Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13



    "!# $&%('*) )+,-./+02134.5 6


78:9<;>=@?BADC>CE=
+F GDHJI KLHNMPOQGDRERES
T,UDV+WYXYZ4[\ZQ]^U`_a[b_dcfehgiXYj4[bklnm>opZQgiV+o
T[`kq]srtU`jQ_Y]^[uJ_EopZQ]sZQXYZQgUbrwvgix4yE_YUDkqUDzbm
{ [`oQ[Dc>gi_d[}|~T[bk^]srU`jQ_E]^[>`\Dn|@l>
giV[b]^kB]q_YrjQgig\yYUDW@gD x[bkqZQgx-y gicYX
",+

@bb8Y-~n8n-~<~-a^Y`+>~}-n\?h\NYb?8}q ib~}-@\bE9
nh`4~dYb-fY@b~` d9 bi\^i#`8}aaY8>hY~b \8} hY~b~4n-8n-
8>@^Y},8E8n-><~-a^Y>?hY~b}?d~-ndt@`-at--nh``~E~DQY`\Ya``?,5nnh`4
tY8}->5an-}pb?wbJYb?8}q i+~D\D-8}98n8>D~t8}b~-YE4D-@Y-8}9\@~>
-5nb}w8}~`8}~8}aY8}->f>\Ya~@8}->w,\Y\@Y?Ya8>\`?Y-8}8}~`8>~8}aY8}->
8}>8>--b>\`8}93b8}8}~}P~Ybi-8>w\Yf@8}->w
w ,\
~`"b3@b8}3E-@@b`~8}i8>@>>"-~a*-a4YYb>8}-Y-t8}~-Y~b ~`a8>@p?@~
\Ya~@8}->8>hi~bad>>>DQh~4-~8>-``&"4YYa-~@`\-D8}a^>~t8}8n-~-Y~b?P
iQadD3->Y\~b8`4~8f`8}\~9<@`->~D3-\}(>>>db`}@4~t@~a~di@~?d~ti
8}~`8>-&`8Yi>-~`8}8>-aE8n-D\`8}-aY~&Q8>~>
b-D4`Y8n--~>~Y-~YYb
>i8}w5-`-Y8}->~8Y4Y?"~b`4 4-`>58n~Q9~-b8}->w?,~`-`E9\~8>\-9~<4-i8}
b~`-bE-~a8>f->8>38}-8}-b8}i8n-DE-8-`4-<bQ~+8}-h`di
ti8}i"@> "@>@"-~-`E~`E-9f\~`-~>8}->p8>-`\Ya~@8}->w@t8:8:9f^
~`a8>w i4~8Y4Y?YE8nYw?Y8>b~t8>b`ahd9f48>48}b>a~@i8n->-<8dD-\h>w*4-i8}
b~`-bE-~&8}p~Q-~Y`<"@>\@8>@DY@b8}" -`b>~8>->?P-b8}i8n->"?w~b~-~n`
~n8}->@->f8>>` d>`8> Y-~t8*b8>#-b8}i8n-DE-8`4-~bQ-8}-biEi
\EQ>5~Yb~`8>Q9<>-~tfb-~@&t5@tb8}-D&d9b>-~b~34Yd~a-~f8>f->8>&8n~>~b8
4-i8}>E4Y-8}iaa\-d8>>`8>Y@w+4`8}i8nY34-b4~w@>w 8}~-E8>iw?@\Ya8}`-f-~+Qb
-`d9<~`a8>w
@ i:B}4 ::: } N Q J n ,5 @s n - wQ}J " : N, P4 B PDp N n N 4 N
N ,: : ppi  nJ \ :@\ DQ s w N4  D s D" >N p}b s-
P N q n : : D :J 4 :s J Ds4 5 P \ }s n sN J J :sQ Q : : JD " NN4 N> N N ns \ qJ JNs Q \ : >
: "\ B \ ND p: s 4 D} 4} N N4 D q s 4 :s JQ 5 5 sQ :N 5 n ND}s \ \ n J4
\  pi
 h  w4 \ N s 5 : N \ N  N} s n J
s
s J : N " \ 
Q N s : q s J J> h> J q dn
A

 
  
  !
" #"   %$&('*))+-,  .0/ 
1243 / 5 6 7 "/98
: ;/<,  .// 7
= 5>
= 3@?A1 B"  CD/=  "7 FE < *@ HG  "JIK1GL M NO 0QPR+ STGU'*)'*SVB2W+X
/ -30?YO   M   /*Z    N? /  Y
=  *"/  /  N 68
[\ ;" ]N Y ^ `_^ "" / 5Ya 5N /*Xba]cd_fe08 ; 3 /=3  #  7 ;H 75Y5 ^g/ 7/ /<h-IKa9_  Ni_MLHN B */; Q^ *" Ej?
FG 6k    B"%8H " / /"7 /l  B<5 *6 (Z /lN B    / ] *m07 */" ]/"?g0" / / E 3 7g h-Ij_onpaL N g7 * "5 /9&
,; #/h-Ij_MeLH Eiaqrh-IK_feLXg, * / \   Y 5/  ? 3 7$_ NC_ N g7  "5 / F  B ]/;/" 5 "5Y " ( /"; 73
Ei<1;Q8sG 9, ^ 9&g    N?/3  6kN- 5 ? ^  3 <E l/"?g@  /"t*Nk6 0? N 07   5 /
  b^ "?m07 .0 ?uIK/
vw xgwy H =^  zjLXf  k/ 6 -  -3 F/ 5uE    B{k D? 7" |s B  A/" /9&%, A,;i.  ? 6  } /  ^ 8# 6 "N
^ 76 -E  YN ~,;  ~_MT 5N / 7 E  ~^ *= }b&i5 6 %Z / 6 " g5~7/ /]^ 76 k 7N ? 
""  C >IB L &f,;
e
\   %Z /;6   05Y7/ / Q^ 76
E T H ( &/"  ; . /_  N _u 7^ " 3 3 "/; F/   E?
 0"  B"%8

b8>\Y\@> -h\b~Qi8}E-t8}bd~bb-8}i}-~d9@4tb8>\Ya~@8}->8>nh`~`a8>
8>bdY^~8Y<~iQ8>->?E~b58}~`8>~8>aY8}->ab5-`Bw@-Y8Y\@~>`f~5nh`
}Yb~`8> b~@b8>w 4D\Y~8>- hhY~Y~n*-b@~Y-~nh`5}Yb~`8> b~@b8>w
iQ~8>->
5aa`@t8nQ~~~@it8n~i~`a4-9>8>~~`8>~+t~>~9f~@`4-d@B`45b8}f-9
-a@b~+4Yab>@->h@b~ti~-D8>\->8}~`~\8}Y?@>8nD8>4~@b~ti<`8Y4Y8}~
-abd`\-8}-~+`8YY\>+a8Y@-+~`@ti8}~>




+,b & 5 `
+\
~~~8}abEi8}i~`a4-9}+ t8Y4D Y -~@Y~~&~b 8}~&~\~&>b>a~babEi8}^Q9Y
8Yi4-i8}<> 58abn:8>`E-9~Y`Y9dabD?~~`-+D8>i~~\Y-4>8b>48>Y8>4-~4~E8}-
~~E48n48YiE>`E8>>~>b-~`8>@`~~>?P-d9da~Y?\9E-E4~>?P>Y8}~-~<8>-`?P? ? i
8Yi4-i8}t>`Y` >^8Y8 ~}8}8+=@n`B,~b Y-8@>~bp4-i8}@`~b^B?>-~54-i8}P4
8}E-p8}i8}`J?Y8}b>a~babE8>-98>-`8}YJ-? -  Y-i4-i8}8}5b8>`a8ni4Y@ hti
\Ya~`abE8>-9-`E~b\`` 8}t48>>`Y<a>b>a~`8n`<b>@>~i8nYb?E\@~f-~`B?dE8Y
~`B?4`4\Y`B?@8>~8>i~DB
4~~-~+d~b}wY4~-`8}8:n8>t8}~>?E4Ya}wiY~8:9f8>E`?d8}8>E9a>w~i<>~a8:9
~>8>E`5 t88}--t\~t8}9<`8Y493a>`\+<><-w?`b8>-^8>5b>YY`3-<fQi8}~>?Q9d~`8}9
~~`8YY>?@9>ba8>~~~t8}~> 8><->-bw?~i8:Y`>>>D4`-Y8>E9<b `9E8}-t~Y`?8}
8}aY-`8>\->Y?d8>3-d55D-D8>-9-a~`@t5n~nYbB@`->"`8:>&8>b@`-abE`
~nb>aabEa> ->a3-D8>Yh3a8:9t4-\@~>`?-D4`Y` `8}--d>8>-~Y* P>-A:i
8:>a3a>@\i8}D^-~3-D8>\->+d>YY`-~8>~-Qf}-~t8}bD?Pb-~`
\Ya~@8}->@p~~>`8}Q9ft5@`a>4-i8n`B
~ht~b8}>~tb8>8}~`8>~`8YYa>~4-i8}~^b>a~babEi8}9f-~-`E~`\D
>/d9@@>>`Y~8>&d9d~@ b8}~8nii~~8Y48}`~i8n\YQi8}E>5~t`8Y->"?
