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BeneIits oI 2012 Olympics to the London and Tourism Industry in London

Abstract
The main purpose oI this research is to know and analyze whether the Olympic 2012 will
beneIit the image oI London as the major tourist destination. By taking the nations that
hosted the Olympics previously and the present marketing standard oI London tourism as
examples I want to IulIil my research work. This study will provide detailed inIormation
on the Olympic Games and the present marketing strategies oI this games which are
taking place in London. By making use oI this study I wish to support London Olympics
Committee that how Iar London hosts these Olympic Games eIIiciently and beneIit the
London tourism.


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1ab|e of Contents
3troducto3 to the research..........................................................................................
1.1 Aim
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Purpose Statement
1.4 Ethical Issues
1.5 Introduction
1.6 Structure
1.7 Background oI the Project

Cha5ter 2


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terature revew...................................................................................................................
2.1 Importance oI Games Ior UK Tourism
2.1 Branding
2.2 Image
2.3 Marketing Strategies
2.3.1 UseIul inIormation about the Games Ior visitors to the UK
2.3.2 InIormation about services
2.3.3 Games speciIic services Ior guests
2.3.4 Business as Usual
2.3.5 Special oIIers
2.3.6 Torch Relays, Test Events and Live Sites
2.3.7 Showing broadcasts oI the Games at bars, restaurants and hotels
2.3.8 Games tickets & hospitality packages
2.4 Structure oI the tourism industry
2.5 Domestic tourism
2.6 Inbound tourism


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2.7 Outbound tourism


2.8 London tourism
2.9 London Tourist Attractions and 2012 Olympics
2.10 Managing Olympic Games by London
2.11 Financial System oI London
Cha5ter 3
Research Methodoog...........................................................................................................
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The research methodology considered
3.3 Qualitative research methodology
3.4 Quantitative research methodology
3.5 The research design: Case study approach
3.6 The Case study chosen
3.7 The data collection methods
3.8 The Primary source oI data
3.9 The secondary source oI inIormation


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3.10 The sample size considered


3.11 Methodology used in the research process
Cha5ter 4
Research A3ass..............................................................................................................
4.1 The importance oI the public support to the Games
4.2 The economic impact oI previous Olympic Games
4.3 The economic beneIit to the UK
4.4 The economic beneIits to retail sectors
4.5 BeneIits to the retailers
4.5.1 OIIicial sponsors
4.5.2 The Non-sponsors
4.6 The additional IootIall
4.7 The increased visibility oI the British brands
4.8 The Iinancial gain
4.9 The golden opportunity Ior the London
4.10 The boost Ior sport


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4.11 The boost Ior the business, jobs and skills


4.12 The creative capital
4.13 Boosting the health and sporting success
4.14 On tourism 2012 games impact in London
4.15 Relationship between tourism and sports:
4.16 Sport tourism deIinition:
4.17 Sport and tourism, a two-way relationship
4.18 Olympic Sport as a Mega-Event
4.19 Relationship between tourism and the games
4.20 The historical review oI the games and Olympic Games
4.21 Games Short Historical Overview
4.21.1 The Ancient Games
4.21.2 The Modern Games
Cha5ter 5
Co3cuso3 Future work a3d 2tato3s....................................................................
5.1 Conclusion


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5.2 Future Work


5.3 Limitations
Cha5ter 6
Refere3ces
A55e3d








Cha5ter 1
3troducto3 to the research
1.1 A2


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The main aim oI this research is to discover the way through which London can succeed in
hosting the Olympics 2012 by taking some examples in to consideration.
1.2 bjectves
The main objectives oI this research is
O To analyze the inIormation regarding the Olympics Games
O To analyze the inIormation regarding the London Olympic games
O To analyze and evaluate the achievements and Iailures oI the Olympic Host countries
O To analyze the inIormation on the tourism industry oI UK
O To provide the inIormation on how the tourism industry is going to be beneIited Irom the
2012 Olympic and Games
1.3 Pur5ose State2e3t
The reason Ior choosing this topic is that I am interested in Olympic Games. And also as I am
residing in London which is about to host the Olympic Games this time, I have chosen this
research work.
The publicity which is been given to London Olympics made me to do this research work. The
main intention oI this dissertation is to beneIit many people in London through London Olympic
Committee. By conducting this research i want to provide the clear overview on the Olympic
Games and the London Olympic Games.


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1.4 Ethca ssues


Within the process oI completing my research process iI there is any necessity oI authentication
process Ior gathering the data, i will Iollow that method without abusing the rules and i will
Iollow the required ethics Ior completing my research in an honest and reliable manner. While
interviewing the participants i will clearly explain the research problem to them without hurting
them and will complete my research work in a successIul manner. AIter completing this research
i will provide my valuable views and ideas Ior the Iuture work without any limitations.
1.5 3troducto3
Olympic Games is the international multi-sport event which is divided in to two events such as
summer sporting event as well as winter sporting event. Actually Olympics are Iirstly started in
the city called Olympia which is in Greece Country and this event is held Ior every Iour years.
The summer Olympics will host nearly 26 diIIerent kinds oI sports, where as winter games will
host seven diIIerent sports. Each and every sport may contain diIIerent categories which will
change year by year. Several participants Irom diIIerent countries will participate in this
auspicious event. Participating in such a great event is one oI the main dream destinations Ior
many athletes all over the world. Many countries are trying to stand in the race in order to host
the Olympics Games in their home country. |1||runtheplanet. (2010)|.
This time London which belongs to United Kingdom has been permitted to host the Olympics
Games in the year 2012.


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Hosting the special events such as Olympics are the activities which will help in improving or
developing the growth oI tourism as well as the activeness oI the city with in the country which
is hosting the games. The aims and aspects oI the tourism is been inIluenced by means oI the
political aims. Previously it is been proved that a sport as well as tourism helps in getting closer
with the people who belongs to diIIerent destinations as well as diIIerent cultures. The main aim
oI the earlier games is to build a cultural unity with in the people oI diIIerent countries. London
won the chance oI hosting this event with in the competition with many other countries.
This thesis will discover the ways and guidelines Ior the London Olympics committee in order to
learn and study the achievements as well as the Iailures Irom the previous Olympic Games
hosting countries. The main question is that whether the London can turn in to City oI the
World` as well as will the Olympics help and Iacilitate London in order to reach their goal. The
committees were Iounded in order to know the values oI accommodation, entrance to the
disabled visitors as well as to conIorm and test the eIIiciency oI the workers or guides and to
train them how to take care oI the visitors.
It is been mentioned that iI the activities oI Olympics gets succeed then there may be 25
growth in tourism. The previous countries which have hosted Olympic Games got beneIicial
growth in their tourism even beIore starting the games as well as aIter Iinishing the games.
From the time when the historic games in Athens, in the previous days it selI the Olympic Games
are giving proIits economically. The Los Angles Olympics are the Iirst games who are private in
making proIits oI $215 million. Since 1986 this is the only game which did not utilized public
money. The 1984 games were sold out to many corporate donors. The LAOOC- Los Angeles


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Olympics Organising Committee has sold out the games to Coca Cola as well as many other
thirty organizations. The proIits have been gained more than the expected income by selling the
games to the companies.
Several countries are trying to host Olympics in their country because oI the income generated
by the Olympic Games. Other than Iinancial resources the strong image is been represented to
the host country with in the world. A Iree media coverage to the host country`s tourism is been
provided because Olympics stands as an image maker Ior the host country.
1.6 Structure
Structure
The main parts in this research work contain six chapters. This research contains the inIormation
on the total research such as considering the main concept oI the research in the data, the
research consists oI and a detailed explanation regarding the method used. The research provides
the inIormation on the literature review which will give the overall inIormation on the work. The
concepts and ideas are been analyzed eIIiciently. This methodology will provide the list oI
strengths as well as limitations oI the process oI hosting the Olympics. The achievements as well
as the Iailures oI the past hosts are been analyzed in order to know the new key concepts which
will help London to become the greatest city with in the world. The concepts and methods which
would be beneIit Ior London regarding Olympic Games will be included in this research.
1.7 Backgrou3d of the Project


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The main theme oI this project contains the inIormation oI Olympic Games which are going to
be hosted in London in 2012. In order to IulIil this research work some articles and journals are
taken in to consideration and the key background oI this study is justiIied.














