea and understanding of what they need to do and when they need to do it in order to excel at the elite level. LTAD will establish a clear and consistent development pathway for rowers. guide the examination of the current system to identify strengths, gaps, and inconsistencies. guide coaches in planning training, racing, and recovery programs that are consistent with the principles of growth and maturation, allow athletes to achieve optimal performances, and encourage them to stay in the sport for life. guide coaches in developing remedial programs for late-entry rowers. improve recruitment and development of earlyentry rowers. help Canadian rowers to perform better and more consistently at the elite level, across programs, and from year to year.

This overview
describes the principles on which LTAD is based. identifies critical periods of accelerated adaptation to training and how these relate to rowing. outlines the LTAD framework for rowing, including the objectives, key outcomes, and elements for each stage. highlights some of the practical implications for regattas, equipment, clubs, athletes, parents, recruiting, and how and when to learn to row. outlines some of the steps needed to implement LTAD. The overview focuses on the optimal development pathway for an athlete who starts rowing between 11 and 16 years of age. We recognize that in Canada, many athletes come to rowing relatively late in their development. Similarly, we recognize that adaptive rowing is a growing element of the sport and should be encouraged and supported.The specific needs of late-entry and adaptive rowers will be addressed in subsequent documents.
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Why LTAD? do we need


C
anadian rowers have excelled on the world stage and Canada is considered a strong rowing nation. So why do we need LTAD? In short, we need it so that we continue to excel.

Successful athletes who want to continue to do well must continue to learn and improve. If their development stops, they will get beaten. The same is true for the Canadian rowing system. We must continue to learn and improve if we want to remain successful. As well, the success of Canadian rowers at the international level has not been consistently strong across years and across programs.There have been ebbs and flows, and some programs have had more consistent success than others. What can we do to reduce the ebbs and make all our programs consistently strong, year after year? How and to what extent does the existing system enhance athlete development and performance? How does it interfere? Where can we improve? LTAD will guide us in analyzing the Canadian rowing system, highlighting its gaps and shortcomings, and developing solutions.
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LTAD will also contribute to domestic development. It can help clubs address issues such as how to attract people to rowing and retain them. how to provide effective and enjoyable programs for all rowers. how the regatta system can meet the needs of rowers across Canada and at all stages of development. what programs should be developed to encourage athletes with a disability.

Shortcomings
Sport technical experts have identified a list of shortcomings in the Canadian sport system and their consequences for athletic participation and performance. LTAD was developed by

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

sport scientists and technical experts to address these shortcomings. Some of the key observations are listed below.1 training and competition are based on chronological age, rather than developmental age. training programs fail to take full advantage of critical periods of accelerated adaptation to training. training and competition in the developmental stages place too much emphasis on short-term outcomes (winning), rather than on process (training and development). development athletes tend to under-train and over-compete (although this is generally not a problem in rowing). adult training and competition programs are imposed on developing athletes. training methods and programs developed for male athletes are imposed on female athletes. fundamental movement and sport skills are not taught properly. physical education programs in schools, recreational programs, and elite competitive programs are poorly integrated. the most knowledgeable and experienced coaches are encouraged to work at the elite level; coaches who work with development athletes often lack the necessary training, skills, expertise, and experience.

Consequences of these shortcomings include children not having fun because the programs are designed for adults and focus on outcome rather than process. children and adults with poor movement abilities, poor skills, and lack of a proper fitness base. athletes pulled in different directions by school, club, provincial, and national team demands. athletes who fall through the cracks in the system (that is, who fail to achieve their potential and leave the sport). athletes frustrated by the lack of consistent and integrated support that will help them to perform well. no systematic development of the next generation of international athletes. inconsistent international performances. injuries, burn-out, and frustration. The overall sport system and the rowing system must consider the principles of growth and maturation in order to provide athletes with what they need at different stages in their development. a more complete list of the shortcomings and their consequences, see Canadian Sport for Life, page 17.
1 For

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The

0 key Influencing LTAD 1factors


The 10-year Rule Specialization (refer to chart on page 13)
Rowing is a late-specialization sport. We depend on other components of the sport system such as schools, recreation centres, and other sports to provide children with opportunities to develop physical literacy (during the FUNdamentals stage) and early speed and suppleness (during the Learning to Train stage). Athletes need to participate in a variety of sports and physical activity during the FUNdamental and Learning to Train stages in order to succeed in a late-specialization sport such as rowing. LTAD actively discourages early specialization in late-specialization sports. Specializing before the age of 10 in late-specialization sports contributes to imbalanced physical development, inadequate development of the full range of basic movement and sport skills, overuse injuries, and early burnout.

The following factors are the research, principles, and tools upon which LTAD is built.

Scientific research has identified that it takes at least 10 years and 10,000 hours of training for a talented athlete to reach elite levels. For example, the United States Olympic Committee found that, on average, it took 13 years for an athlete to make the Olympic team and 15 years to win an Olympic medal. Athlete development is not a short-term process. Short-term performance goals must not be allowed to undermine long-term athlete development.

The FUNdamentals
Fundamental movement skills agility, balance, co-ordination and fundamental sport skills running, jumping, throwing, kicking, catching, and swimming are the basis for all other sports. Children should develop these skills before the onset of their growth spurt in adolescence. An individual who is not competent in the basic movement skills will have difficulty participating in a range of sports and will have fewer opportunities for athletic success and life-long enjoyment of physical activity.

Developmental Age
LTAD is based on developmental age, not chronological age. We all follow the same stages of development from early childhood through adolescence,but Figure 1.

LTAD is based on developmental age. During late childhood and adolescence, athletes who are the same chronological age may be four to five years apart developmentally. The athletes shown here are the same chronological age, but are at different stages of maturation and require different training regimes.

10 9 8 7 6 HEIGHT (cm/yr) 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 6 8 10 AGE 12 14 16 18

GIRLS

MENARCHE

BREAST PUBIC HAIR

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

the timing, rate, and magnitude of development differs amongst individuals. During late childhood and adolescence, athletes who are the same chronological age may be four to five years apart developmentally. Coaches need to understand these developmental differences and take them into account when they design training programs and select athletes.

Calendar Planning for Competition


The system of competition makes or breaks athletes. The regatta system and calendar should support and be consistent with LTAD. Different stages of development have different requirements for the type, frequency, and level of competition. At some stages of development (for example,Training to Train), training and development should take precedence over formal racing and short-term success. At later stages, it becomes more important for athletes to experience a variety of competitive situations and to perform well at high-level regattas.