~i t-`>`-Y?@bb#> -~ba`8}-~&8}#8}\>\bE8}->`?8}aY~}-ba-~Eb
f`^<ba`8}-~>?w8>nY~ti-~\Ya~b~>48>~>?"@``~~>-~ad~`>h8nii~~
8>-8}`
53 4`b8>,`8>-+}~8>nY>?~~`--~a8}i~D-`>>&@bb~i58n-~b~`55>--8}-+Qh-4-tiE9
b~~a8}i~D4DYbb`8>-8:n8}8>~Y~--~`-D8>Y^&a>
3~8>nY`8Y->b8}-`- Q>Q~>~~\4-i8}@D a>`\DP-a\Ya~`abE8>-9+4-tiE9
b~`pY8>-+t~`-bE5~->@->"?~-~tid5~8YiE>+}-~~-@@P-`8}-D<d9
-~Y-8nY<>8a\nn8>`Y>w?~-D4^~a<Q\YYd~Y4-i8}~`
+3p,at48nii~`@`\~ 8>~>Dd9<8}i~~a-`>>`?E-~+~8ni` b8>3~~~>@D
38}n>>?b@bb@3-8}3~at48}i@bb~i~`->}-4t@Db \-b-~tQ-\-~t348>~
@bbfb--tb8>9>-~ba`8}-~8} \>\bE8}->>8}` ~Yfb~8}a~>?8-}5d~ 
-8}5-~@ bb\ab-~ba`8}-~\Qb`8a`4D-98ni`Q---8>&8}&a`4D9
a8}i~D34-\-~+A+@`>b`A ft-a8}i \~p
~t-4a~DQ8>i~` Q~\->wa8Y--b~9&}-~D44-~-D+\Y4t4}\Y~-f}
4DYbE-t8}"4-` Y~9<~`&~@@4nw~t }p8>-a` Q~->~>8>~9 >E9Y5nbYbD?
~n Y~d95@``~Y3~+\~8Y54DE~bb}8>-8}-~+Y>YE\b}~``
~ >p8>-aD Q~\->t\YfaY~9En8Y+8>t~8:9 QYw~aQ> `>E8>4-i8}~-`
~}-a8}i8}`J?d~@5->`+,pP-~+-`E~`\D8>Y~f>-Q8>~8}>a>>Y>`?>~b8~~b>ab~Y
b8}`3~8>i<a>i8nY`8}d`\~D?@i3-~b-E--n>`h>E5@-5->E>\D


 















!

#"

%$

&

'

)(

+*

,"

-

.

/"

,$

0$

1

2





3"

3"

~ftf-~aY4\Yftb8}-` Q---h5b>-t@bD~@^Ydd-t8nbDp8Y
`bY~-8}-9->t8>&~t8}8}a wA\p5>--~aQid9&`~` ~bbt8n`@Y~~\\Y4nYb
Q~Y8>-fE--~Y?P@``@~&~>-d~b+>8>^N---D4`Y+-~~`tb8>b>>b5D
 b`a8>b8}t-~ta>`b~-5 3>@Y~~\\Y4nYbD?B8}E-8}i8}b~`tb8>Q8>~`?wbYbd~b}
8}J~\Qbb&b-E--n>``5 ~?^8}@~Eb5>8}J~-bQh`b-\Y4nYbib?E8Y
8}E-`-DQ>>>Y`8}B@ `-`\Yp\>4tQi}>~9 Q8>~`


"

4(


 

  "!$#&%' ()
*+-, ,. (/ , 0  (1! 2,'

J


&

S
A

C
B
A

B
A

D
C


!

S
B

C
D

J

B
S

A
B

AB

E
F




,Y~A> T,XY4j 3DgiojQgiW>jQgiogi_nZo]^_YzDkqgfopZj4[b_dc>oUb6r 5e(UDkq]qzDU`_}XExikqgiUbZQ]c>gD&vyYgyd[`ksrh[bjjQU8 7yEgi[Dc&jQgiWYjQgiog_}ZQo5ZQyEg 91:Bgi_dcUbr


ZQyEgopZj4[`_Ecl>V[bk^kk^]q_Ygio<;@gZJgigi_opZj4[b_dcYojQgiWYjQgogi_nZynmYc>jQUDz`gi_=;@UD_EcYo>pUD]q_Y]^_YzZQyYgopZj4[b_dc>oivyEgyEgk^]qx[bkwopZjQXExZQX>jQgUbrPZQyYg
5e*]qo5_EU`Z5jQgiW>jQgiogi_nZQg?
c 3>]qoXE[`kqksmnA @gZZQgjQo5o]qzD_Y]qrmoCg BnXYgi_Exig+V+UbZQ]srtoiD ;E[bjE[ ;@FU 3:g[fkqgZZQg-jo]qzD_YH] GdgioZQyEJg I[bZQoU`K_ 7NTPjQ]qMx L
xiU`V+WEkqgiV+gi_nZUbrZQyEgV+UbZQ]qrJ


5 B}"-~Q---D8>nY58:Ybb8>@-t8}8}-~`4-~`h>b`-b>?EYb~8}a~>?B wA\i
><~^8}-b9Y8-b>9~tib>~tbB`?@>>b8-\>">YY`?E8ba`8}-~>?@8>38}\>\b~
-i8nY`?@8n548}4-~`BY-?8Yh`w8Y-~+d~\`b@~t58f>`-93\>a~\<8>-ON


 \  b 5+






f4~- 9\>4t@b8}b>a~@i8nYb8}ab->a`4~8}~~D8}8>E8nY}Q-t9
~D8} aYD\~``78}d9}~Y-~^D8:Y8}`8>~93b`@t-b4D&d9&}-b8>@->ib ~Yb@8>f
~>?-`i~~tE~`-`&d9&~`a8> @b8>@8>n(>-~a\Y4-Y}8> b-D4`Y<Q-~E
8>`\`@-Dd98<~-\48nf8>@-Y8n88>-En8>8-`>~t8}8>~>8}>ni?B-~<~8}~`8}~<`8Y->fJ5
8} 8}n>Y,~tta>-8>YD?~`b8>-8}n5h-\`8}-+8fh`@\`B?->a`8nYb`4-~a4b5}
~~@i>a~tif-\Ya~@-a8}i8}bNP`8:Yb8>~\-`f~n+?}\> Q~Ya^Y9dabi8>->?n`8Y->
+8} hb8><+4D8>>\>D},(-\YE-\d-p-b-->-b-->w?~~b\->"?~8}3-`~t8>\`abE
},4~Q-~Y`,3YEh}"-~D4nb-~>bi8nY`?Y-b`h8>4~8n8->~bN}i`8}-D8>\->
\Y~t<@`->~D3i`4Y-~Ybi-8>b>a~@i8nYw
$



!

