Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28

Heat Bridges in Building Constructions:

Requirements for Sustainable Housing and Solutions

Gerhard Faninger

Keywords: Cause and effect of heat bridges. Calculation of heat transmission losses in buildings. Heat bridges in building connections and windows. Measures to minimise heat bridges. Assessment of heat transmission losses through heat bridges. Methodology for calculation. Results of calculations and conclusions.

1.

Introduction

Heat Bridges in building constructions result from locally limited areas of a building envelope with raised heat transit. Examples for heat bridges in buildings are:

Connection of building materials with different heat conductivity.

Larger cooling outside area of a building compared with a smaller heat absorbing area of the inner edge; Figure 1.

HHeeaatt bbrriiddggeess eeffffeecctt ttrraannssmmiissssiioonn lloosssseess aass wweellll aass ccoonnddeennssaattiioonn pprroobblleemmss

22 HHeeaatt ttrraannssmmiissssiioonn lloosssseess

TThhee ttrraannssmmiissssiioonn lloosssseess tthhrroouugghh tthhee bbuuiillddiinngg eennvveellooppee iinncclluuddee hheeaatt ttrraannssffeerr tthhrroouugghh tthhee eexxtteerrnnaall wwaallll,, tthhee oouuttssiiddee wwiinnddoowwss aanndd ddoooorrss,, tthhee hhiigghheesstt fflloooorr lleevveell ((rrooooff)) aanndd tthhee lloowweesstt fflloooorr lleevveell ((bbaasseemmeenntt,, cceellllaarr)),, aanndd aaddddiittiioonnaall tthhee hheeaatt lloosssseess tthhrroouugghh hheeaatt bbrriiddggeess iinn tthhee bbuuiillddiinngg eennvveellooppee:: ccoorrnneerrss,, wwiinnddoowwss,, hhiigghheesstt fflloooorr ((rrooooff,, aattttiiccaa)) aanndd lloowweesstt fflloooorr ((bbaasseemmeenntt,, cceellllaarr)),, bbaallccoonniieess aanndd ootthheerr bbuuiillddiinngg ccoonnnneeccttiioonnss;; FFiigguurree 22

The heat transmission losses in a building are calculated on the basis of the “Thermal Conductance Methodology” –“Leitwertberechnung”/1, 2/. The calculation includes the building parts from heated rooms to outside, from heated rooms to non-heated rooms and from non-heated rooms to outside; Figure 3. The calculation from heated rooms to outside is illustrated in Figure 4, and through heat bridges in building connections in Figure 4. The calculation of heat losses through cellars different types and through the basement (non insulated and insulated) is more complex and includes also the heat losses through the different building connections in the cellar area. Figure 5 illustrates the numerical formulation; /2/.

The heat losses through heat bridges in building connections are calculated on the basis of numerical formulation for transient and steady-state heat conductions in two and three dimensions, described in /3/. Computer programmes have been developed within the scope of international co-operation in EU-member countries: EUROKOBRA/AUSTROKOBRA; /4/. With this PC-tool, thermal bridges, heat transfer through corners of windows, heat loss from a house to the ground can be analysed, and it is quite easy to solve ordinary construction problems. The tool makes it simple to describe a large range of heat transfer problems. The user will be helped to design the building construction with minimised heat bridges. Figure 6 demonstrates the practical use of the PC-tool. The programme includes a database for typically building construction parts (outside walls, floors, window-frames, balconies, cellars,

1

basements, other building connections) in form of defaults for editing the structure (thickness of material layers , horizontal and vertical) and materials (characterised with the heat conductivity λ, W/(m, K) ). The results are temperature lines (isotherm lines)in the building construction with assessment of condensation problems and Ψ–values for characterisation of the heat losses through heat bridges.

The results of heat bridge analysis in building constructions are illustrated in Figure 7a and 7b (outside wall), Figure 8a and 8b (balconies) and Figure 9a to 9d (windows); /4/.

