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Introduction September 13, 2011 Read Failures to Prevent Genocide in Rwanda, Srebrenica, and Darfur Read Professional Ethics

cs and the Denial of the Armenian Genocide

Chapter Two: Liberalism, Emancipation, and Antisemitism (Bauer) Jews achieved civic equality in the 19th century Jewish population exploded in 19th century (widening gap) Especially difficult for Jews in Russia Jews were traditionally middlemen between the peasants and the town Denied the unity of the Jewish people in the 19th century Jewish Enlightenment deepened differences (pressed for better integration) Attempt at reunification in second half of 19th century No equality of the sexes (anti-feminist) After emancipation (1700s-1900s), Jewish Problem thought to be solved but legal status did not convey equality* Jews had no intention of giving up their religious separateness Large number of Jews tried to find security in the liberal and universal Traditional anti-Semitism based on Christian anti-Judaism (focused on stereotype of the Jew) Jews viewed as symbol of Satan Social Darwinism contributed to modern anti-Semitism (survival of the fittest theory) Jew was not a human Anti-Semitism first coined by Wilhelm Marr 1878 Supposed Jewish desire to control the world German anti-Semitism is a part of German intellectual history (Jew was the outsider) Anti-Semitism became political in German in 1879 (Treitschke)-->The Jews are our misfortune. 1887 first anti-Semite elected to Reichstag anti-Semitism declined after 1907 development of German society towards Nazi project of killing the Jews was not pre-ordained*

Jewish Reactions Zionism: unity of Jews based on their history, common fate, culture, regeneration in Palestine-Israel-->on the rise with the rise of European and national movements* Political aim of Zionism was to establish an internationally recognized Jewish political entity in Palestine Zionism as a sentiment was largely accepted

Orthodox, anti-Zionism Jewry fought to preserve strict adherence to ancient religious norms* Large number of Jews sought security in acculturation and assimilation Eve of WWI: anti-Semitism

Chapter Three: WWI and its Aftermath (Bauer) Britain sided with the Jews and supported Palestine* Tragedy of Zionism: lack of time to establish a political base for the Jewish people Armenian genocide parallels the Holocaust (1915-1918)* o At least one million Armenians murdered by Turkish (nationalistic genocide)-->different motivation o Young Turk regime in the Ottoman Empire carried out a systematic, premeditated, centrally-planned genocide against the Armenian people o Denial of the Armenian genocide (article) Jews still outsiders after WWI Paris Peace 1919-->protection of Jews 78% of 9.4 million Jews lived in Poland, USSR, Rumania, and Hungary more accepted in the industrialized West Jews were heavily taxed (paid 40% of the taxes in Poland)-->didnt have large roles in government Poles turned against Jews in 1930s Polish and Rumanian government supported an economic boycott of the Jews Active social and cultural life in Jewish Eastern Europe

Soviet Jewry Lenin wanted assimilation of the Jews Stalin said the Jews would soon disappear Jews posed a problem for communist movement* Soviets destroyed Jewish economy Jews could become peasants or industrial workers Deprived Jewish self-expression

British/French Jewry Blamed Jews for political/economic instability

American Jewry Henry Ford: anti-Semitic articles Heavy immigration from Eastern Europe Many anti-Semitic organizations Anti-Semitism opposed by Americas liberal and democratic tradition 27% of worlds Jews lived in US (1920s) 1930s: Jewish powerlessness and Great Depression=unpopular minority

Genocide and Anti-Semitism in History September 20, 2011 Raphael Lemkin coined the term genocide in 1942-43 o To kill a race o It is not just murder, but rather trying to destroy a national group o Writing about what is happening to the Jews in Europe o All definitions of genocide work off of Lemkins definition UN definition 1948 o Any act committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such: Killing members of the group, causing serious bodily or mental harm, inflicting conditions of life intended in whole in part to destroy the group, imposing measures to prevent births, forcibly transferring children from one group to another o These are all the ways genocide can be committed Holocaust: most extreme form, it is unique but it is unprecedented in its scope Problem of calling it unique-->means it cannot be replicated again and there is no point in studying it o Saying it is unique-->suggest Holocaust is worse than other genocides o Saying unique-->dont learn any lessons o Also makes it ahistorical-->takes it out of history o Shows what humanity is capable of Yehuda Bauer: o UN definition should include racial groups but not religious groups, nor political groups Say this because you can change political or religious affiliation and escape persecution that way Saying this in the case of the Holocaust-->while the Jews are a religious group, they are defined as a race Even if they denounce it, they are still Jewish, it is part of their blood, nothing can change that Children do not escape the Holocaust, because it is in their blood o Holocaust should be seen as radicalization of genocide o Holocaust has never happened before, but could happen again o Scope and motivation of the Holocaust differentiates it from other genocides, making it unprecedented Armenia 1915-1918 o First record of genocide, linked with modernity Only in a modern state do we have the apparatus to commit genocide

Need a modern bureaucratic system (civil service and military thats efficient and widespread and can assist in the genocide), committed by a state when using an apparatus to commit genocide, modern transportation systems o State-sanctioned, apparatus of the state used to murder (military, telegraph) o 800 000 to 1.5 million deaths by Young Turks o Turkish nationalists sought to eliminate the Armenians (Christian group living within Turkey) First time killed as a whole group, rid Armenians in any way possible Want to appropriate the land that Armenians occupied Men, women, and children deported, starved, tortured, murdered Bauer: Young Turks-->goal is to get Armenians out of Turkey, but end goal is not necessarily murder, they would be allowed to leave voluntarily or covert if you are a child o Pragmatic goal: land This was not possible for the Jews, not given this option o No pragmatic goal, it is rather the annihilation of the Jews Rwanda 1994 o 800 000 to 1 million deaths over 100 days from April to July o Tutsis murdered by Hutus Hutus-->ethnic group Long-standing tension Tutsis controlling Tutsis leave and Hutus take over control Tutsis from rebel groups in other countries and come back. They share power with high tension 1994: Rwandan and Burundian president die, starts a war o genocide because it is aimed at eliminating the Tutsis in general o Hutus rebelled against ruling Tutsis in general o Hutus rebelled against ruling Tutsi for land and power Army vehicles, guns, weapons used o Sexual abuse encouraged as a form of murder Try to breed out the Tutsis or murder the woman by rape o Bauer: Holocaust still unprecedented because there is this option of breeding out the Tutsi Some Tutsi women are allowed to stay if impregnated by a Hutu man Pragmatic goal here in which something will be achieved Control of Rwanda happened with murdering of the Tutsi Srebrenica 1995 o 8000 Bosnian Muslims killed by Bosnian Serbs o occurs in a UN safe haven

o man and boys targeted o some still allowed to leave, if they dont identify as Muslim or not known to be practicing Muslim o limits put on the genocide o ***Hitler had no limits o ethnic cleansing in Bosnian war, 1992-1995 o deportations, torture, murder o pragmatic goals: Serbian victory-->wanted land and money for Bosnian Serbs o ***another precondition for genocide=war-->allows for government to appropriate the apparatus needed to kill and justify it Genocide Requires Modernization o Industrialization: Increases greatly at the end of 19th century, society is changing Instruments of genocide such as telegraph, radio coming into play and especially transportation o Science: Discoveries and advances Race and biology Darwin: theory of evolution and inherited traits-->leads to Social Darwinism Used by racists to justify racist beliefs, inherited racial characteristics that can be bread out or enhanced Eugenics: popular pastime in late 19th and early 20th century Curing social ills through biology, get rid of lazy people->practices aimed at improving the genetic conditions of a population o Nationalism: Late 19th, early 20th century-->becomes something that defines people by what we are not o Creates communities of us vs. them Combined with Social Darwinism becomes survival of the fittest o If this species or nation is going to survive, it have to destroy the other nations WWI: the first modern war o First total war-->involves army and civilians o Mass production of weapons of destruction Because of science and industrialization Muskets and rifles replaced by machine guns, more people killed and less personal Aircraft, better aiming guns, civilian populations being bombed Terrorist attacks o All this made possible by centrality of government-->lines of communication that are far-reaching Mans Inhumanity to man

