0 Votes +0 Votes -

35 vues15 pagesDec 18, 2011

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

DOCX, PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

35 vues

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- lasttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt
- 4 16 19 lesson
- Calculator for IIT JEE
- Logarithm
- Ardennes Fractional Exchange Ratio
- Log 88 Tip Double Known Addition Method
- Chapter 1
- as04_errororders
- ANALISIS SPM SEBENAR MATEMATIK TAMBAHAN TAHUN 2005-2013
- Fibonacci
- vlsi-sp1
- Logaritmos0001
- chapter 5
- Daniel Paper
- teach plan amath term2
- Calculus Chapter2
- Spm Questions
- sec6.pdf
- TOC
- 2013 - A New Mathematical Model for Food Thermal Process Prediction

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

Logarithmic

Equations

Grapher Calculator

Return

Help Scatter Plot

Contents: This page corresponds to 4.4 (p. 348) oI the text.

Suggested problems Irom text:

p. 355 #13,17,21,25,27,29,31,51,53,57,59,81,89

Exponential Equations

Logarithmic Equations

Exponential Equations

Some exponential equations can be solved by using the Iact that exponential Iunctions are one-

to-one. In other words, an exponential Iunction does not take two diIIerent values to the same

number.

Example 1.

3

x

9

3

x

3

2

The Iunction I(x) 3

x

is one-to-one, so it does not take two diIIerent values to 9, so x must equal

2.

x 2

The equation in example 1 was easy to solve because we could express 9 as a power oI 3.

However, it is oIten necessary to use a logarithm when solving an exponential equation.

Example 2.

e

x

20

e are going to use the Iact that the natural logarithm is the inverse oI the exponential Iunction,

so ln e

x

x, by logarithmic identity 1. e must take the natural logarithm oI both sides oI the

equation.

ln e

x

ln 20

Now the leIt hand side simpliIies to x, and the right hand side is a number. It is approximately

2.9957.

x 2.9957

Exercise 1:

Use a calculator to check the answer we Iound to the equation in example 2.

Example 3.

5

x

16 e will solve this equation in two diIIerent ways.

First Approach: e use the Iact that log

5

5

x

x (logarithmic identity 1 again).

5

x

16

log

5

5

x

log

5

16

x log

5

16

x ln 16 / ln 5, by the change-oI-base Iormula.

x 1.7227 (approximately)

Second Approach: e will use the natural logarithm and property 3.

5

x

16 Take the natural logarithm oI both sides.

ln 5

x

ln 16

x ln 5 ln 16

x ln 16 / ln 5

x 1.7227 (approximately)

e could have used any logarithm with the second approach. The second approach is the one

that you see most oIten.

Exercise 2:

Use a calculator to check the answer we Iound to the equation in example 3.

Equations like that in the next example occur Irequently in applications.

Example 4.

200 e

0.07t

500

e Iirst isolate the exponential part by dividing both sides oI the equation by 200.

e

0.07t

2.5

Now we take the natural logarithm oI both sides.

ln e

0.07t

ln 2.5

The leIt hand side simpliIies to 0.07t, by logarithmic identity 1.

0.07t ln 2.5

t ln (2.5) / 0.07

t 13.1 (approximately)

Exercise 3:

Solve the Iollowing equations and check the answers.

(a) 3

x

10

(b) 150 e

0.05 t

350

Answer

Return to Contents

Logarithmic Equations

hen solving exponential equations we Irequently used logarithmic identity 1 because it

involves applying a logarithmic Iunction to "undo" the eIIect oI an exponential Iunction. hen

dealing with logarithmic equations we will use logarithmic identity 2 where an exponential

Iunction is applied to "undo" the eIIect oI a logarithmic Iunction.

Example 5.

2 log x 12

e want to isolate the log x, so we divide both sides by 2.

log x 6

Since log is the logarithm base 10, we apply the exponential Iunction base 10 to both sides oI the

equation.

10

log x

10

6

By logarithmic identity 2, the leIt hand side simpliIies to x.

x 10

6

1000000

Example 6.

7 3 ln x 15 First isolate ln x.

3 ln x 8

ln x 8/3

Now apply the exponential Iunction to both sides.

e

ln x

e

8/3

x e

8/3

This is the exact answer. II you use a calculator to evaluate this expression, you will have an

approximation to the answer.

x is approximately equal to 14.39.