"

 \ 
5 






~`-+8}8}d9E--~-`Y5\>a~~8nY34~a~i8}i~D35nbYbD?@4\~+>`~bi8}Bi~`ft4-9
~>h`~@biQddw?"-9&8:>>t~>>~@`-D\~t8nYd9@b4~>Y~\>\\-aY4~Q9>
~-DQa}-~ta4DY \>\bE8}-<Y n-8>4`~38t8}>-hD8:>D&}8>i~`~ti
-~8}-D-~+Y`8}-><>8fY~\@f`-Y8}wbb~t8}8>@-Ya8}-Yw

  "!"#%$&(' )*#+&)*','"'-/.0213


45613

~t-`\->@`>b>8>8}~a@@b}w\Ya~@8}->`8}Da~@iY`a\`~t8}8>@-Ya8}887 Y8}-`
-~n~n `8}4~t8n`3d9<
~>bi8nY}8 @t8}Y8>faD ,Y~-+;@h3-~"-~7&8>i~~ad~bN?E@Y-8nY<tQ>`
<8}@^Y~\@f`-Y8}8}>?E~`-`8>ibbb>E8>>}"8+~-4bh}"-9d>tb~\>a~~8nY
~@\bD~<4-bb?Y~b5`8>i4-`-~bE--58}5t8>4t8n`B?E8>`\>i@~-8>>ba~8>~Y?YE-8+b
8>Y~+-i8}4t8nY@`\~id`8}98}&8>8>b 8>i>,Q\`t8>-+`8YB?8>~tiQh-9d>t58}
^--btYn>`-~Dd9dYYp~8<~i8}~: 9Yp+>\-tb8}aY4i8}b8n-`8Y@<i8}a~ti
\`t8}8}`<->Y\~b\hQ-t9<8>^b8n`> 4-`-Qbw
~a4b>bE-`% ;E= <*>? @ B A6>C~E Dab8>`&-~a~8>~Y?B>-~f~>Y8>?}-~a B98}~~>-t8nb9
@D4>~~f--8>~>?@~  b8>38>@a`4Y-/4b~"b>a~@i8n->"8>D?  8}+\Yf@8}
->8}9~Ybi-8>J, #^G F-H JI49dY`8}a4~t8na`8}a~>bi8nY>8P~-~7&8Yi~~
-K F8>49dY8}L I~`8Y<48}-`
Mf-~~d}wt8>8}>Y>--8} w@Y-`dNdh`8}<b>b~
-8n8 `8}-`8}-b8>E9E~`4->~tib8>3~~i8>-`b}58&b>a~@b-Y>i8}
 8}" 8:>b`~`-Y~`3~ti->-tQi},Eb>``?~\Ya~@-+-a``?~8}38}d9}~bi8>-@b
ba>\>aabEi+8}f>i@bb>bb~~<~8}Q8Y+ad~b>~@i>Dbb~t8}+8>@-Ya8}8 PiQ+
\Y-@`5~~^\4 bfb8Y4Y58}d9&8n--`f~-`a~ba`Yi8nY}83 ?`8}~}8Y-8}9&\Y4-8>
@~-i8}>d>~~8}9<\Y@->`b>aa>-8>YDb>-t@b->n~b8Y4Db
8d35~~8n}Y~~8>-``a48>4-83~-ai8}}`~};} ,8}+`8>i4-b~a8>`b>a;
\bt4~Y4b @8}8nbQb~\Ya~@8}->b8>3~@\``3~a~--~``~t5b8Y4t~}5~Ybi-8>J
38>\->>~8}9\Y@->`,~b~`>`-~`-h8}a~~8>`bb8}b-~`ba}-~58}>?Eht\Y~D
>b8}- YE--~~b 8>Y~38}-`8}8>8:9@~-8>f- `*\`ti?8>d-~`-8}
>~N9 F3OY-~f8>Dbf-\>a~~8nYQ+bY-&\9@b8nbP F3OQb`?B-+`8>-t+8}t4~>
~~>bi8}N
niQ JD N sp4 s N} iD qN \ \ Q B DN> D: + Nb N D : D n 3 :+ J s NQ :
RTW S s : N Qs Qq BN J 5 phs sNP s \ ws 5 \ nn Bw@V U> N4> +} : 4 >:: S s p Q J q}B : J D5 JN @V U>




1



H

e ; /  B" JE F /


   6 */kEj 6 "
 E E<" 75 * 5 3 D? E "
NA
C 3 6 Ij/
y O"7g3 76FzD&
 `''9L8
;/;/*&    ?@&N ?/  *7 B  ^ &s37g, 
 7N 75 *5(8
 g . 5o 7  7 6 B  o'* ^ "/   E%,; B
 5  N 7/H  ""   NQ 7  7 6 B QoT y
 zD8
4Ei" < 3 0 /6-7 "  @ " */E  -N ^ 
 E! 5Y/=?6Q3 /9&0  Y"
H // 5# F3  5   6k/=  8
2


 &=%' !E 2, 
* /  2  K (/ / ./   !
 !E2,'
t+3

f(x,y) g(x,y)

t+2

t+1
t

,Y~;@ vyEgZ4[`W@gU`rh [ T|"c>] 3}]^cYgic]^_nZQUxigikqkqoi|P]^ooyEU_[bZZQyEg;@U`ZZQUDVjQ]qzDynZ


P[bx-yxigikqkxUD_nZ4[`]q_EoUD_EgU`rZQy>jQgig
po m>V ;@U`k^oi ;Yk^[`_ L@|;Yk[bxMLacYU`Z|UbjyE]sZQgcYU`ZvyEg5Z4[`W@gio[\ZoXYxixigioo] 3:gZQ]qV+g5opZQgiWYo[bjQgopZ4[`x L:gc=3:gjZQ]qx[bk^ksm[ ;@UF3:gZQyYg]q_E]sZQ]^[`k
Z4[`W@g`,vyYg]q_EogZ|YkqgrZ|dcYgZ4[b]^kqoZQyEghrtU`jQV Ubrw[jQXEkqgZ4[ ;Ekqggi_nZjmn|}yE]qx-yfzDUF3:gjQ_YoyEU_EgZ4[`W@goh[\jQg5xjQg[bZQgic


: b@@t5~-t8}w\Y@->`'<`^~b-@>w-~~~@bb-`\9<8-`D8n~f8}4-`-3}49d>t`
 8>4~a- Q4>~+b>d9},-~b@@t~@i>b-~`54t@},-+~@`?b>a~@i8nY3~@\``~8Y
J8E?@~i8}Y\-d4~Y4D?8Y~8>~}~b\YE9}~f`-@@~di<b-b4t@>-
~@8>8>348>4~\Yf@8}->8}~` }~t5b8Y4f ~~>bi8}N
  bNbY~t8n-D>~8}9b>~^Ybbb@~~Y8n-9d>h+-<>~8}9\`N?P-~b
8}b-~`54~~&8>J8E-Yb@8}<d98}~b~~a8~bbb--~b}"-~8>Y~t`8>-
8>-a~~>bi8}N
,8}9Y?Y8>iYfn 8>a8>-h`Y@8>`-Y ~ E~88}4-`}B\Yd>bEYwPh9d~`8}9Y?>~`
-\Yf@8}->t@>>?}~8>-h`4-`>a~8>~i8}>h~~n#^d~na~`a-~\>a~~8nY
t@Y~D ~E--^Q935-8}5-8>Q>i8}~Y @~-9d4-`/8>5`8Yi~`8a~@DdN>E`5nbYb
-8>`h\Y-@`8n8b>a~@i8n-><@>~`<8-`\t8}-9EYJ?@`8}Da-~ ~}qJd n }q?@8Y
bb^--`3Y-~4-f8>d9EbY<~8>Y
/"



,4

"'61
!  L/+ ."!$#&%(' .

~n4~n ~n 4\>Q-\8 w~t4DYa>~-ft4-tb8}94n 8}


i~`ftb8>`8>\->)*i~@`\~ P-a>n~&4DY\Y-@`+>-`Y8>h@\~-`@
\Y@->-i3-8}-~`9<"8>\d`\~58Yh+8:>@`\`w
~#-`~`-bE8}->+}-~ i8}854-\Y~E-b-pE-^Y>?}-h@b@~8>d9+\~8}a~> P>-
-~n58}-}~a>`b~bbd~~~~-t8}i8}~~~@--<\Yf@8}->3P&`8>ii8}
-9EY,b>-D4>~58<-~Y4>Y>d\b>-t@-`E~`\Y?~ti8>~D8}i&~~-t8},a>`\a8>8<4-tiE9`
n>`-8}~3-~8>~~>~t8n-E4->b~a`4>~
`8Yi-bYabE~ED~}+n8}9-\YYbE`?
8}ai~Y-ba8n@f bQ--8>Qi8}~^Q9Y}5-8n~`8Y@~8>atft\~4-~i8}@Y-
}~E^~>~Y ,Y~ +h-ib8n>?>~;}~t-- ,a`8>E-a~98nh-~~>\>a~\
t-Y~>~9~t8}8}Dt5\-tb8}N?~8}<id9>?@t~d9@4tb8>9~t8}-~Y
~`-8}<8n8}\Q9}58:9d-a8>><-~^8>ha>`b~>5}8nf-~3^8>aYD\~3`8}~>~YE
}8>+b>-4-~}4`>`8>,@Y~~\Y4nYb QY> P>-A`?B^-~a@@b8}->-8}~a-Y
8}>4-Y4-i8}~8>-+8>~+-8>&dEb>8}J~5&`~} M3-b ,>~, +a>@\i8}~>D
-Y>b-~`,d9D\`,>~D8}~`tb8>@>~4-tid9bb8}5~`-Y~`4i-8n>~9+~~E~a>`b~
"-b8>4`~. -n"E8>-`8}8Y~@D<aa8>>-4`>abE>"~+^8>wa>`\+\nn8>`Y9<Y@`w
/ S } n Q B 4  \ J Q  Q " 5 : Q N s NP s
0
n J q} 4qs nN JQq n: s Qs f > N5 DD J-4 : 4p5 }s> s D N q Q D s N  J s :: J ss 5 NQ ,` } \s q
=




,

"

?#6 6 "t*N`3 75 "?# */*&,  *^ 5Y 2D 6 7"N @?Y / 5Y6 . <" 6 7 B" 6  {F * @98
4-/ "/ ?A / F  BQ/"" .@? 5>/ mg7 * /F ~3 o  / %&i7/ NY  / 6 - * m07 / /Q5 6 JIj/ #    dS@L-&!/"7 
" B
  05 ]   M6   7 <,;%E  6&s  B"N   05 ]   M 5   / /6 0"  5 / * " $8'kIK 9L 3 *^ @8<g6k " ?0&
- *N7 ; N7 N E! 7"/ 75#3 6 5 <   48


   , K . ,. ! ,  !E/'! %' ,  
 
/ ( ./ 2
BCA:

DNA:

,Y~ vyYgogCBnXEgi_YxigU`ropZQ]^x Lnmgi_dc>o]q_ZQyEg]q_E]sZQ]^[`kV+UDkqgixiXYkqggi_ExiU}c>gioZQyEg]q_E]sZQ]^[`k~Z4[`W@gUbrBZQyEg TEvy>XYo s+:dc>gi_EUbZQgio


[5opmYV ;@UDkd]q_ZQyEg T c>]^[`z`j4[bVa|}yEgjQg[bo]q_ZQyYg 5ec>]^[`z`j4[bV(]sZcYg_EU`ZQgo,ZQyEghXE_E] BnXEgogCBnXYgi_ExighU`r2;d[`ogo[`ooUnxi]^[bZQgic]sZQy
ZQyd[\Zopm>V ;@UDk




~n(\@~t8}~n~~>Y8>?~-8nt-~f-+i8}~>?>-~f  b~`-bE-D ~YD8>i


~Y?" s B < >? @ B A6>C~i?h+\`8}-+8a@>~b-E--n>`a>`b~Y-4-tid9b~>>b^8} <8> ??