o Humankind assumes technology, science, and industry will inevitably move society forward Fix society, make it better through science and technology o WWI is the first indication that this is not the case o The Holocaust marks the end of innocence Has an assembly line killing 2 million people, impersonal, made possible by science and technology Germany in the early 20th century-->at the front of technology, art, humanity, etc. o Is humanity good or evil? Darfur is an ongoing case where people cannot get it together to claim it a suicide Thought another genocide wouldnt happen again, but it has Anti-Semitism o People suggest there is a direct line from Luther to Hitler-->anti-Semitism bred in Germany and of course it had to happen there o This is not held to be true anymore, why? Most of Europe was anti-Semitic No point to study it, thats the reason Doesnt suggest why other nationalities were killing Jews Suggests anti-Semitism is the cause of the Holocaust But there are other things contributing to the Holocaust *Three Stages of Anti-Jewish Policy: o 1. Conversion you have no right to live among us as Jews Judaism is a religion, follow it or not, option to convert 4th-13th century: this is the case, Christian missionary vision o 2. Expulsion: you have no right to live among us shift from 1-2 happens because of the failures of the crusade o 3. Annihilation: you have no right to live Nazi case Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah) o Idea that Jews were liberated a little more in the end of the 18th century Assimilate Napoleon had a hand in it Make the Jews more European, not accepting them as who they are Make Jews less threatening Secularization: dont hold your religion so tightly Begins integration of Jews into European society Learn local languages-->translated the Torah into German Jewish Emancipation o France 1791, Germany 1871 (emancipated because of unification), Russia 1917, Netherlands 1796, Canada 1832, Britain 1858

o Side-effects of emancipation of Jews and unwillingness to be assimilated is that they once again become a threat o This creates a shift in the end of the 19th century of anti-Semitism to religion and racism Shift in science, eugenics, see Jew as a race is a new way to single them out and hate them Russia o Pogroms (organized attacks against particular group) 1880s: Jews accused of responsibility for Alex IIs assassination (1881) Actually killed by a radical group, claim they are part of the Jews 1891: Moscow cleansed of Jews 1903-1906: Jews held responsible for political unrest and revolution resulting in widespread pogroms Revolts and riots by radicals=blamed as Jews France o First to emancipate Jews in 1791 o French revolution in part responsible for widespread emancipation of Jews o France=more liberal Jews advancing in society, tension between conservative (monarchist) and liberals (Jews) Dreyfus affair draws attention of world o Dreyfus Affair, 1894 French captain charged with treason Closed court martial found him guilty Split French population Sentenced to life on Devils Island Emile Zolas jaccuse (I accuse you for covering it up) Retried and pardoned in 1899 Army saying that it wasnt him that were passing those secrets, but we still believe he is guilty Rank restored in 1906 This shows France has a very strong anti-Semitic current Germany o Strong rechstaat tradition helps ensure Jewish rights Turn of the century-->Germany one of the better places for a Jew to be Influx of Jews coming into Germany o Anti-Semitism begins to change in 1870s Term anti-Semitism coined by Wilhelm Marr in 1878 Change in nature-->political/religious anti-Semitism changes into racial anti-Semitism o New conservative right-wing parties emerge which are also anti-Semitic

Militaristic parties and conservative parties-->anti-Semitic feelings, part of platform/belief

Zionism o Zionism emerges as a movement in 1897 Jews deserve a homeland, statehood Persecution will never end until this happens o Balfour declaration, 1917 British believe in principle that the Jews deserve a state and that state will be in Palestine Two ways to look at it: British want to move forward, believe in Zionism Promise made for Jews to get on the side of the allies o First World War: Culmination of all the issues and tension More than just anti-Semitism It was supposed to be the war to end all wars, like the Holocaust->but it wasnt

Reading-->Niewyks Anti Semitism Through the Ages (John Weiss) Jews accused of following false and immoral religion and practicing deceitful commercial practices (stereotypes) and usurious money lending Five major sources of anti-Semitism: o 1. Christian anti-Semitism (failure of the Jews to accept Christ)-->accused Jews of killing Christ o 2. Commercial-->Jews viewed as exploiting and manipulating others->could not join artisans guilds o 3. Association of Jews with liberal and progressive movements in modern Europe (Jews were now competition)-->Jews charged high interest->blamed Jews for depressions o 4. Anthropolgy-->Aryan race viewed as superior o 5. Ethnic nationalism-->especially in Central and Eastern Europe-->Jews had no territory of their own and comprised only ten percent of the population of the East most extreme anti-Semites joined fascist movement (late 19th century Germany, Austria, Eastern Europe) despised womens liberation and homosexuality and blamed both on Hebrew women viewed Jews as powerful and dangerous so many people hated Jews racism crucial to Nazi victory Hitler didnt single-handedly cause the Holocaust*

WWI: Weimar and Versailles September 27, 2011 Enthusiasm for War: 1914 Loss of innocence for humanity Psychological effects Thought the first world war would be short First world war is happily greeted, especially by the Germans

War Hunger Naval blockade strangles German supplies: o Ersatz oil, rubber, nitrates, coffee War hampers agriculture Calories: under 1000 day Turnip Winter, 1916-1917 o Winter in which the potato crop gets frostbitten and begins to rot o Also because of the physical destruction of the farmland Soldiers are the first to get food Price of potatoes begin to rise Dissatisfaction with the government (specifically the Kaiser)-->they feel the German government is responsible to look after the citizens Germans are responsible for a large number of POWs Increasing distrust between citizens and governments

Social Unrest Increasingly long hours and less pay/fewer breaks Women hardest hit-->they are generally the ones working, the ones to care for children, the ones to provide food for their families, and usually their husbands are fighting on the front Wave of strikes: o April 1917 o January 1918-->involves around one million workers in Germany Germany very good at censoring reports of defeat-->quite a shock for Germans when they lost the war Increasing work protests help bring the war to an end Germany is heading down the path to revolution-->try to institute a constitutional monarchy-->in November, Wilhelm is forced to advocate

Leaders of the German Army Kaiser Wilhelm II-->Head of Army and Navy Paul von Hindenburg-->German Army Chief of Staff Erich Ludendorff-->Quartermaster General Assistant to Hindenburg All responsible for waging war-->they pass off responsibility to the SPD (at the time, the largest political party in Germany) Friedrich Ebert: o Leader of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) o Became head of provisional government in Germany in 1918 o Oversaw the establishment of the Weimar Republic o He does not want a Soviet government-->he wants a more moderate government so he needed to re-establish an order (need police, army) November 10, 1918: o Eberts pact with the army: If the army supports the provisional government, it will be free to dissolve Soldiers councils (Soviets) o The army uses Friekorps to help re-establish order o This is a deal with the devil because he is giving the army too much power

Spartacist Uprising Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht lead Communist uprising in Berlin: January 6-13, 1919 Brutally suppressed by the army and the Freikorps National Assembly is elected and the government is seated in Weimar

Weimars Inheritance 1.9 million dead, 4.2 million casualties 500 000-800 000 Germans starve because of hunger blockade infant mortality increases 50% female mortality increases 37% less than 1000 calories per day one egg every 14 days average weight falls 20% lost a lot of its manpower

Treaty of Versailles, 1919 article 231: war guilt clause reparation: 132 billion GM army limited to 100 000 men navy scuttled lost: o 1/7 territory o 1/10 population

o iron ore o coal deposits Versailles Diktat: o Dictating peace-->Germans not part of peace negotiations-->this agreement is handed to them and there is nothing they can do about it Paramilitary groups popular after war

Weimar Constitution, August 1919 Written by Hugo Preuss, who was Jewish Continuity: o Army, judiciary, civil service, Prussia-->remains centre and guiding force of German politics Change: o Multiple political parties-->inclusion in German politics Jewish republic

Stab in the Back Myth (Dolchstoss) Hindenburg: o German army on the verge of victory in 1918 o November Criminals handed victory to the Allied Powers o army and people were stabbed in the back by the politicians who brokered peace o people who waged war did not pick up the pieces and make the peace o nice way to heal the wounds of humiliation

Hyperinflation, 1923 invasion of Ruhr by French troops in January combined with wartime debt, depleted raw materials, unemployment, and reparations setting up the Weimar republic for failure falling behind on reparations/coal shipments 1 USD=1 trillion marks loaf of bread=231 billion marks one litre of mile=360 billion marks

The Golden Years outsiders as insiders: o Jewish intellectuals, artists, and politicians become synonymous with the Weimar Republic (1919) Art and architecture, literature, science Weimar republic has rich cultural life-->greatest thinkers, philosophers, artists, writers

The Other Side of Weimar

Political murders: Walther Rathenau 1922 Jew Count-->conservatives began making accusation that the Jews did not contribute in WWI-->but Jews were not allowed to serve in the higer ranks of the military respectable anti-Semitism-->tied to a political party hostility to Ostjuden (easy to identify Jews, stick to traditions, viewed as foreign and unclean) Jews still have a legal status and are protected in the Weimar republic

