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Fatin Nadzirah Binti Yusof

No Maktab :



4B (2011)

Guru MP

Miss Zurina


Sulphuric Acid

Uses of sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is used to manufacture almost all products. Some of the example are : Fertilisers Paint pigment Detergents Synthetic fibres Electrolyte in car batteries Cleaning metals Plastics Other chemicals

2. Sulphuric acid is also used in laboratory in school as follows: As drying agent As dehydrating agent As catalyst As strong acid

Manufacture of sulphuric acid in industry

Stage 1: Combustion of Sulphur In the furnace, molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide, SO2. The gas produced is purified and cooled. S(l) + O2(g) SO2(g)

Stage 2: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide in the converter In the converter, sulphur dioxide, SO2 and excess oxygen gas, O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium (V) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 4500C to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

About 99.5% of the sulphur dioxide, SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide, SO3 through this reversible reaction.

Stage 3: Production of sulphuric acid in absorber and diluter In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2S2O7

The oleum, H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produced concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO3 directly to water. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l)

Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid

1. Sulphur dioxide is an acidic and poisoinous gas that pollutes the environment. 2. The sources of sulphur dioxide :

3. Sulphuric acid is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the presence

of water. It also produces sulphurous acid. 4. Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid are constituents of acid rain.
5. Acid rain can cause many effects such as

i. ii. iii.

Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure Destroys trees and plants Decrease the pH of th soil and make it become acidic Acid rain flows into the rivers and increases the acidity of water and kill aquatic living things.

6. Hence, we must reduce the sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere by:

Use low sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide in exhaust gases Remove sulphur dioxide from waste air by treating it with calcium carbonated before it is released Neutralise the acidic soil and water by treating them with calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate.




Ammonia and Its Salts

Uses of ammonia
1. Ammonia is produced industrially as an intermediate compound and as raw material for many other chemical processes. 2. The main uses of ammonia are as follows : To manufactured nitrogenous fertilisers needed for plant growth As raw material for the manufactured of nitric acid As cooling agent in refrigerators To produce ammonium chloride used as electrolyte in dry cells To prevent coagulation of latex To make synthetic fibres such as nylon As smelling salts to revive people who have fainted Making of explosives

Properties of ammonia
1. Ammonia is a covalent compound with the following physical properties :

Manufacture of ammonia in industry

1. Gases mixed and scrubbed Haber process combines N2 gas from the air with H2 gas from natural gas to form NH3. The two gases are mixed. The mixture is scrubbed to get rid of impurities. 2. Compressor

One volume of N2 gas and three volume of H2 gas is compressed to a pressure of 200 500 atm

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) 3. Converter Then, it goes to the converter. It is then passed through layers of iron catalyst with aluminium oxide as a promoter at a temperature of 4500C 5000C 4. Cooler A mixture of three gases leaves the converter. It is cooled until the ammonia condenses. The nitrogen and hydrogen are pumped back to the converter for another chance to react. 5. Storage tanks NH3 is formed and then liquefy and separated to get a better yield. The NH3 is run into tanks and stored as a liquid under pressure.

Ammonium Fertilisers
1. Nitrogen is used by plant to make protein. Protein is important for the growth of plants. Other nutrients needed by plants include phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. 2. Nitrogenous compounds are removed from the soil by the plants. Some are replaced naturally by bacteria. To restore the balance, nitrogenous fertilisers are added to the soil. 3. Nitrogenous fertilisers contain ammonium ions. 4. In the soil, the ammonium ions are converted to nitrate ions by the bacteria. This is because nitrogen can only be absorbed by plants in the form of soluble nitrate ions. 5. Examples of ammonium fertilisers are : Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulphate Ammonium phosphate Urea

6. The effectiveness of ammonium fertilisers is determined by the percentage of nitrogen

by mass in them.
7. The fertilisers with a higher percentage of nitrogen is more effective for growth than

those fertilisers with a low percentage of nitrogen. 8. The percentage of nitrogen by mass can be calculated from the formulae of the fertilisers using the following formula.


Typical pure metals have the following physical properties : Ductile Malleable Lustrous High density High melting and boiling points Good conductors of heat and electricity

Pure Metal

2. Pure metals are weak and soft because the arrangement of atoms in pure metals make

them ductile and malleable. 3. A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and organized closed-packed structure.
4. Pure metals are soft because the orderly arrangement of atoms enables

the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied are on them. This in makes the the metals ductile of and metal can be drawn to form long wires. 5. There imperfections natural arrangements atoms. Empty space exist in the structures of pure metals. When hammered or pressed, groups of metal atoms may slide into new positions in the empty spaces. This makes metals malleable, able to be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets.
6. The strong forces of attraction between metal atoms requires high energy to overcome

it. Hence, most metals have high melting points.