Trainability
All physiological systems are always trainable, but there are critical periods in development when the body is particularly responsive to specific types of training. To reach their genetic potential, athletes need to do the right type of training at the right stage. Otherwise, they can still be very fast,but they will never be as fast as they might have been.They cannot recover fully from inadequacies in their early training.

System Alignment and Integration


LTAD recognizes that physical education, school sports, recreational activities, and competitive sports are interdependent. For example, as a late-specialization sport,rowing depends on schools,recreation centres,and other sports to provide children with opportunities to develop physical literacy and early fitness. LTAD recognizes that enjoying a lifetime of physical activity and achieving athletic excellence are both built on a foundation of physical literacy and fitness. All elements of the sport system must be integrated and aligned with one another to achieve these goals. Similarly, all parts of the Canadian rowing system clubs, schools, provincial associations, Rowing Canada Aviron, and regattas across all regions, must be integrated and aligned with one another. Each element in the system plays a crucial role in athlete development. For the system to work well,they must be mutually supportive,clear in their roles and responsibilities, and clear in how they contribute to the bigger pictureof athlete development.Just as the athletes in a fast crew must integrate and align their movements, the components of the rowing system must integrate and align their activities. Rowers will do best in a rowing (and sport) system that is clear, seamless,and based upon a consistent set of principles.LTAD allows rowers to identify the opportunities available to them and to understand the pathway they need to follow. If they want to row at an elite level, they will know (in general terms) what type of training, racing, and recovery they should be doing at each stage,when they should start to specialize in rowing,and what they need to do to move up through the system. They (and their parents) will have the knowledge to advocate for programs, coaching, equipment, regattas, and other services that will support their long-term development. In a system where the various elements are integrated and aligned, rowers will be less likely to fall through the gaps.

Physical, Mental, Cognitive, and Emotional Development: A Holistic Approach


Coaches should consider the whole athlete. At each stage, coaches should consider the emotional, mental, and cognitive development of each athlete, in addition to their physical development, when they plan training, racing, and recovery programs.

Periodization
Periodization provides the framework for organizing training (for example, mode, volume, intensity, frequency of training),racing,and recovery into a logical and scientifically based schedule in order to achieve optimum performance at the required time.A periodization plan that takes into account growth, maturation, and trainability principles should be developed for each stage of athlete development.

Figure 2.
10 9 8 7 6 HEIGHT (cm/yr) 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 6 8 10 AGE 12 14 PENIS TESTES PUBIC HAIR 16 18

BOYS

PEAK STRENGTH VELOCITY

Continuous Improvement
LTAD is based on the best available scientific research and empirical evidence, but knowledge and understanding evolve. LTAD should respond to, integrate, and, in some cases, stimulate research and rowing-specific innovations.
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trainability
Size attained (% of postnatal growth)

Figure 3.

rainability refers to how responsive an individual is to a training stimulus at different stages during growth and maturation.Although all physiological capacities are always trainable, there are critical periods in the development of a specific capacity during which training has the most effect. These are referred to as critical windows of accelerated adaptation to training. Correct training during these critical windows is essential for individuals to achieve their genetic potential. Scientific evidence shows that humans vary considerably in the magnitude and rate of their responses to a given stimulus. This variability underlines the need for a long-term approach to athlete development,so that athletes who respond slowly are not short-changed. Sport scientists have identified five physical capacities (the five Ss of Training and Performance): Stamina, Strength, Speed, Skill, and Suppleness. For stamina and strength, the critical periods of trainability are based on developmental age; specifically, the onset of the adolescent growth spurt. For speed, skill and suppleness, the critical periods of trainability are based on chronological age. Note that, on average, girls reach these windows of trainability at a younger chronological age than boys.

CURVES OF HUMAN GROWTH


120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 Hormone System 5 10 Age (years) 15 20 General Curve Nervous System

Stamina (Endurance)
The critical window of trainability occurs at the onset of Peak Height Velocity (PHV), which is the adolescent growth spurt. Athletes should focus on aerobic capacity training as their growth rate accelerates; aerobic power should be introduced progressively after growth rate decelerates. Aerobic capacity and power are crucial for rowing.

On average, a childs nervous system is fully developed by 10 years of age. Thus, the optimal period for developing fundamental movement skills and a range of basic sport skills is before 10 years of age. The hormonal system undergoes rapid development during adolescence. This is the optimal period for developing anaerobic capacity and strength. The general growth curve describes overall growth of the skeletal system, organs, and cells. of nine and 12 years.During this window,children should be developing physical literacy; that is, competence in the fundamental movement and sport skills that are the foundation for all sports. Competence in these skills makes it easier for children to learn and excel in late-specialization sports such as rowing.

Strength
For girls, there are two critical windows of trainability for strength:the first is immediately after PHV and the second is at the onset of menarche. For boys, there is one strength window and it starts 12 to 18 months after PHV.

Speed
There are two critical periods for trainability of speed. During the first speed window, training should focus on developing agility and quickness; during the second speed window, training should focus on developing the anaerobic alactic energy system. For girls,the first speed training window occurs between the ages of six and eight years and the second window occurs between the ages of 11 and 13 years. For boys, the first speed training window occurs between the ages of seven and nine years and the second window occurs between the ages of 13 and 16 years.

Suppleness (Flexibility)
For both girls and boys, the critical window of trainability for suppleness occurs between the ages of six and 10.In addition,special attention should be paid to flexibility during PHV. The critical windows of trainability for speed, skill, and suppleness occur before children start rowing.We rely on schools, recreation centres, and other sports to provide children with the correct training and opportunities to develop these capacities. We should consider building relationships with these organizations to advocate and support appropriate training. For athletes who miss these training periods, coaches will need to design and implement individualized programs to remedy any shortcomings.

Skill
For girls, the window for optimal skill training occurs between the ages of eight and 11 years; for boys, it occurs between the ages
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LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Figure 4.

PacificSport Optimal Windows of Trainability (Balyi and Way 2005)

FEMALES
SPEED 1 SKILLS SPEED 2

PHV

STAMINA

Athletic excellence and enjoyment of life-long physical activity are both built on a foundation of doing the right type of training at the right stage of development.