8}><-~>-~`h~`G A&8} CfJ4` ,>~ +diB-i<~a>`b~`8}8Y~@`<--->@->\YYi8}~~
-3~-t8}a>`\Ya4~n P>- ?8}tf-DY`Yfb>a~@i8nYt8na-a>`\D
8}~`8>BE-aY-^Y^8}3>9>-4-tiE9<b~8}iw




 2  ? ./ "!E./  2/ ( ./ (-E ( / " ,O!!. /  !E!E 2


C

C
A

C
C

B
A

A
B

,Y~ IgogigrjQgiMg 7EU:[\ZQ]^_YzjQXYk^gZ4E[ ;YkqgV+UDkqgixXEkqgio[ ;@U 3Dg[b_dcZQyEg]q_E]sZQ]^[`k~V+UDkqgixiXYkqg[\Z,ZQyE'g ;@U`ZZQU`


V  ;@UbZQyxU`jjQgioW@U`_dc+ZQU
QZ yEg T]q_]qzDX>jQg-"jQXEkqgZ4[E;Yk^gV+U`k^gxiXEkqgD|n]sZQy+opZQ]qxMLnmgi_dc>o #[b_dc |n]qoP[E;@U`XYZ,ZQU5[b_E_Yg[`kEZQUZQyYg]^_Y]sZQ][bkdV+UDkqgixXEkqgD"Z
ZQyEg5kqgrZ|~[jQXEkqg5V+UDkqgixiXYk^gyY]^x4yV[bZQx4yEgioU`_Eksm[\Z  ]qkqkXEksZQ]qV[bZQgkqmf_EUbZopZQ]qx L~ehU`ZQgZQyd[\ZhZQyYgjQXEkqg5V+UDkqgixiXYk^g]sZQyopZQ]qxMLnm
gi_EcYo #[b_dc ]qk^k[`kqoU_EUbZopZQ]^x L@| ;@gx[`XYog5ZQyYgU`jQ]qgi_nZ4[\ZQ]^U`_U`rB]sZQoopZj4[`_EcYo]qojQUD_Ez EZQyY]^ojQXYk^gV+U`kqgixiXEkqg]qkqk2;@gXYogrtXYkU`_
[`ksZQgjQ_E[bZQgkq$g 3:gk^oU`rZQyEgk^[bZZQ]qxig`
YbE-8}9Y?}8-t8}>~t8}t8n4b}~>Da#@>?>-~8}-~+8-8>~>~t8}bYY}8 b>-D4>d
~a->~~8}93b>@->8dh>:  `\-> A8}n>-b ,>~=Yh>~~8}9<\Y@->8>
b8><-~t8n`d9--`\t8}-~a>`b~D>-~D@>a>~t8n4b ,-<@\i8}8}f}~`-bE`
~`-Y5}8n+D8>ibYb}~a8}4b8Y83->4-i8}}h~ti8:Ybt5~`E--f`~}>-
t8n4b+8n-8}bYbN?~8}3~`--~+bd~`49d>t@b\3-~+-`E~b\~ti<~b9<d`\~<~+ 
8na !
,8}98>-?w~n `8}a8Ybb`~>~-~@>~\Yf@8}-> ~`8>@+@nE-QE~DQY`
5n ~hd~n#
" ~b<~b>a~@i8n->@>D 5$ " ~ntY-~8>f8n-8}>Y ~b8>-8>E9
%
Q Q s n
q Ds ss  BB @dn N D :4 Js Q Ds s > J DJ 4N N NN}} Q N Q  } s \


2



; - N"/ E  = / Ei" F 7 `6   7 /  Q  /  3 - /" @ E / 6   D?@& 37  /<   ^ 3 -" B 3@?7/"N
^ " 3  N" /,   /;/ mg7 *   g5 Q/=?6Q3  /*&N B ;/  * | * D?# 75Y3   ^ 5%8

 2  .  
/ ! !  ( / !E, 0* 2 ,  !E ,  !E -/' 2/ ( ./ 2
Level t

Level 3
Level 2
Level 1

,Y~=~ ZZQyEg,x-yYUDogi_+[b_E_Yg[`kq]q_EzZQgV+W@gj4[bZQX>jQgD|`yY]qx-y]^o"[ @; U D3 g,ZQyEgV+gkqZQ]q_YzhZQgiV+W@gj4[\ZQXYjQg,rU`jd; [bog 7 Wd[`]sjP[`_Y_Eg[bkq]^_Yz<E; X>Z


;@gikqUZQyEgV+giksZQ]q_EzZQgV+W@gj4[bZQX>jQgrU`j6;E[`og 7Wd[b]sj[`_Y_Eg[bkq]^_YzY|}_YUV+UbjQgjQXEkqghV+U`kqgixiXEkqgioPx[`_+opZ4[ ;Eksm[\ZZ4[`x4yZQUZQyY]qo,opZjQXEx-ZQXYjQgD
U,g$:3 gj|@]srwZQyEg@; UbZZQUDV kqg$:3 gik tZQyEg5]q_E]sZQ]^[`kV+U`k^gxiXEkqg gjQgg
}ZQgi_EcYgc~|YZQyYgi_[k^[bjQzDg-jZjQ]^[`_Ez`kqgxiU`XEk^cfrtUbjQVa ]qoZQyEg5kqgi_EzbZQy
U`rZQyEgopZQ]qxMnL mgi_EcYo]q_fZQyEghjQXEkqgV+UDkqgixiXYkqgioi
Level 0

 Y4~8>~~Y8Yi~`-i8}> ~bh&f`-`9 4Y\i >>f`E->~D 8>nY>?b>-~ba-


\Ya~@8}->~>~~b<84`b8>8}-~-9d>th-4b<Y-58> ><?E-~t\>`-Y~
--`\t8}w4-tid9b3a}^,`~a\Y->i8n`<E--t8n--t\Y~b-@bb~ib?E-a>-PB+~`-bE
8>h8+@>~bp4-i8}@`fa>`b~5>~54-a>?@8}f~t-^b8>i~Y-b8>-~-D\>Y~->@>8>aY
8~@~}b >?d~ti3\Y~tB?E>\~8}a~>?@-~-`E~bE9`8n8>9 `8~Y-~~Y-D-bbEh`8Y->"?>~-~-
->@->~~>"~\-`-a~8}54>~+8>D8n~YED?5~`b`-8>-9a\d-i8>\-~-~>Q8>
}b>-D4>~~a<~8},b>`P>-~a BP3@<-~tb?i48Y~&E8>-+-\nn8}bE9Y8>P-
8}~`8>D-bYf`E-D~`8>~-D4Yn8Y4-&~`8>8}-~b-E--n>` Q~\-> } ,8>9>?P~`8}--b8>8}-
-Q8>~`?P8}48n~Q9~-`8n->-&bd-i8>~<4-i8}\YYi8}~~-~8>^&f>-Q<5a~98>
-`E~b\-8}Q8>3~nh`>`h9Y>@`-- s hdt8 *8>Qi8}~8>-`E~b\~a>bti
Pa-~a8} `-~+a@@bP4~Y>DQ`b>?~8\Ya~@8}->hY~t<~@\``8>>n5b
AY PiQD?bd-D-9Y>~~>~bd8b>a~@b~-Y>i8} h>d>`48n~>>i8}/E<8Y-~9~>@\b-
f~tQ:h~diY`\`~t8}58}~->8}->"
;~ h-D8n-348}fYD\~`5p-8>D8}~D8}\~ti -bp8Y--b~-\`8n~3~-t8}a>`\Y
~-t8}a>`\Db?E^"-`8>ianYb8  5NYb~`8}-`-\h}"4-~Et@D4-Di~E8>--4-b}-ba-
fYD\~>
h-D8n--a8>P48>D<aYD\~``\@@~f-~+~8>~Y9>>~-Y>i8}
7^3-~+aYD\~`5b-D8n`34-`;a8} >>b-~`58f`4-~>?8}Ybb~@b5-D\t4b>@->
-`a`8}-~>?~8}5\>\bE8}->h8>h-~ 8}4-t\b-9@48> ```
=~~b+~4Y@Y+--P~~>?nY8n>?n\~P~b-E--n>``?b8>+\d8Y"~h4-i8}+^~8>^-9EYJ
+  `E~`\-8}-h``

N : Pp B \} w B:: wNn} w ns :N N:iJ > s :N Q`Q 4 q B :: J 5D N : J n5 :Ds wQ Q NJ s: Jh: :J:>4 Jq s :4N Nq N Qn 4 Q pD s NN
:4 s\i B : n s \ n : q Q N n 4 :  N : ~ 5 5 w p s : n pi} Q N s

J sDhw Js N s 4 4 :n J\ n s \ N \5 } : >  ns N n N\ > : J  : N N B q Q> J5 :>b } N N
N \ J :D <: "N N :i N \: J }4 J ND J N JQ N N \ : s J N \ s s 
N : } s n d : D N
: q Q P B \ : 5 > s N } : : N}:Q : B :


"

3

%

.