Exercise 4:

Check the answers Iound in examples 5 and 6.

Example 7.

ln (x 4) ln (x - 2) ln 7

First we use property 1 oI logarithms to combine the terms on the leIt.

ln (x 4)(x - 2) ln 7

Now apply the exponential Iunction to both sides.

e

ln (x 4)(x - 2)

e

ln 7

The logarithmic identity 2 allows us to simpliIy both sides.

(x 4)(x - 2) 7

x

2

2x - 8 7

x

2

2x - 15 0

(x - 3)(x 5) 0

x 3 or x -5

x 3 checks, Ior ln 7 ln 1 ln 7.

x -5 /oes not check, Ior when we try to substitute -5 Ior x in the original equation we are taking

the natural logarithm oI negative numbers, which is not deIined.

So, x 3 is the only solution.

revised 6 Mar 2011

Copyright 20022011 by Stan Brown, Oak Road Systems

Summary: Do you have trouble remembering the laws oI logarithms? Do you know why you

can change log(x)log(y) to a diIIerent Iorm, but not log(xy)? This page helps you make sense

out oI the laws oI logarithms.

See also: All the laws oI logarithms Ilow directly out oI the laws of exponents. II you Ieel a bit

unsteady with the laws oI exponents, please review them beIore going on.

Contents:

O ogarithm? hat`s a ogarithm?

4 here Did ogs Come From?

4 hy Do e Care?

O Baseic Facts

4 og oI 1, og Equaling 1

4 og as Inverse

4 hat`s ln?

O Combining ogs with the Same Base

4 Multiply Numbers, Add Their ogarithms

4 Exponent, Multiply the ogarithm

4 Raising Numbers to Any Power

4 Divide Numbers, Subtract Their ogarithms

O Changing the Base

O Summary

O Conclusion

O hat`s New

Copying: You`re welcome to print copies oI this page Ior your own use, and to link Irom your

own eb pages to this page. But please don`t make any electronic copies and publish them on

your eb page or elsewhere.

Logarithm? What`s a Logarithm?

A logarithm is just an exponent.

To be speciIic, the logarithm oI a number x to a base b is just the exponent you put onto b to

make the result equal x. For instance, since 5 25, we know that 2 (the power) is the logarithm

oI 25 to base 5. Symbolically, log

5

(25) 2.

More generically, iI x b

y

, then we say that y is the logarithm oI x to the base b or the base-b

logarithm oI x. In symbols, y log

b

(x). Every exponential equation can be rewritten as a

logarithmic equation, and vice versa, just by interchanging the x and y in this way.

Another way to look at it is that the log

b

x Iunction is deIined as the inverse oI the b

x

Iunction.

These two statements express that inverse relationship, showing how an exponential equation is

equivalent to a logarithmic equation:

x b

y

is the same as y log

b

x

Example 1: 1000 10

3

is the same as 3 log

10

1000.

Example 2: log

3

81 ? is the same as 3

?

81.

It can`t be said too oIten: a logarithm is nothing more than an exponent. You can write the above

deIinition compactly, and show the log as an exponent, by substituting the second equation into

the Iirst to eliminate y:

Read that as the logarithm oI x in base b is the exponent you put on b to get x as a result.

Where Did Logs Come From?

BeIore pocket calculators only three decades ago, but in student years that`s the age oI

dinosaurs the answer was simple. You needed logs to compute most powers and roots with

Iair accuracy; even multiplying and dividing most numbers were easier with logs. Every decent

algebra books had pages and pages oI log tables at the back.

The invention oI logs in the early 1600s Iueled the scientiIic revolution. Back then scientists,

astronomers especially, used to spend huge amounts oI time crunching numbers on paper. By

cutting the time they spent doing arithmetic, logarithms eIIectively gave them a longer

productive liIe. The slide rule, once almost a cartoon trademark oI a scientist, was nothing more

than a device built Ior doing various computations quickly, using logarithms. See Eli Maor`s e.

The Story of a Number Ior more on this.

Today, logs are no longer used in routine number crunching. But there are still good reasons Ior

studying them.

Why Do We Care?

hy do we use logarithms, anyway?

O To Iind the number oI payments on a loan or the time to reach an investment goal

O To model many natural processes, particularly in living systems. e perceive loudness oI

sound as the logarithm oI the actual sound intensity, and dB (decibels) are a logarithmic

scale. e also perceive brightness oI light as the logarithm oI the actual light energy, and

star magnitudes are measured on a logarithmic scale.