SUPPLENESS

STRENGTH 1 & 2

RATE OF GROWTH DEVELOPMENTAL AGE Chronological Age younger 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20+

MALES
Developmental Age
SUPPLENESS SKILLS

PHV

STAMINA STRENGTH SPEED 2

Chronological Age

SPEED 1

RATE OF GROWTH PHYSICAL, MENTAL COGNITIVE, EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

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Stages
T

of for ROWING

LTAD
Training to Train Females 11 to 15 Males 12 to 16

he LTAD framework outlined below describes the optimal development pathway for an athlete who starts rowing between 11 and 16 years of age and continues through to racing successfully at the elite level. The early stages of development will be the same for all rowers. When the volume of training starts to increase during the Training to Train stage, the pathway of those who choose to compete at a high level will diverge from those who choose to row and compete for enjoyment and fitness. Any training, racing, and recovery program should reflect the goals of the athlete for whom it is designed.

Figure 5.

Learning to Train Females 8 to 11 Males 9 to 12

FUNdamentals Females 6 to 8 Males 6 to 9

Active Start 0 to 6 years

Active for Life


enter at any age

Learning to Compete 15 to 19+/-

Training to Win 2 23+ Training to Win 23+

Training to Compete 19 to 23+/-

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LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Long-term Athlete Development Framework


Active Start
0 to 6 FUN / Movement Development Skill Development Physiological Development Physiological and Competitive Development Competitive Development 6 to 8 6 to 9 15 to 19 +/19 to 23 +/23 +/8 to 11 9 to 12 11 to 15 12 to 16 23 +/Performance

FUN damentals

Learning to Train

Training to Train

Training Learning to Compete to Compete

Training to Win

Training to Win 2

Active for Life


Anytime Health

AGE

females males

PHASE
Fundamental Movement Skills Fundamental Sport Skills; Boat Skills General Rowing Sweep and Sculling Technique under Skills (Sculling) Race Conditions General Endurance Strength Sport Specific Endurance, Strength, Speed Skill Development Speed Flexibility Speed 1 Suppleness Skill Speed 2 (f) Stamina (f) Strength 1 and 2 (f)

SKILL DEVELOPMENT
FUN Play

Refining Technique

Goal Specific

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TRAINING FOCUS

Improve and Maintain Strength, Speed, Endurance + Ancillary Capacities

Fitness, Fun, Well-being

CRITICAL WINDOWS OF TRAINABILITY

Speed 2 (m) Stamina (m) Strength (m) Club / High School / Regional Provincial / Canada Games University National International Single Single / Double Double Double Double / Triple Double / Triple

REGATTAS

PERIODIZATION

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The LTAD framework highlights the key elements of each stage for rowing. Subsequent documents will provide a more comprehensive and detailed explanation of each stage. Keep in mind that athlete development is a continuous process, not a sequence of distinct steps. It is a process during which skills, training, and racing become progressively more specific and specialized. For example, children progress from learning fundamental movement skills, to building fundamental sport skills and water skills, to learning general rowing skills (sculling and sweeping in a variety of boats), to specializing in either sculling or sweep, and eventually, to specializing in a particular seat and boat class. Specialization does not, however, mean to the exclusion of all else. For example, athletes who specialize in rowing bow seat in a pair should do some training in other seats and boats, including sculling boats. This provides variety, prevents injuries, maintains versatility, stimulates additional development, and keeps an athlete mentally fresh. Similarly, an athlete in the Training to Win stage, whose training and preparation are focused on 2000m racing, should continue to race in head races and sprint races as part of their training and preparation. In addition, in regions where athletes cannot row during the winter, they should be encouraged to participate in complementary sports. In Canada, many athletes come to rowing relatively late in their development (16 years of age or older). In fact, it is not uncommon for national team rowers to have learned to row in university. This overview does not address the specific needs of these late-entry athletes. Nor does it address the specific needs of adaptive rowers, although the Canadian Paralympic Committees LTAD model is appended. We need to Figure 6.

be aware of the learning differences between individuals with congenital disabilities and those with disabilities acquired at different life stages, and provide learning opportunities that recognize these differences. Subsequent documents will include more specific guidance for late-entry and adaptive rowers.

Age: 0 to 6 years Objective: Learn fundamental movements and link them together into play. Key Outcomes: Fun and movement skills. Physical activity should be fun and a natural part of a childs daily life, not something required.Active play is the way young children are physically active. Rowing does not have a direct role to play during the Active Start stage other than to support organizations that promote physical activity.

ACTIVE START

Age: females 6 to 8; males 6 to 9 Objective: Learn fundamental movement skills and build overall motor skills. Key Outcomes: At the end of this stage, children will be competent in the fundamental movement skills. know how to swim.

FUNdamentals

Participation in Life-long Physical Activity Recreation Excellence


Training to Compete Training to Train Training to Win Active for Life

Life-long Physical Activity

Sport for All


Learning to Train

Physical Literacy
FUNdamentals Active Start
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LTAD supports both life-long participation in rowing or other physical activity and excellence at the high performance level. Both participation and excellence are built on a common foundation of fundamental movement and sport skills developed during the early stages (Active Start, FUNdamentals and Learning to Train). Athletes may make the transition to life-long participation for fun and fitness at any stage in LTAD.

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Skill development in the FUNdamentals stage should be wellstructured and FUN, with the emphasis on participation. Children should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports and physical activity in order to develop fundamental movement skills: Agility, Balance, Coordination, and Speed (ABCs) Kinesthetics, Gliding (run), Buoyancy, Striking with a body part (KGBs) Running, Jumping,Throwing (RJTs) Catching, Kicking, Striking with an implement (CKs) In addition, children should learn water safety and how to swim. Rowing does not have a direct role to play during the FUNdamentals stage other than to support organizations that promote physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills.

structured, water-based activities and camps for children. In addition to developing fundamental sport skills and water skills, the training program at this stage should introduce concepts of mental preparation and the basic rules and ethics of sport. introduce basic ideas about warming-up, cooling-down, hydration, nutrition, stretching, and other ancillary capacities. develop flexibility. include exercises that develop strength through the use of the Swiss ball and the medicine ball and exercises that use the childs own body weight. include frequent opportunities for children to compete, as part of training.