l"/ @    = / Ef" <


,sD?   ?  ;.g 9, Q" B  < 6 7 B  #/l5  &/ `"  B=  ,; 0"g7 <
N *,]8iG 9, ^ *&  / /
/"/ 3  ]5 /"No" ; *7  7 6 B k/"7 k  B s */CN `@ /    /" B ; `  C 6 7 B" 
BC" ;/ 6 l"6 <Ij" !"N]gm07 5k
C 3 6&/
vw xgwy 7 /"zjL&   *3@?  *,N 7/  ]5 / Nk    / E%<1; ,; F| @
" N / BC" |s s ^  E(" ; B"" @&g/ <" BC C  HN 9,dEj7"" 98 / 6 *?`6 . }g"  "  E " |s s
; |sN7 B  
/  98
[ ;   u6-7/" *^   " ^ -3 75uE  6& 5    ^ Q703 75E "68 s7""  6  &s, `6-7/"3 Q/ 7 ] <5 / %Z  35
 F 7 6  * 7 /#" / 7  (8
[[ 4/ `^ 5  "#" B;N / 6 *?F ;3 3 < -35o @?37l" 7  6 /";/= 5/ ` B"" 8C4;6 *?F3 3 = 
^  / <   5  EM  ]N / 5Y /  ^ / /" /98
[ e  " 7N  /  ^ / Y /F3 d/  9,;p A 7k  /"/ 9^ "/Fp5 73 2D  / / *^ F6   *7 */ y s7sTBzD&C -/F7.0 *,p,; " F 
t?6 <,;b3 ]Ej7 "     ] */= 5/;#" ] B"" @8CG *, ^ 9&" t?6 6 ?o3 3 < & B;56k/  5/ *5(&,  .
Ej 6   5N /%8

 .0!' #  (!"#




 



1,45 13)  , '', 1 





wb` a`>~&8}8>9@->~-ft4-tb8}9> 8>nYb>4-\->t Q4>~a~ba`Yi8nY Y4~3#8


> `~bi8}wb8Y--8}aYY`8}D -\9@Qi8}wb>a~@i8n->E4}-~tb8Y-`?~@`->&849@4-`/~`-+b8>
8>>-pa8>>-5b~`-Y93J8}bb-`5bb>9,8>h8~Y}~b>@Y~i8n->""@`->h4ia-8}-
nhDQb~`-Y9Qi8na>3Y~b8>->?d~n`4-`\pb~`-Y9a48}-+8n58>>`<ba`8}-~:~~tE~b9<b-D4`Yi
-8}-h`->~b>a~@i8nYw~tbE4`9&bt8n`--~8>~~Y8Yi8>>`d9 ~w>@bt 5Y@`d
-ba8}B>>~`~8>~\Q>@b>~5`8>-~+n`4b~`-Y9\Y@>8}-><t>b`>`-9~
a>`b~f8Y8>,Y~Qid9&`~Y~B Yb-~a~`-bb>~a~-t8}a>`b~>?B~`8}>~9&@b\
-\>a~~8nY3-@\``~8Y@`--DB
~8}n><8>8}9@4ttf8-a~b8}->8nf8}-8>>E-\Y4t@`8}->8}d98>-Di>-~~>Y-`
f`f`E8nYw >b~8}a~>?,^b>a~\b9>~Y-D-~<~9E8}a`+EY>>D PY~-a~98>~~`8>8n8&-n
b>~Y-i~D@~>?D-h8}>f`E">d``?:8}~hb-9@48>}"-`-~^D"~`-D8>"+8YP-~\9d48> `8nY~-@bb`
8n~+`@Y`Y~9Y?8>`\Y@~-d\-tb-8}->~b8>E-9 ~b\-+-D4~`
8}8babi8n--&Y~-i#-8}QQid9`~<Y~t48}Y?~Y~Qid9 b#>#
~48>~D}-b>i~`?\  ? ?8> -ab-~babi8n--D>8~a>`\+4-~3E-38
t8n4b->~`-`-`Yb9 ?PAY?8>;a>-~fQid9b&8}-~Y5a8}iw8>Y-Ybb~`4~
8n+8babi8n-- -i&-8n
~t4~Y~t&aY4~>?~@+~n t8}>-f@ bbb
\Qbb 8> 5-~Y~><-~ t~ En> h-8}--t\~t8}a>`\Dh4Y?dhb8><>b->a@D8d9
EYd~f8n8nD d~n<8>Y@~`8>(8}~`8>~ ~Yhb~8}a~>?d~@`Qi8}~8><\>@^Y; 8>-\p8}
>>>db`}@Db~`-bE~&~a>`\D-Q&`~}A 4-tid9b~>~abf8}  ?"~
A 8>-\p8}+>>>db`}@Db-D4`Y&-~a>`b~`->~9>~b}-A 4-tiE9bY~B?8>
->-~`8}i~~<8}--t8}9a`^8n=
\~-N +Y= >-~`@t-b-a8n--Q3`8>-``
5nbYbD?D-~8}8>Y>9}-~fYD\~`,-Qh4`8}i8n~@~@>8>Pn8}t8}~\p`~}>>>db`}@D
-&\YYd~Y~@~@>8>t5E~DQY8}~>
@b~->8>-h`-@5,^>~D-DE~`8i~batQD EnD@>8>8>8}P\@babEib@
b8>faD@8}-`9~4Ya<a><\Y\`-->E`  \3@~>8:Y<8}4bi--~`?+f`-`9
abE->-~`L8Y--~ ,i4`?-`8Y&>@+8}8}-b}a>-8>>~`?">~a~ba`Yi8nY`E~-D
E8n-~-~~fYD\~`8>b@4~b ^a-D4Yn8>->"pt~>8}8}~\`8},8nD?>~5\n5@`\Y@~D
}-~#8}4b>?nb-bY8Y4h>,-D4Yn8Y4@8:>d> `~>~Y+-b-> QY 7  `b>B?n,Y4~
-8n`?w8}8n 8}-Y?b>-D~`fb>Y8}-`E-3-t8n--t\>p-@bb~`?-fb>a~@i8n->
~`Bp5td~}\`8>8n-~t-a8n9d`~>,b>-Db>a~@i8nY38}-f\@`\-`w?8}<~\~b
8a`8}fb>~t @`d-`-4`8}i8n<~>d@> ~&8YB pt8>~~^Y8}9 \>\bn8}~3-8}48>~
4-~-Dh>
3-~+->@->3~b>~~D`<--~~^8>Ba>`\Y >\~8>fY?d>~~DfYD\~`b>~t
\Y~~Dh38Qi8}~<@8>a>~ Ya>E~~a-8}~`-b>a~\@`>~9a8>-`9f>a`B?d`b8>-5-
Yba`@t8n<Qb8}~48}>~9>~4-tid9` Q>aYD\~`i?8}Y-a8>-D8>->~b9>~t
>n4n9Y5nbYbD?"~b98}}~bQ9E`}-~~Yb>~`Y8>i8}~YD\Y~t>?~~-
\Ya~@8}->wa 8>\>\bt-8}+-~`-f8:9a->aa49@4-`a8}-tffYD\~t8}4-`Y+Q8>-8}\>aD
Y~t8:9b~t@~8+t8}>\9d48>J?E8}f8n`9>Y8bb-8}- `-D8}~hY~a`-~`5-~D44``?