Readings-->Chapter One: 1932-->The Year of Decision (Yahil) Threat to the existence of European Jewry During Hitlers rule, 38 million people died Year of Decision preceded Hitlers rise to power 1932 shadowed by the Great Depression of 1929 political turmoil=fascism 1918-1933: succession of struggles owners of major industries wielded great influence conservative bourgeoisie joined National Socialists in 1932 (most supported by lower middle class and young people) January 30, 1933: Hitler comes to power as Chancellor Jewish struggle for equal rights appeared to be successful with the creation of the Weimar Republic, however most did not accept them 510 000-525 000 Jews in Germany in 1933, mainly lived in cities, clustered in neighborhoods, certain occupations, lacked representation in heavy industry and working class Jewish cultural revolution was between Liberals and Zionists Jews lacked a political base of their own in Germany Means of defense Jews adopted were ineffective Rise in political tension in 1932 reflected in the Jewish press and debates In 1932, variety of laws that further segregated Jews Pogrom: wave of anti-Jewish violence Shut down Jewish school system

Chapter Two: Hitler Implements 20th Century Anti-Semitism (Yahil) Jew as the anti-type Jew remained a constant throughout history Only racially pure capable of ruling Racist political doctrine Political anti-Semitism in Germany: end of 19th century, after WWI, Hitler Impact of deceptive propaganda Political provisions affecting Jews: the Protocols of the Elders of Zion-->Jewish Order WWI was the result of a worldwide conspiracy of Jews hungry for power and destruction

Legend of a secret Jewish organization that aspired to control the world (political myth) Anti-Semitism: means discharging aggression For Hitler, anti-Semitism was an ideological principle and a political/propaganda tactic First seen in Hitlers letter in 1919-->viewed Jews as creatures of Satan Hitler fabricated and distorted facts in order to build an attractive image Hitlers greatest skill: oration-->joined the German Workers Party (DAP)->platform on February 24, 1920 defined the arms of the National Socialist Party->Hitler used propaganda as the primary instrument for advancing his political aims-->power of the masses-->used swastika-->acquired full knowledge of mass psychology from Chamberlain Hitler wrote Mein Kampf while in prison (9 months) Hitler accused middle class of treason and the working class of the crime of Marxism (victims of Jews)

Hitlers Seizure of Power October 4, 2011 Chapter Three: Jews in Germany During the Early Days of Nazi Rule (-1935) January 31, 1933: Hitler becomes Chancellor February 27, 1933: burning of Reichstag-->symbolic of Nazi revolution February 28, 1933: Emergency Regulation in Defense of the People (establishment of the Third Reich-->state of Germany when it was a totalitarian Nazi state) March 13, 1933: Ministry of Information and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda March 23, 1933: Enabling Act invested Hitler with legislative authority Nazis never acquired complete control over churches Disbanded labour unions Social Democratic Party banned (SDP) No division of power-->Hitler held legislative, executive, and judicial power (and military) April 1, 1933: anti-Jewish boycott and legislation (11 points) and imposition of Gleichschaltung (coordination to control as many aspects of life as possible) Believed Jews were dangerous -->Nazis intended to exclude Jews Three methods to oppress Jews: terror, propaganda, legislation-->teachers, lawyers, doctors all fired Definition of a Jew (non-Aryan), April 11 (page 65) July 14, 1933: end of German revolution Nuremburg laws: racial legislation, September 1935 Passed by the Reichstag-->separated races and defined rights of citizens Conscription law: March 16-->Jews excluded for military 1935: Hitler freed himself from Versailles treaty and re-armed only Germans can be citizens Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor (Nuremburg Law)->prohibited marriages and extra-marital intercourse between Jews and Germans and also prohibited the employment of German females under 45 in German households Definition of a Jew (page 73): descended from at least three grandparents

Jewish reaction: o Central Jewish Bureau for Economic Assistance o Jewish cultural activities (Culture association) o Jewish Adult Education o Jewish press unified and helped them withstand persecution Formation of the Reichsvertretung der Detschen Juden 1933 to protect Jews->represented Jewish interests at a national level o Many Jewish organizations signed on o National Representation of German Jews o spokesperson of the Jewish public Jewish children treated poorly o Public and private schools o National Committee of Jewish Youth Organization Germany was a totalitarian state Nuremburg Laws were milestone in the spread of anti-Semitism in other European states

Hitlers Weltanschauung (Worldview) October 11, 2011 The Program of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) Unification of Germany (Austria and Germany) Land and expansion Anti-Versailles-->abrogation (doing away with) of the Treaty Land and territory-->Lebensraum o living space o motivation for expansionist Nazi policies o needed extra space for a Greater Germany only a member of the race can be a citizen anti-Semitism: no Jew can be a member of the race anti-foreigner: only citizens can live in Germany no immigration everyone must work death to all criminals education to teach the German way formation of national army duty of the state to provide for its volk duty of individuals to the state

Plan for World Domination Italian-German alliance o France and Italy are enemies of each other Anglo-American alliance o Britain and France are enemies o War of revision against France War of conquest against Soviet Union o Lebensraum-->living space

Three Phases

1. Internal Consolidation 2. War with France 3. War with the Soviet Union Historical Racism Four major races-->rising of sun yellow, day is white, sunset red, nighttime is black Races tied to areas of body White Mans Burden Social Darwinism-->survival of the fittest Germanic Tribes superior to Latin French Germanic Tribes superior to Polish Slavs

Eugenics Coined in 1883 by Francis Galton Social Darwnism Herbert Spencer applies it to capitalism Houston Stewart Chamberlain fuses it with anti-Semitism Eugenics: practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a human population

Hitlers Racism Differences in value of races Aryans are the most valuable race Interbreeding between Aryans and less valuable races leads to extinction Not only purity but health must be maintained and improved For complete victory, the Jew must be eliminated

The Aryan Race Nordic blood Tall Blonde Blue eyes Wide chest Athletic Brave

The Jew Evil Parasited Devious Black-haired Thick-lipped

Hitler believes that the Germans are genuinely in danger by the Jews-->he believes he needs to save his people from the Jews

The Destroyers of Culture Internationalism: o Equated with Marxism, socialism, League of Nations Egalitarianism (equality among moral agents): o Playing a trick on nature by saying man conquers nature Pacifism (opposition to war and violence): o Paralysis of national instinct for self preservation

Racial Theorists Heinrich Himmler: o Reichsfuhrer of the SS (Stormtroopers) o Chief of German Police o Minister of the Interior o Oversaw Gestapo (German secret state police) o Member of Nazi party Alfred Rosenberg: o Member of Nazi party o Main author of key Nazi ideological creeds (racial theory, persecution of Jews, Lebensraum) Dr. Josef Mengele: o Angel of Death o physician in Auschwitz o German SS officer o Performed grisly human experiments of camp inmates

Voksgemeinschaft Peoples community Emphasized community over individual Unification Racial purity Defined by who is excluded Heart of it is that the Aryan race is superior and that the Jewish race is on the lowest rung of the racial hierarchy and the most dangerous Nazis exploited the notion to unify Germany

Institutionalization of Racism October 18, 2011 Anti-Semitic Legislation To legalize segregation, prosecution, of Jews, etc. Law for Reestablishment of the Professional Civil Service April 7, 1933 Non-Aryans removed from civil service and legal professions Use of non-Aryan because they have not yet defined Jew Nuremberg Laws September 1935 Reichstkistallnacht-->November 9, 1938: night of broken glass Series of pogroms or attacks against Jews in Nazi Germany and Austria SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed buildings, synagogues Trigger of attacks was assassination of German diplomat Beginning of the Final Solution and the Holocaust Jews have to change middle names Armed force laws Introduction of Yellow Stars in 1941 to identify Jews Ways Jews Were Persecuted in Germany Legally, economically, psychologically (through propaganda), physically Visits to non-Aryan doctors no longer covered by insurance Restricts quota of non-Aryan students, cannot exceed 1.5% Important because it continually is modified by Germans and because idea of nonAryan can be seen to include anyone you want Shows that Hitler does everything with a legal pretext Nuremberg Laws 1935 Law for Protection of German Blood and Honor-->defines Jews Prevents mixed marriages Provides incentive for people to break up mixed marriages, but doesnt outlaw already existing ones