LEARNING TO TRAIN
messing around in boats

Age: females 8 to 11; males 9 to 12 Objectives: Learn overall sport skills. Build water-sense and basic boat handling skills. Prerequisite: Children must be familiar with basic water safety and be able to swim before they can participate in organized activities that use boats. Key Outcomes: At the end of this stage children will be physically literate (competent in fundamental movement skills and fundamental sport skills). comfortable and confident in boats and playing in, on, and around the water. The Learning to Train stage coincides with the skill window, one of the most important periods of motor development for children. During this stage, children should be encouraged to participate in a wide variety of sports and to participate in sports and physical activity every day. During the Learning to Train stage,children should also be introduced to a variety of water-based activities, including sculling. Messing around in boats will build childrens confidence on the water, water-sense, and basic boat handling skills as they become familiar with how boats move, turn, tip, balance, flip over, and are affected by wind and water. Children who are confident and comfortable around the water and handling boats will find it easier to learn to row.These early water and boat skills should be developed through fun activities in a safe environment. Rowing clubs could consider forming partnerships with schools and recreation centres and with sports such as canoeing, kayaking, and sailing to offer fun, well-

Age: females 11 to 15; males 12 to 16 (ages are dependent on onset of PHV) Objectives: Build general endurance. Develop speed and strength. Learn to scull. Key Outcomes: At the end of this stage,athletes will have developed

TRAINING TO TRAIN
learning to scull and building aerobic monsters

a strong aerobic base. core strength. proficiency in sculling (1x). experience in crew boats (2xs and 4xs). During the Training to Train stage, the emphasis is on building general endurance. Aerobic training should be a priority at the
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onset of PHV, although athletes should continue to develop skill, speed, strength, and flexibility. In order to build their aerobic base, athletes should be training 6 to 9 times per week; 3 to 6 of these sessions should be rowing specific (using the ergometer or on the water), depending on the season and the athletes skill level. In the early part of this stage, rowers may not be skilled enough to get good aerobic training in a boat. Coaches can substitute ergometer workouts and/or cross-training, particularly weight-bearing activities. For girls, there are two windows for strength development.The first is immediately after PHV and the second coincides with the onset of menarche.For boys,there is one window of strength development, and it starts 12 to 18 months after PHV. This is the stage when athletes can really benefit from specific strength training. An athletes developmental age determines how their body responds to both aerobic and strength training. Coaches should adjust the training program for each athlete, depending on whether they mature early, average, or late. Accommodating different rates of maturation can be challenging in a team-based sport like rowing. It will be easier for coaches to individualize training if athletes are able to train in small boats. In determining training groups, coaches should take into account an athletes emotional and social development, as well as their physical development. For example,at this age it is important to keep athletes with their peer group. One option is to group athletes according to their training needs (that is, pre-PHV, PHV, and post-PHV) while keeping them with their peers. Because athletes vary widely in how quickly they mature,coaches should be particularly careful during this stage not to recruit or select athletes on the basis of size. Putting too much emphasis on size is detrimental to the long-term development of both early- and late-maturing athletes. Athletes should race in a variety of boats (1x, 2x, 4x) and in a variety of events (head races, sprint races, 2000m races) at local and regional regattas. Fun races that build technique, racing skills, and confidence can also be incorporated into training.Athletes can strive to win, but the emphasis should be on fun, effort, improvement, and good technical performances. During this stage, racing should be secondary to training and in particular to developing general endurance. Spending too much time racing or on race preparation will limit the amount of time available for developing general endurance.The annual plan should be based on single or double periodization. During this stage, athletes should also continue to develop speed (that is, neurological adaptations) by doing short bursts (for example, 10-stroke pieces) at the end of the warm-up, throughout the year. develop good boat-handling skills, learn to take responsibility for handling their boat, and learn to take a problem-solving approach to training, in line with their cognitive development. be encouraged to participate in complementary sports such as cross-country skiing, running, cycling, speed skating, and swimming, but begin to focus on two competitive sports. learn to cope with the physical and mental challenges of competition. develop a good general understanding of ancillary capacities
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such as warm-up and cool-down, stretching, tapering and peaking, regeneration, mental preparation, nutrition and hydration, and proper hygiene to prevent sickness.

LEARNING TO COMPETE
learning to sweep and building racers

Age: females 15 to 19 +/-; males 16 to 19 +/Objectives: Refine and consolidate sculling skills. Learn to sweep, with an emphasis on small boats. Develop sport-specific endurance, strength, speed, and skills for 2000m racing. Key Outcomes: At the end of this stage, athletes will have developed proficiency in 1x, 2x, 4x and 2- under a variety of conditions. confidence in a variety of regatta and race situations (including seat racing and time trials). competence in steering and bowing. good decision-making skills with regard to training and boathandling. high levels of sport-specific endurance, strength, and speed. During the Learning to Compete stage, training increasingly emphasizes the development of sport-specific endurance, strength, and skills for 2000m racing. Coaches should introduce anaerobic training and continue to include short bursts (10 stroke sprints and starts) at the end of the warm-up. For girls, anaerobic lactic training should be introduced at the onset of menarche (during the second strength window); for boys, it should be introduced 12 to 18 months after PHV. For both boys and girls, anaerobic endurance training should be introduced once they have reached full sexual maturation.Athletes should be training six to 12 times per week. During this stage, rowers should begin sweeping, with an emphasis on small boats. Coaches can include some training and racing in bigger boats for fun and variety and to develop skills in team (crew) dynamics. Athletes should continue to race in a variety of events and boat classes, but there should be increasing emphasis on 2000m racing. Racing in local, regional, and provincial regattas as a regular part of training will help rowers learn to row technically well in competitive situations. It will also give them experience racing in a variety of conditions such as rough water, head, tail and cross winds. They will also gain experience in sweep and sculling events and learning to cope with the mental and physical demands of racing. Athletes should strive to win, but the focus should be on learning from each race, developing racing skills, and racing technically well under a variety of conditions. During this stage, the training, racing, and recovery program should be based on double periodization. In addition, training and practice in mental preparation will help athletes to cope with the stresses of training, racing, and selection and will

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

contribute to their development as racers. athletes should have access to specialized support such as sport psychologists, physiotherapists, nutritionists, and other members of the Performance Enhancement Team. towards the end of this stage, athletes who want to race at the elite level should be encouraged to focus on rowing, although they can continue to use complementary sports for cross-training. coaches should provide athletes with information on the development pathway and should encourage athletes to educate themselves about the opportunities available so that they can make informed decisions about where to attend university, where to train, whether to try out for the junior team, and so on. coaches should encourage late-entry athletes and integrate them into existing programs. Coaches should assess these athletes and develop individualized remedial programs to address any shortcomings in their early training and development. athletes should refine and start to individualize their ancillary capacities. planning for the competition calendar should be optimal.

