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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate


This worked example shows the procedure to check the bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate welded to a column web. Non preloaded bolts are used (Category A: bearing type). These types of connections are typical for cross bracings used both in facades and in roofs to withstand the actions of the horizontal wind load in the SS048 longitudinal axis of the single storey building. This is illustrated in SS048 In order to avoid eccentricities of the loads brought to the foundation, the angle axis is aligned to meet the column vertical axis plane at the base plate and the gusset plate is placed as close as possible to the column major axis plane.
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Table 1.1

Modes of failure of the bracing connection

Mode of failure Bolts in shear Bolts in bearing (on the angle leg) Angle in tension Weld design

Component Resistance
N Rd,1 N Rd,2 N Rd,3
a

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Bracing Connection Details The Figure 1.1 shows the long leg of the 120x80 angle that is attached to the gusset plate.

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Figure 1.1

Detail of the bolted connection: plan and section view

Common practice is to minimize the eccentricity between the bracing member and the column axis. The gusset plate is welded to the column web and to the base plate using double fillet welds (see Figure 1.1). Although there is some eccentricity in order to avoid the anchor bolt on the column axis, this is much better than having the bracing plane on the column flange axis. Main joint data Configuration Column Bracing Type of connection Angle to gusset plate welded to a column web HEB 300, S275 120 80 12 angle, S275 Bracing connection using angle to a gusset plate and non-preloaded bolts Category A: Bearing type Gusset plate Bolts Welds 250 300 15, S275 M20, grade 8.8 Gusset plate to column web: fillet weld, a = 4 mm (see section 4). Gusset plate to base plate: fillet weld, a = 4 mm (see section 4).

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Column HEB 300, S275 Depth Width Thickness of the web Thickness of the flange Fillet radius Area Second moment of area Depth between fillets Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength
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hc bc tf,c r Ac Iy dc

= 300 mm = 300 mm = 19 mm = 27 mm = 149,1 cm2 = 25170 cm4 = 208 mm

tw,c = 11 mm

fy,c = 275 N/mm2 fu,c = 430 N/mm2

Angle 120 80 12, S275 Depth Width Thickness of the angle Fillet radius Fillet radius Area Second moment of area Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength hac bac tac r1 r2 Aac Iy = 120 mm = 80 mm = 12 mm = 11 mm = 5,5 mm = 22,7 cm2 = 322,8 cm4

fy,ac = 275 N/mm2 fu,ac = 430 N/mm2

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Gusset plate 250 300 15, S275 Depth Width Thickness Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength Direction of load transfer (1) Number of bolt rows Angle edge to first bolt row Pitch between bolt rows
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hp bp tp fy,p fu,p

= 300 mm = 250 mm = 15 mm = 275 N/mm2 = 430 N/mm2

n1 el pl

=3 = 50 mm = 80 mm

Direction perpendicular to load transfer (2) Number of lines of bolts Angle attached leg edge to bolt line Bolts M20, 8.8 Total number of bolts ( n = n1 n2 ) Tensile stress area Diameter of the shank Diameter of the holes Diameter of the washer Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength Partial safety factors M0 M2 = 1,0 = 1,25 (for shear resistance of bolts) n As d do dw fyb fub =3 = 245 mm2 = 20 mm = 22 mm =37 mm = 640 N/mm2 = 800 N/mm2 n2 e2 =1 = 80 mm

Design axial tensile force applied by the angle brace to the gusset plate. NEd = 250 kN

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Bolts in shear
f ub A = 0,6 800 245 10 3 = 94,08 kN 1,25

N Rd,1 = nFv, Rd

EN1993-1-8 Table 3.4.

Fv,Rd = v

M,2

N Rd,1 = 3 94,08 = 282 kN

2 Bolts in bearing (on the angle leg)


Note: The angle leg thickness , 12mm, being less than that of the gusset plate, 15mm, and assuming an end distance of 50 mm or greater for the gusset plate, only the attached angle leg requires a design check for bearing.
N Rd,2 = nFb, Rd
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EN1993-1-8 Table 3.4.