Rassenschande: race defilement New courts for those accused of having sexual relations Women treated more leniently Reich Citizenship Law: strips Jews of German citizenship and those rights that would follow Significance: term non-Aryan replaced with Jewish or Jew Differences between having one Jew grandmother, or both grandparents, etc. would result in different persecutions Aryanization Process by which Nazis take Jewish businesses, property, and wealth Begins in 1933 with Boycott of Jewish business (only lasts one day) Takes off on November 12, 1938: Decree for the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life German reaction-->dont like this, want to shop wherever they want Significant: beginning of process of Aryanization wasnt patriotic and supported 1938: have to sell businesses for fraction of worth part of process to remove Jews from economic life and pushing them closer to poverty excluded from all business-->during 1938, all Jewish business was gone Racial Institutions Hereditary Health Court, Office of Kinship Research, etc. Some were not started by Nazis, but they were made important by them Scientific justification: how they justify Jewish policy Ie. Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Hereditary and Eugenics-->statistics of Jews to support racial ideals Ie. Rassenkunde: race science or study of race-->named as scientific to legitimize it->experts measuring people; different races have different characteristics-->hoping to be able to identify Jews Der Sturmer Anti-Semitic journal to attack Jews Propaganda to show racism in Germany, trying to make it something that is everywhere and a part of everyday life Attacking Jews from all angles; normalizing racism to Jews and to Germans (those they are attacking and those they are not) Psychologically done through propaganda; important way of doing this Ie. Jewish population as a spider-->sucks dry on everyone else and brings people into its web-->surviving by feeding off of others The Poisonous Mushroom-->1938 Childrens book by Hitlers publishing house Cautionary tales of Jews Jews as the poisonous mushroom-->cant tell in the forest if theyre bad or not; seem similar on the outside Jewish nose looks like a mushroom

Aimed at children-->Nazis go after the youth because theyre the key to the future of the Reich Education becomes very important Racial charts-->call Jews and Germans to front of class to make differences understood-->humiliates Jews, singles them out and makes them look like unsuitable playmates Science is the best way for teaching racial theory History is also used Belief that children could smell race, that was bred out-->therefore, needed to teach children to stick to their own kind Girls were taught sewing and were taught racial defilement (rassenschande) to prevent mixing of races Math also used-->the idea that the healthy German population was being outnumbered as seen through math problems All of these justifications were very matter of fact, just the way the Jews areinferior Affects Aryan and Jewish population Starts very young-->grades 4-7 1938=MAJOR TURNING POINT FOR JEWISH POLICY Largely because of Kristallnacht Kristallnacht (November 9-10, 1933) night of broken glass Nazis going after Polish Jews in Germany; a pogrom Expel Jews; Poland also didnt want them so they are stuck at the border for a month in poor conditions Hershall Greenspan-->his parents are stuck at the border and hes mad about the conditions so he assassinates a German This is used as an excuse to use violence by the Nazis against the Jews-->meant to be a spontaneous uprising, but it is actually planned Burned synagogues, businesses, etc. 91 Jews killed largely by SA and other fanatical Nazis-->not by regular German citizens was an international alarm that violence had erupted German citizens are appalled but do nothing about it-->we see their decision not to get involved; some help, but generally, passivity atonement fine-->1 billion GM-->Jews made to pay for the damage (rebuilding) Nazis hope it becomes a national movement of uprising against Jews by Germans, but this does not happen-->happens in some areas, but not many This is not a success and marks the end of Goebbels control of Nazi Jewish policy-->it is now Goring and Himmler who fight for control (Himmler wins) There is no legal justification for this, just violence for the sake of violence Hitler didnt like this, but it showed him that Germans and the international community did not react to this high degree of violencehe sees he can get away with it The Coming War and Kristallnacht

March-->Anschluss of Austria Doubles Jew population in Germany-->Germany inherits 200 000 Jews Means that the Jewish problem is getting bigger and bigger and we see Jewish policy increasing in 1938 Shows that Hitler can get away with a lot in war and that he wants to go to war soon September: annexation of Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) November 1: sizable group (25-30 000) of Jews sent to concentration camps simply because they are Jews Before they were sent for crimes being committed Only men Juden Unerwunscht-->Jews=unwanted After 1938, Nazi restriction and proliferation of signs that Jews were unwanted Physical separation of Jews from German population Segregation of restaurants, streets and cities renamed, Jews cant go to the theater->given curfew Meant to limit the capabilities of the Jewish population-->cutting them off from the world, they could only take certain busses, no radio or outside contact Ghettoization begins Jews made to move to the worst apartments Justifications for these: that Jews should be confined to one area and should be in the same building; Aryans should not have to share with them January 1, 1939 Jewish passports are issued with a red stamped J Jewish females middle names must be Sarah, men Israel Yellow Star of David mandated and must be visible at all times for people over six years of age Most important step in the institutionalization of racism against Jews-->Germany instated this later than other countries German Jews viewed as the worst

Eugenics, Sterilization, Euthanasia October 25, 2011

Nazification of Welfare Eugenics not new, but always racist Desire to improve society by applying scientific solutions to social problems German eugenics diverges after WWI Sterilization and then euthanasia of asocials and racial aliens Certain traits are inherited: moral inferiority, criminality, lower class remain lower class because they inherit these degenerate traits and they are less intelligent, brains are measured and weighed (women always viewed as less intelligent) Eugenics is popular all over the Western world At the turn of the century, begin to turn to IQ tests-->to make assumptions about class, gender, and race-->IQ is biologically determined-->IQ is viewed as an accurate measure of someones intelligence German state very involved in education and becomes obsessed with eugenics->science has been propped up-->central institute in Germany for eugenics When the Nazis come to power, they emphasize the racial aspects of eugenics and specifically focus it on the Jews and they increasingly identify non-members of the community

Sterilization and Euthanasia: Prelude to Genocide? July 14, 1933: Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseased Progeny->compulsory sterilization of: o Congenital feeble-mindedness o Schizophrenia o Manic depression o Hereditary epilepsy o Huntingtons disease o Hereditary blindness o Hereditary deafness o Serious physical deformities o In addition, chronic alcoholics Nuremberg Law Supplement, November 1935: to include alien races, racially less valuable such as Gypsies, Negros, and their bastards Sterilization policies also include homosexuals-->gland-transplant experiments, estimated between 10 000-15 000 died at Buchenwald

Estimated 320 000-375 000 Germans sterilized in total You go before a tribunal-->infront of judge and two doctors (process to be nominated for sterilization-->all appears like a legal procedure)

Euthanasia of Children Knauer baby: winter 1938-1939 (first victim of Nazi euthanasia) Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Seriously Hereditary and Congenitally Based Illnesses o Dr. Leonardo Conti: Party Health Minister o Philip Bouhler and Viktor Brack: Chancellery o Dr. Karl Brandt: Hitlers physician Sets precedent for T4 program

Meldebogen (Questionnaires) Physicians required to report: o Idiocy as well as mongolism o Microcephaly o Severe or progressive hydrocephalus o All deformities, especially missing limbs, severely defective closure of the head and vertebral column, etc. o Paralysis It is not actually the law but it is made out to be Segregating the children At this stage, only talking about the euthanasia of children (initially only three and under) Red plus sign-->they will be killed, blue minus sign-->they will live for now The men who are making these decisions hold very prestigious positions Starvation used-->viewed as a natural process to avoid accusation of murder

Euthanasia of Adults T-4: Tiergartenstrasse4 (headquarters in Berlin) Evolves in summer 1939 Becomes systematic assessment and murder of asocials Transferred to killing centers Development and use of gas chambers Methods of deception and coercion Viewed as a drain on society and need to be cleared out (uselessness)

Merkblatt (Questionnaire) Persons to be reported: o Institutionalized for five or more years o With the following conditions and unable to work in the institution: Schizophrenia

Epilepsy Senile diseases Therapy-resistant paralysis and other forms of syphilis Encephalitis Every type of feeble-mindedness o Committed as criminally insane o Without German citizenship o Not of Germanic or related blood It is within the power of the institution to swap people out Gas chambers-->takes ten minutes

The Role of the Camps Hitler halt order: August 24, 1941 o Bishop Clemens von Galen sermon: August 3, 1941 o Target reached? Over 700 000 killed Euthanasia applied to camps o Aktion 14f13 o Special sections for sick or frail patients o Estimated 20 000 more people killed People become suspicious

Reading: The Final Solution: Overall Planning (Yahil, pgs 306-310) From Racism to Racial Eugenics Hitlers innovation lay in his desire to solve the Jewish question Racism remained the main ideological instrument of the wartime struggle to gain power Used euthanasia to justify killing in order to improve the health of the nation Task of racial eugenics was to develop and improve the human race (individual suffering became insignificant) 1933: Law for the Prevention of Progeny of Sufferers from Hereditary Diseases->to purify the body of the nation and to eradicate hereditary diseases and to guarantee to the state authority and total control over life, marriage, and the family