Age: females 19 to 23 +/-; males 19 to 23 +/Objectives: Further develop and refine sport-specific endurance, strength, speed, and skills for 2000m racing. Further develop and refine racing skills, including mental preparation, race strategies, and the ability to handle a variety of conditions and situations. All the objectives of Training to Train and Learning to Compete must be achieved before the athlete can begin Training to Compete. Key Outcomes: At the end of this stage, athletes will race well under a variety of conditions, maintaining good technique under pressure and fatigue and at high rates. be empowered to take responsibility and be accountable for their training, performance, equipment, and other aspects of their rowing life, in co-operation with their coach. During the Training to Compete stage, athletes should continue to develop and refine their sport-specific endurance, strength, technique, and racing skills. They should continue to work on speed and flexibility. Coaches and athletes should work together to tailor training, racing and recovery programs, psychological preparation, and technical development to meet the athletes individual needs. Athletes should select one sport, although training can continue to include complementary sports for cross-training. Athletes should start to specialize in a particular boat class (1x, 2x, 4x; 2-, 4-/4+, 8+) and seat, although they should maintain

their skills in other boat classes and seats.At this stage in development, athletes can specialize in lightweight or heavyweight events. The annual calendar should emphasize 2000m racing, although other races can be included for variety. The calendar should be based on a framework of double periodization. During this stage, athletes mature as racers and as high performance athletes. Making mistakes and learning from them is a crucial part of becoming a mature high performance athlete:this is the stage to make mistakes.Athletes need to race in tight, challenging races in order to refine their racing skills. They should strive to win, and indeed may achieve some success in national and international regattas, but the primary focus should still be on learning how to race hard and well, particularly in national and international regattas. Race simulations and competitive pieces with a training group should be a regular part of training. These, together with racing at national and international regattas, will help an athlete refine and individualize their racing skills, such as pre-race preparation, race strategy, warm-up, and cool-down, and learn to cope with the challenges of racing at a high level. During this stage, athletes should become increasingly independent, responsible, and accountable.

TRAINING TO COMPETE
taking responsibility as athletes and racers

TRAINING TO WIN
going fast: no regrets, no excuses

Age: 23 + Objective: Refine training, technique, and racing skills so athletes are as fast as they can be. Key Outcome: At this stage, athletes will produce podium performances by winning medals at world championships and Olympic Games. Training to Win is the final stage of athletic preparation. The emphasis is on refining an athletes physical, technical, racing, mental, and ancillary capacities so that they are as fast as they can be. By this stage, athletes will have reached their physiological genetic potential. Although an athlete can continue to improve technically, the most significant gains will come from racing experience and maturity, psychological preparation, and refinement of ancillary capacities. Athletes should peak for major regattas, using a framework based on double or triple periodization. Frequent breaks should be built into the calendar to prevent injuries and physical and mental burn-out. Athletes should consider themselves full-time athletes and should manage and organize their lives accordingly.

Age: Athletes who have been at the Training to Win stage for one or more quadrennial cycles.
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TRAINING TO WIN 2
going fast: training and racing smarter

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Objectives: Continue to enjoy racing and training at the highest level. Maintain or, where possible, improve technical, physical, racing, and ancillary capacities. Key Outcome: At this stage, athletes will continue to race consistently well (that is, win medals) at the highest level for more than one quadrennial cycle. The training, racing, and recovery needs of an athlete who has been at the Training to Win stage for one or more quadrennial cycles are not the same as those for an athlete who is just entering the Training to Win stage. During the Training to Win 2 stage, the focus should be on keeping the athlete injury-free and enjoying racing and training at the highest level while maintaining physical, technical, racing, and ancillary capacities. It may be possible for an athlete to improve in some areas such as technique or ancillary capacities, but the program will need to be individualized to achieve these improvements. Gains in speed will come mainly from tailoring training, racing, and recovery programs to a high degree to work on specific areas. further refining ancillary capacities such as taper/peak, warm-up and cool-down, and recovery. race experience. During this stage, athletes can benefit from modifications in training stimuli such as changes in training partners, venues, coaches, boats, and workout structure. Sometimes a change itself can stimulate improvement, regardless of what that change is.

aspects of rowing, throughout their lives. For example, an athlete may move from high performance rowing to competing in another sport, to rowing recreationally, to competing again as a Masters rower. A strong foundation of fitness and skills, built during the early stages of development, will make these transitions easier. For example, a rower who can scull and sweep (on both sides) in a variety of boats will find it easier to fit rowing into his/her life while handling other demands. The rowing system should make it easy for people to continue rowing and to move from one aspect of rowing to another. A range of opportunities should be provided for people to be involved in the rowing community, and such involvement should be actively encouraged and supported. Programs should be provided for people who start rowing later in life and who may not have a base of skills or physical activity. Training, racing, and recovery programs should fit the needs and goals of the athletes for whom they are intended. For example, Masters rowers need programs that take into account how aging affects strength, flexibility, and endurance. Programs for Masters rowers that are adapted from programs designed for athletes in the Training to Train or Training to Win stages are not appropriate for their physiology or their goals.

ACTIVE FOR LIFE


Age: This is when an individual makes the transition from competitive sport to life-long physical activity and it may occur at any age. Objectives: continue to be physically active in rowing and/or other sports and activities. continue to be involved in the rowing community, as an athlete or in other capacities. Key Outcomes: Health, well-being, and fun. In remaining Active for Life, individuals may move from rowing to another sport. one rowing program to another; for example, from competitive rowing at the elite level into recreational, masters, or touring. highly competitive rowing; for example at the elite level to life-long competitive sport such as Masters rowing. participating as an athlete to participating in another capacity such as coaching, officiating, club management, or mentoring, whether as a career or as a volunteer. Athletes may move in and out of rowing, or between different
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practical of implications LTAD


TAD has practical implications for parents, coaches, clubs, recruitment, the regatta system, and equipment as well as for the optimal age for learning to row and the optimal way of learning to row. All stakeholders will be actively encouraged to provide input in developing the details of each stage and in implementing LTAD. Together, the rowing community must build the environment that will allow LTAD to be effective. In some cases, this will demand a change in the way of thinking about athlete development; in some cases, LTAD will support and provide further impetus to coaches and clubs who are already implementing changes based on the principles of long-term athlete development. LTAD is endorsed by Sport Canada and by the Federal-Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Sport, Physical Activity and Recreation. All sports in Canada will be developing LTAD plans and together will contribute to athlete development during the FUNdamentals, Learning to Train, and Training to Train stages.