O To measure the pH or acidity oI a chemical solution. The pH is the negative logarithm oI

the concentration oI Iree hydrogen ions.

O To measure earthquake intensity on the Richter scale.

O To analyze exponential processes. Because the log Iunction is the inverse oI the

exponential Iunction, we oIten analyze an exponential curve by means oI logarithms.

Plotting a set oI measured points on log-log or semi-log paper can reveal such

relationships easily. Applications include cooling oI a dead body, growth oI bacteria, and

decay oI a radioactive isotopes. The spread oI an epidemic in a population oIten Iollows a

modiIied logarithmic curve called a logistic.

O To solve some Iorms oI area problems in calculus. (The area under the curve 1/x,

between x1 and xA, equals ln A.)

aseic Facts

From the deIinition oI a log as inverse oI an exponential, you can immediately get some basic

Iacts. For instance, iI you graph y10

x

(or the exponential with any other positive base), you see

that its range is positive reals; thereIore the domain oI ylog x (to any base) is the positive reals.

In other words, you can`t take log 0 or log oI a negative number.

(Actually, iI you`re willing to go outside the reals, you can take the log oI a negative number.

The technique is taught in many trigonometry courses.)

Log of 1, Log Equaling 1

You know that anything to the zero power is 1: b

0

1. Change that to logarithmic Iorm with the

deIinition oI logs and you have

log

b

1 0 Ior any base b

In the same way, you know that the Iirst power oI any number is just that number: b

1

b. Again,

turn that around to logarithmic Iorm and you have

log

b

b 1 Ior any base b

Example 3: ln 1 0

Example 4: log

5

5 1

Log as nverse

A log is an exponent because the log Iunction is the inverse oI the exponential Iunction. The

inverse Iunction undoes the eIIect oI the original Iunction. (I`m not a big Ian oI most uses the

term cancel in math, but it does Iit in this situation.)

This means that iI you take the log oI an exponential (to the same base, oI course), you get back

to where you started:

log

b

b

x

x Ior any base b

This Iact lets you evaluate many logarithms without a calculator.

Example 5: log

5

125 log

5

(5) 3

Example 6: log

10

10

3.16

3.16

Example 7: ln e

-kt/2

-kt/2

What`s ln?

Any positive number is suitable as the base oI logarithms, but two bases are used more than any

others:

base of

logarithms

symbol name

10

log

(iI no base shown)

common logarithm

e ln

natural logarithm,

pronounced ell-enn or lahn

Natural logs are logs, and Iollow all the same rules as any other logarithm. Just remember

ln x means log

e

x

hy base e? hat`s so special about e? Most oI the explanations need some calculus, Ior

instance that e

x

is the only Iunction that is both its own integral and its own derivative or that e

has this beautiIul deIinition in terms oI Iactorials:

e 1/0! 1/1! 1/2! 1/3! ...

Numerically, e is about 2.7182818284. It`s irrational (the decimal expansion never ends and

never repeats), and in Iact like pi it`s transcendental (no polynomial equation with integer

coeIIicients has pi or e as a root.)

e (like pi) crops up in all sorts oI unlikely places, like computations oI compound interest. It

would take a book to explain, and Iortunately there is a book, Eli Maor`s e. The Story of a

Number. He also goes into the history oI logarithms, and the book is well worth getting Irom

your library.

Combining Logs with the Same ase

In a minute we`ll look at the various combinations. But Iirst you might want to know the general

principle: ogs re/uce operations by one eve ogs turn a multiplication into an addition, a

division into a subtraction, an exponent into a multiplication, and a radical into a division. Now

let`s see why, and look at some examples.

ultiply Numbers, Add Their Logarithms

Multiplying two expressions corresponds to adding their logarithms. Can we make sense oI this?

By the compact deIinition,

x b

log

b

x

and y b

log

b

y

and thereIore, substituting Ior x and y,

xy b

log

b

x

b

log

b

y

But when you multiply two powers oI the same base, you add their exponents. So the right-hand

side becomes

xy b

log

b

xlog

b

y

Now apply the compact deIinition to the leIthand side:

b

log

b

(xy)

xy

Combine that with the preceding equation to obtain

b

log

b

(xy)

b

og

b

xog

b

y

Now we have two powers oI the same base. II the powers are equal, then the exponents must also

be equal. ThereIore

log

b

(xy) log

b

x log

b

y

So what`s the bottom line? Multiplying two numbers and taking the log is the same as taking

their logs and adding.

