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Applied Ocean Research 24 (2002) 147161 www.elsevier.

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Dramas of the sea: episodic waves and their impact on offshore structures
Gunther F. Clauss
Division of Naval Archaeology and Ocean Engineering, Technical University of Berlin, SG 17, Salzufer 17-19, Berlin 10587, Germany Received 10 July 2002; accepted 11 August 2002

Abstract For the design of safe and economic offshore structures and ships the knowledge of the extreme wave environment and related wave/structure interactions is required. A stochastic analysis of these phenomena is insufcient as local characteristics in the wave pattern are of great importance for deriving appropriate design criteria. This paper describes techniques to synthesize deterministic task-related rogue waves or critical wave groups for engineering applications. These extreme events, represented by local characteristics like tailored design wave sequences, are integrated in a random or deterministic seaway with a dened energy density spectrum. If a strictly deterministic process is established, cause and effect are clearly related: at any position the nonlinear surface elevation and the associated pressure eld as well as the velocity and acceleration elds can be determined. Also the point of wave/structure interaction can be selected arbitrarily, and any test can be repeated deliberately. Wave structure interaction is decomposable into subsequent steps: surface elevation, wave kinematics and dynamics, forces on structure components and the entire structure and structure motions. Firstly, the generation of linear wave groups is presented. The method is based on the wave focussing technique. In our approach the synthesis and up-stream transformation of arbitrary wave packets is developed from its so-called concentration point where all component waves are superimposed without phase-shift. For a target Fourier wave spectrum a tailored wave sequence can be assigned to a selected position. This wave train is linearly transformed back to the wave maker andby introducing the electro-hydraulic and hydrodynamic transfer functions of the wave generatorthe associated control signal is calculated. The generation of steeper and higher wave groups requires a more sophisticated approach as propagation velocity increases with wave height. With a semi-empirical procedure the control signal of extremely high wave groups is determined, and the propagation of the associated wave train is calculated by iterative integration of coupled equations of particle tracks. With this deterministic technique freak waves up to heights of 3.2 m have been generated in a wave tank. For many applications the detailed knowledge of the nonlinear characteristics of the ow eld is required, i.e. wave elevation, pressure eld as well as velocity and acceleration elds. Using a nite element method the velocity potential is determined, which satises the Laplace equation for Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. In general, extremely high rogue waves or critical wave groups are rare events embedded in a random seaway. The most efcient and economical procedure to simulate and generate such a specied wave scenario for a given design variance spectrum is based on the appropriate superposition of component waves or wavelets. As the method is linear, the wave train can be transformed down-stream and upstream between wave board and target position. The desired characteristics like wave height and period as well as crest height and steepness are dened by an appropriate objective function. The subsequent optimization of the initially random phase spectrum is solved by a sequential quadratic programming method (SQP). The linear synthetization of critical wave events is expanded to a fully nonlinear simulation by applying the subplex method. Improving the linear SQP-solution by the nonlinear subplex expansion results in realistic roguewaves embedded in random seas. As an illustration of this technique a reported rogue wavethe Draupner New Year Wave is simulated and generated in a physical wave tank. Also a Three Sisters wave sequence with succeeding wave heights Hs,,2Hs,,Hs, embedded in an extreme sea, is synthesized. For investigating the consequences of specic extreme sea conditions this paper analyses extreme roll motions and the capsizing of a RO RO vessel in a severe storm wave group. In addition, the seakeeping behaviour of a semi-submersible in the Draupner New Year Wave, embedded in extreme irregular seas is numerically and experimentally evaluated. q 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Rogue waves; Wave/structure interaction; Deterministic seakeeping tests

E-mail address: clauss@ism.tu-berlin.de (G.F. Clauss). 0141-1187/02/$ - see front matter q 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 1 4 1 - 1 1 8 7 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 2 6 - 3

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1. Introduction The impossible will happen one day. Considering rogue wave events as rare phenomenaaccording to Murphys lawbeyond our present modelling abilities, Haver [1] suggests that freak waves (unexpected large crest height/ wave height, unexpected severe combination of wave height and wave steepness, or unexpected group pattern) should be dened as wave events which do not belong to the population dened by a Rayleigh model. To yield a sufciently small contribution to the overall risk of structural collapse, the structure should withstand extreme waves corresponding to an annual probability of exceedance of say 1025 2 1024 as the Rayleigh model underpredicts the highest crest heights indicating that real processes may be strictly affected by higher order coefcients. In addition to the ultimate limit state based on a 100-year design wave an accidental limit state with a return period of 10 000 years is suggested. Based on observations, Faulkner [2] suggests the freak or abnormal wave height for survival design Hd $ 2:5Hs : It is also recommended to characterize wave impact loads so they can be quantied for potentially critical seaways and operating conditions. Present design methods should be complemented by survival design procedures, i.e. two levels of design wave climates are proposed: The operability envelope which corresponds to the best present design practice The survivability envelope based on extreme wave