Parents
LTAD will provide a framework for parents to understand physical literacy and its importance for a healthy lifestyle and for success in competitive sport. It will help parents to understand physical, mental, cognitive, and emotional development and how these affect participation, training, and performance. LTAD will also help parents to understand the particular hydration, nutrition, and recovery requirements of growing children. LTAD will provide athletes with a clear picture of the pathway(s) open to them and what they should, and should not, be doing at each stage of development. It will give athletes and parents more knowledge with which to advocate for the programs, coaching, equipment, regattas, and support services that are critical to long-term development. A development pathway that is seamless, laid out clearly, and based on a consistent set of principles will help everyone in the sport system identify how they can best support the development of the athletes for whom they are responsible.

Coaches
To be successful, LTAD requires highly skilled and educated coaches at the development level. Development coaches must understand how mental, cognitive, emotional, and physical development affect participation, training, racing, and recovery.They must understand and be able to apply the LTAD recommendations. LTAD will significantly influence the curriculum of the National Coaching Certification Program, including the material that is specific to rowing. Canadas sport system needs to create the conditions that will ensure there are well-trained, well-paid, full-time coaches at the development level, not just the elite level. This will provide a foundation for future athletic excellence and for a physically active population.
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Clubs
As the backbone of the Canadian rowing system, clubs will be affected by changes to regattas, coaching, and equipment as a result of LTAD. In addition, LTAD will provide clubs with valuable guidance in developing successful Learn-to-Row, Junior, Senior, Masters, and Adaptive programs. physical and water literacy developed during the FUNdamentals and Learning to Train stages will make it easier for athletes to learn to row and will affect how Learn-to-Row programs are structured and taught. clubs should consider forming partnerships with schools, recreation centres, and other sports to deliver programs that build water and boat skills during the Learning to Train stage.

cross country skiing, cycling, swimming, and speed skating.They should recruit athletes from sports where the training, racing, and recovery programs support LTAD, and in particular, the development of endurance and strength during the Training to Train and Learning to Compete stages. Coaches should understand and apply principles of growth and development when they recruit athletes. For example,during adolescence, size is an unreliable criterion for recruiting athletes because of the wide variation in rates of maturation.

Regatta System
The regatta calendar and events influence, and in some cases drive, the way rowing programs are structured and run. For LTAD to be effective, it must be supported by a regatta system that reflects the principles on which it is based.A regatta system that supports long-term athlete development might, for example, focus on sculling events (1x, 2x, 4x) at the junior level, with sweep events introduced during the Learning to Compete stage. focus on small boats (1x,2x,2-) at the junior level, with big boat events offered for variety and fun. provide a variety of race experiences for athletes in the Training to Train stage. introduce lightweight events once athletes have stopped growing. be structured to encourage and allow development of general endurance during the Training to Train stage. be structured to recognize that up to and including the Training to Train stage, training and maturation should take precedence over performance. define event categories that, as much as possible, support training and racing based on developmental age. be structured so that all rowers can compete in regattas that match their skill levels and can experience success at some level, whether local, regional, provincial, or national.The regatta system should promote close racing and avoid situations where boats cross the line far apart. It should also provide rowers with challenges and a vision of the possibilities, particularly for those who want to race at the elite level.

Recruitment
LTAD will form the basis of a more systematic, balanced, and informed approach to recruiting athletes. For example, the principles of LTAD suggest that coaches should recruit athletes from sports that have similar physiological demands to rowing such as

Equipment
Encouraging athletes to start rowing at a younger age than is currently the norm and in sculling boats has implications for equipment and boat fleets. Athletes should learn and train in equipment that is appropriate for their size (height, weight, and proportions). Boat fleets should include some equipment that is suitable for smaller, lighter bodies such as smaller hulls and shorter oars. Boats should be rigged appropriately for the size, strength, and proportions of those using them. Boats should give learners the feel of rowing in terms of balance, run, and rhythm. Ideally, children should learn to row in 1xs with a racing hull shape. Children will have a foundation of water sense, balance, and confidence, built during the FUNdamental and Learning to Train stages, that will make it easier for them to learn in tippy boats.
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How to learn to row


There are different approaches to teaching people how to row. Coaches should adapt their approach to fit the emotional, cognitive, mental, and physical development (and temperament) of the athletes they are teaching. The most suitable approach for teaching 13-year-olds will not be the same as for teaching 18year-olds or 40-year-olds. The principles of LTAD have practical implications on how to teach rowing. Specifically, more athletes will learn to row at a younger age than is now typical. In other words, there will be more early-entry athletes. athletes who have developed physical literacy and general boathandling skills during the FUNdamentals and Learning to Train stages will be comfortable and confident around water and boats.They will have a sense of balance in a boat and a sense of how a boat moves. athletes should learn to row in a boat where they can learn motor patterns and balance such as a 1x with a racing hull shape. Coaches and clubs must also consider safety in deciding what boats to use. In general, children are more relaxed, less fearful, and have a shorter attention span than older adolescents and young adults. They learn best when all modes of learning are engaged visual, kinesthetic, and oral. Children need to see, hear, and DO. Children who have a strong foundation of fundamental movement and sport skills, and who are confident and comfortable in boats, will learn to row more easily than those who do not. They will have a basic sense of balance in a boat and of how a boat moves, which will make it easier for them to pick up rowing skills. Compared to older adolescents or adults, they will be relatively unconcerned about flipping, provided the conditions are safe.

Safety is of paramount importance. Rowing clubs and coaches will need to consider carefully how to provide equipment that facilitates learning, such as tippy boats, within a safe environment. Flipping is fine - provided the conditions are safe. Athletes should be proficient scullers before they learn to sweep, and they should learn to row in small boats. For some clubs, this will mean a change from learning to row in 8+s.