3. Heat bridges in windows

The influence of heat bridges between glass and frame is described with the following equation (ÖNORM EN 30077-1):

U w = (U g *A g + U f *A f + l fg *Ψ g ) / (A g + A f )

U w : equivalent thermal convective heat transfer coefficient, W/(m², K) U g : thermal convective heat transfer coefficient of glass, W/(m², K) A g : glass area, m² U f : thermal convective heat transfer coefficient of window frame, W/(m², K) A f : frame area, m² l fg : length of heat bridge, related to Ψ g , m Ψ g : correction factor (supplementary thermal conductance value) for 2D-heat bridge between window frame and window glass, W/(m, K).

Guide numbers for Ψ g -values for heat bridges between window frame and window glass are shown in Table 1 /2/. The U-values of windows are increased through heat bridges between glass and frame by about 0,05 W/(m², K) (high-efficient windows) until 0,19 W/(m², K) (standard-window).

4. Minimizing of heat bridges in building connections

Typically building connections are shown in Figure 10: correct and wrong solutions.

55 Calculation of heat transmission losses through heat bridges

The basis for the calculation of heat transmission losses through heat bridges is the methodology of “Thermal Conductance Analyses”. The influence of heat bridges is described through characteristically supplementary heat conduction values Ψ for typically building constructions. Ψ can be calculated within the PC-tools for heat bridge analyses; /4/. Typically guide numbers are listed in Table 2.

The thermal conductance value L HB is calculated with:

L HB = Ψ * 1, W/K

Ψ

=

supplementary thermal conductance value, related to length, W/m

l

=

length of heat bridge, m

Figure 11 shows an example for calculation.

2

The transmission heat losses Q HB through heat bridges are calculated from the supplementary thermal conductance value L HB with /1, 2/:

Q HB = (L HB * 3) * 0,024 * HGD/V g , kWh/(m², a)

HGD: Heating degree days

V g :

Volume of heated building area, m³ (gross)

6. Calculation of total heat transmission losses of the building envelope

The thermal conductance L e of the building envelope is the sum of all heat transfers through the building envelope:

i

j

L e = A i * U i + ∑Ψ j

i=1

j=1

A i :

area of outside building envelope, m²

U i :

U-value of A i , W/(m²,K)

Ψ j : supplementary thermal conductance value for heat bridge, related to length j,

W/K l j : length of heat bridge j, m

The total transmission heat losses Q total through the building envelope are calculated from the thermal conductance value L e with /1, 2/:

Q total

= (L e * 3) * 0,024 * HGD/V g , kWh/(m², a)

HGD: Heating degree days

V g :

Volume of heated building area, m³ (gross)

7. Results of calculations and summary

The results of the calculation of heat transmission losses in housing with different envelope insulation standard are illustrated in Figure 11 (Apartment House), Figure 12 (Row House) and Figure 13 (Single-family Detached House). The contribution of heat bridges to the transmission heat losses are up to 25%. Figure 11c shows the share of the different building parts to the heat transmission for an Apartment House in Low-energy House- and Passive House-standard. The goal/requirement for the heat transmission through heat bridges in Passive Houses is below 4%; Figure 14a and 14b.

The influence of heat losses through heat bridges may be high and has to be considered in the design phase. It is strong recommended to investigate some time to find solutions for minimized heat bridges in building connections.

3

Literature:

/1/

ÖNORM B 8110, ÖNORM EN 1190: Wärmeschutz im Hochbau.