8}3-~b9}~bib?~~`-b>fY-+8}4-`E->&8}4-@9Y
pY-~a>a`Ya-~~Y--8}~aa~ba`Yi8nYY`8}-`b>-D-9>?\++b>-~b8n8Y@n8}E8>>
>~t@b>`wf,8}Y~f>n~-83i>b>8}` ,i4`?"8-a8>~afYD\~&-b ,Y~ +3Y
8\Y-\p~\Y4t4f}+= 8>-\p8}i>?-@\bEa>4-tid9ba}b}-=@?h~ti>>Df 2A
-9EY 9}8}` 8>^> ~+aYD\~>?~-&8- `+~>8>~9<D-8};  f E=f5~EQ-Ya`?@Y
f~ ~+aYD\~>
=Q
Q J n s }4 s N JN : n BN : > 4 JJ : JN Q p N  s } 4BiJ} s n w B }: :D N4N}: q J 4\ q } :
R
} :} : NJ q n s  s n> BQ : 5: " qs :P s :nis}q tQ J 5: Bs N 4 Ds sq 4\ \ nJ N  :q Q 5D q: Q Q q : \Q N p q: Q 4: `}} s N
N D : s : p +- s s s >} 5 : p N 4 s N \ N 5 :
"

 



$



















4(





!,

"

#!

$&%

'

"

"

3



*)

(

,+

-

22

"

#

+

[ 4 /l3 / 7NN /= 5#" Bl, /  75%Z l7/ "  *"6 *=?/=  &3 * 7/  l / ,  2D5 |s 5/   (6 N8!ll3 /"*& 7
/"" 7 " /? 5 / 75 2D "?g/" / &3  7/ 0?o7/ EK7( 6 7 B" #/
  05 8/. <3 *N`   5 l QN ^ <7/l/   .Fo7/"N
"/;  68
[ 4E%"  ;/  N ;3 D, o    E("  B"" 5 7 6   7 l,; k /10=7/=C|C   @&0" k 7H /"" 7 " %&

/   N / E  6 5-,;  7 6   7 l|"/H0 ]  / 73/ mg7 *@l ? **8  / m07 0" ?@&  Tr B=  &g B" C  3 N
"E * " ?   *&fE 5/ 3  . 5AE ""A.
 E (&f,; u, F 
" 7N B 5  B=  8  k  7N B 5> B=" } / /
6  Ei  -5 73 -  }#/"" 5/  A"7 ]6   *7 @& / /"3 ?#6 .gNF" Q/"" 5/6    /"/ 3 ] N / ]37g 6 .gNF 

 2    " !E/62*+0E/ /' ./ 


/ K / 2
34 A
f(x,y)

g(x,y)

44 A
x

85 A

,Y~ + vyE]qo]qoZQyYgoV[`kqkqgiop+Z 5h
b$g 3Dgi_opZNm>kqgjQXEkqgV+UDkqgixiXYk^gW@UDoo] ;EkqgDuJZyd[`oopZQ]qx Lnmgi_dc>oU`r,kqgi_EzbZQyn|[b_dc]^_nZQgjQ_E[`k
jQgiz`]^U`_U`rBkqgi_Yz`ZQy>
3:gjm;d[bogWd[`]sj]qooyEU_


-`4~-``bYba><-D\~t8nY>  ~~Y-<<b->28b>a~@i8n->}8A n\` /^


 8>\->>~8}9\Y@->`?,8>\Yf@-YA a<4-`b  ~~Y-8>>`aA-`b>Y8-a
~<~`^i<-><t\@Y-`B  \-~= 4}i8}4^i8}~`>-9 \@Y-`B?58>-~Y~#&`
8}~-:@8n-`9A4D\>>8:>bi8}Y>"`8>f8-Y~>DQ8}-} ~>>\Yf@-~-~fA 5\`
t8n4b> -~<A`E}"?@h\>8Y--b~A d -~aYD\~``?E-8}htb?A d-54i<b8>b~8}->h8}i8}bN
8}h`8>-f8->8>>A E 95Y`8}->b-`\Y  ~`-5th~t8}>@Y~@-~+~-8 QY
48}Y3-~b>a~@i8nYw6 b>~i-a+>~t38>-a+`E~`-~+~~~8}3>~-~@48>>Db
"-'-

'-'

-'

'--





"

B

"


)*! ) 81*
!  ) 1 )


! 
 !   ! #1)   *)  "' 1*
!P



8Y~@->&-`-bE-t8},Y`4->>~\~b-~~`8>8}n>`8}8Y@<><-t8}w?-~`-f8}
8}d9>-~`4`-a+dY`4-Y8n`B
  (, -#$    (,O! # E!E-/? 2 % ! !E
, p<tE-b`4-~~}-8}38}aYY3`8}D
-b>a~@i8nY~>bb-9@48} `~ - t8n--t\:-b>\`8}9`E~`3~ `~b>98}8> 8Y`?
\9@Qi8} `8}->Qb@}-bft} \Y~i4Y?8Y-D8n@D8}">b~`-Y9<8:93-`<~D8n5~aE~~w?
>a~~t4~-`fbi8n~-@t-->>+@b`ib ~--~`-a>>?d~+~~@8>3>@~@48>>``E~-+-9dY~`-t
8}8}8>9@->La>`b~``?58}#d<8>-ib~`-Y9> ~-YE-8>53Y4~9~aY4<~D8}9
f`f`E8}+b@8>a~>"-+~-b~-8n\Ya~@8}->-`>?@~@5~~~8}3>~@8}\Y4-9 b~~b4N
 O# .E 0!. 
 E!  .1!E  * -  ./  2/ ( ./ ( hD8}9-8>4b~t8}i~>t\}a>`b~t}}
Y--f>-8>\-f~@D8>"~b>4-\->w~Y>tb8>D--bbt-f8:Y8>-n48}`a>`b~
->@D4>8>~Qid9<`~`^i-a~`4`?>\>8}>~+8}d~a--a>@}Qhiba`8}9
\Y4N>`<Q8>~}
,>~ n8di5~>-~`8}-`-8n->t-~->E9t8}>`4~>+\Y4nYb5>~8:9
Q~\->wnh`>bD?}htaY4i8}E>-~\YQ-->a>~t8n--t\8nh-~Qh+~`8>~`b`a-<-+
~t8}8> d5Yt~8:9 QY8:>5b`<4na--bbh8< bd~: + ->b8>~> tpi~`ftb8>9f~>D
4-i8}~8}Y~D8}n>8:>~>59>\5b`&i8}i8>\-b b`w~+-D8>->3h+~>Y--~+t8}>+@Y~~+\Y4nYb
N W N \h s " Q- Ns N NJN J 5 D } 4 N : Q J4 N N
s J" Q J > J : N Q }:bp :N 4 : P } : n P \ 4 : N U>: Q : > } ,J N N :} Q

R
/
!  NQ 4 nN J JJ  N   4 N :: N}p} Ns s  ,} 4 N Q: N" J Ni :n s ,s  :p } : :} Q N
4

1

&

"

-

."

-

 /"/ 9^ "/ / /   / / 3 < F /  ^ / 8


[ .
"6k/""  ?# m07  ?uTk6k/"6 B  */3 D, A/ m07  */]  / @ N5  No/=?6Q3 /*8 .