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Cha5ter 2
terature revew
2.1 25orta3ce of Ga2es for UK Tours2
'isitBritain is grabbing the chances which are oIIered by means oI the Games in order to handle
the greatest value in support Ior visitor economy as well as to enlarge the Britain brand towards
latest as well as existing audiences or viewers all over the world by working with the appropriate
investing broadcasters. The T' audience Ior the Beijing Games are nearly 4.5 billion all over the
world, as well as there are many unoIIicial media partners who are not wrapping the sport such
as local, national as well as global sponsors and even the organizers or coordinators oI wider
Olympics as well as Paralympics events. UK is making use oI several global networks in order to
help tourism legacy oI it through Games to improve the value and signiIicance to the outcomes
or results oI Cultural Olympiad, Olympic Torch Relay, Live sites as well as Pre-game training
camps or sites.


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By the survey or research done by OxIord Economics in the 2007 speciIied that a tourism share
by hosting the Games will be an extra 2.1 billion in the revenues Ior more than Iive years
Iollow oI the Games.
The main purpose oI the literature review is that it will explain the research concepts related to
the research work. The main purpose oI this research work is to know how the Olympics 2012
will beneIit London`s image as the major destination. This research mainly Iocuses on the
sporting events hosted by diIIerent countries. This literature review contains three separate
categories such as branding, image and marketing.
2.1 Bra3d3g
Brand is the essential Iundamental to the success. For example while discussion about the brands
mainly people consider some brands like Coca Cola, Apple, ILEA as well as Nokia etc. In order
to get succeeded with in the companies the brands play a major role in them. Olympics itselI
reIers to a brand. Olympics is the main signiIicant single which is compressed oI diIIerent types
oI categories oI games with in it. The logo which is prepared Ior London 2012 Olympics it selI
states that it is to take London Iorward which is not a logo but a brand. The main problem which
arises in the branding is that the total message which is related to the brand cannot be displayed
and described. The logo oI London Olympics is been designed to connect and engage with the
young people. The 2012 Olympics is not only a brand but to engage the people in to sports.
In order to host the London 2012 Olympic Games as well as Paralympic Games, the LOCOG-
London Organizing Committee oI the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Limited is the


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organization which is responsible (In charge) Ior it. It is even responsible to protect Olympic as
well as Paralympic brands with in United Kingdom. In order to host and organize the games with
in UK the overall budget oI 2 billion is been produced by the private sources. The important
amount oI the budget is been elevated by the sponsorship Iunding as well as the certiIied
programmers like 'Protected Marks to the oIIicial and certiIied sponsors as well as certiIiers by
permitting them with the special rights on the way to be connected and associated with the
London 2012.
2.2 2age
Image plays a major role in the brand projects. The research study based on the destination
imaging is comparatively a modern calculation towards the Iield related to the tourism research.
Many studies proved that the tourist behaviour is been controlled and authorized by destination
image. For example the destinations which are having strong positive images are probably taken
in to consideration with in the travel decision process. The inIormation which is oIIered to the
customers will include the promotional literature such as travel brochures, the opinion oI others
such as Iamily, Iriends as well as travel agent and Iinally the general media which includes
newspapers, magazines, books, television, movies and many more. The Olympics committee is
trying to make use oI these resources in order to promote the Olympic Games.
There are some key principles Ior the business with in the tourism sector.


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O The inIormation is been provided to the tourism industry in order to inIorm their
customers as well as clients regarding the Games hosted as well as the inIormation about
the services which are provided to the customers by the tourism department.
O The position oI the Games must be in the process without suggestions and proves that the
business is not associated with the Games.
O The business should not make use oI the London 2012 Protected marks.
O The business should not give any publicity, promotions, advertisements, products, special
oIIer, websites or making use oI any other promotional media.
O The promotion oI business can be done by making use oI some words such as summer oI
2012` which will not produce any association with in the Games.
O It is acceptable to make promotional use oI the words summer oI 2012`, in ways which
do not create an association with the Games.
These key principles are applicable to the torch relays which are related to Olympic as well
as Paralympic Games, oIIicial Test events, Love sites oI London 2012 and even the other
authorized game activities.
2.3 Market3g Strateges
2.3.1 Usefu 3for2ato3 about the Ga2es for vstors to the UK
The eIIicient inIormation is been provided to the visitors who are trying to come to UK in 2012
in order to watch Olympic Games.
2.3.2 3for2ato3 about servces


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The audience oI the Games may relay on the statements given by the corporate companies
involved in the marketing oI Olympic Games.
2.3.3 Ga2es s5ecfc servces for guests
The visitors who are visiting to UK Ior Olympic Games are been provided with the inIormation
related to accommodation, transportation and other eIIicient services.
2.3.4 Bus3ess as Usua
The businesses are stating that there operations are done as usual, as the business oIIer is not
aIIected by conducting the games. Advance bookings are available Ior the Games.
2.3.5 S5eca offers
Special oIIers are not much eIIicient in marketing. The special oIIers are not be considered as
promotional schemes in providing the audience what they required.
2.3.6 Torch Reas Test Eve3ts a3d ve Stes
The communities all around UK should support and engage them selves in celebrating these
kinds oI activities such as torch relays, test events as well as live sites. On these special occasion
the business packages such as tourism, travel as well as hospitality services are been included.
The prospective customers are been inIormed with the services available.
2.3.7 Show3g broadcasts of the Ga2es at bars restaura3ts a3d hotes


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The Games can be shown in live on the T' screens in the organizations such as bars, hotels
restaurants etc Ior the customers. The authorized poster is been generated in Iront oI the games
which can be displayed next to the premises.
2.3.8 Ga2es tckets & hos5tat 5ackages
The tickets Ior the Olympic Games are on sale in the direction oI the common public in 2011.
The tickets are oIIered to buy Irom the London 2012 as well as the authorized ticket resale
agents who are selected by the LOCOG or else by the local or national Olympic Committee as
well as the Paralympic Committee. Even through the oIIicial game partners the tickets are
available.
2.4 Structure of the tours2 3dustr
The person who will be travelling Irom one location to the other desired location is considered as
the activity oI him oI the tourism industry. The tour may be outside places in the outside
environments on various uses such as the Iree holidays, the business tours, and the educational
tours which may be not more than one year.
The persons who will be visiting the outdoor places Irom their own places Ior the various types
oI the reasons are generally considered as the tourists. In the tourism there are three diIIerent
types namely the domestic tourism, inbound tourism as well as the outbound tourism.
2.5 Do2estc tours2


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The tourism in which the individuals will be taking the holidays or the breaks Ior the purpose oI
the day trips as well as the regular trips within the own country is considered as the domestic
tourism.
2.6 3bou3d tours2
The people will be going to the other country Ior their own reasons such as the business work or
the holiday trip and this process is called as the inbound tourism which is also reIerred as the
international tourism.
2.7 utbou3d tours2
The individuals who will be trip to the other international countries Irom their own country Ior
the purpose oI the holiday trips or the business tours etc are considered as the outbound tourism.
By many tourist operators and the travel service agents the various types oI the tourism services
are provided to the tourists.

The overview oI the travel and the tourism industry is categorized by this Iigure.