When to learn to row


In Canada,many rowers dont start rowing until they are 18 to 20 years old.We do a good job of developing these late-entry athletes. In fact, many Canadian rowers who have won medals at Olympic and world championships started rowing late. However, we can do a better job of recruiting and developing early-entry athletes to ensure optimal development of their aerobic base and strength during the Training to Train stage.This will make us less dependent on other sports to provide the correct training programs during these critical periods of development. Encouraging more athletes to start rowing at 11 to 16 years of age should not preclude athletes from starting when they are older. Coaches need to carefully assess late-entry athletes and provide remedial programs to address any gaps or weaknesses in their development. Early specialization, that is, before 10 to 12 years of age, in a latespecialization sport like rowing is neither necessary nor recommended. It contributes to one-sided, sport-specific development, poor development of fundamental movement skills and basic sport skills, overuse injuries, and early burn-out.

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implementation

his document is the first step in developing LTAD for rowing. It provides an overview of LTAD, defines the principles on which LTAD is based, outlines the framework of the stages and the key aims and elements of each stage, and highlights some of the practical implications for the Canadian rowing system.

In subsequent steps, Rowing Canada Aviron intends to develop and describe in detail the training, racing and recovery programs for the five stages from Training to Train to Training to Win 2. prepare separate supporting documents that will communicate the principles of LTAD and provide specific guidance for coaches,athletes, parents, and clubs. use LTAD to review the existing rowing system, identify gaps and weaknesses in the system and in the development pathway, and develop solutions that will support LTAD.The immediate priorities include a review of the regatta system and coach education.

e recognize that implementing LTAD will require changes to the regatta system, club programs, equipment, and coach education, and that clubs, regatta organizers, schools, and coaches will need support in its implementation. Some of these changes can be made quickly;others will be more gradual.Many of the changes are interdependent.For example,LTAD recommends that athletes learn to scull before learning to sweep, and that they learn in small boats.To implement this recommendation, some clubs will need to change their fleet of boats to include more 1xs, 2x/-s, 4xs.This is expensive and can only be done gradually. In addition, it may require changes in boat storage. It must be coordinated with changes to the regatta system so athletes will have boats that match the events offered. Clubs will also have to consider how this recommendation and the shift in boat fleets will affect safety, program structure and timing, revenue generation, and their relationship with other water-users. LTAD is a work in progress. It will be reviewed and adapted to incorporate new research, empirical evidence, and innovations. Rowing Canada Aviron welcomes and will actively solicit feedback from coaches, club administrators, athletes, and others concerned about and affected by LTAD. However, we also recognize we need to get on with itif LTAD is going to benefit rowers.We want to develop a usable and useful plan that is based on the best available information, and then adapt it as necessary.
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conclusion

TAD is about doing development right. It is about taking a long-term, clear, and systematic approach that focuses on athletes and what they need at all levels.Rowers who benefit from the right training,racing,and support at the right time will have the foundation they need to reach their athletic potential and enjoy rowing throughout their lives. Good preparation is crucial to an athletes success. LTAD is about extending the concept of good preparation to all stages and all aspects of athlete development. LTAD allows all rowers and those who support them to see what they should (and should not) be doing throughout their development. It helps individual athletes to identify the pathway that suits them and their goals. LTAD is a foundation for a rowing system that is successful in terms of both number of participants and the number of medals at the high performance level. It makes sense to invest in a framework that will develop athletes who enjoy rowing, succeed at the elite level, and stay involved in the sport for the long term.

"I was fortunate that throughout my rowing career opportunities came up at the right stage in my development and in the right order, so that I was able to take full advantage of them. This was partly luck. LTAD takes the luck out athlete development, by creating a systematic development pathway based on science and coaches' experience." Jon Beare, former National Team member, Olympian, coach and Vice-President of Athlete Development, Rowing BC

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Glossary of Terms
Adaptation refers to the functional and/or morphological changes in an organism that are induced by a stimulus or a series of stimuli. The general patterns of adaptation are consistent amongst individuals and have been clearly delineated by physiological research. However, the degree of adaptation will depend on an individuals genetic endowment. Ancillary capacities refer to the knowledge and experience base of an athlete. The ancillary capacities include warm-up and cool-down procedures, stretching, nutrition, hydration, rest, recovery, regeneration, mental preparation, and taper and peak. When athletes reach their genetic potential and physiologically cannot improve anymore, they can still improve performance by using the ancillary capacities to full advantage. Chronological age refers to a persons age according to their date of birth. Critical periods of development refers to a stage in the development of a specific capacity when experience or training has an optimal effect on development. Physiologically, these are the periods during which an individuals body is most responsive to particular stimuli. The same training introduced at an earlier or later time would have little or no effect or would even retard later development. Developmental age refers to an individuals stage of development, based on physical, emotional, social, and cognitive criteria. Development refers to the interrelationship between growth and development, in relation to the passage of time. The concept of development includes the social, emotional, intellectual, and motor realms of the child. Fundamental movement (motor) skills refers to the set of movement skills that form the basis for all sports and physical activity. Fundamental sport skills refers to the set of sport skills that form the basis for all sports. Growth and maturation are often used together, sometimes synonymously. However, each refers to specific biological activities. Growth refers to observable, step-by-step, measurable changes in body size, such as height, weight. and percentage of body fat. Maturation refers to qualitative system changes, both structural and functional in nature, in the organisms progress towards maturity. Menarche refers to the onset of the first menstrual cycle. Periodization refers to the structuring of short- and long-term training, competition, and recovery periods to provide optimum performances at the required time or time series. Single Periodization: one preparatory and one competitive period within the year
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Double Periodization: two preparatory and two competitive periods within the year Triple Periodization: three preparatory and three competitive periods within the year Multiple Periodization: competing all year round while maintaining physical and technical skills Peak Height Velocity (PHV) refers to the maximum rate of growth in height. Physical literacy refers to proficiency in the skills required for a large number of team and individual sports. Trainability refers to the genetic endowment of athletes as they respond individually to specific stimuli and adapt to it accordingly. Malina and Bouchard (1991) defined trainability as the responsiveness of developing individuals at different stages of growth and maturation to the training stimulus.