Fb, Rd =

k1 b f u, ac d t ac

M2

All bolts

e k1 = min 2,8 2 1,7; 2,5 d0


2,8 e2 80 1,7 = 2,8 1,7 = 8,48 d0 22

k1 = min (8,48; 2,5) = 2,5 End bolt:

b = min

e1 ; 3d 0

f ub ; 1,0 f u,ac

e1 50 = = 0,76 3d 0 3 22 f ub 800 = = 1,86 f u, ac 430

b = min(0,76; 1,86; 1,0) = 0,76


Fb, Rd, end bolt = 2,5 0,76 430 20 12 10 3 = 156,9 kN 1,25

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Interior bolts:

b = min

p1 1 ; 3d 0 4

f ub ; 1,0 f u,ac

p1 1 80 1 = = 0,96 3d 0 4 3 22 4 f ub 800 = = 1,86 f u, ac 430

b = min(0,96; 1,86; 1,0) = 0,96 Fb, Rd,interior bolt =


2,5 0,96 430 20 12 103 = 198,1 kN 1,25

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The bearing strength of the end bolt and of the interior bolt is greater than the EN1993-1-8 3.7(1) bolt shear strength. The least value for the bearing strength of a bolt in the connection is adopted for all bolts. N Rd,2 = 3 156,9 = 471 kN

3 Angle in tension
A f N Rd,3 = 3 net u M2
2,5d 0 = 2,5 22 = 55 mm 5d 0 = 5 22 = 110 mm 2,5d 0 < p1 < 5d 0

EN1993-1-8 3.10.3

3 can be determined by linear interpolation:


3 = 0,59

Anet = A tac d 0 = 2270 12 22 = 2006 mm 2


N Rd,3 =
0,59 2006 430 10 3 = 407 kN 1,25

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Document Ref: Title

SX034a-EN-EU

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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Date Date

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4 Weld design
The weld is designed as follows: The gusset plate is welded to the column web and to the base plate using double fillet welds. The procedure to determine the throat thickness of the double fillet welds is the same for the gusset plate/column web connection and for the gusset plate/base plate connection. The following calculations show the design of the weld between the gusset plate and the base plate. It is possible to provide full strength double fillet welds following simplified recommendations, see SN017, however that approach is too conservative for this example.
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SN017

The recommended procedure to follow is to propose a size of the weld throat and to check whether it complies with the requirement of resistance: Here, propose a = 4 mm Design resistance for the double weld, according to the simplified method is:
N Rd, w, hor = 2 Fw, Rd l
Fw, Rd = f vw, d a

EN1993-1-8 4.5.3.3

f vw,d =

w M2

fu

430 3 = 233,66 N/mm 2 0,85 1,25

Fw, Rd = 233,66 4 = 934,6 N/mm N Rd, w,hor = 2 934,6 250 103 = 467 kN It supports the horizontal component of the force acting in the bracing, which is:

N Ed,hor = N Ed sin 40 = 250 sin 40 = 161 kN


Therefore the horizontal weld is OK. Similar approach applies to the vertical weld (the gusset plate is welded to the column web).

E g

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Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

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5 Summary
The following table summarizes the resistance values for the critical modes of failure. The governing value for the joint (i.e. the minimum value) is shown in bold type.
Table 5.1 connection
Mode of failure Bolts in shear

, y o

Summary of the resistance values in the bolted bracing

Component resistance NRd,1 NRd,2 NRd,3 282 kN 471 kN 407 kN

Bolts in bearing on the angle leg Angle in tension

s i

Some modes of failure are not checked. For example, the gusset plate in bearing and in tension is not checked because its thickness is greater than that of the angle, and therefore the angle cleat would fail before the plate.
l

C T

r h

e i

a s

e m

d a

o e

n r

T a

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate SX034a-EN-EU

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RESOURCE TITLE Example: Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate

Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France
Created on Tuesday, January 29, 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Company Labein Labein

Date Apr 2006 Apr 2006

Edurne Nuez Jose A Chica

G W Owens A Bureau B Uppfeldt C Mller J Chica G W Owens

SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI

4/9/06 3/7/06 3/7/06 29/6/06 4/9/06 12/9/06

3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator

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