/ o mg7 ]  Q 6F2
 6 0 E -/=?6Q3 4Z // *m07  ]5 */  05 E  F/=?6Q3 4& 5#  B ^ "?# 05 ]/ m07  Q /<SkC2=O 3 5/ 
5 T-2 3 5/9&
E ;6   /"/" *@<6  "N] 6  B"7 /98
[ ;/ 6  */ oSWW#O \
HAI
'*W [ 3 / 
* B  / /  5 L B"  3 `3@?#" ]3 */=<6 05  / 7  6 7g  /*& vw xgw
WWW  0 /"/ ;D0 M
 N %8 E! 7 / &g 
 B" / F, 6  
 / 5  N */*8

 2    
/ ! K ,. !E
 
%'
/
2 (A* - '! !E 2
f(x,y)

x
f(x,y)

8d

g(x,y)

y
g(x,y)

y
f(x,y)

f(x,y)

g(x,y)

g(x,y)

f(x,y)

g(x,y)

:
f(x,y)

g(x,y)


f(x,y)

f(x,y)

g(x,y)

g(x,y)

:
,Y~ d [hXYkqgV+U`kqgixiXEkqgio.;d[`ogicU`_x-jQUDoo 7kq]^_KL:gc 5e ;5h
3jQXYkqghV+U`k^gxiXEkqgio,]sZQyU}cEc17k^g_Ez`ZQyoWE[`xi]q_Ez> x 5h

jQXEkqg5V+UDkqgixXEkqgioh]sZQyg$3:gK_ 7kqgi_EzbZQyaoWd[bxi]q_EzY c  5h #jQXYkqgV+U`k^gxiXEkqgio]sZQy<U}cYc 7kqgi_EzbZQyoWd[bxi]q_EzY g 85h


 jQXYk^gV+UDkqgixXEkqgio
]sZQyag$3:g_K7kqgi_EzbZQyfoWd[bxi]q_Ez>




a>`b~Di --8}-~`98:>+8>`8Y@9`b&i8>8Y-`- bD3~+t8}8}8}-~Y~>E-a+->t~tia8:9


~`~-`>`Y8>~>`8}4-t\Di8}~t8}8>f ~"A\p+i~E4f5 *~\bb\3>-~`->>>Y`8}P:8>-t8}Ei
}~>~~b-E--n>`a>`\Db?B-i8>5 ?Db8}4-~-YYY>9}-~a>`\D8>~-8<@ `-`E
4`8:Y`}"4-i8}~<-~8}4b ,>~ n`@:~\b-8:>84~>4-i8}a~i"?E"\nn8>`Y9
~Y`B?-~8}>~a8}bE-+`>bB>"~+8}4b>?@Ebb@@~  Qi8nY-8}-aQbw
 O# 2 %  2 ,  !. (,O!E  . E!E
# 2*J!.  2 %. !E!E 2, ~9&-aY4+-D\`Yb>`Pt~D\`8}9
>5-~\d4-b>,~\Ya~@8}->w P~b  iN n   n
n}J } i  @  
& ~}h ~  nN n Q ~
}JN
i <n   n DE " @ ~<  4a }JN
i }  "E ~a>`b~D~i@t4YYf8}~}4bn
}4>/}"~+t8n4b\Y~3t8n-`+\p-`8n~b>t@bn>w

? !E2  !  % 2-   ,. &# 2


/  ,. ./  
/ ( ./ (   ~E4af8>-fEb`4-`@8-a8>
~-Y>i8}~tiYb~`8}-D88>4b~8>4-~?wY+4b>4-Y`  `b~8}->`9Y?whfaYEbY-8
~Y@\ba~t4-t<-\a}8}E--3-~<aYD\~`}88}--t\~t8}f4 bY?\@~->a<aYD\~`>f~>~
@b-ba4-tb8>9\YQ--~~-t8}a>`b~``>n->aA E t8n--t\Db?8>->a`~n\d-i8>\-Y-
~tib>a~@-~~`-`Q-~+-~a>`\D~-D4`E3-~D4+t8n--t\`8>-d~n<-4@b`Y
\Ya~@--~Q-~?>~@h-~`9a~-Y8}9f@~>\YE8}8}Y-~5~``P~n@t4YY-~34>d@~t8n--t\`
8}->a`~n 8>f9~~aa>`b~`+~`-bED<wb4-~&t8n--t\`>n 8}E8}w?P8>4`D-~&8}E8}Y+-
@D4-D4-~?wf~--~`-D@b~~Y@\ba~t-L}-~a~fYD\~`-D4`YDa`8}8}t4\Y4t@`
8>@8-d9f8>fY~E}BE8>->?}d@b`8>-Y8}9\`8n+8>-Yb~fYD\~`-Y-8}`>~D- M8Y- }
-b>a~~E~ b8}8n-`8b-`8}->hdYf8>-b8nh~a>`b~`8}5~`-bE`?d> Mf~`-~a~
-btQw->a~>~\-`-a~t45
MEY8n8}>-~`5Q-~Yh~b9Y-~t~db`t\Y-b9bt8n-D
~~>`8}B-`8>i8}b8>3+-`B?~>\~8>fY?d> >a>Y>nfb>a~\@^Q9<8>-`3@Y"  >>a> p
 O#  
  O# ,.
!? /  $  / ! ! K ! 0 / !E   
3aQi8}--D^A` 
`b8>--~`9b8}<aa`@t8nb9bdY-D4D\@tQ~
`i~~YY>9Y@ab-> bi-b>`8>
8>~:8>E8}Y``?hnh`>bD?h-i#`8Y4b3@`-Y#}+\\bE<b>a~@i8n->b b8}afY-&aY4i8}E-9>?~>~`
@ab-Y^fD\>aDD8>-`+-@`-Yb>-J>bi8}E~`3 8Yb4 hE-^Yb9>?>Ya@\Di ;}b8>
Ddp-Y 8> 48Y\bE\Y-`\-9Y\Ya~@-D+\`tb?>~3A`85>E@\D4`>`P\>a~~tb8nY\Qb`-
\8}>Eh-@Y "b  iN n  }&   @ }
!@  Dn "hi  a  @ #$% nNJ
i 
 `b~8}->`9Y?w>~b>~t-YE4a8:8>-t8}E}h-~@Y~~\Y4nYb>t~8:9 Q~->"?w--~-~Q8>
@Y~~\Y4nYb Q~\-> ,Y~- di?E8>8+aD8}+a~ba`Yh-~-D8>d ?}-\ >bi8nYf`E~`fd9f;}
~@i>`\`~t8}+8}@>8ni8J4`fY " Y^N? h"<AD;Ei @>--8nb9>?B~a~-YE4D&~~t@}p~@i&a>`b~
8Y~}59Y\`b&-9EE~`- ``B


.

4(

&



1

+"

"

"

!2

(

!2




 '& 
%'2E /  / ! ! K 
*  
* - ? 0 ./  ! ,. ( 

f2(A,B,C,D)

f1(A,B,C,D)

f4(A,B,C,D)

A
f3(A,B,C,D)

,Y~ EU`XYj 5e c>UDX ;YkqgyEgikq]qxigioV[im;@g<;@UDXY_dcZQU`zDgZQyYgj';nmx-jQUDooUF3:gj>pXY_ExZQ]qUD_Yo k^g-rZ -,l}ZQ]qx L}mgi_EcYoc>gZQgjQV+]q_Eg5F5


T jQXYkqgio[`oZQyEgjQXYk^gV+UDkqgixiXYk^go[boogiV ;Yk^g]^_a[`_[bkqZQg-jQ_d[bZQ] 3:gxX ;E]qxk^[\ZZQ]^xg tjQ]qz`y}Z -
C

#

)
!E (,O! / .   , ,.,. !E (  ,.
/

#-~8}b8>-~>Y`4-D8>8}~~Y8Yi&a>`\8>\>a~~8nY
d8a-Y>i8}a8}~-b8>4`~9> >>i8}a8}4`^8>-b98:938:>}~b8}~~tb8nY`*P~b ! J } 
 n+

i\ @n, @ }a}pE\\-}pinNN
  i' bi  >-".@qN-,/d^ -  n@N n b
\N n
0
\1
@
0
Q % P ` sQJ 5B B N J s B5n Q `Q :i DN D Q s N -N \s s s  N \ @ \ D N w N : s
A>A
[ 1 5k 6 `/ 7NN /" 5-, H /"5  5 73 l  /"/ 9^ !6   7 / / Q6  *^ *6 @ 9^ !  l6 
/"" 7 " /;, <,  "N  k
? / 5 *"N8
[ g7NN /" 530? \ Y5 6 %&   ^ B ] 6k6-7 B" %8

,;.0, "5-3   5 0"7 " 

 Y4~Q9>?w8>Y~<~a~Dd>DQE8n-Dd9Y~4Y8}  `b8}# 5>~->dp?whY~tb> QY8n8}~>


-a>E3@d@8}~aa>`b~``?"4i8n+~`~a-aa>`b~D~-Y>\~bD?"8>`D-tb8}bi\~+
>a`B~-YE-8>@ `> >~->8}  b`8}w -~>Y`4->-8}~`-D8>~b9bddt4>~D8
b@@tt8n4b}5t@`Y`8}hf`a>9\`t`?,<-~>Y`4+-8}\`~t8}f8}@>8ni8-~`\Y~-`~t
a>+\>a~tb8n`\b~`?@b-~`5;>(> >
 O# .E  
 !/ / L~3~b3}\Ya~@-~dt8b-9@48} D8n->t}`4-t-D- "b
 N nd   n n /  / i bi
n
@ 
 @ i  bi< > ^}Y -i
n @nN n 
ini  @ } ~
 @\
i Q}  "E
b in 
"

4(

 

 +\,  - - 5   +
5
b8>~fEQ~i8>`8}4>>DQY>~~>`8}\Ya~@8}->3Et8th-8}>P>~`w?@~d>--w?@"@
-Yw?~8}  E8} >~`dNb8>~~Y8Yia8>>D4-i8}>E->8>f-}"b~@`4-d@t8}>i8n>9`i~~tE~`
>+8>~~8}-~&"b98>-a8}~f-&-~8}-a~Y@\ba~t4-td>`8>\i\~`?w~ti-b`>b9&\
b`Y>->a`8}t\~t8nYb?B8>~tiYY`-~` ~~>bi8}\>a~~8nY8}8}^Q9Y+hDb8>4f\b~8}n
~Y@N@b8>E-`8Y->}Pn8>-t8}~>?~bi\^ib8}+>`-9b>a8>\`5nbYbD?d^-~>3+>E-D3Y@-8n-
\Ya~@8}->f-DE~`8t8}-Di~~t\t8}f-+-`E~b\>bi8nY,>f~-~-DQ~` >~Y>t>~~>Y8>
b~\Ya~@-Dt\db8}&-3?,~ti-`8>8&aba>9>  8>-`8}\>a~~8nYb>~t
faD@8}-`98n--ba@`-&`8Y4Y8}~i8}b>-`\` ~~nb>`@~+a-~`8>d~`}-~Ybp4-i8}@`
 8><>-~`8>\->i`?@^5t~}bD8}~n-~t58}~-E8>i3"b8}>
-ba8}@~>i8:><-YE4D/a~babE8}->f>"~~78>i~~`f@-D9- s  `8:>`p?  f-N?