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2.8 o3do3 tours2


The London is having various Ieatures that are present in the travel and the tourism industry like
the tour operators who will be planning the total tourism project, such as the transportation
Iacility that is used to move the people Irom one place to the other place so that they can visit
many places or the locations. This process will also involves the transport agents who will be
managing the travelling costs and the Ieatures such as the carrying Iacility in various ways like
the buses, rails, ships and planes. This will also include some oI the aspects like the housing
Iacilities and the Iood cookery. The main and the important Ieature oI the tourism industry is the
providing the required inIormation Ior the tourist along with the guiding services by the usage oI
the travelling guides so that they can give the inIormation that is needed Ior them in the locations
they were travelling.

2.9 o3do3 Tourst Attracto3s a3d 2012 25cs
Many oI the attractions are present in the city oI London to present to the tourists who will be
coming Ior the tour. Every year nearly 3.5 million tourists will be visiting the London. Some oI
the important locations that can be seen in the London are the Tower Bridge, Piccadilly Circus,
Big Ben, Westminster Abbey and St. Paul`s Cathedral. One oI the highest attractions oI the
London is the London Eye the 135 meter high observation giant wheel. In the world itselI it is
the highest giant wheel that is present on the south bank. From this giant wheel the 25 miles oI


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the area can be covered or viewed by the people. In addition to all these the coming attraction Ior
the London is the London Olympics 2011.
For the last Iew years the London is the hosting international sports. The Olympic Games have
been hosted in London in 1948. London is hosting the particular game called as the tennis every
year at the Iantastic village called as the Wimbledon among all the popular international games.
The games that have been played between the William sisters, Serena and 'enus is the game that
has given the enjoyment and the thrilling to the game lovers. Wyne Rooney and Ioot ball lion
David Beckham are the great players who have come Irom the London.
2.10 Ma3ag3g 25c Ga2es b o3do3
The managing oI the big events is done by London very positively and also has good results on
them. The biggest responsibility oI the London is the Olympics 2012 because the entire world is
watching the London. For the London this means a lot to them. The entire world population
along with the citizens oI the London is wishing a lot. A great responsibility is present on the
London Olympics Managing committee Ior the planning oI the event, constructing the structure,
implementing all the inIrastructure development and the completion oI the project in the mean
time. In order to overcome the recession they have worked a lot and soon the new Iace oI the
London can be seen. In the London now there various jobs that are present temporarily and the
structure they are building can be used in other ways or it can be placed in the desired place. In
London there is more extent to gain the more jobs in the Iuture by all these means.
2.11 F3a3ca Sste2 of o3do3


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The London`s Iinancial system can be enhanced by this opportunity to the large extent. From all
over the world the game lovers may be attracted by this event. The other side oI the coin in the
Iinancial matter is the money spent on the shopping, transportation, lodging, and on the
restaurants by the visitors. For this purpose the London city`s water sources are recharged and
large parkland is also being developed. A lot oI visitors will be oIIered to the city oI the London
as the visitor`s paradise. A beautiIul environment would be provided by this Olympics event so
that the London`s multicultural people may be get together by maintaining the Iriendly nature.
Only by the single language everyone can be easily united. The native language oI the
In the support oI the London Olympics the media and the social sites will be playing the major
role. On the twitter games every one will like to known about the games and by enjoying the
videos on the You Tube. It is expected that 8 million tickets will be sold Ior the Olympic Games
and 5 million tickets Ior the Paralympics. From the year 2011 only the tickets and the entry
passes will be available. The updates oI the ticketing schedule have been tracked by the game
lovers. The tickets Ior the Olympics 2011 will be available Ior the sale Irom the march 2011.
During the period oI the London Olympic 2012 there will be a lot oI Iun and entertainment. This
Olympic 2012 will be perIectly the major tourist attraction in the London.




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Cha5ter 3
Research Methodoog
3.1 3troducto3
According to (JenniIer Rowley,2002) the complete examination and analysis oI the research
methodology is been taken into consideration and it is been illustrated in detail in this particular
chapter. The comprehensive analysis is been considered as the major source Ior the research
methodology aspect. The authentic methodology approach is been considered Irom the
quantitative as well as the qualitative research methods. The speciIic aspects related to the
research methodology are been considered and are explained in detail. The approach related to
the research design is been selected to chose the primary source oI data as well as the secondary
source oI data along with the sample size considered.
3.2 The research 2ethodoog co3sdered


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The research methodology is the system which is having the diIIerent varieties as well as the
principles that are been utilized Ior the purpose oI getting the exact solution to the research
problem which will take place by using the particular aspects. The research methodology process
will include two diIIerent types oI the research methods such as the quantitative research method
as well as the qualitative research method. Depending on the diIIerent types oI the Iactors the
types oI the research methods are been taken into consideration to get the solution to the research
problem. The signiIicant and genuine data is been taken into consideration and it is been
analyzed according to the research requirements.










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Quantitative Research
Methodology
Qualitative Research
Methodology
Articles

Case studies Book reviews
and web
Interviews and
Surveys
Questionnaires
and respondents
Research Methodology


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This Iigure will speciIy the diIIerent types oI the research methods involved within this research
process.


3.3 Quatatve research 2ethodoog
Trochim, (2002) stated that the qualitative research methodology is the process which will
include the diIIerent types oI aspects related to the human behavior as well as the diIIerent types
oI the major reasons which are aIter that speciIic behavior included within the research process.
The detailed analysis on the problems is been taken into consideration and the research process
related to the human behavior is been totally speciIied within this research method and this
particular qualitative research method is been utilized in many Iields such as the academic
discipline, the social studies as well as the common types oI the research problems that will take
place in the market. By making use oI this qualitative research methodology the diIIerent types
oI the diIIicult questions such as why and how could be clearly answered and the decision
making process will play the vital role in this speciIic research method. The actual purpose oI the
Impact oI London 2012 Olympic Games on
London City, growth oI London Tourism
industry beIore and aIter Olympics

st tr nd tr rd tr th tr
Last
West
North
Survey conducted within UK and questionnaire
related to the relationship between the Tourism
Industry and Olympic Games


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qualitative research method is to collect the signiIicant inIormation Irom the individuals who are
included in the research process as the participants. In this research process it is better to choose
the small sample size than that oI the large sample size. The critical non numerical data is been
utilized within this qualitative research method which will not include the charts and the graphs
and the entire research analysis is based on the original psychological observations as well as the
conclusions.
3.4 Qua3ttatve research 2ethodoog
The quantitative research method will include the diIIerent types oI the data collection methods
and it is totally a theory based approach. The quantitative research method will involve the
empirical investigation oI the diIIerent types oI the properties as well as the events that will take
place in the research process which is having the association among the diIIerent types oI the
aspects related to the quantitative research method. The measurement as well as the comparison
oI the diIIerent types oI the values along with the resulting values are been utilized in this
research process which is considered as the signiIicant aspect in the entire research process. By
making use oI this research method some oI the critical questions like Where, what as well as
Why could be answered and this methodology will include the diIIerent types oI the Iields such
as the psychology, the economics, anthropology, social sciences as well as the diIIerent types oI
the research processes. The speciIic type oI the case study is been utilized within this quantitative
research methodology in which the general conclusions as well as the hypothesis are been
gathered Irom this method. II, the list oI the hypothesis or else the approaches are been
considered in this process then the quantitative research method could be utilized to imagine and


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identiIy the genuine hypothesis which can be used to solve the research problems. In this
research method the numerical measurements are been utilized which are in the Iorm oI the
graphs as well as the charts and this speciIic research methodology could even be used to solve
the big research problems and Ior this reason there is a necessity oI the large sample size. This
selected sample size is been evaluated by using the empirical investigation as well as the
resulting solutions are been analyzed which will give the required solution to the research
problem. The case study can be considered as one oI the best example to this quantitative
research method.
3.5 The research desg3 Case stud a55roach
According to (D 'ermeulen, 2009) the research design is the process in which the research
questions are been transIerred in to the testing process. In general there are diIIerent types oI the
research designs but the appropriate research design is been taken into consideration depending
on the type oI the research problem. The research design is been divided into two diIIerent types
such as the Iixed research design as well as the Ilexible research design. The Iixed research
design is been Iixed initially beIore the original data collection methods which are to be
established in the research process. The Iixed research design is totally a theory based approach
and Ior this reason it is not such easy to recognize or estimate the mathematical variables as well
as the methods. The actual data which is to be gathered will be Iixed initially beIore
implementing the diIIerent types oI the data collection methods in the research process. There
are diIIerent types oI choices available Ior the data collection methods within this Iixed research
design type and the actual Iindings will be totally diIIerent Irom the research design. The