The Implementation of Euthanasia ausmerzen (exterminate) in the event of war, euthanasia would be implemented in 1939, began to draw up the plan for euthanasia-->only one person rejected the idea five stages-->eventually killed with carbon monoxide and burned-->by August 1940, 70 273 people were exterminated this way-->attempted to conceal it at first, but protests began to grow August 24, 1941: Hitler halted the euthanasia operation-->but continued in practice as wild euthanasia (random killings in institutions-->starvation popular)

Initially the objective was racial purification of the German people (Jews not considered) but then turned to Jewish mental patients in June 1940 Then all Jewish patients were sent to Eglfing-Haar in Bavaria where they never returned

Reading: The Opening Act of Genocide (Niewyk) Had long rejected human equality Translated ideology of inequality into a policy of exclusion Inequality seen as scientific fact (Charles Darwin) Superiority of white race over all other (linked brain size to intelligence) Four groups with lower human forms: women, nonwhites, Jews, lower classes within superior races (biological science) Eugenics-->first coined in 1881 by Francis Galton and described by Charles Davenport-->the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding-->Social Darwinism Eugenecists focused their attention on the feebleminded Eugenecists described degeneracy to class, race, and ethnic group 1910 Davenport suggested sterilization to deal with handicapped individuals->1907 first sterilization law enacted in Indiana-->eugenics were successful but eventually lost support in the US in Germany-->Hoche and Binding insisted that physicians be protected against prosecution for euthanasia and argued that killing of defective patients would allow for expanded research opportunities in Germany, killing operations were only the most radical stage of exclusion exclusion institutionalized human inequality exclusion applied to handicapped, antisocial, or criminal (prostitutes, beggars, vagabonds, habitual criminals)-->also applied to racially alien peoples (especially Jews and gypsies) exclusion was applied differently to each group German science was rapidly synchronized with Nazi ideology after 1933 physical regeneration through eradication first group targeted for killing were the handicapped the euthanasia killings (the systematic and secret execution of the handicapped) were Nazi Germanys first organized mass murder-->the opening act of Nazi genocide the final solution followed euthanasia June 22, 1941-->second more ambitious killing operation in Soviet Union (murder of all Jews on Soviet soil and gypsies and handicapped) General agreement that Hitler had a deciding voice in ordering the killing of the Jews Assumed that Hitler gave verbal orders to kill the Jews (no documentation existed)-->do not know the date that Hitler issued his order to kill the Jews (assumed spring 1941) Once the order was issued, the SS served as the first means of implementation

Final solution applied to gypsies as well as Jews Victims lured into gas chambers and corpses burned immediately (Auschwitz famous killing centre/concentration camp-->symbolized genocide in the 20th century-->only the last, most perfect killing centre) T4 technique By 1945, claimed the lives of 6 million people

The Straight or Twisty Road to Auschwitz November 1, 2011 Intentionalism v. Functionalism Intentionalism: Hitler sets out a blueprint for power in Mein Kampf Hitlers intention - to murder Jews of Europe he consistently works toward this goal from 1933 on Functionalism Holocaust was not intended (murder and genocide were not intended) intention was deportations - as long as Jews werent in his sphere of countries he did not have to murder them happened as a step by radicalization of Nazi policy toward Jews The Nazi state = chaotic; constantly changing to try and fix the Jewish problem and therefore, they radicalize policy influenced by the Nazi state and War needed a new solution as displacing the population was not working Intentionalism and Functionalism are contingent with the following views of the state: Totalitarianism (associated with Intentionalism) Hitlers state is monolithic with all power in Hitlers hands Nazis had control over all aspect of society no one makes a move without Hitlers consent bureaucracy all following specific orders from Hitler VERSUS Polycracy (associated with Functionalism) Hitlers state consisted of many rival fiefdoms all vying for Hitlers favour Hitler was reluctant to make decisions and delineated responsibility allowed his own underlings to do what they want; they built up the power ex. Himmler does this Hitler encourages competing ideas

best way to impress Hitler was to have most radical ideals ultimate power is still with Hitler life is constantly a struggle, so all underlings struggling for victory this does not discount the role of Hitler, if he disagrees he will shut the policy down but does give his underlings the opportunity to create policy for later approval functionalism - a result of the way the Nazi state functions! Currently - Historians have found a middle ground to these arguments Hitler is certainly aware/involved in the Holocaust (it is the Hitler state!) BUT: recognize that Hitler state was less total than we thought - there were fiefdoms (Himmler, Heydrich) These contribute to the radicalization of policy in all areas including the policy of Jews extermination was not the original plan, but was an acceptable alternative to deportation Himmler and Heydrich Nazis complicated bureacracy the following chart shows Himmlers rise to power

1929- SS - 280 members, created Heinrich Himmler as the leader he makes it massive 1933: 50 000 members 1934: 200 000 members Schutzstaffelin strict racial qualifications

gestapo (the state secret police) have to show lineage from 1776, height requirement, bride must be racially pure Hitler insisted on having control of marriage certificates Himmler calls himself Police Chief of Munich this is just a party functionary, its making him a part of the Nazi state this is important starts picking others off and builds power as such 1934 - Himmler becomes head of the Gestapo this gives him power across all of the state, so he can interfere with all policy in Germany 1936 - all police in Germany are under his control therefore he has a dual role: Chief of Police (state position) and Head of SS (party position) so these jobs are now combined he creates the Waffen SS - they arrange the Deaths Head - concentration camp guards Himmler creating apparatus that subscribes to Hitlers world view by creating the SS, he also has a hand in the military Himmlers power base is the key to the SS a lot of his influence is because he controls the police by 1934 - Administered by Theodore Eicke Inspection of K2 (IK2) Guarded by Deaths Head K2 Evolves 1933 - Detention Centers 1936 - overhaul - The Dachau Model (prototype and model for other concentration camps) 1938 - change again because of Coming War 1939 - outbreak of the war 1941 - Euthanasia starts and Labour Camps significantly change in 1941 1942 - Death Camps begin functioning 1933 - start off as detention centers, werent meant to last, haphazardly erected and run different conditions in each camp different groups in each camp most prisoners are political prisoners (socialists) or clergy arrested under protected custody warrants by Gestapo (Schutzhaffbefehl) Himmler uses this law to arrest SUBVERSIVE people who POSE A RISK TO THE STATE they are preventative-->they are not based on arrests, guilt, etc. Here - we see Hitlers legal pretexts again 1936 - big year for Himmler - quite independent of state institutions that could curtail his power Reorganization Feb 10 1936 - Gestapo Law

make system more efficient/uniform because it is now clear that they will need it longer than they had originally thought Gestapo now exclusively making arrests NO COURTS - ALL ACTS OF HATE Eicke appointed inspector of K2 July 1934 dissolution and restructuring of camps according to the Dachau model Dachau Model 1936 - all K2 camps are remodeled according to Dachau 1000-1500 SS guards, administration and medical staff they were accessible - near railroads and city for easier access to supplies disguised, not out in the open - look like train stations secure training centre for all guards was at Dachau to learn rules of cruelty trained to believe that people = the enemy, and that tolerance = weakness no mercy, they prisoners are there because they are enemies of the state not a death camp (all are in Poland - there are 6) rest are forms of concentration camps has a creamatorium because people die due to the conditions of K2 people arent sent here to die, they are detention centres building called Canada - where they kept prisoners belongings as Canada was seen to be a country of wealth Categories of Prisoners red- political green - criminals black - asocials, Rome and Sinti (Gypsies) Pink - homosexuals purple - Jehovas blue - immigrants yellow - jews (with 2 triangles, superimposed to make the Star of David) They were given arm bands - so guards could understand your rank and why you are there 1938 - Coming of War system changes in nature a bit before 1938 - focused on political prisoners 1938 - system expands again, fairly dramatically now - radical prisoners - asocials or Jews were also included now (expansion of camp population) this is also seen with kristallnacht; arrested now because they are JEWISH Anschluss in Austria and the Sudetenland show that war is coming and that Germany is prepared Nazi encouragement of emigration now becomes forced Jews are released from Germany and many of their possessions must be left