Example 8: log

8

(x)log

8

(x) is the same as log

8

(xx) or just log

8

(x).

Example 9: log

10

(20)log

10

(50) log

10

(2050) log

10

(1000) 3.

Exponent, ultiply the Logarithm

Continuing our theme oI logarithms reducing the level oI operations, iI you have the yth power

oI a number and take the log, the result is y times the log oI the number. Here`s why, starting

with x

y

:

Start with the compact deIinition oI a logarithm:

x b

log

b

x

and raise both sides to the y power:

x

y

(b

log

b

x

)

y

A power oI a power is equivalent to just multiplying the exponents. SimpliIy the right-hand side:

x

y

b

(y log

b

x)

Rewrite the leIt-hand side using the compact deIinition oI a log:

b

log

b

(xy)

x

y

(The Iont may be hard to read: that`s x to the power y on leIt and right.) and combine the last two

equations:

b

log

b

(xy)

b

(y log

b

x)

II the powers are equal and the bases are equal, the exponents must be equal:

log

b

(x

y

) y log

b

x

Example 10: ln(2

6

) 6 ln 2 (where ln means log

e

, the natural logarithm).

Example 11: log

5

(5x) is not equal to 2 log

5

(5x). Be careIul with order oI operations! 5x is 5(x),

not (5x). log

5

(5x) must Iirst be decomposed as the log oI the product: log

5

5 log

5

(x). Then the

second term can use the power rule, log

5

(x) 2 log

5

x. The Iirst term is just 1. Summing up,

log

5

(5x) 1 2 log

5

x.

Raising Numbers to Any Power

The trick to evaluating expressions like 6.7

4.4

is to use the exponent rule and the log-as-inverse

deIinition:

x 6.7

4.4

log x 4.4 ( log 6.7 ) about 3.634729132

x 10

3.63472...

about 4312.5

There`s nothing special about base-10 logs here. The calculation could just as well be

x 6.7

4.4

ln x 4.4 ( ln 6.7 ) about 8.369273116

x e

8.36927...

about 4312.5

This will work Ior any positive base and any real exponent, so Ior example

x a

a

log x a (log a) about 1.561842388

x 10

1.5618...

about 36.46215961

You can combine this with the multiplying numbers adding logarithms rule to evaluate powers

that are too big Ior your calculator. For example, what is 671

217

?

x 671

217

log x 217 (log 671) about 613.3987869

Now, separate the integer and Iractional parts oI the logarithm.

log x about 0.3987869 613

x 10

0.3987869 613

x 10

0.3987869

10

613

x about 2.505 10

613

For examples like this, you really do have to use base-10 logs.

II the base is negative or the exponent is complex, see Powers and Roots oI a Complex Number.

Divide Numbers, Subtract Their Logarithms

Since division is the opposite oI multiplication, and subtraction is the opposite oI addition, it`s

not surprising that dividing two expressions corresponds to subtracting their logs. hile we

could go back again to the compact deIinition, it`s probably easier to use the two preceding

properties.

Start with the Iact that 1/y y

1

(see the deIinition oI negative exponents):

x/y x(1/y) xy

1

and take the log oI both sides:

log

b

(x/y) log

b

(xy

1

)

The right-hand side is the log oI a product, which becomes the sum oI the logs:

log

b

(x/y) log

b

x log

b

(y

1

)

and the second term is the log oI a power, which becomes (1) times the log, or just minus the

log:

log

b

(x/y) log

b

x log

b

y

In words, iI you divide and take the log, that`s the same as subtracting the individual logs.

Example 12: 6751545, and thereIore log

10

675 log

10

15 log

10

45. (Try it on your

calculator!)

Example 13: log(xy) log(xy) log(xy / xy) log(x/y) log(x) log(y).

Changing the ase

Now you have everything you need to change logarithms Irom one base to another. ook again

at the compact equation that deIines a log in base b:

To change the log Irom base b to another base (call it a), you want to Iind log

a

(x). Since you

already have x on one side oI the above equation, it seems like a good start is to take the base-a

log oI both sides:

log

a

(b

log

b

x

) log

a

x

But the leIt-hand side oI that equation is just the log oI a power. You remember that log(x

y

) is

just log(x) times y. So the equation simpliIies to

(log

a

b) (log

b

x) log

a

x

Notice that log

a

b is a constant. This means that the logs oI all numbers in a given base a are

proportional to the logs oI the same numbers in another base b, and the proportionality constant

log

a

b is the log oI one base in the other base. II you`re like me, you may have trouble

remembering whether to multiply or divide. II so, just derive the equation as you see, it takes

only two steps.