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variable that exists in the Ilexible research design approach is entirely diIIerent Irom the original
imaginations and Ior this reason there is a necessity oI the Ilexibility process in order to select
the variables related to the research. Generally there are two diIIerent types oI the existing
research design types such as the experimental research type and the non-experimental research
type. The speciIic research design is been selected depending upon the type oI the research
problem within the research process. The experimental research design is more useIul and well
suited Ior the diIIerent types oI the projects that will include the research analysis and the sample
size is high Ior this research type. Whereas, in the non-experimental research design the sample
size is to less and the general observations along with the human behavior views are been taken
into consideration. The experimental research design is best suited Ior the quantitative research
method and the non-experimental research design is more suitable to the qualitative research
method.
3.6 The Case stud chose3
According to (JenniIer Rowley, 2002) the case study is considered as one oI the best method to
gather the essential inIormation related to the research work. By making use oI this case study
approach the appropriate solution to the research problem can be Iound. The participants who are
involved in the research process are been interviewed and the main aim oI the case study is to
give the proper solution to the research problem. In general there are more number oI beneIits by
using the case study approach and signiIicant beneIit is that the inIormation which is been
gathered by using this source is true and correct and it is even more trustworthy when compared
with the inIormation Irom the other diIIerent types oI the data sources. In order to get the good


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solution to the research problem the case study approach can be considered as the best method
because the solution Ior the research problem is always associated with the case studies. While
selecting the particular case studies there is a necessity oI having the minimum knowledge and
idea on the case studies which are taken into consideration and they should have the simple and
general eIIort and should provide the potential solution to the problem that has taken place in the
research process and then this case study can be considered as one oI the important and best
source Ior the primary source oI inIormation. Generally the case study is oI diIIerent types such
as the individual case study, company or organization case study but the actual case study is been
selected depending on the research problem and the inIormation gathered will be oI best quality
and it is even the direct data which will give the general observations as well as the Iindings in
the research process. The main aim oI this research is to know whether the London city is going
to be beneIited by London 2012 Olympic Games or not. In this research process the diIIerent
types oI the case studies are been taken into consideration and are analyzed according to the
research requirements.
3.7 The data coecto3 2ethods
According to (Sasha Hurrell, 2004)The data collection process is considered as one oI the
signiIicant step and aspect within the entire research methodology process which will play the
signiIicant role within the process oI analyzing and evaluating the important Iindings Ior the
research. It will even veriIy the data which is been gathered and then it will even identiIy the
Iindings towards the literature. Generally there are two diIIerent types oI the existing data
collection methods such as the primary source oI the data as well as the secondary source oI data.


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The process Ior gathering the inIormation oI the primary source oI data as well as the secondary
source oI data is been explained in detail as Iollows:
3.8 The Pr2ar source of data
The primary source oI the data is been used as one oI the major data collection method which is
been established towards the research methodology. Generally the primary source oI the
inIormation is been considered as the original as well as the true inIormation than that oI the
other inIormation sources. It is already been clearly explained in the previous sections that the
case study approach is the best method and the diIIerent types oI the individuals included in the
research are been taken into consideration. Basically the primary source oI the inIormation in the
research process is been collected Irom the diIIerent types oI the events such as the interviews,
the regular discussions, the group meeting as well as the semi structured interviews. The speciIic
questionnaires are been prepared which will include the diIIerent types oI the questions related to
the research problem and the diIIerent types oI the individuals are included in the process as the
participants and they are asked with the questions related to the research topic. The views as well
as the ideas which are been provided by the respondents involved in the interviews and the semi
structured interviews is been considered as the key inIormation in the entire research process.
The inIormation which is been gathered by using this source is very true and genuine and it is
considered as the key inIormation because it is the direct inIormation Ior the research. (Sasha
Hurrell, 2004)
3.9 The seco3dar source of 3for2ato3


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There is a necessity oI the secondary source oI the inIormation that is needed to continue the
research process and the Iindings Irom this research are been compared with the primary source
oI inIormation. Generally the secondary source oI the inIormation is been gathered Irom the
diIIerent types oI the data sources such as the articles, journals as well as the websites which are
already been reviewed and published by the previous scholars(Sasha Hurrell, 2004).
3.10 The sa25e se co3sdered
It is already been discussed that the quantitative research method and the qualitative research
methods are been used to complete this research process in a reliable manner. The individual
participants who are included in the research is been discussed above. The London Olympic
Committee is included along with the two to three retail sellers in London and even the inbound
and the outbound tourists are even included in the process. The maximum sample size is 14 and
there is the non-zero probability to interview or question the participants in order to get the
essential inIormation Ior the research process.
3.11 Methodoog used 3 the research 5rocess
This research study collected the signiIicant, essential and logical reIerences which are
happening in the Olympics. Generally based on these reIerences the basics and Iundamentals are
been compared and diIIerentiated to the Olympics, especially concentrating on London 2012
Olympics. This methodology will provide the list oI strengths as well as limitations oI the
process oI hosting the Olympics. This methodology will make use oI only the secondary research
in order to review the case studies based on the past destinations which hosted the Olympics. The


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quantitative as well as the qualitative research methods are been used in order to complete the
research process. By using the quantitative research method the diIIerent types oI the articles,
case studies as well as the we documents are been taken into consideration and are analyzed
according to the research requirements. By using the qualitative research method the interview is
been conducted within UK and two questionnaires are been prepared which will include the
entire questions related to the Olympic Games and the participants are asked with some
questions and the answers provided by them is considered and analyzed. The questionnaires are
been included at the end oI the research.









Cha5ter 4


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Research A3ass
In general nearly ten billion pounds are going to be spent in order to host the Olympic and
Paralympic Games in London in the year 2012. There are huge expectations that the London
2012 Olympics and Paralympic games are going to beneIit their country in the economical
standards as well as helping London to become one oI the important tourism city in the world.
4.1 The 25orta3ce of the 5ubc su55ort to the Ga2es
The individuals will play the major role within the success oI the project or the business. Without
the participation oI the individuals there is no possibility to continue any aspect. The emotions
and the opinions oI the public in UK are the most important aspects which will give more
beneIits to the retailers in that country because most oI the proIits are based on the local people
or visitors than that oI the Ioreign visitors. The local customers are aware oI the total inIormation
that will spend more money in watching the Sports events such as Olympic Games. The local
people are showing more interest in buying the products related to the games such as the Ilags, t-
shirts, the hats, drinks, Iood etc. For this reason most oI the retailers within UK are trying to oIIer
diIIerent types oI products related to the games in order to sale their products and get proIits. In
order to promote their brand image the retailers should give more importance to the home
customers than to the Ioreign customers. Because oI the individual demand and the public
support London has got a chance oI hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Most oI the
youngsters as well as the mid age individuals has provided their support and raised their voice
that the Olympic games should be held in their country. The retailers should concentrate more on
these individuals who are more interested in games so that they can easily sale their products.