/2/

Österreichisches Normungsinstitut. Wien.1999 Energieausweis für Gebäude: Rechenprogramm zur Abschätzung des Heizwärme- und

/3/

Brennstoffbedarfes von Gebäuden. Ausgabe 8.0, März 2003. Gerhard Faninger. Institut für systemische Interventionsforschung und Weiterbildung, iff. Universität Klagenfurt. Sterneckstraße 15, A-9020-Klagenfurt www.uni-klu.ac.at/groups/iff/stz/ Free download from: www.energytech.at Heat Conduction in Two and Three Dimensions:

/4/

Computer Modelling of Building Physics Applications Thomas Blomberg. Lund University, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Building Technology, Building Physics. Report TVBH-1008. May 1996 EUROKOBRA / AUSTROKOBRA:

Das EDV Programm für den Baupraktiker – Dynamischer Wärmebrücken-Europa-Atlas im PC E. Panzhauser, K. Krek, J. Lechleitner Technische Universität Wien, Institut für Hochbau für Architekten Karlsplatz 13, A-1040 Wien

www.hb2.tuwien.ac.at

/5/

Wärmebrücken, Luft- und Winddichte

/6/

Erwin Schwarzmüller Energie Tirol, Adamgasse 4, A-6020 Innsbruck. 1999 www.tirol.energie-tirol.at Wärmebrückenvermeidung Christian Astl, Christina Grembacher, Guido Wimmers, Helmut Crepaz, Karl Auer Energie Tirol, Adamgasse 4, A-6020 Innsbruck. 1999 www.tirol.energie-tirol.at

4

Table 1

Ψ-Values for Heat Bridges in Building constructions

Two dimension calculation

GGuuiiddee NNuummbbeerrss

Ψ-Values, W/(m, K)

Standard-

House

Low-Energy-

House

Passive-

House

Building

Envelope

Highest floor / roof / attic Outside wall / ceiling / floors Outside wall / balconies Outside wall / window frame Outside wall / basement

0.20

0.20

0.30

0.20

0.20

0.12

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.10

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.040

0.050

TTaabbllee 22

Ψ g -values for heat bridges between window frame and window glass Guide number (ÖNORM B 8110-1)

Window frame

Ψ g -Werte

Double-and triple glasses, without coating

Double-and triple glasses, evacuated, with coating

Wood- and plastic frame

0,04

0,06

Metall-Frame Metall-frame with insulation

0,06

0,08

0,00

0,02

5

F F i i g g u u r r e e 1 1 :

FFiigguurree 11:: HHeeaatt bbrriiddggeess iinn bbuuiillddiinngg ccoonnssttrruuccttiioonnss

6

F F i i g g u u r r e e 2 2 :

FFiigguurree 22:: TTrraannssmmiissssiioonn hheeaatt lloosssseess iinn bbuuiillddiinnggss

s s s e e s s i i n n b b u u i

FFiigg 33:: HHeeaatt ffllooww tthhrroouugghh tthhee bbuuiillddiinngg eennvveellooppee

7

L e for Building Heated Area to Outside

 

BBuuiillddiinngg PPaarrtt

A B1 (m²)

U (W/(m², K))

A B1 *U (W/K)

Upper Floor/Roof/Attic (1)

409,38

0,100

40,94

Upper Floor/Roof/Attic (2)

-

-

-

Outside Wall (1)

833,86

0,100

83,39

Outside Wall (2)

-

- -

 

Outside Wall (3)

-

- -

 

Windows

FFrraammee

39,80

0,700

27,86

Glass

179,20

0,700

125,44

Outside Doors

-

-

-

Outside Wall, soil-connected

409,38

0,100

8,19

Others (1)

-

- -

 

Others (2)

-

- -

 
 

A B1

1871,62

L e

285,81

L Ψ for two-dimension Heat Bridges

 

Building Part

l (m)

Ψ (W/(m, K))

l*Ψ (W/K)

Upper Floor/Roof/Attic

90,50

0,01

0,72

Outside Wall/1 st Floor

271,50

0,01

2,17

Outside Wall/2 nd Floor

-

-

-

Outside Wall/3 rd Floor

-

-

-

Outside Wall/Balcony

-

-

-

Outside Wall/Balcony

-

-

-

Outside Wall/Windows

480,00

0,01

4,80

Outside Wall/Doors

     