more labour - nature changes of labour too when Eichmann comes onto the stage (before 38, he was a Jew expert in the Nazi part) transferred to Austria to deal with 200 000 newly acquired Jews hes a great administer - organizes deportation of Viennese Jews and makes it efficient (he sends away 50 000 in 6 months) forced emigration of Jews at the hands of the SS in Austria (Jan 1939) Dec 1939 - he is transferred to RSHA they need his expertise in forcing deportations of Poles in Poland and Germany, therefore a massive Jewish population needed to be moved now, so he is asked Jewish problem becomes more urgent with these developments now racial prisoners and its contingent on war Eichmann generally pushed emigrants 1939 Outbreak of War Internationalization of Population Poles population quadruples of K2s August 1939 - 21 000 Spring 1942 - 70-80 000 death rates increase sharply because conditions decrease sharply Soviet POWs also become part of population at K2s 1941 - Euthanasia and Labour 14f13 sick and weakend prisoners gassed because population of K2s exploded prisoners are not dying out fast enough through attrition, so they decide to get rid of sick/weak after the Summer of 1941 some Jews and political prisoners included Soviet POWs after summer 1941 10-20 000 killed mass shootings 34-45 000 SOV POWs labour leasing concentration camps - become specified to certain industries (companies use this labour) - Himmler leases labour Companies that used this labour: IG Farbin (armamanets) and Daimler-Puch (synthetic rubber) Christian Worth (not sure if this was the actual name) - hes involved in killing centres, euthanasia especially becomes head of Belzek Death Camp 1942 - Death Camps mobilization of all prisoner labour

all in Poland, all aimed at killing 1942-3 - subcamps creation of mass mortality camps - that are just for the sick; they are sub-camps of bigger ones where sick (dying get sent to die) population explosion Sept 1942 - 110 000 1943 - 224 000 1944 - 534 286 Auschwitz - K2 and a Death Camp - why it is so big and well known Bergen Beisen - another mass mortality camp (Anne Frank was here)

From Partial to Total Genocide-->Outbreak of War: Ghettos and Concentration Camps November 8, 2011 Waves of Emigration 1933-1934: o 50 000 to France, Holland, Czechoslovakia 1934-1937: o relaxation and re-entry-->seems that extreme violence is over and stability is returning-->seems that the situation is not escalating-->the situation of Jews does not seem as bad as it was in the beginning 1938: Kristallnacht: o Jews are increasingly encouraged to emigrate o 50 000 Jews leave in six months Kristallnacht (November 9-10 1938)-->outbreak of war: o 78 000 Jews leave Germany o reaction to the violence of Kristallnacht

War and Radicalization March 1938: o Anschluss, Austria o 200 000 Jews (Germany inherits all these Jews) September 1, 1939: o Poland invaded o 2 million Jews June 22, 1941: o Soviet Union invaded o 3-4 million Jews

Lublin/Nisko Settlement solution to the problem of Czech Jews mortality sometimes close to 50% Heydrich includes Roma and Sinti Halted spring 1940 95 000 resettled

Madagascar Plan after fall of France (July 1940) deport over 3 million Jews to French island of Madagascar depended upon secure waterways dropped for Eastern resettlement after invasion of Soviet Union

Ghettoization begins informally before failure of resettlement plans Lodz the first example of systematic ghetto policy (February 1940) Haphazard Seen as better option than reservations-->begin transferring Jews from the East into these ghettos Meant to be an interim solution Ghettos were temporary The more time that passes, the more strict these controls become Roughly 1000 ghettos established in the East

Operation Barbarossa Hitler invades Soviet Union: June 22, 1941 General Plan East: Heinrich Himmler o Move Slavs, Poles, Jews eastward o Resettle Ethnic Germans into vacated lands Goring letter: July 31, 1941-->solving the Jewish question

Einsatzgruppen First Sweep: o From invasion to end of 1941 o Surprise, accuracy, secrecy o Estimated 500 000 deaths Hitler always equates the Jews with Bolsheviks Second Sweep: o 1941-1942 o no surprise, less accuracy and secrecy o estimated 1.4 million Jews in total initially targeted adult males

Babi Yar Ukraine September 29, 1941 33 771 Jews murdered camp inmates ordered to exhume bodies and get rid of evidence in 1943 by 1943, Nazis trying to cover their tracks largest single murder of Jews (shooting)

Chelmno use of T4 expertise (euthanasia program) first stationary gassings gas vans

150 000 killed this way always being told that they are being resettled in the east-->undressed and then put in gas van/then van takes them somewhere to be buried

Reading: Chapter Five (Yahil): Toward the Struggle for World Domination (19391941) The Outbreak of War August 23, 1939: nonaggression pact between Germany and Soviet Union->Stalin and Hitler violated all the political principles they had been professing for years-->Hitler still planned to attack Russia (after it defeated the West) Hitlers ultimate objective was to rule the world, and in this respect he regarded the US as his main adversary Looked to Eastern Europe for Lebensraum

Occupied Poland Polish army never stood a chance Final frontier in Poland drawn between Soviet Union and Germany on September 28, 1939 Divided into four areas Jews were to be killed Himmler assigned to the Consolidation of German Nationhood in Poland

Himmlers SS State Security Service (SD) operated primarily within the party From 1934-1936, Himmler worked on expanding and diversifying the SS (ie. Death Heads-->placed in charge of concentration camps) June 17, 1936: Himmler was appointed Chief of the German police-->first time the police was under the command of a single man-->only one authority above him: Hitler Himmler fully believed that the German race was destined to rule the world

The Concentration Camps Instrument by which Hitler terrorized the population March 1933, Himmler established the first camp near Dachau SS had exclusive/unrestricted control over these camps Beginning in 1936, one new camp was established after another Camps were built in easily accessible places, near a railroad and no too far from the city, carefully concealed from others-->1000-1500 guards/camp

The Polyhierarchy in Occupied Poland Directors of police were authorized to deal with political affairs

The Generalgouvernement was looked on as occupied territory and on Hitlers orders no orderly and independent administration was established there Competition among German authorities

Resettlement: The First Deportations In the first stage, 80 000 Jews and Poles were to be deported by December 17, 1939 Focus of responsibility for the deportation program was transferred to the RSHA in Berlin (Heydrich was responsible) Goring issued instructions to halt the deportations in March 1940 Many died during deportation

Europe Under German Domination May 10, 1940: German launched Blitzkreig against the West Defeated Denmark, then Norway, France, Belgium, Holland By the spring of 1941, close to 3 million Jews were under German control

Ghettos November 15, 2011 Chelmno Use of T4 expertise First stationary gassings Gas vans 150 000 killed this way shift from mobile killing actions to stationary killings this made the solution that the Jews will be killed/not moved

Resettlement: Mass Deportations deportations from Western Europe begin, fall 1941 make the Reich judenren by 1943 (free of Jews Himmler) gassing facilities not yet in operation two-thirds complete by the end of 1942 end up in ghettos

Wannsee Conference: January 20 1942 called by Reinhard Heydrich members of Interior Ministry, Justice Ministry, Office of Four Year Plan, Foreign Office, Occupied Territories, Eichmann arguments over whose Jews get killed first approximately 11 million Jews that need to be dealt with in the East

Operation Reinhard Camps Belzec600 000 o First gas installations Sobibor250 000 Treblinkaup to 1 million o Largest of the three Built specifically to be extermination camp All used carbon monoxide All closed by end of 1943 By the end of 1943, almost the entire Polish Jewish population has been murdered

Majdanek: October 1941-July 1944

Forced labour of Jews and Poles Gassing facilities added late summer 1942 200 000 Jews and Poles gassed using carbon monoxide zyklon-B Harvest Festival: November 3, 1943: 18 000 prisoners shot by SS in one day

Auschwitz: May 1940-January 1945 Symbol of Holocaust Three camps: o Auschwitz I: original camp o Auschwitz II (Birkenau): extermination camp o Auschwitz III (Monowitz): labour camp 40 satellites gassings start beginning of 1942 Himmler orders end to gassings: November 1, 1944 1.2-1.5 million victims, mostly Jewish gassed using Zyklon-B, a pesticide (tested on Soviet POWs) becomes so big because of its location (easy to access/railroads) life expectancy in Auschwitz is three months crematorium above gas chambers in Reinhard they initially bury the bodies

The First Ghetto September 21, 1939: Heydrich ghettoization order o Establishment of Jewish Councils (Judenrat/Judenrate) October 8, 1939: first ghetto established at Piotrkow-Trybunalski (Poland) o Borders marked by signposts o Never enclosed Ghettos are not meant to be a permament installation-->meant to be temporary holding pen Many different types of ghettos Some of them have walls/wires Depends on the local Nazi administrator

Justifications Fear of epidemics Prevent marketeering Create space for Volksdeutsche Force transfer of hidden assets Black market develops in ghettos The only way for you to get food or clothing was through a barter system (constantly having to give up whatever possessions you have-->food is always scarce)