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4.2 The eco3o2c 25act of 5revous 25c Ga2es


The earlier history already proved that the organizers oI the Olympic Games are not beneIited all
the time. The increase within the demand oI games is always leading to the growth and
development in the economy by hosting the Olympic Games.
O Los Angles 1984- $2.3bn
O Seoul Olympics 1988 $1.6bn
O Barcelona1992 $30m
O Atlanta 1996 $5.1bn
O Sydney 2000 $4.7bn
O Athens 2004 $13.05bn
O Beijing 2008 $9.23 bn
4.3 The eco3o2c be3eft to the UK
The UK is expected to obtain the biggest economic impact oI the London 2012. During the
Olympics time the total proIit is expected to be nearly 3,610m. Among all the other industries
the construction industry is going to be more beneIicial which is expected to receive nearly
500m. The broader UK is expected to receive nearly 1,067m. The London city is expected to
receive 925m. The donation which is received Irom the Olympic Games is expected to be
nearly 1,613m to the London and 622m to all the other places in UK. In general the London is


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going to be beneIited nearly with the three quarters oI the entire economic impact oI the Olympic
Games the quarter value id oI nearly 2bn which will beneIit the other locations in UK. The
approximate gain Ior each and every individual in London is 787 and in the other locations the
gain Ior each individual is 36.
4.4 The eco3o2c be3efts to reta sectors
The retail sector oI the UK is going to be the other beneIiciary when compared with the other
sectors. Within the retail sector the hospitality industries such as hotels and restaurants are going
to be more beneIited than the others in the retail sector. The hotels and restaurants are expected
to gain nearly 371m among this halI oI the proIit goes to London and the other halI is Ior the
other locations within UK. In addition the restaurants are expected to receive 72 among the
speciIied proIits because most oI the visitors or customers are going to spend nearly 232m in
bars.
Along with the hospitality industries the other sectors such as the Iinancial sectors, the transport
as well as the tourism markets are even expected to gain more and more extensive beneIits and
proIits which will improve their economical standards. All these activities have gained more
importance because oI the visitor interest in watching the Olympic Games lively |6|.
4.5 Be3efts to the retaers
4.5.1 ffca s5o3sors
The oIIicial sponsors are the important beneIiciaries oI the London 2012 Olympic Games. The
retail sector will include the oIIicial sponsors such as the British Airways, the McDonald`s, Coca


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Cola, the Samsung, the Panasonic, the 'isa, Adidas, the Lloyds TSB, the BP, Thomas Cook and
the Holiday INN as well as the Cadbury etc. These are the most important oIIicial sponsor
companies who invested multi million pounds within the Olympic Games marketing and even
they are expected to get more beneIits than that oI the spent money. Some oI the other retailers
could even be beneIited with the rapid potential increase within the interest oI the groups which
are starting Irom the active and reactive situation related to the uncertainty oI the customers. A
research which is conducted by the Winter Olympics in Calgary 1998 concluded that the oIIicial
sponsors are not the actual sponsors to the games. Because oI the availability oI the more number
oI products it is creating the conIusion to the customers that which product is worthy and which
product can be used. Along with the marketing and advertising the products the companies
should even try to create the special type oI awareness to the customers on their products which
will help them in understanding the product exactly and iI the customers are out oI conIusion
then they will be able to but the products so that it will give beneIits to the sponsored companies
|6|.
4.5.2 The No3s5o3sors
The Pro2oto3 restrcto3s
All the retailers within the country are not considered to be the sponsors oI the games. Most oI
the non sponsors are having many restrictions in marketing their products in the Olympic Games.
The non-sponsors should not make use oI the Logos or texts related to the Olympic Games iI
they use them they will be penalized legally. The oIIicial names, the phrases, the logos and the
designs as well as the trade marks which are related to the Olympics are been secured with


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diIIerent types oI laws. The Olympic trade marks will include the derivatives, the symbols like
the Olympic rings along the logo oI 2012 as well as the mottos that belong to the IOC and the
IPC.
In addition the London Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Act 2006 is going to protect the
establishment oI the uncertiIied correlation among the individuals as well as the goods and
services. The utilization oI the Olympic symbol within the news letters oI the companies or
organizations and the customer statements is even illegal and iI any one makes use oI these
symbols they will legally penalized and punished. These particular restrictions have reduced the
capability oI the retailers in order to make the proIits Irom the Olympic Games. These
restrictions will include some oI the phrases like the Olympic discounts, supporting the London
games, celebrating London in 2012, backing the 2012 games, win tickets to Olympic Games, the
summer 2012, going Ior the gold in 2012 are strictly restricted and iI any retailer uses the content
Irom the above texts will be typically punished. Along with these phrases the expressions, the
words or the images related to the Olympic Games is even restricted. The best example Ior this is
the image which contains the runner with the torch in his hand with the text lightning Ilame oI
the Olympic Games |6|.
4.6 The addto3a footfa
Even though there are many restrictions in branding the products but the retailers are even
capable oI getting more beneIits Irom the London 2012 Olympics. According to the research
agency oI the OxIord economics there are nearly 908,000 visitors who are coming Ior the
purpose oI watching the Olympic Games in London in the year 2012. The expected visitors Irom


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domestic location are nearly Five hundred and eighty-six thousand, whereas the expected visitors
Irom the overseas countries are 322,000. This estimation is just within the period oI ongoing
game period. Along with all these additional individuals the Londoners are requested and
supported to participate in the outdoor events such as the Iree concerts as well as the screening
stations.
The other beneIiciaries Irom the London 2012 Olympic Games are the travel terminals such as
the Gatwick, the Heathrow as well as St Pancras because the initial step Ior the entry into the UK
is the transportation. The retailers who are in and around the Olympic Park will even be
beneIited. Nearly two hundred and Iorty thousand people are expected to travel Irom the
StratIord station per each hour. In the StratIord the WestIield is trying to open the new shopping
centre in order to correlate with the inauguration oI the London 2012 with the capacity oI nearly
three hundred stores in it |6|.
4.7 The 3creased vsbt of the Brtsh bra3ds
In general approximately 5 billion oI people are expected to watch the Olympic Games in
London2012 all over the world. According to Nielsen survey, 4.7 billion people have watched
the Beijing Olympics; 3.9 billion people have watched the Athens Olympics as well as 3.6
billion people have watched Sydney Olympics. These levels oI international coverage have
happened to be the important advantage to the British retail brands in abroad countries. II each
and every aspect in the Olympics goes right then the Britain will happened to be the major
location within the world. II the British retailers Iollow particular strategies in marketing and


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selling their products then they can make use oI this Olympic Games in order to get more and
more beneIits within the speciIic businesses |6|.
4.8 The f3a3ca ga3
The London 2012 Olympic Games is one oI the huge opportunity and chance to the UK retail
brands particularly to the retailers in London. The millions oI visitors are expected to visit
London Ior watching the games and nearly millions oI the visitors are even expected to visit
London beIore and aIter the games. Generally Iive billion oI people are expected to watch the
Olympic Game in London 2012 which is going to improve the economy oI the country with
nearly billions oI pounds in the Iorm oI beneIits and proIits. There is a huge support Irom the
public to the London Olympics 2012, but the restrictions are reducing the proIits to the non-
sponsor retailers, directly or indirectly the entire retailers oI the UK are going to be beneIited
with more proIits within the time oI Olympic Games |6|.
4.9 The gode3 o55ortu3t for the o3do3
Hosting the Olympic Games as well as the Paralympic Games in the year 2012 is one oI the
biggest opportunity to London which is going to make the positive changes within the massive
scale. Hosting the games will not only add the sporting tradition to the country but it will even
develop the communities and will play the major role in boosting the economy oI the country
which will even leads to the celebrations within the diversity oI the capital. This is one oI the
huge and chance to the London to speciIy its particulars along with its specialities to the world


