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Family School Mass Media Religion Workplace State

Commonaliti es Between Sociology and Anthropolog y

Both studies everyday events in social behaviour and relationships Both study everyday events in social behaviour and relationships



She is a teacher


Her role is to teach

Communal or Folk Society *This society is

typically small and relatively isolated from other societies. Associational or Urban Society *This society characterizes the cosmopolitan life .

Role refers to a pattern of behaviour that is expected for an individual who occupies a particular status or position in a society .

Status is a position relative to other positions. It is the amount of prestige held by individuals and groups within a society.

Ascribed Status or Role * This refers to

an assigned status or role at birth

*This refers to the

Achieved Status or Role

attained goal through individuals efforts, or actions,

To be a son or daughter

To be married

Evolutionary Theory
This theory is primarily characterized by an assumption that there is a smooth, cumulative change and directed towards increased complexity and adaptability.

Equilibrium Theory
This theory is characterized by the concept that society is a social system having a structure with many parts.

Conflict Theory
This theory views conflict as the basic cause of all social and political change.

Structures of Inequality Inequality is stratified when two conditions exist:


1.The inequality is institutionalized, backed up by both social structure and by long standing norm.

2. The inequality is based on the membership in a status rather than on personal attributes.

Prestige ---The degree of honor ones position evokes

Power ---The degree to which one directs , manages or dominates others.

--Pertains to how much resources in society are owned by certain individuals.

Stratification refers to a system wherein people are ranked and evaluated as superior or inferior based on the evaluation of wealth, prestige an d power, they are unequally rewarded.

Social stratification in terms of social inequality is viewed by sociologists as a universal phenomenon. On the other hand, anthropologists believe that what is universal is not social stratification but human inequality.

It is a process by which an individual acquires attitudes, beliefs, and values of his or her culture.

Socialization is a life-long process. At each stage of the process, the individual occupies a certain social status and role.

Sociology is a study of human interactions, the relationships that occur within the group and the results of these interactions.

Anthropolog y is the scientific study of humanity, the similarities and diversity of cultures.



The peer group can replace, supplement or diminish the role of school and family.

It is the most influential group in the life of the child.


Mass Media

The school is a formal agent of socialization. It is where emotional and intellectual growths are formally forged.

The mass media is a socializing agent primarily to inform, entertain, and educate. It covers a wide field of interest and the whole society is its audience.



Religion is an agent of socialization that can assist in giving a society a sense of direction.

Workplace brings mixed feelings. No matter how the individual socializes in the workplace dull and oppressive, one thing is definite ---- it is another area of learning


The importance of the state have been increasingly recognized because of its growing impact on the life course.

Whatever agents of socialization a society have. What is important is that they all contribute to the development of society.

Functionalist Theory

or Structural functionalist Theory

Conflict Theory

or Social Conflict Theory

Conflict theory Conflict theory The key concept of this theory is rooted in the notion of materialism. Some social scientists deemed this theory as the foremost theory that addresses the macro aspects of sociology which is inequality.

Functionalist Theory

Functionalist theory holds the view that society is a social system composed of set of elements that are interrelated with each other in a more or less stable manner over periods of time. This theory emphasizes consensus, integration, and stability of the social system. It does not, however, deny that there could also be an imbalance or disintegration of the social system which leads to dysfunction.

Can help people to adapt to their environment. Physical + Survival mechanism Compensates for physical limitations Prediction of assumptions

Types of Culture Symbolic o Language o Gestures Cognitive

o Beliefs o Values

Material culture Normative

Symbolic Culture
Symbolic Culture is
the foundation of culture itself. Symbols stands for something else. They are associated with perceptions and experiences.

Components of Symbolic Culture

Language Gestures

Cognitive Culture

is a type of culture wherein moral imperatives and guidelines are involve.

Cognitive Culture

Components of Cognitive Culture

Values Beliefs

Material Culture

Material Culture refers to the things people produce and use. Examples are from simple tools, utensils, Furniture, and clothing and to the more complex like computers, automotive designs, instruments used for aeronautical or space explorations. People use their knowledge in producing materials and likewise on how these are to be used and for what purpose.

Nonmaterial Culture

Nonmaterial Culture is consists of

elements that are called norms, values, beliefs, and languages

Culture is Learned Culture is Shared Culture is Transmitted Culture is Essential for life

Culture is Learned

Culture is Shared

Culture is Transmitted

Culture is Essential for life

Culture Universals
Culture Diversity Ethnocentrism Culture Relativism Culture Shock Subculture

Culture Universals Culture Diversity


Culture Relativism

Culture Shock