Discrepancies

Large: 100 000 or more o Tightly administered o Lasted longest Medium: 20 000 or more o Depends on local situation Small: under 20 000 o Freedom to barter o Not sealed o Destroyed first

The Ghettos: Organization Nazi overseer Establish Judenrat (Jewish Council) o Adam Czerniakow (Warsaw) o Chaim Rumkowski (Lodz) Jewish order police Forced labour

Judenrat (Judenrate) Paying fines Confiscating valuables Evicting Jews from apartments for use by Germans Conducting census Paying for construction of Ghetto walls Drafting people for forced labour

Jewish Order Police Enforcement: o Taxes o Confiscations o Smugglers Public services: o Snow removal o Garbage removal Escorted men to forced labour Assisted in deportations

Forced Labour Conflict between racial policy and economic considerations As war worsens, need for labour increases This coincides and conflicts with the emergence of the Final Solution: productionists (trying to save Jews by making them appear as valuable workers--

>Czerniakow) vs. attritionists (most important to annihalate the Jews->Rumkowski) Liquidation Warsaw: May 1943 Vilna: September 1943 Lodz: August 1944

Reading: Chapter Six (Yahil): The War Against European Jewry: The First Assault (Autumn 1939 to Spring 1941) The Reichs Jewish Policy in Occupied Poland The Problem of the Jews in the Occupied Areas (Heydrich) September 21, 1939-->mentions the final aim-->six clauses: o Jews should be concentrated in the large cities (near railway) o Establishment of Jewish councils to execute all orders o Coordination of action with other German authorities o Need for commanders of Einsatzgruppen to report on the results of their actions o 5&6 dealt with administrative matters first eviction of Jews from their primary residences (deportation), next was concentration and isolation, then organization and maintenance placed on their organizations, economic basis would be destroyed, make use of the Jewish labour force

Developing the Methods of Deportation first deportations were experimental to be carried out for the sake of experience assemble masses in places easy to move them by train Heydrich established a central authority to direct the deportations (Final Travel Plan by Eichmann) Treatment of deportees became increasingly harsh (no food, water, money)

Coercion of Polish Jews Anarchy in Generalgouvernement SS had a single aim: to achieve complete control over the population without consideration for its needs or economic value Murder, abduction, abuse In the GG there was no intention of systematically clearing out the Jewish population Some movement over to Soviet forces by Jews

Kruger given all control over Jewish affairs when Frank came to power in the GG-->Jews cannot move, curfew, representation of the Jews known as the Judenrat (Jewish councils), had to wear Jewish ribbon/Star of David Spoliation of Jewish property accelerated in Poland-->robbery/looting-->boycott, imposition of taxes and fines, registration of property, expropriation of property Chief architect of the plunder of Poland was Hermann Goring Deprived Jews of all liquid assets and enforced systematic looting

The Method of Natural Death Kidnapping Jews for the purpose of forced labour-->Jewish work camps were an important instrument in the process designed to achieve the solution to the Jewish problem by the method of natural death Lublin Reservation plan was shelved for pragmatic reasons Establishment of forced labor camps and ghettos Labor camps not organized in a comprehensive and systematic fashion until the spring of 1940 Ghetto regarded as a temporary concentration until it made possible the final solution of disposing the Jews-->purpose was to sift out all the goods and valuables owned by Jews-->meant to ensure maximum loss of population during the period of the ghettos existence Goebbels called the ghettos death caskets-->systematic starvation of the population trapped in ghettos Different ghettos (Lodz, Warsaw)-->most ghettos came between July 1940January 1941

The Einsatzgruppen and Their Helpers November 22, 2011

The Beginnings - involvement in invasion of SU in 1941 - accompanied troops into Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) (1938) - minor role, but constituted as a political force - meant to ensure political compliance of people in Sudetenland - Murdered at least 10 000 in Poland (1939) - take on a more murderous role here - meant to look after political conformity of civilians there - their executions are mainly of political opponents (people in roles of political leadership; active Bolsheviks) - many are Jews - but, murdered for role in Bolshevik party rather than simply being Jews - but the terms Jew and Bolshevik are intertwined: the Judeo-Bolshevik - murdered for political affiliations - change in role from Czechoslovakia to Poland, because its a different war in Poland - Czechoslovakia: population is valued here - racial kinship here which precludes the violence we see in the E - move more east, and more definitie racial hierarchy - Poles are lower on this hierarchy than Sudetenland German;s - therefore a massive escalation of violence in Poland - Soviet Union: was of annihilation - different war - Operation Barbarossa - 13 March 1941: arrangement with Army (Wehrmacht) - planning stage of Barb. - political higher ups are planning the invasion which involves Himmler as head of SS and Himmler as hear of RHSA, trying to carve out a sphere of jurisdiction for the Einsatzgruppen, reach an agreement - March 22nd, launched - Einsatzgruppen re-formed May 1941 (new role)

- solely responsible to Heydrich and then Himmler - remained OUTSIDE of control of regular army - under direct control oh Himler and Heydrich - responsible for all of the political activities in the occupied areas - 6 June 1941: Kommisarbefehl - gives orders to take care of political enemies in SU (political commisars who are attached to the Red Army - gives them license to execute without trial - however, there is (at least in theory) a definition of who is to be executed - just political enemies; commissars. - but you can read more into it: because there is a continual link with Nazis between Jews and Bolsheviks (if youre a Jew, youre also a Bolshevik) - 2 July 1941: Guidelines for Conduct - troops invading SU - another memorandum sent out by Himmler - further guidelines of those who were to be included in execution: top politicians and Jews in party and state employment - here we see Jews being specifically mentioned - but once again, its a definition that is so vague that it can be expanded to include almost any Jew Einsatzgruppen - Einsatzgruppen A - Franz Stahlecker - Einsatzgruppen B: - Arthur Nebe - Einsatzgruppen C: - Otto Rasch - Einsatzgruppen D - Otto Ohledorf - theyre trying to show that their an orderly institution as opposed to the Nazis who are disorderly, inefficient, rife with internal rivalries and that the SS should avoid all of these problems - trying to maintain itself as a respectable, efficient institution - theyre not radicals like the Nazis; this is true to some of them, but many of them are Ordinary men - start recruitment of respectable individuals: - they hold degress of higher education and this is a good reflection of that (the above list) - its ad hoc, so it plucks people from various places: - SD (Sichererheitsdisent) : Security of SS - Kripo (Kriminalpolizei)criminal police (state apparatus) - Gestapo (state apparatus, secret Police) - Orpo (ordunungspolizei) also state apparatus, the regular police - members of the SS (Waffen and regular)

- wach varies in its performances, dominated by SD and SS - Christopher Browning Book is about ORPO (orsnungspolizei) - each Einsatzgruppen is attached to an army group! and responsible for a specified area - look after political opponents and secure the hinterland of the army to make sure the backs of the army are protected - the justification that there is a big fear of a partisan army attacking them from the rear - function of Einsatzgruppen: to eliminate this threat - this is a justification used to support this Einsatzgruppen Help Wanted - initially, altogether consists of 3000 men - 700-1000/group - this is not enough ment to deal with what they face in the SU - encounted millions of more Jews in SU as a result of their invasion, 3000 isnt enough to take care of this problem for the Nazis - they need help - find that much of that help can be found voluntarily - 2 main groups that becomes auxiliaries of the Einsatzgruppen: - Hiwis (Hilfswillige)/Trawnikis - Usually POWs - USUALLY Soviets - Hilfspolizei - voluntary - auxiliary police - (Arajs Kommando) - in Lithuania - here, there is a great deal of local indigenous participation in antisemitic pilgrims and in the execution patterns that the Einsatzgruppen carry out - in Lithuania, the local populations are anticipating the arrival of the Einsatzgruppen - this is not something that the planners anticipated (that people will be getting ready before they even arrive) - local population takes this as license to carry out violent programs against the Jews - this is a flashpoint of genocide: this spontaneous eruption of violence not by the Einsatzgruppen, creates a situation where genocide is now possible - this is a policy that can be taken to the next level (in the same way that Kristallnacht shows Hitler that while they dont endorse misgivings to Jews, theyre not going to stop it)