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which will generate more number oI the proIits Ior each and every individual residing in that
particular location |6|.
4.10 The boost for s5ort
The London 2012 Games are Iastening the process oI supply oI the world class sports
inIrastructure Ior the United Kingdom and especially London. For instance aIter the completion
oI the Olympic Games the stadiums which are constructed Ior the purpose oI the athletics, the
aquatics centre, the velodrome, the hockey centre, the canoe slalom will be available to the home
athletes in order to make use oI them Ior their training purposes. The UK games are happened to
produce the extraordinary levels oI the interest starting Irom the business as well as the local
authorities which are capable oI turning the Iuture channels Ior the purpose oI the Iunding to the
sport events at all particular levels. By learning Irom the previous experience oI the Olympic
Games hosted countries there is a possibility to develop the Iunding to the best and selected
athletes within the speciIic year. Hosting the diIIerent types oI the teams beIore the start oI the
games will even work as the method oI improving as well as renovating the current Iacilities
related to the sports in UK |6|.
4.11 The boost for the bus3ess jobs a3d sks
Each and every sector within the economy will be beneIited with the hosting oI the London 2012
Olympic Games. In general several numbers oI the small and large sixed companies are
requested to support the games in the sense oI constructing the stadium, the manuIacturing, the
cooking Iacilities, goods and product services, the hospitality services which will create the value


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to the procurement opportunities. From the Sydney Olympics status it is expected to be nearly
55000 oI the individuals will be employed with the works.
The tourism industry oI the London is going to get more and more beneIits not only at the time
oI hosting the games but in and aIter the game period. The 2012 London games is even going to
oIIer the new learning aspects Ior the purpose oI the Londoners in improving and developing
their skills in each and every aspect. There is a necessity oI nearly 70,000 oI volunteers in order
to support and run the Olympic Games 2012 in London. Because oI this reason there is a
necessity oI recruitment oI the huge volunteers in order to provide the support to the sport.
The Olympic Host nation is appreciative with the IOC towards the diIIerent types oI the stages oI
large scale test event like the world championships in advance oI the games. Additionally the
international sports Iederations are devoted to maintain the world as well as the European
Championships and some oI the other signiIicant events on the host country oI the Olympics
which will even allow their athlete to become accustomed with that particular country. All these
types oI event will deliver more and more million pounds which is similar to the host country
especially to the host city oI that particular country |6|.
4.12 The creatve ca5ta
The creative industries are considered to be the Iastest growing sectors within London which is
responsible Ior the new jobs in that capital. The cultural program oI the Olympics is considered
as the signiIicant aspect among the entire Olympic Games. These games will motivate and


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support the athletes Irom diIIerent types oI countries which will speciIy their skills and talents to
the world.
The UK-wide Olympic Torch Relay in the year 2012 is permanent Ior Iew months which will
include each and every important city as well as the town within UK. There is a necessity oI the
stage managers, the technicians oI lights, the producers as well as the artists to provide their
support in conducting the event in a successIul way |6|.
4.13 Boost3g the heath a3d s5ort3g success
The hosting the world`s Iamous sporting events such as the Olympics will increase the
excitement and stimulation oI interest which will even support the government enterprises to
support with the participation within the sports as well as the diIIerent types oI the physical
activities at certain levels.
Hosting such valuable games will even develop and improve the perIormance oI the local
athletes and will create a special Ieeling to them that their hosting country should stand by in the
top place and should even give tough competition to the other countries. For instance consider
the below examples:
O Korea have won 12 gold medals in Seoul in the year 1988 when compared with the LA it
won 6 gold medals in the year 1984
O Spain have won 13 gold medals in Barcelona in the year 1992, when compared with the
Seoul in the year 1988


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O Australia have won the 16 gold medals in Sydney in the year 2000 when compared with 9
medals won by Atlanta in the year 1996 |6|
The detailed inIormation on the other important aspects oI the Olympic Games London 2012 will
be explained in detail in the Iurther chapters.
http://www.olympicgames2012london.org/londonattractionsolympics2012.html
4.14 3 tours2 2012 ga2es 25act 3 o3do3
World Iocused its total concentration on London. From the Iirework oI Iinal last explosion in
Beijing in closing ceremony oI pyrotechnic Olympic Games and the Olympic torch last splutter
which is going out in china, attention oI global switched to next games host city. London is that
city which becomes 2012 Olympiad host.
Presently London city is undergoing in preparation massive generation Ior being the summer
Olympics host city. London as the England capital gets ready to turn out to be the sporting
achievement capital and athletic ability in the 2012 summer in London the interest is already
increasing among visitors oI Ioreign. The area oI Olympic Games is a tourist event and a
massive sporting promising large amount oI visitors who come to the city and it ensures those
new visitors who come to city will be attracted and this is also considered as business all over
city and boosting tourism.
SuccessIul bid eIIects oI London are immediately Ielt, tourists are streaming and showing
interest to see city which become next host and in survey which is conducted recently by
'isitBritain, in three people, one people who have interest to visit London city and main reason


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beyond this visit is Olympic games. Good news Ior the tourist industry oI London indeed.
Continuity is presented in this good news, reports are representing that Ior games visitors are
wanted to spent twice likely as long as other tourists in the country developing the business
potential Ior the tourist industry oI British.
Growth oI global tourism outperIorm is expected by the UK and its growth range is 50 both in
and beIore Iour years with extra visitors oI potential 6.6 million aIter the games in eight years
duration Irom 2007-2012. Inevitably host city is London which will be a point oI Iocal Ior these
tourists. At the same time as survey propose that visitors oI Ioreign will boost with both china
and Russia supposed to be at those countries IoreIront whose tourists will have interest on
visiting London exclusively Ior the games, athletics British team recent good perIormance at the
Beijing games in the medal tables is expected to oIIer a huge point in domestic visitors on the
capital eager British public descending with the medal hungry to London to know triumphs oI
British in person. 'isitor`s eIIect is increasingly observed as people transIer into the city.
Places are needed by people to sleep and time is needed to spend when not only Olympic
oriented. Apart Irom event oI Olympic the huge numbers oI London attractions are anticipated to
gain advantages both around and during the games. With system oI transportation being updated
to give guarantee London is more even smaller and accessible in terms oI travelling tourists will
locate it easier to cross the packing oI city in as much experience oI London as possible. At the
same time in terms oI medal losers and winners have to wait Ior two years which has to decide
and clear now even that Irom the Olympic Games the biggest winner being hosted is London
itselI by London.


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http://www.tudorcourtpaddington.co.uk/news/2010/03/11/the-impact-oI-the-2012-games-on-
tourism-in-london/
4.15 Reato3sh5 betwee3 tours2 a3d s5orts
In the 2004 year, tourism economic importance is discussed in report oI which is given according
to views oI World Travel and Tourism Council. Tourism is speciIied as largest employer and
largest industry oI world with 5,490.4 billion oI US in output which is gross and 8.1 or 214.7
million jobs oI whole employment.
Now countries boast Ior developing various strategies considerable potential to attract tourists.
'isitor basic Iacilities are speciIied below.
O Adequate inIrastructure oI transport like airports, roads, public transport etc
O Historical and/ or culture wealth store to visitors to appeal Ior example rustic villages,
beautiIul landscapes, artistic and architectural movements etc..
O 'arious and appropriate accommodations, commercial and hospitality supply.
Today new tourism Iactor is added such as congresses, exhibitions, cultural and sporting
events and those are gaining an international arena.
Tourism industry is described by medlik as establishments and organizations giving Iacilities,
attractions and services Ior tourists. Some companies are presented in tourism industry
category iI those companies` revenues and activities are depended upon tourists. Companies
gain most advantages Irom tourism by using their core tourism relationship which have
relationship with business.


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http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb154.html
4.16 S5ort tours2 def3to3
In activity oI sports, all Iorms oI passive and active involvement, participated in an organized or
in casually way Ior business/commercial and noncommercial reasons, which require travel way
to locality oI work Irom home.
Tourism is inIluenced by sports in many ways. In vacations oI activity, more and more number
oI persons is showing interest Irom which markets oI niche have come up Ior tourism operators
and suppliers. For this, good example is camps oI horse riding, parachuting, raIting, hang-
gliding, etc. with practicing a sport exclusive intention or indeed, trip which is typical can be
arranged by initiating something new.
There is also considered as sports tourist another class who is sometimes spectator oI active and
passive. Such as, operators and visitors organized trips and tickets to supply Ior the 'connoisseur
observers Ior the world cup oI 1998 in France. ThereIore, the sport spreading leads to sport-
related tourism complementary expansion. And the great deal has been donated by the Olympics
to the sport dispersion with its competitions oI regional athletics and Committees oI 199 National
Olympic around the world having spiraled up over and done with the world as well as games oI
Paralympics.