spectra parameters which may lead to episodic waves or wave sequences (e.g. the Three Sisters) with extremely high and steep crests. Wave steepness, characterized by front and rear steepness as well as by horizontal and vertical wave asymmetries seems to be a parameter at least as important as wave height [3]. A probability analysis of rogue wave data recorded at North Alwyn from 1994 to 1998 reveals that these waves are generally 50% steeper than the signicant steepness, with wave heights Hmax . 2:3Hs [4]. The preceding and succeeding waves have steepness values around half the signicant values while their heights are around the signicant height. Steep-fronted wave surface proles with signicant asymmetry in the horizontal direction excite extreme relative motions at the bow of a cruising ship with signicant consequences on green water loading on the fore deck and hatch covers of a bulk carrier [5]. Heavy weather damages caused by giant waves are presented by Kjeldsen [6], including the capsizing of the semi-submersible Ocean Ranger. Faulkner and Buckley [7] describe a number of episodes of massive damage to ships due to rogue waves, e.g. with the liners Queen Elisabeth and Queen Mary. Haver and Anderson [8] report on substantial damage of the jacket platform Draupner when a giant wave Hmax 25:63 m with the crest height hc 18:5 m hit the structure in 70 m water depth on January 1, 1995 (Fig. 1, top). Related to the

Fig. 1. Rogue wave registrations.

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signicant wave height Hs 11:92 m; the maximum wave rises to Hmax 2:15Hs with a crest of hc 0:72Hmax : Not as spectacular but still exceptional are wave data from the Norwegian Frigg eldwater depth 99.4 m Hs 8:49 m; Hmax 19:98 m; hc 12:24 m [9] and the Danish Gorm eldwater depth 40 m (Hs 6:9 m; Hmax 17:8 m; hc < 13 m) [10]. Also remarkable are wave records of the Japanese National Maritime Institute measured off Yura harbour at a water depth of 43 m Hs 5:09 m; Hmax 13:6 m; hc < 8:2 m [11] (Fig. 1, bottom). All these wave datawith Hmax =Hs . 2:15 and hc =Hmax . 0:6prove, that rogue waves are serious events which should be considered in the design process. Although their probability is very low they are physically possible. It is a challenging question which maximum wave and crest heights can develop in a certain seastate characterized by Hs and Tp. Concerning wave/structure interactions, with respect to response based design loads and motions or reliability based design: Is the highest wave with the steepest crest the most relevant design condition or should we identify critical wave sequences embedded in an irregular wave train? In addition to the global parameters Hs and Tp the wave effects on a structure depend on superposition and the interaction of wave components, i.e. on local wave characteristics. Phase relations and nonlinear interactions are key parameters to specify the relevant surface prole at the structure. If wave kinematics and dynamics are known, causeeffect relationships can be detected. This paper presents a numerical as well as an experimental technique for the generation of rogue waves and design wave sequences in extreme seas. Based on selected global seastate data Hs ; Tp the wave eld is tted to predetermined characteristics at a target location, such as wave heights, crest heights and periods of a single or a sequence of extreme individual waves. Starting with a linear approximation of the desired wave train by optimizing an initially random phase spectrum for a given variance spectrum we obtain an initial guess for the wave board motion. This control signal is systematically improved to t the wave train to the predetermined wave characteristics at target location. Numerical and experimental methods are complementing each other. If the tting process is conducted in a wave tank all nonlinear free surface effects and even wave breaking are automatically considered. Firstly, the linear procedure is presented, and illustrated by the generation of deterministic wave packets as well as the synthesis of the above target wave train into an irregular sea. Next, the nonlinear approach with its experimental validation is presented. Finally, the nonlinear tting process of the target wave sequence embedded in irregular seas is developed.

Zarnick [12], and its signicant development by Takezawa and Hirayama [13]. Clauss and Bergmann [14] recommended a special type of transient waves, i.e. Gaussian wave packets, which have the advantage that their propagation behaviour can be predicted analytically. With increasing efciency and capacity of computer the restriction to a Gaussian distribution of wave amplitudes has been abandoned, and the entire process is now performed numerically [15]. The shape and width of the wave spectrum can be selected individually for providing sufcient energy in the relevant frequency range. As a result the wave train is predictable at any instant and at any stationary or moving location. In addition, the wave orbital motions as well as the pressure distribution and the vector elds of velocity and acceleration can be calculated. According to its high accuracy the technique is capable of generating special purpose transient waves. A continuous real-valued wave record zt may be represented in frequency domain by its complex Fourier transform Fv which is calculated by Eq. (1). Applying the inverse Fourier transformation, Eq. (2), gives the original record zt 1 zte2ivt dt 1 Fv
21

1 1 zt Fveivt dv 2p 21

where t represents the time and v 2pf the angular frequency. In polar notation, the complex Fourier transform can be expressed by its amplitude and phase spectrum: Fv lFvlei argFv 3