Some textbooks present the change-oI-base Iormula as a Iraction. To get the Iraction Irom the

above equation, simply divide by the proportionality constant log

a

b:

log

b

x (log

a

x) / (log

a

b)

Example 14: log

4

16 (log 16) / (log 4). (You can veriIy this with your calculator, since you

know log

4

16 must equal 2.)

Example 15: Most calculators can`t graph y log

3

x directly. But you can change the base to e

and easily plot y (ln x)(ln 3). (You could equally well use base 10.)

An interesting side road leads Irom the above Iormula. Replace x everywhere with a this is

legal since the Iormula is true Ior all positive a, b, and x. You get

log

b

a (log

a

a) / (log

a

b)

But log

a

a 1 (see og oI 1 above), so the Iormula becomes

log

b

a 1 / (log

a

b)

Example 16: log

10

e 1/(ln 10). (You can veriIy this with your calculator.)

Example 17: log

125

5 1/(log

5

125). This is easy to veriIy: 5

3

125, and 5 is the cube root oI 125.

ThereIore log

125

5 1/3 and log

5

125 3, and 1/3 does indeed equal 1/3.

Summary

The laws oI logarithms have been scattered through this longish page, so it might be helpIul to

collect them in one place. To make this even more amazingly helpIul grin~, the associated laws

oI exponents are shown here too.

For heaven`s sake, don`t try to memorize this table! Just use it to jog your memory as needed.

Better yet, since a log is an exponent, use the laws oI exponents to re-derive any property oI

logarithms that you may have Iorgotten. That way you`ll truly gain mastery oI this material, and

you`ll Ieel conIident about the operations.

exponents logarithms

(All laws apply Ior any positive a, b, x, and y.)

x b

y

is the same as y log

b

x

b

0

1 log

b

1 0

b

1

b log

b

b 1

b

(log

b

x)

x log

b

b

x

x

b

x

b

y

b

xy

log

b

(xy) log

b

x log

b

y

b

x

b

y

b

xy

log

b

(x/y) log

b

x log

b

y

(b

x

)

y

b

xy

log

b

(x

y

) y log

b

x

(log

a

b) (log

b

x) log

a

x

log

b

x (log

a

x) / (log

a

b)

log

b

a 1 / (log

a

b)

Don`t get creative! Most variations on the above are not valid.

Example 18: log (5x) is not the same as log 5 log x. As you know, log 5 log x log(5x),

not log(5x). ook careIully at the above table and you`ll see that there`s nothing you can do to

split up log(xy) or log(xy).

Example 19: (log x) / (log y) is not the same as log(x/y). In Iact, when you divide two logs to the

same base, you`re working the change-oI-base Iormula backward. Though it`s not oIten useIul,

(log x) / (log y) log

y

x. Just don`t write log(x/y)!

Example 20: (log 5)(log x) is not the same as log(5x). You know that log(5x) is log 5 log x.

There`s really not much you can do with the product oI two logs when they have the same base.

See also: Combining Operations (Distributive aws)

Conclusion

ell, there you have it: the laws oI logarithms demystiIied! The general rule is that logs simply

drop an operation down one level: exponents become multipliers, divisions become subtractions,

and so on. II ever you`re unsure oI an operation, like how to change base, work it out by using

the deIinition oI a log and applying the laws oI exponents, and you won`t go wrong.

- lastttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttTransféré parJana Aldour
- 4 16 19 lessonTransféré parapi-488689290
- Calculator for IIT JEETransféré parANUZ DUET
- LogarithmTransféré parAndrei Diego Cardoso
- Ardennes Fractional Exchange RatioTransféré parhuirttps
- Log 88 Tip Double Known Addition MethodTransféré parbudi_alamsyah
- Chapter 1Transféré parmrf236
- as04_errorordersTransféré parChris Raymond
- ANALISIS SPM SEBENAR MATEMATIK TAMBAHAN TAHUN 2005-2013Transféré parBabeh Chon
- FibonacciTransféré parMira Yunita
- vlsi-sp1Transféré parMuthu Lingan
- Logaritmos0001Transféré parLeonardo Torres
- chapter 5Transféré parSoniya Babu
- Daniel PaperTransféré parRudiNurudian
- teach plan amath term2Transféré parapi-233271416
- Calculus Chapter2Transféré parKhail Gooding
- Spm QuestionsTransféré parNurul Atiqah
- sec6.pdfTransféré parRaouf Bouchouk
- TOCTransféré parjavacob
- 2013 - A New Mathematical Model for Food Thermal Process PredictionTransféré parpedroloxxx
- M38 Lec 111213Transféré parjii
- about-eTransféré parJuan Carlos Moreno Ortiz
- Maths NotationTransféré parRavindra Desai
- notes-set4-me416-2011Transféré pargezeni
- PharmaSUG-2011-CC14Transféré parDonweriyal
- Physics Paper 5Transféré parAxel Kunaal
- Milan B. Arambašić, Mira Pašić, Dušan Ristanović, Aleksandar Kalauzi, Ljubomir Kojić: Pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L.: The implication for basic and applied research. World Appl. Sci. J., 25 (10): 1438-1448, 2013Transféré parMilan B. Arambasic
- Web Solutions 07Transféré paralexgeorge1122
- Prog Assign 2 DecoderTransféré parelfzwolf
- Devillers Et Al (Random Covex Polygon Generation)Transféré pardiedie_herv

- Human Resource ManagementTransféré parmarksman77661
- Slick SurfacesTransféré parmarksman77661
- 3D Sketching Made EasierTransféré parmarksman77661
- {\Rtf1\Ansi\Ansicpg1252\Deff0\Deflang1033{\Fonttbl{\f0\Fswiss\Fcharset0 Arial;}} {\Colortbl ;\Red0\Green0\Blue255;\Red255\Green0\Blue0;\Red128\Green0\Blue128;\Red0\Green128\b Lue0;} {\*\Generator MsfteditTransféré pargrigoreionut
- Constructive AnatomyTransféré pargazorninplotz

- SSE 1793Transféré parZulhaimy 龍 Lee
- Integral RulesTransféré parKARTHIK R K
- SL Analysis formula booklet.pdfTransféré parMATHVISION STUDY MATERIAL
- Competition ZENITH_ Trigonometry and Its Short TricksTransféré parPrateek Dwivedi
- A Compact and Comprehensive Book of Iit Foundation Mathematics Class Ix 9 s k Gupta Anubhuti Gangal s Chand Iit Foundation Series ( Pdfdrive.com )-16-18Transféré parTaniya Datta
- Natural Logarithm Rules - Ln(x) RulesTransféré parDeepakRavindraPrasad
- Integration by PartsTransféré parMadridSpain
- G7-1Transféré parHoang Nguyen
- Intuitive Understanding of Sine Waves _ BetterExplainedTransféré paravnish
- Ch 2-Inverse Trigonometric FunctionsTransféré parAnshuman Singh
- Math 1010 Chapter 9Transféré paryinkaibironke
- Law of Sines.pdfTransféré parMark Abion Valladolid
- Harmonious Frequency Relationships.pdfTransféré parranjitheee1292
- Lesson 9 - Oblique Triangles.pptTransféré parEd Vill
- Hyperbolic Functions_Transféré parHarirajVenkatesan
- Trig NatureTransféré parJak Carvajal
- C Users Vikram Aditya DesktopTransféré paramrit mishra
- Essentials of Trigonometry With Applications.pdfTransféré parcerbalzackguzman
- Meaning of LogarithmsTransféré parSh Hoxha
- Chap 1 Index LogTransféré parNabila Fauzi
- 2-Naming Angles.pdfTransféré parSilvette Castro
- solving_exp_eqns_intro.pdfTransféré parSaher
- Practical Trigonometry Math From MiLearnTransféré parjay
- TRIGONOMETRIC Ratio & Identities Theory_ETransféré parthinkiit
- differentiationsummary.pdfTransféré parNishC300
- analytical-trigonometry-with-applications-1.pdfTransféré parmechkour
- Success Mathematics SPM Free ChapterTransféré parDaryl Lls
- Law of SinesTransféré parHari Nur
- Integral So Luci OnTransféré parbrooklinbook
- Navigation FormulasTransféré parPolaris Bridgeman

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.