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Fgure 2 through s5ort Tours2 as t Fows
4.17 S5ort a3d tours2 a twowa reato3sh5
De knop and Standeven as authors also speciIy that the relationship oI the sport-tourism works in
two ways. Good example Ior this is ski holidays. In sport, presented interest improve in spite oI
having no Iacilities oI nature in local region oI the practioner. As a result, elsewhere is developed
by industry oI ski Ior the enthusiasts oI incoming to cater.
In relationship oI the sport-tourism, the Olympics are considered as interesting rate. From the
relationship the tourism side iI examined, contribution oI Olympics is given a permanent value in
the community oI local to sport. But according to views oI De Knop and Standeven these
Iacilities may be Ior community use over-sophisticated. In below mentioned Iigure, this two way
relationship is described.


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Fgure 3terreato3sh5 ested betwee3 tours2 a3d s5orts
Above Iigure is also named as 'Sport Tourism' basic model.

4.18 25c S5ort as a MegaEve3t
Major events are organized Ior examples consider the Olympic Games; provide advantages to
nation oI host such as improved morale oI nation and prestige.
On local communities the Olympics have some impact. It is named that spectator sports or
localized participative can give contribution to tourism that is Irom home to play away local
teams travelling, and in turn that tourism can guide to development oI local sports. When the
sport is considered as mega event, the media added impact means that the activity/sport is
communicated to audience which is much wider. ThereIore relationship presented between
sports and tourism is diIIerentiated Irom mega event oI sports and that is represented in below
Iigure.


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Fgure Tours2 a3d S5orts MegaEve3ts 3terreato3sh5


4.19 Reato3sh5 betwee3 tours2 a3d the ga2es
Existed relationship between the tourism and the Olympics is obvious. In Sydney the diverse
preparation Ior the games oI 2010 not only cater Ior athletes oI 11,116, but also Irom Olympic
spectators, potential tourism is also taken into consideration, Iamilies oI athletes and media
personnel oI 15,000 is estimated. Directly and indirectly tourism gain beneIits Irom The
Olympics through employment and economic spin-oIIs. And when organizing host city is leIt by
Olympics, Iacilities oI the Olympic-standard sports will be at the many sports enthusiasts
disposal. Indeed, sophistication will be allowed by the Iacilities, but Sydney city have over 4
million people population and have good industry oI tourism which is well established. Waste
levied and over the sophistication criticism at prior mega events can not prepared by Sydney.
The 'Sydney Organizing Committee oI the Olympic Games (SOCOG) has great length to
organize Iacilities recyclable and sustainable in another or one Iorm hence title is given as 'green
games.
4.20 The hstorca revew of the ga2es a3d 25c Ga2es
At 1894 Paris Congress, 23 oI June, by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, IOC means 'International
Olympic Committee was located. Dimitris 'ikelas was its Iirst president. Base oI the IOC is
moved by it to Lausanne which is in Switzerland in year oI 1915. Main responsibility oI it is to
supervise the winter and summer Olympic Games organization. It is deIined by De Coubertin as
the Ioundation laying oI idea oI Olympic.


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IOC is considered as non government and nonproIit organization that the Olympic events
overseeing the smooth running, protects and owns the rights to all symbols oI Olympic, mottos,
Ilags, games and anthems as the umbrella term part the Olympic Movement'.
4.21 Ga2es Short Hstorca vervew
Modern and ancient Olympic Games are separated by almost three millennia. However, the two
Olympics are separated by despite the time, the same peace spirit and unity has successes.
Modern Olympic Games Iounder is Barron Pierre de Coubertin Iigured it best.
The Olympic Games irreplaceable value has in that peculiar celebrations are perIormed by them
during which all region people, all nations, all tribes and all ranks with the others can be uniIied
and all through which is having some relationship with them the community deep sense above
border and diIIer every kind. It is advantageous and necessary to view and the Olympic Games
cultivation as whole manking great celebration, because mankind is promoted in this way by it.
4.21.1 The A3ce3t Ga2es
English word origins interestingly Ior sport shoot Irom desport which is old' French word, Irom
the desporter which is verb and meant do battle or to embattle. The possible connection which
ironic and presented between this idea and word oI the Ancient Olympic Games being primary
and it is considered as an occasion Irom the battles and wars to promote truce that inIected
ancient Greece at time which should not be ignored. In 12 th century again this word appeared in
French dictionary named the Eneas. Word despoter is used by this text to characteri:e


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amusement all genre Ior the time agreeably passing. Same word is reIerred as 'amusement by
Rabelais, again centuries later.
Eventually, English imported the word as disport using soldiers who are returning Irom battle in
the 15
th
century on the continent. Inevitably the di` was removed and in English currently the
sport means, according to the Europe council.
All physical activity Iorms, which through organized and casual participation, goal at improving
mental and Iitness oI physic well Iorming, being relationship oI social or gaining results at all
levels in competition.
The word sports clearly have signiIicantly evolved in meaning given that it was introduced
initially into six centuries ago in England. But, on pottery evidence, sculptures and Irescoes
indicate the presence and thus sport practice as Iar back as years which are presented between
3,000 to 1,500 B.C. Activity oI sporting has been documented the iade in text oI the Greek.
Achilles in this text manages an event incorporating activities oI athletics to commemorate his
companion Patrocle death. Between 884 BC and 393 AD games which belongs to ancient
tradition were conducted and regularly Irom 776 BC every Iour years until around 393 AD. The
Olympic Games were condemned by the Holy Roman Empire Theodosus, then Emporer as
unchristian; believing them to be religious Iestival honoring part the pagan God Zeus and unholy
ceremonies oI other. Eventually he banned the Olympics, which makes mark an era end. The
games which are ancient were conducted at the site oI ancient Olympia, which is placed in the
Greek island north-western part, the Peloponnese.


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4.21.2 The Moder3 Ga2es


In 1896 in Greece Irom very humble beginnings, games oI the modern Olympics have gone to a
mega event oI sport second in the new millennium to none. However, games rise was not clear
sailing. Baron Pierre de Coubertin French aristocrat, together with Georges AveroII the Greek,
Iounded the movement oI the new Olympics. Initially, in Iinancing these Iaced some diIIiculties,
in 1896, the Iirst game which is modern, but eventually support was Iound in industrialists oI two
prominent Greek. Two world wars were survived by these games, in Munich (1972) terrorist
attacks, in Mexico City (1968) riots, in Russia (1980) boycotts, logistical and quarantine
problems presented in Australia, in Atlanta (1996) communication problems and pipebomb
attack, aIter the Montreal Games near Iinancial collapse and many but smaller tribulations and
challenges. Since 1996 Atlanta, it was speciIied as Iirst time then all oI the committees oI
National Organization attended together the games.
Continuity is presented in modern Olympic games on the biggest show to put with Sidney on
earth Irom 2000 culminating a wonderIul century successes that the trails oI outweigh. In 2004,
Athens has gain negative image because oI existed delay in inIrastructure construction; however
'unbelievable dream games were presented aIter all games.
In 2008, next Olympic Games were planned in Beijing, and Ior 2012 the candidates are London,
Paris, New York, Madrid, Moscou. But conclusion can`t be taken in Flanders preparation to gain
opportunities to manage the Olympic Games in year 2016.