7. The close-packed arrangement of metal atoms results in the high density of metals.

1. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain composition in which the

major component is a metal.

2. In the process of alloying, one or more foreign elements are added to a molten metal.

When the alloy hardens, the positions of some of the metal atoms are replaced by the atom of foreign elements, which size may be bigger or smaller than the original metal atoms. 3. In an alloy, these atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty space in the metal crystal structure. 4. Hence, the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily. This makes the alloy harder and stronger, less ductile and less malleable than its pure metals.
5. The properties of a pure metal are thus improved by making them into alloys. 6. There are three aims of alloying a pure metal:

a) b) c)

To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surface

The Composition, Properties and Uses of Some Alloys

Alloy Bronze Brass Composition 80% copper 20% tin 70% copper 30% zinc Properties Hard, strong, does not corrode easily, shiny surface Harder than copper Uses Medals, statues, monuments, arts,materials Musical instrument, kitchenware, door knobs, bullets cases, decorative

ornaments, electric parts Cupro-nickel 75% copper 25% nickel 99% iron 1% carbon 74% iron 8% carbon 18% chromium 93% aluminium Duralumin 3% copper 3% magnesium 1% manganese 96% tin Pewter 3% copper 1% antimony 50% tin 50% lead 37.5% gold 51.5% copper 11% silver Beautiful surface, shiny, hard, does not corrode easily Hard, strong Shiny, strong, does not rust Buildings, bridges, body of cars, railway track Cutlery, sinks, pipes, surgical instruments Coin


Stainless steel

Light, strong

Body of air crafts, bullet trains, racing bicycles

Shiny, strong, does not corrode Hard, shiny, low melting point Shiny, strong, does not corrode

Art objects, souvenirs Soldier for electric wires and metal Jewellery


9-carat gold


Synthetic Polymers

1. Polymers can be defined as large molecules composed of numerous smaller, repeating

units known as monomers which are joined by covalent bonds.

2. Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to

form the big molecule known as the polymers. 3. There are two types of polymerization process: a) Addition polymerization

Involves monomers with the carbon-carbon double bonds between the carbon atoms smaller and simple molecules such as water.

b) Condensation polymerization

Involves the joining up of monomers with the formation of other

4. A polymer is a very big molecule (macromolecule). Hence, the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. 5. The properties of polymer are different from its monomers. 6. Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occurring polymers
This type of polymer exists in living things in nature like the plants and

Examples of naturally occurring polymers are:

Protein Carbohydrate Natural rubber

Naturally occurring polymers are formed by the joining of monomers by

polymerization. Synthetic polymers

These types of polymer are man-made by chemical process in the laboratories. The raw materials for synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum.

The types of synthetic polymers include: Plastics Fibres Nylon

1. Plastics are made from the products of cracking of petroleum fractions such as alkenes molecules through addition polymerisation. 2. Plastics are the largest group of synthetic polymers with the following properties :

Can be easily moulded and coloured Low density Strong Inert to chemicals Insulators of heat and electricity Impermeable Non-biodegradable

Monomers, Properties and Uses of Some Commonly Plastic

Name of polymer Polythene Monomers Ethane Properties
Durable, light, impermeable, inert to chemistry, easily melt, insulator Durable, light, impermeable, inert to

Uses Shopping bags, plastic cups and plate, toys



chemistry, easily melted, insulator, can be moulded and coloured

Bottles, furniture, battery casing, pipes, toys Disposable cups and



Heat insulator, light, can be moulded, impermeable

plates, packaging materials, toys, heat insulator Replacement for glass. Lenses, optical fibres Coating for non-stick pans, electrical insulators

Perspex Teflon

Methyl methacrylate Tetrafluoroethene

Transparent, strong, light Durable, non-stick, chemically inert, strong, impermeable

Advantages of synthetic polymers

Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical reactions Easily moulded or shaped and be coloured Can be made to have special properties

Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers

As most of polymers are non-biodegradable, they will not decay like other organic garbage.

Burning of polymers release harmful and poisonous gases.

Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers

Reduce, reuse and recycle synthetic polymers Develop biodegradable polymers


Glass and Ceramics

1. The main component of both glass and ceramic is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2.
2. Both glass and ceramic have the same properties as follow :

Hard and brittle Inert to chemical reactions Insulators or poor conductors of heat and electricity Withstand compression but not stretching Can be easily cleaned Low cost of production

3. Differences between glass and cerement are, glass is transparent, while ceramic is opaque. Ceramic can withstand a higher temperature than normal glass.

4. Types of glass are

: It is consist mainly of silica or silicon dioxide It has high heat resistance It cannot withstand high temperatures It can withstand high temperature High refractive index


Fused glass

b) c) d)

Soda lime glass Borosilicate glass Lead glass

5. Uses of improved glass for specific purpose a) Photochromic glass It is sensitive to light intensity It conducts electricity b) Conducting glass
6. Ceramic is a manufactured substances made from clay, with the main constituent of

aluminosilicate with small quantity of sand and feldspar. 7. Superconductor is one improved ceramics for specific purposes.