- Lithuania in particular, shows Nazis that policies in the E can go even further and genocide is now feasible (but this is an extreme example, most violent, spontaneous eruption against Jews) - dont expect people to organize themselves and participate in the execution of the people that have been their neighbors (in Poland) - Einsatzgruppen are respectable members of society who are educated and on a dime, turn against their neighbors - these 2 groups becomes parts of the Einsatzgruppen and travel around with them to carry out their policy - see with Hiwis and Hilfspolizei, theres another group that spontaneously participates - just because they are compelled to participate in the violence, we see that many have no problem getting involved in the action - others, tho, do have issues with the violence - quickly find ways to come to terms with their jobs and while they dont agree with executions, they know it needs to be done to get on with their day (why we see massive drunkenness; how people deal with the action) The Wehrmacht - until the 1990s, it was believed that they were not involved in killing of Jews, Soviets and Bolsheviks, that they kept their hands clean, they were professional soldiers that would not partake in these barbaric murder actions actions of Wehrmacht - 90s: start to question their role and see them being more violent than thought - violent killing actions in the E - while a majority arent pulling the trigger, theyre closely involved in the killing actions (the periphery of the actions) - involved in securing the perimeter; when Einsatzgruppen go into a town to cleanse it, the Wehrmacht who guard the periphery - they also guard the trucks that contain Jews who are about to be executed - guard the pit while Jews are being executed - Postwar claims of innocence and honour - Brutalization of warfare on Eastern Front - Used generally in an auxiliary manner - sometimes participate in executions - some are not involved, but this is not the norm - these peripheral invovlements is shocking, and contrary to the claims made by the Wehrmacht after the war (that they had no idea about the murders; they say they didnt witness anything, they were just working for the war effort) - are trying to White Wash - stuck in a particular situation - tried to wash hands of actiona against unarmed civilians - NOT TRUE; they are aware and sometimes participate and when they do its usually on the periphery - we say this is just Germany

- but it required more than Germans for the Holocaust to be successful - Postwar attempts to deal with these problems dont work well - innocence and honour not here - after war, while initially some harsh sentences are given to Einsatzgruppen - but few! - Trials: give us information! - they tell us about what happened - postwar testimonies become a rich source about information of the Holocaust - nothing will ever equate to the crimes committed - worst punishment: death sentence - for many people, this is not enough Tutorial: Count Two War Crimes A: high altitude experiments B: freezing experiments C: malaria experiments D: lost (mustard) gas experiments E: sulfanilamide experiments F: bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration experiments G: sea water experiments H: epidemic jaundice experiments I: sterilization experiments J: spotted fever experiments K: experiments with poison L: incendiary bomb experiments

Timeline of Murder November 29, 2011 - are these long held beliefs or does it happen because its the simplest solution to a growing problem - intentionalists - planned all along - functionalist- final solution was the simplest solution to the growing problem of the Jews 1 Sept 1939 - when the war breaks out - Invasion of Poland - Polish Jews required to wear Star of David as a marker October 1939 - Euthanasia T4 Program starts Later 1939 - Lublin Plan - Discontinued Spring 1940 June 1940 - Madagascar Plan - deportations - Discontinued Feb 1942 Feb - March 1941 - military planning for invasion of Soviet Union - part of this planning includes the idea that it will be a war of annihilation 13 March 1941

- Reltionship between Wirmarcht and Einsatzgruppen determined - Einsatzgruppen is not under regular army jurisdiction, it remains under the SS (Heydrich and Himmler) but it is attached to army groups - this indicates that by match of 1941, there is a particular role intended for the Einsatzgruppen with the SU - within the context of this war of annihilation in the SU Spring/Summer 1951 - Euthanasia program moved to the camps - weeding out weaker members of concentration camps 6 June 1941 - Commissar Decree - all political commissars will be executed by Einsatzgruppen - commissars showing any animosity will also be executed - doesnt mention Jews 22 June 1941 - Invasion of SU (Operation Barbarossa) 2 July 1941 - order by Himmler: Only Jews in party and state positions should be executed by Einsatzgruppen 17 July 1941 - order no. 8 - expands the previous decree to include: - all Jewish and Asiatic POWs 31 July 1941 - Goring Order - from Goring to Heydrich, giving him authority over the total solution of the Jewish problem in the German sphere of Europe - IMP - it establishes that HEYDRICH is in charge and it states the GERMAN SPHERE OF EUROPE! - up until this point it was only Soviet Jews - now, its ALL JEWS OF EUOPE, broad, no longer selective - Total solution in German sphere of Europe October 1941 Emigration from Germany halted October 1941 - Separations from Europe (Germany) begin

October - Nov 1941 - First gas vans tested on Eastern Europe Nov 1941 - Construction begins at Belzec - imp because Belzec is one of the Operation Reinhard camps: its function is TO KILL!, its a death camp from its inception, not a death camp attached to a concentration camp - decision has been made to murder Jews in a systematic fashion December 1941 - First gassing experiments Chelmno 20 Jan 1942 - Wannsee Conference - parts of state come together to formulate plans and make sure movement of Jews to the east would be an efficient process Late January 1942 - systematic gassings begin at Auschwitz - this means that - 1941: the year when historical disagree of when the decision was made to murder Jews - problem with intentionalist argument: - if Hitler was in deep planning to murder JEws in Europe from the beginning onwards, there is this 30 month period, where they invaded Poland, had a massive population (2 million Jews) and he didnt murder them - there id no justification for not murdering Jews before the war - when he has the excuse of war, he does not start the extermination of JEws - we see ghettoization and that Hews are treated harshly, but we do not see mobile killing units like in the invasion of the SU - somewhere in 1941, the decision is made to kill the Jews in Europe - but its hard to argue when it happens - some argue its part Feb and MArch 1941, during planning of invasion of SU - others suggests decision is made in June 1941, before the invasion, at a meeting of Einsatzgruppen heads with Heydrich and Himmler on June 17, 1942 - these orders that come after (no 8., Barbarossa) are the orders that are now the written (may have been previously verbalized), this doesn't mean that the order wasnt given earlier! - PROBLEM WITH THIS: when Einsatzgruppen invade in initial weeks and they start murdering, those murders are confined: they target political dissidents and male Jews - so we see there is an equation between Bolshevism and Jews

- suggests that there is not a wide spread, all encompassing order to murder all Jews before the invasion of the SU - not until Aug 1941 that Jewish women and children are also being murdered - has lead many historians to believe that the decision to murder hadnt taken place until June 1941 - see this thru emigration and then deportation SHOW SHIFTS IN JEWISH POLICY - moderate functionalists would argue that what is happening is a testing out of Jewish Policy: Sept 1939 - July 1941 - leading up to the invasion of the SU - extreme functionalist: would say after June 1941 (after invasion of SU) - because it is left up to the Einsatzgruppen to make up policy in their own way - their actual task: to murder all Jews - up to them on how to do this, its up to them to decide that only men are killed - then shift to killing children and women happens at different times and different places - the Einsatzgruppen is not uniform in its actions - underlings = eager to impress and thus create a more vigorous policy implementation - this all shows a haphazard implementation of killings - Nov 1941: idea of gassing was decided upon - this decision was made as early October 1941 when they started deportation of Hews to the already over populated East where Jews had been sent - they dont intend to keep them in the East - they actually intend on murder! - shows intentionalism - by 20 Jan 1942 a decision has certainly been made, Heydrich takes responsibility for this decision to the problem and he is to make sure that there is the most efficient implementation of that decision possible

Exam Review December 6, 2011 Book Review footnotes one point for style one point for content 5 pages double-spaced two marks for quality own reflection of the work why did I pick this book in particular?

Exam: Part One: 15 marks (pick 5 of 10 terms) point form (3 points) identify and state significance define, context, importance Einsatzgruppen Weltanschnauung o Means worldview o Important in context of Hitler o About Jews and about Aryans o Superiority of Aryan race o Ideology that allows the Holocaust to happen Kristtalnacht Opernation Reinhard camps Chelmno Heydrich Himmler

Essay

Goring Nuremberg Laws Goebbels Lublin plan Madagascar Plan Judenrat SS Gestapo Friedrich Ebert November Criminals Stab-in-the-back myth Auschwitz Lebensraum Dachau Eugenics Euthanasia Sterilization Deportation Final Solution Night of the long knives Babi Yar o Largest Einsatzgruppen killing o 33 000 killed o happened in the Ukraine in 1941 o dug up the bodies later to burn them to coever their tracks-->afraid of losing that territory o the Einsatzgruppen killings are murder by shooting (not gassing)-->first stage in Holocaust-->proved to inefficient ghetto Zyklon-B Eichmann Rassenkund Anschluss

Functionalism vs. intentionalism Evolution of concentration camps T4/euthanasia Role of nationalism Rise of Nazism Who is in control of Jewish policy Rise of anti-semitism Ghettoization

Strategies for dealing with the Jewish question (sterlization, euthanasia, deportation)