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Cha5ter 5
Co3cuso3 Future work a3d 2tato3s
5.1 Co3cuso3
This research will provide inIormation on the 2012 London Olympics. This study even includes
the inIormation on branding, image as well as the marketing strategies 2012 London Olympics. It
even provides the inIormation on the importance oI games to the UK tourism. It gives


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inIormation on the LOCOG- London Organizing Committee oI the Olympic Games and
Paralympic Games plans and strategies. The London Olympics Committee has invested more on
Olympic Games are even expecting additional beneIits than the invested amount. It is even
providing the inIormation on the previous achievements as well as Iailures oI past host countries
oI Olympic Games in order to make the London as greatest city in the world.
This study clearly speciIies the overview oI the tourism industry and the current tourism industry
oI London. This study has provided the diIIerent types oI the aspects related to the tourism
industry and the diIIerent types oI the industries involved in it such as the hotels, restaurants, the
airlines, diIIerent types oI tourist operators. It even provided the inIormation regarding the
detailed overview oI the Olympic games and it even speciIied and compared the previous
Olympic Games economical standards. This study provided the inIormation on the diIIerent
types oI the beneIits and proIits to the retails who are oIIering the products related to the
Olympic Games.
In the Olympic Games the media plays a vital role because the people who are not visiting
London to watch Olympics will watch it through the diIIerent types oI the media sources. The
main aim oI this research is to know whether the London city is going to be one oI the best
tourist spot among the world and how the London tourism industry is going to be beneIited by
hosting the London Games. This study concludes that by taking the diIIerent reasons into
consideration the London city will deIinitely be beneIited by hosting the Olympic Games in
diIIerent ways. Th major and signiIicant beneIit is that the Iinancial standard will be improved
Ior London in the next Iive years. The retailers and the diIIerent types oI the dealers will be


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beneIited with more number oI proIits and even the media will be beneIited because it is the
major source to watch the Olympic Games and Iinally the diIIerent types oI the industries related
to the tourism and hospitality industry will be beneIited more. Finally the conclusion Iorm the
above research is that the mistakes and disadvantages oI the previous Olympic Games hosted by
other countries may help London to become the greatest city in the world as well as it may give
beneIicial growth to the London Tourism.
5.2 Future Work
AIter completing this research the views and ideas provided is that iI the Olympics Committee
learns the mistakes Irom the previous Olympic host countries and rectiIies them then the London
can be successIul in hosting the honour games such as Olympics. The London Olympics should
attract more number oI people so that the individuals should show more interest even to visit the
London city beIore and aIter Olympic Games which will improve and develop the London
tourism industry.
5.3 2tato3s
By making use oI the quantitative and the qualitative research method this research work is been
IulIilled and this research has provided the detailed inIormation on the London 2012 Olympic
Games and Paralympic Games. The inIormation which is provided in this research has covered
all the important aspects related to the London 2012 Olympic Games and I think this research
doesn`t provide the total available inIormation on the Olympic Games and iI i get any chance in


25cs2012 9f

Iuture i will try to conduct a research on Olympic Games and will try to gather and analyze more
inIormation which is not completed now.










Cha5ter 6
Refere3ces
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http://www.runtheplanet.com/resources/historical/olympics.asp. Last accessed 11-08-
2011.


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2. london2012. (2007). tourism. Available: http://www.london2012.com/documents/brand-


guidelines/brand-protection-inIormation-Ior-the-tourism-sector.pdI. Last accessed 12-08-
2011.
3. londonolympicsmarketing. (2010). ondonoympicsmarketing. Available:
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Sport Marketing Quarterly, 'ol. 12, No. 1, 2003
5. A Look at Olympic Costs`, International Journal oI Olympic History, 'ol 1, Number 2,
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7. Baade R. A. and Matheson ', 'Bidding Ior the Olympics: Fool`s Gold, 2002
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8. Blake A, Nottingham University Business School (2005), 'The economic impact oI the
London 2012 Olympics, report Iunded by DCMS and LDA,
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9. De Groote, 'Economic and tourism aspects oI the Olympic Games in Tourism Review,
'ol 60, Issue 1, p12-19, 2005 www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb154.html


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10.French, Steven P. & Mike E. Disher (1997) 'Atlanta and the Olympics: A One-Year
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11.Matheson '. A. and Baade R (2004), 'Mega-sporting events in developing nations:
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12.Owen G. J., 'Estimating the cost and beneIit oI hosting Olympic Games: What can
Beijing expect Irom its 2008 Games?, in The Industrial Geographer,'ol 3, Issue 1, Fall
2005, p 1-18 Papanikos G (Economic and Social Council oI Greece), Kartakoullis N
(Cyprus Intercollege), Karlis G (University oI Ottawa, Canada), 'City and sport
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13.Preuss H (2004) 'Aspects oI Olympic Games Tourism,
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14.Athens International Airport, 'Passenger traIIic statistics, 2005
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15.Australian Bureau oI Statistics, 'Yearbook Australia 2002 and Yearbook 2006,
www.abs.gov.uk
16.Australian Tourism Commission, 'Olympic Games Tourism Strategy 2001, 2001
http://www.ausport.gov.au/Iulltext/2001/atc/olympicreview.pdI


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17.Barton L, 'The Economic Impact oI the Olympic Games, in Pricewaterhouse


CoopersEuropean Economic Outlook June 2004, chapter 3, p18-25
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sol/specint/neweurope/epa/EEOJun04SectionIII.pdI
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19June2004.pdI
19.CBC Watch, February 25 2006, 'Worldwide T' viewers leIt cold by Winter Games,
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20.CBS Sportsline.com, 12 October 2004,'IOC reports record global T' audience Ior
Athens Games, http://cbs.sportsline.com/olympics/story/7787174
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Hospitality & Leisure Executive Report 2004, p13-16, 2004
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25.IOC OIIicial website oI the Olympic Movement, Olympic Television Research Centre,
'Sydney 2000 Olympic Games Global Television Report, January 2001
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30.Olympic Winter Games 10-26 February 2006, www.torino2006.org
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35.Tourism Forecasting Council, 'The Olympic eIIect a report on the potential tourism
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43. International Olympic Truce Centre www.olympictruce.org


44.Olympic History` CBS Sportsline Website http://cbs.sportsline.com
45.Best Olympics Ever?, The Social Impacts oI Sydney 2000` Helen Lensky












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Questo33are to o3do3 25c Co22ttee a3d the retaers 3 a3d arou3d to 25c
stadu2s 3 o3do3
1. How the arrangements Ior the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games are going
on?
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2. How you Ielt when the London is announced as the host city Ior the London 2012
Olympic Games and Ior what reasons the London is selected as the host city in order to
host such a valuable and honour games?
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3. What type oI Iacilities are you providing Ior the tourists who are coming Irom overseas
countries?


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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. What type oI arrangements is the tourism industry is making and what type oI beneIits
and packages it is oIIering to the tourist customers?
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5. For what reasons the London Olympic Games are considered as important Ior UK
Tourism?
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. What kind oI


expectations do you have on London 2012 Olympic Games and do you think the Olympic
Games will beneIit London tourism industry?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. What types oI
changes are you making which are diIIerent Irom the previous Olympic Games and what
type oI new ways are you Iollowing to attract the tourists Ior Olympic Games?
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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. What you have learned Irom the previous Olympic Hosted countries and iI there are any
mistakes and problems in the previous Olympic Games then what measures you are
Iollowing to rectiIy them?
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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9. How much oI investment does the London Olympic Games Committee is investing on
London Olympic Games and what type oI beneIits you are expecting beIore and aIter
Olympic Games in London?
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10. What is the current economical standard oI London tourism industry and how it is going
to be beneIited beIore and aIter Olympic Games?
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11. Is Olympic Games important only to the London tourism industry or else to the entire
United Kingdom?


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12. What is the relationship between the Olympic Games and the tourism industry?
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13. What type oI beneIits and proIits does the retailers are expecting Irom the Olympic
Games?
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14. What types oI products the retailers are oIIering to the tourist customers which are related
to the Olympic Games?


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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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15. How the London tourism industry along with the hospitality industries like the hotels and
restaurants, the airlines, transportation industries are been beneIited by Olympic Games?
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