}~b~di+~f8}~~Y8Yi~`5:8>-93>-~ (<b9d~3>`4-t->&` b9da```-8}~-E8>i~D
-~n ~>a->?8}-~Y~>-~b8>~Q9#8>b\bb9}~Qbt3\`8>` ~4~ba>>?-~>\N8>Y?
-~YbN`8>P~f7&8Yi~`8}8>4b~8>-9a\~`->a5>Y`8}9 d\b~^iQ9d~tb8>9\Yf@--~8}a
~\-># 8}d9`h`Qb8> 4~>&Qbfi8}Yb>a8}i8}<-f& >-#49@4-b M> -~&Y~bf}
~Y~E Nqif-~>-`?P8}-~Y~>-~`98}>~bY-b-tb8}E-b`4`?"^t~~Yb9&-8n8}d9>Y~8>\-8>9&>E
-+8>8>4YY~>`a~t8:9Y
~d9d>-~b-tb8}bb~t8}8}~->8}->a~ba`Yi8nY@ `83d~b>h8:9d` ,48>&Y-`aY4`?B>
~>Y8},+8 4Y~\p}<-D8>\->wf~a-f~afYD\~``\@@~9>>-Y~`?w8}8},-~a>>t}
-b>a~@i8n->3`8}-`Y@8}@>~YfY-9Y,t8}3hY-athd>YY`B ~~--bfY-Y?Y38Y~@-><-f-~~
88Y--Yd~bf}b>a~@i8nY8}i8}`J?`8Yi\`~t8}a8}@>8n>b->an\Yf@8}->
8>8>b M-d9a\@~>-~-~8}i8}b- 8:n8}t8}~>,~8 QY8}4>~`8}E@i8:8>i>B>~h~-YE-8>
t8nf^a8}>D-<>i~batQ-9~tit}9Y\~9~@`4-d@B?8>-d>YE-3t8}@8
\Ya~@8}->3-~t8:9>~t<8f-D8}`i~~tb8>wi8}b~Y>
~+8}\>\4>},-8>`5t-8}8}~~D8}a8>3Y8}->n }8:94~b`E>~~>`8}->~b
}*b>a~@i8n->"P~b-~`~8}--t\~t8}i~`fbdd-Y~`abb8>a8Y@hY--~8>h8
8n--bY~--~`-D4D8}iiww8}d9`8>->?n\`8},8n\--b\@`-abE8>~i8}i8>\-`- `8}->>~5i~batQ-9
}8}~`8>~f`E~`B?@8}38:9Y`3bE--^D>5 8>-`\>a~~8nYw
/





-

-




4(

.

"

  5

,
">>h--8}~, 8>~d a:5}-b8>  8} nbtP>,-bQ~8}-~@\--Yw",8} @`@-D
-5D  b`8}Y8}d9\~\`bEf-~Y>`4->b?8>h`8>~~8>f`E8}`-`8}ii>~3@i~`ft4-9~
~>Y8}w>`\@~> 8}-<"b~`a8>>-~8}->8>>`8}@\--Y` >>~8>@D-idbbD?
P>2~bt8}~`?h78}i 5~YbD?  8> Qn978}8 48}w? 8>-Yh@@9>?8:> bb9Y? 8} b8}YbN?58}`?8>
 8}- +8} 8}Y8:>f8}d9&-\~h4~Y>DQYbf8}d98Y@d-> >>~5Y@bt>+~t+4~Y48>
b\>8>>ba`YD
 J
n  U 5 D i N Q 4 s



)

-

"

"

)

#

(

[ g7NN /" 530?Y0"7 "

7 b6 %&   ^ B ] 6k6-7 B  %8

AD;

5
@b8}~@b8}"?wbY8}iB7YD\~t8}\Ya~@8}->}4Y@Y- b>8}-Y-t8}f~>~b`a
b\

; + +A Y;@AbA Y; aJ5nBA>AnA`C>C
hD8:>`4hD8:>``?@>w ~>bi8}w7>`b~t8} h>a~~-bD* b  i8n 5~>`-^Q9P`i&`Y4  pCE=: A
h`~~b44`~~\-`? h8}`~~`-a@@9d8>ftb5} h>a~@i8n->K M385bd`+ pb}J }} @n 4
  }-bJ
in  @ i
5;@AQA:;YC E= MdC ?A`C Y;~
hY~b~Y~bw?~8}"? ~~d>--w?~w@-Yw?~8}  Y8>N- hYa~@8}->8> nh`h>,"8}D8}D
h~\>b@ h~\>bw?@5\~8}~b?@8} ~`34` i8}abD >YE\b}~5i8:9d`Pb hY\`@8>
E--~-``
5  
@ n ->aAD;@A YC MA YC>C?}5n>`b+ADC>C 
tQ `?   ?h8} 7&8>` h>~>a8}->8>h4-~@->>8 >~-N8:9 }~-> bY`8}`d9
a\`->>D ,Y~-D-bbbD4Y8}b b>9Pi8}4bD 5 
~bf iN E;N= EA Y=Y; MA + ~?:ADC>C
~wAb w?4@ >w?P8>8>@t8}  b`8}w" Y~~\ h-E--n>`7YD\~`` 5 
~b N Y;~ E;@AYTA M
E;>; ~?A`CYC ~
~;n w?-@ }w?~ Y -D ba``?8}8Y@-t8}  `b8}" hD8::8>>}Y~~\ h-E--n>`7YD\~`d9
@>dbD8>- 4 5 $
\f J ~ YC + M >C Y=@?A`C>C
8>b4 8Yb`? ?8> ~bQ  a~~-`\ab->8>"`8>^fb8>~ hb8>58:9Y  @n 4
 }5 @pbn ib
bb
i  +J;EAD;>= MA d?A`C
-~d8>~f  ~ d8>~?@hi8}>?E8} f  ~b~8}iB "qd } }J\ E @ -`b8}38} h>a8}d9Y?
b >?BA`C d
5>~btd5Y@`B? 5b8>,\Q>d8} d9@4tb8>  9@Qb^ a`-YbE h>`Y hYf@8}->8>
~-``
w@>b~+"@>bw? a?~8}7~5>i~8>~J ~>bi8} h>a~@i8nY  a~A ~bpf`-Y8} hb~8>55@
>8ni8~  n 3 ib  & Ei;>C>C M ~A ~?A`CYC ~
w@-Y@a"~->"?>ti8}iB -~+ -  >> pb>a~\ -Y~bbE
\b
i; + ~P= E; M@= d=+~D>; EADC>CY=~
>~->@Y~4Yw?hb?+8}*8>@8>  `b8}"5~D4>}a8 @i~"  `^8>4`~~
7&>`\8>4-`8}7`a>9<`db>  n\ E>ibEaA @;}CE= M ?A`C @
}~b~d>-~`~B?  a 8>DQ-tY `9dff`f`E8nY}P~7&8Yi~``
Y>~a>
 a^@  f-"?8}b#?8} 58>  idh`^ bbD h>a~~-bia ^-8> > ha"Di~~tb8>
5b>-`?7&8>i; ?BA`C>CE=@
 >>a>   >>a> ?58:9Y~~~`8nY>5>>-~at, >8>~Q9) >~b4^b8>"E-`^
>b\> ,
ibp}NN "
bn \\^^Yb
ib? +8>8}w8> ~ hw`fa``~^>ii t4`d`
 \bb,
~~t4~`
?>--5Yt8}w?wA`C +~
" YP >N?P>a8>-?8}5>8}7&8>-Y>`  b @} @ nn
@ i7Q -D-`? 8>~t@>Y?
7?wADC @
b-4\~D? Y8}aD fP -YDb~~`8n->+}-~ bD}5b`\t59d~~ D8n->"
 N
in !D " 
$
~b Nna n
@}! } } + d;>; :M@;Y=}C?A`CYC~AY
@bb~-`>? - h>a~\@^Q9}`4-\-Df8> 5~`4-\-Df7@@`}7&>`\8> h>a~@i8n->"}~
Y>~a>
~~`4"
~``? ~  bYb@48n  >@Yw- ,~  E8Y  9di~>~ `8}-> >~b   }-bJ
in  }5 @pb

\b
iA:; <J;E ~A } Y;~?A`CYC 





"

"

2

-

2'

'#



/

-

-'#

-# -

  -#

%23

 '





2



%



#





,

 

-



'#-#

-2



-#

/)



 "#

-

'#

#

'-

'#





'#

(

-#

!+ 2



#

-

#

 - ! 

-