Basement

90,50

0,05

4,53

Others

     

l

932,50

L Ψ

12,22

FFiigguurree 44:: CCaallccuullaattiioonn ooff tthheerrmmaall ccoonndduuccttaannccee ooff tthhee bbuuiillddiinngg eennvveellooppee //22//

8

F F i i g g u u r r e e 5 5 :
F F i i g g u u r r e e 5 5 :
F F i i g g u u r r e e 5 5 :
F F i i g g u u r r e e 5 5 :

FFiigguurree 55:: HHeeaatt ffllooww tthhrroouugghh bbuuiillddiinngg bbaasseemmeenntt aanndd cceellllaarr

9

Figure 6: PC-tool for heat bridge analysis: input data and results 10
Figure 6: PC-tool for heat bridge analysis: input data and results 10

Figure 6: PC-tool for heat bridge analysis: input data and results

10

F F i i g g u u r r e e 7 7 a
F F i i g g u u r r e e 7 7 a

FFiigguurree 77aa:: HHeeaatt ffllooww iinn oouuttssiiddee wwaallll;; eexxaammpplleess //55//

11

F F i i g g u u r r e e 7 7 b
F F i i g g u u r r e e 7 7 b

FFiigguurree 77bb :: HHeeaatt ffllooww iinn oouuttssiiddee wwaallll;; eexxaammpplleess //55//

12

Figure 8a: Heat flow in building conn ections - balconies; examples /5/ 13

Figure 8a: Heat flow in building connections - balconies; examples /5/

13

F F i i g g u u r r e e 8 8 b

FFiigguurree 88bb:: HHeeaatt ffllooww iinn bbuuiillddiinngg ccoonnnneeccttiioonnss -- bbaallccoonniieess;; eexxaammpplleess //55//

14

Figure 9a: Heat flow in wi ndow frames; examples /5/ 15

Figure 9a: Heat flow in window frames; examples /5/

15

F F i i g g u u r r e e 9 9 b

FFiigguurree 99bb:: HHeeaatt ffllooww iinn wwiinnddooww ffrraammeess;; eexxaammpplleess //55//

16

F F i i g g u u r r e e 9 9 c

FFiigguurree 99cc:: HHeeaatt ffllooww iinn wwiinnddooww ffrraammeess;; eexxaammpplleess //55//

17

F F i i g g u u r r e e 9 9 d

FFiigguurree 99dd:: HHeeaatt ffllooww iinn wwiinnddooww ffrraammeess;; eexxaammpplleess //55//

18

Figure 10: Minimizing of heat bridges in typically building connections /5/ 19
Figure 10: Minimizing of heat bridges in typically building connections /5/ 19
Figure 10: Minimizing of heat bridges in typically building connections /5/ 19

Figure 10: Minimizing of heat bridges in typically building connections /5/

19

TTrraannssmmiissssiioonnss HHeeaatt LLoosssseess TThhrroouugghh HHeeaatt BBrriiddggeess

Reference Apartment House, 1872 m² /4070 m³ Location: Zurich

 

Building Insulation

Standard-House

Low-energy-House

Passive-House A

Passive-House B

Standard

 

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

Upper floor/roof/attic

0.50

0.20

0.15

0.12

0.10

0.05

0.10

0.008

Outside wall

0.40

0.20

0.20

0.10

0.12

0.08

0.10

0.008

Outside window

1.80

0.20

1.10

0.10

0.70

0.10

0.70

0.010

Basement/ceiling

0.50

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.050

Thermal

       

conductance, W/K

195,55

95,06

83,20

12,22

Total transmission losses, kWh/(m², a)

74,46

36,11

23,20

17,93

Transmission losses through heat bridges, kWh/(m², a)

11,76

5,18

5,00

0,735

Q heat bridges / Q total , %

15,80

15,83

21,57

4,10

bridges / Q total , % 15,80 15,83 21,57 4,10 Figure 11a: Transmission heat losses in

Figure 11a: Transmission heat losses in housing:

Reference Apartment House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28

20

Figure 11b: Transmission heat losses in housing: Reference Apartment Hous e, IEA-SHC-TASK 28 21
Figure 11b: Transmission heat losses in housing: Reference Apartment Hous e, IEA-SHC-TASK 28 21

Figure 11b: Transmission heat losses in housing:

Reference Apartment House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28

21

Figure 11c: Transmission heat losses in housing: Reference Apartment Hous e, IEA-SHC-TASK 28 22
Figure 11c: Transmission heat losses in housing: Reference Apartment Hous e, IEA-SHC-TASK 28 22

Figure 11c: Transmission heat losses in housing:

Reference Apartment House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28

22

TTrraannssmmiissssiioonnss HHeeaatt LLoosssseess TThhrroouugghh HHeeaatt BBrriiddggeess

 

Reference Row House, 748 m² /1254 m³ Location: Zurich

 

Building Insulation

Standard-House

Low-energy-House

Passive-House A

Passive-House B

Standard

 

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

Upper floor/roof/attic

0.50

0.20

0.15

0.12

0.10

0.05

0.10

0.008

Outside wall

0.40

0.20

0.20

0.10

0.12

0.08

0.10

0.008

Outside window

1.80

0.20

1.10

0.10

0.70

0.10

0.70

0.010

Basement/ceiling

0.50

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.050

Thermal

       

conductance, W/K

58,62

27,67

22,76

4,62

Total transmission losses, kWh/( m², a)

80,46

40,35

24,12

19,49

Transmission losses through heat bridges, kWh/(m², a)

11,44

5,40

4,44

0,90

Q heat bridges / Q total , %

14,22

13,39

18,42

4,62

bridges / Q total , % 14,22 13,39 18,42 4,62 Figure 12a: Transmission heat losses in

Figure 12a: Transmission heat losses in housing:

Reference Row House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28

23

Figure 12b: Transmission heat losses in housing: Reference Row House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28 24

Figure 12b: Transmission heat losses in housing:

Reference Row House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28

24

TTrraannssmmiissssiioonnss HHeeaatt LLoosssseess TThhrroouugghh HHeeaatt BBrriiddggeess

 

Reference Detached House, 470 m² /625 m³ Location: Zurich

 

Building Insulation

Standard-House

Low-energy-House

Passive-House A

Passive-House B

Standard

 

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

U,

Ψ,

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

W/(m², K)

W/(m, K)

Upper floor/roof/attic

0.50

0.20

0.15

0.12

0.10

0.05

0.10

0.008

Outside wall

0.40

0.20

0.20

0.10

0.12

0.08

0.10

0.008

Outside window

1.80

0.20

1.10

0.10

0.70

0.10

0.70

0.010

Basement/ceiling

0.50

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.050

Thermal

       

conductance, W/K

37,58

17,32

14,05

3,14

Total transmission losses, kWh/(m², a)

88,72

37,71

23,38

18,22

Transmission losses through heat bridges, kWh/(m², a)

14,72

6,78

5,50

1,23

Q heat bridges / Q total , %

16,59

18,00

23,54

6,75

bridges / Q total , % 16,59 18,00 23,54 6,75 Figure 13a: Transmission heat losses in

Figure 13a: Transmission heat losses in housing:

Reference Detached House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28

25

Figure 13b: Transmission heat losses in housing: Reference Detached House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28 26

Figure 13b: Transmission heat losses in housing:

Reference Detached House, IEA-SHC-TASK 28

26

Figure 14a: Goal / requir ement for minimizing of heat bridges in Passive Housing 27

Figure 14a: Goal / requirement for minimizing of heat bridges in Passive Housing

27

Figure 14b: Goal / requir ement for minimizing of heat bridges in Passive Housing 28
Figure 14b: Goal / requir ement for minimizing of heat bridges in Passive Housing 28

Figure 14b: Goal / requirement for minimizing of

heat bridges in Passive Housing

28