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Selected Bibliography
Alpine Integration Model.Alpine Canada Alpine, High Performance Advisory Committee, 1999 Athletics Canada.Run, Jump, Throw: Reference Guide. p.12. 2004. Diagram adapted from from Scammon, R.E. "The Measurement of the Body Childhood" in Harris et. al, eds. The Measurement of Man. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1930. Balyi, I. Sport system building and long-term athlete development in Canada.The situation and solutions, in Coaches Report, Summer 2001.Vol.8, No.1, pp.25-28. Bar-Or, O. (ed). The Child and the Adolescent Athlete. Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford, UK, 1996. Bloom, B. Developing Talent in Young People. New York: Ballantines, 1985. Canadian Sport for Life. Long-term Athlete Development Resource Paper. Canadian Sport Centres, 2005. Ericsson, K.A. and Charness, N. Expert Performance. Its Structure and Acquisition. American Psychologist,August 1994., pp. 725-747. Malina, R.M. and Bouchard, C. Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics, 1991. Robertson, S. and Way, R: Long-term Athlete Development: A Madein-Canada Model. Coaches Report,Vol.11.No.3, pp. 6-12. Rushall, B. The Growth of Physical Characteristics in Male and Female Children. In Sports Coach,Vol.20,Summer,1998.pp.25 - 27. Sanderson, L. Growth and Development Considerations for the Design of Training Plans for Young Athletes. Ottawa: CAC, SPORTS,Vol.10.No.2.1989. Scammon,R.E. The Measurement of the Body Childhood. In Harris et.al., eds. The Measurement of Man. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1930. SportMap: A Blueprint for Sport Excellence. PacificSport, 2001. Stafford, I. Coaching for Long-Term Athlete Development. The National Coaching Foundation, Coachwise, Leeds, 2005. Tenner, J.M. Growing Up. Scientific American, 1973, 9. Viru, A. Adaptation in Sports Training. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995. 310.p. Viru,A, Loko, J.,Volver,A., Laaneots, L., Karlesom, K., and Viru, M.Age periods of accelerated improvements of muscle strength, power, speed and endurance in age interval 6-18 years. In Biology of Sport, Warsaw,V., 15 (4) 1998, 211-227 pp.

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Appendix 1.

Long-Term Athlete Development Model for Canadians with a Disability


Awareness needed to inform potential athletes, coaches and support personnel

Athlete/Participant

AWARENESS

First Contact/Recruiting FUNdamentals Learning to Train

Officials

Funding

Competition

Coaching
Training to Train Training to Compete Training to Win Retirement/New Involvement

Daily living support

Sport Science/Evaluation

Sport Medicine/Counselling

Environment
Sport Leadership

Accessible Facilities, Equipment and Services

LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Competition/training support partner

High performance athletes and high visibility events create awareness of athletes with disability

Appendix 2.

Sport Canada: Strategic Leadership for Sport


Where athlete development happens
Coaching Volunteering Officiating Administrating Sport Institutes Canadian Sport Centres National Training Centres Universities Colleges

Why sport is supported

Stages of LTAD
ACTIVE FOR LIFE TRAINING TO WIN 2 TRAINING TO WIN TRAINING TO COMPETE LEARNING TO COMPETE TRAINING TO TRAIN LEARNING TO TRAIN FUNdamentals

Improved quality of life

Economic development
Canada Games Provincial Rep. Teams Provincial Training Centres High Performance Clubs

Community safety
Sport Schools Sport Academies

National, Provincial and Local Sports Organizations

Local, Provincial/Territorial and Federal Governments

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Environmental sustainability

Improved population health

Regional Training Centres Provincial Games Age Group Rep. Teams Clubs and Schools Schools Community Centres Clubs and Home

Higher educational standards

Clubs Community Centres Daycare Home

ACTIVE START

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Acknowledgements
This overview of the Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) plan for rowing was produced by a working group that included
Dr. Istvan Balyi National Coaching Institute, PacificSport Victoria and Advanced Training and Performance Ltd. Ian Moss Executive Director, Rowing Canada Aviron Dr.Volker Nolte Head Mens Coach and Assistant Professor, University of Western Ontario Rebecca Orr Domestic Development Officer, Rowing Canada Aviron Terry Paul National Development Coach, Rowing Canada Aviron Alan Roaf High Performance Director, Rowing Canada Aviron Brenda Taylor World and Olympic Champion Carolyn Trono Director of Coach Development, Rowing Canada Aviron

We thank those coaches who contributed their ideas and comments. In particular, thank you to those who participated in an initial workshop in March, 2005, where some of the key rowing-specific ideas were discussed and who subsequently reviewed this overview.
Laryssa Biesenthal, Rowing Canada Aviron Howie Campbell, British Columbia Rick Crawley, British Columbia Carol Love, Ontario Walter Martindale,Alberta Chuck McDiarmid, Manitoba Ian McFarlane, Ontario Siobhan McLaughlin, Saskatchewan Al Morrow, Rowing Canada Aviron Dr.Volker Nolte, Ontario Kim Norris, New Brunswick Rebecca Orr, Rowing Canada Aviron Terry Paul, Rowing Canada Aviron Courtney Pollock, Ontario Craig Pond, British Columbia Gwen Prillo, Sport Canada Anne Rene-Thibault, Quebec Alan Roaf, Rowing Canada Aviron Bob Sawler, Nova Scotia Karol Sauv, Quebec Mike Spracklen, Rowing Canada Aviron Brenda Taylor, British Columbia Lesley Thompson-Willie, Ontario Mike Thompson, Ontario Carolyn Trono, Rowing Canada Aviron

Long-Term Athlete Development Plan for Rowing: An Overview is based on the LTAD model developed by Dr. Istvan Balyi. We thank Dr. Balyi for the guidance, expertise, and experience that he contributed to this overview. We also acknowledge the assistance provided by Richard Way, LTAD Advisor, Canadian Sport Centre, Vancouver. Thank you to Jon Beare and Alison Korn for contributing their thoughts on long-term athlete development and the factors that contributed to their athletic success.
Writer Brenda Taylor Editor Sheila Robertson Translation MATRAgs inc. Design Barbara Moore Photo Credits Volker Nolte (p. 5), Joel Rogers (p. 19), Jackie Skender (p. 6, 11, 20, 23, 24), George Blumel (p. 22), Renate Hodges (p. 11), Jacqueline Sava (p. 15, 21), Mike Wilkinson (p. 7),Thomas E. Butscher (p. 18), Joe Ho (page 21), Rebecca Orr (p. 21), Kristina Molloy (p. 25). Production Co-ordinators Rebecca Orr, Jackie Skender

We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through Sport Canada, a branch of the Department of Canadian Heritage.
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