1. Glass is made up from sand.
2. The major component of glass is SiO2. 3. There are four types of glass which are as follows

Fused glass Soda-lime glass Borosilicate glass Lead crystal glass

Composition, Properties and Uses of Different Types of Glass

Name of glass

Properties High melting point High temperature High chemical durability Resistant to thermal shock Transparent to ultraviolet and infrared light Low melting point High thermal expansion coefficient Does not withstand heat Cracks easily with sudden change in temperature Good chemical durability Easy to mould and shape Transparent to visible light Transparent to visible light Resistant to chemicals Lower thermal



Silicon dioxide

Laboratory glassware Arc tubes in lamps Lenses Telescope mirrors Optical fibres

Fused glass

Containers such as bottles, jars and tumblers

Silicon dioxide Sodium oxide Calcium oxide

Flat glass Windowpanes Mirrors Light bulbs Industrial and art objects

Soda-lime glass

Borosilicate glass

Silicon dioxide Boron oxide Sodium oxide Calcium oxide

Cookware Laboratory glassware Automobile headlights

expansion coefficient Resistant to thermal shock Can withstand wide range of temperature Lead crystal glass changes Soft and easy to melt Transparent to visible light High density High refractive index Silicon dioxide Lead(11) oxide Sodium oxide Tableware Art objects Crystal Prism Lenses Glass pipelines Electrical tubes

1. Ceramics are made from clay and composed of aluminium silicate mixed with sand. 2. The white clay used to ceramics is kaolin which is in rich in kaolinite or hydrated aluminosilicate. 3. Red clay consists of iron(III) oxide which gives the red colour. 4. Brick, tiles, mugs and clay pots are some examples of traditional ceramics 5. During the making of ceramics, the shaped objects are heated to very high temperature. They undergo a series of chemical reactions and are hardened to form ceramics. 6. These chemical reactions are irreversible and the ceramics cannot be melted and moulded.

How Ceramic are Made

1. Wet clay can be shaped easily because the tiny crystals in it can slide over each other. Clay has a plastic property. When the clay dries up, it keeps its shape as the crystals are now stuck together.
2. When heated to above 15000C, a series of chemical reaction produce other chemicals

and glass which packs the tiny mineral crystals together. 3. The object is now glazed and heated again. The reactions in the glaze cause the surface to be waterproof.

Properties of Ceramics
Very strong and hard Brittle Chemically inert and does not corrode Good insulator of electricity and heat Very high melting point and heat resistance Porous but can be made impervious by glazing

Uses of Ceramics Property

Hard and strong Attractive, easily moulded and glazed Chemically inert and noncorrosive Very high melting point and good insulator of heat Electrical insulators

Building materials Decorative pieces and household items Kitchenware Insulation Insulating parts in electrical appliances

Tiles, bricks, roofs, cement, abrasive for grinding Vases, porcelain ware, sinks, bathtubs Cooking pots, plates, bowls Lining of furnace, engine parts Spark plugs, insulators in ovens and electric cables

Inert and non-compressible

Medical and dental apparatus

Artificial teeth and bones


Composite Materials
different substances like metals, alloys, glass, ceramics and polymers. Usually, the new composite materials formed have properties that are superior to those of the original components.

1. Composite material is a structure material that is formed by combining two or more

2. The composite materials produced are harder, stronger, lighter, more resistant to heat

and corrosion and also for specific purposes.

3. When composite material is formed, the weakness of the components will not exist


Comparison of the Properties between Composite Materials with Those of Their Original Components Composite materials Original components Original
Hard, low tensile strength, does not rush, high Reinforced concrete Concrete compression strength, brittle, fireproof, waterproof, easy to maintain and cheap Good tensile strength, rust, expensive Non-conductor with high resistance to electricity

Properties Composite
High tensile strength, tough, does not crack easily, relatively cheap, can be moulded easily, very low building cost and needs very little maintenance Very good conductor with very little resistance

Yitrium oxide,

Superconductor barium carbonate,

copper(III) oxide

Transparent, cheaper in Glass Higher refractive index, non-conductor materials cost, much thinner, easily bend and lighter, less susceptible Fibre optic Plastic Lower refractive index, non-conductor to interference, much greater bandwidth, carry more data, chemically more stable than metal wires and data is transmitted digitally Fibreglass Photochromic glass Plastic Glass Glass Silver chloride, Silver bromide Soft, flexible, low density Brittle, strong, hard Transparent, not sensitive to light Sensitive to intensity of light Hard, strong, density Transparent and sensitive to intensity of light