In practice, it is necessary to adopt a discrete and nite form of the Fourier transform pair described by Eqs. (1) and (2) FrDv Dt
N21 X k0

zkDte2i2prk=N

r 0; 1; 2; ; N=2

zkDt

N =2 Dv X FrDvei2prk=N 2p r0

k 0; 1; 2; ; N 2 1; where the values zkDt represent the available data points of the discrete nite wave record, with Dt denoting the sampling rate and Dv 2p=NDt the frequency resolution. The summation in Eqs. (4) and (5) can be efciently completed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and its inverse algorithm (IFFT). Extreme wave conditions in a 100-year design storm arise from the most unfavourable superposition of component waves of the related severe sea spectrum. Freak waves have been registered in standard irregular seas when component waves accidentally superimpose in

2. Linear transient wave description The method for generating linear wave groups is based on the wave focussing technique of Davis and

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Fig. 2. Genesis of a 3.2 m rogue wave by deterministic superposition of component waves (water depth d 4 m).

phase. Extensive random time-domain simulation of the ocean surface for obtaining statistics of the extremes, however, is very time consuming. In generating irregular seas in a wave tank the phase shift is supposed to be random, however, it is xed by the control program on the basis of a pseudo-random process: consequently, it is also a deterministic parameter. Why should we wait for these rare events if we can achieve these conditions by intentionally selecting a suitable phase shift, and generate a deterministic sequence of waves, which converge at a preset concentration point? Assuming linear wave theory, the synthesis and up-stream transformation of wave packets is developed from this concentration point. At this position all waves are superimposed without phase shift resulting in a single high wave peak. From its concentration point, the Fourier transform of the wave train is transformed to the upstream position at the wave board [16].

The Fourier transform is characterized by the amplitude spectrum and the related phase distribution. During propagation the amplitude spectrum remains invariant, however, the phase distribution and the related shape of the wave train varies with its position. At the concentration point all wave components are superimposed in phase, and a single high wave is observed [17]. As the process is strictly linear and deterministic, wave groups can be analysed back and forth in time and space. They also can be integrated into a specied irregular sea.

3. Nonlinear transient wave description The generation of higher and steeper wave sequences,

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Fig. 3. Comparison between target wave and measured time-series at target location. Fig. 5. Finite element mesh for nonlinear analysis.

requires a more sophisticated approach as propagation velocity increases with height. Consequently, it is not possible anymore to calculate the wave train linearly upstream back to the wave generator to determine the (nonlinear) control signal of the wave board. To solve this problem, Kuhnlein [16] developed a semi-empirical procedure for the evolution of extremely high wave groups which is based on linear wave theory: the propagation of high and steep wave trains is calculated by iterative integration of coupled equations of particle positions. With this deterministic technique freak waves up to 3.2 m high have been generated in a wave tank [18]. Fig. 2 shows the genesis of this wave packet and presents registrations which have been measured at various locations including the concentration point at 84 m. The associated wave board motion which has been determined by the above semi-empirical procedure is the key input for the nonlinear analysis of wave propagation. As has been generally observedat wave groups as well as at irregular seas with embedded rogue wave sequenceswe register substantial differences between the measured timeseries and the specied design wave train at target location if a linearly synthesized control signal is used for the generation of higher and steeper waves. As shown in Fig. 3, however, the main deviation is localized within a small range [19]. This promising observation proves that it is sufcient for only a short part of the control signal in the time-domain to be tted. As a prerequisite, however, the computer controlled loop in the

experimental generation process should imply nonlinear wave theory and develop the wave evolution by using a numerical time-stepping method. The two-dimensional fully nonlinear free surface ow problem is analysed in time-domain using potential ow theory. Fig. 4 summarizes the basic equations and boundary conditions. A nite element method developed by Wu and Eatock Taylor [20,21] is used to determine the velocity potential, which satises the Laplace equation for Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The Neumann boundary condition at the wave generator is introduced in form of the rst time derivative of the measured wave board motion. To develop the solution in time-domain the fourth order Runge Kutta method is applied. Starting from a nite element mesh with 8000 triangular elements

Fig. 4. Numerical wave tank [29].

Fig. 6. Nonlinear numerical simulation of transient waves.

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Fig. 7. Wave packet registrations at different positions as well as instantaneous wave proles at selected instantsnumerical calculations validated by experimental results [33].

(401 nodes in x-direction, 11 nodes in z-direction, i.e. 4411 nodes) (Fig. 5) a new boundary-tted mesh is created at each time-step. Lagrangian particles concentrate in regions of high velocity gradients, leading to a high resolution at the concentration point. This mixed Eulerian Lagrangian approach has proved its capability to handle the singularities at intersection points of the free surface and the wave board. Fig. 6 shows wave proles with associated velocity potential as well as registrations at different positions. Note that the pressure distribution as well as velocity and acceleration elds including particle tracks at arbitrary locations are deduced from the velocity potential. Fig. 7 presents numerical results as well as experimental data to validate this nonlinear approach. Excellent agreement of numerical and experimental results is observed. Note that all kinematic and dynamic characteristics during wave packet propagation are deduced from the velocity potential, i.e. registrations at any position (top, left) with associated Fourier spectra, wave

Fig. 8. Maximum (crest) and minimum (trough) surface elevations (zmax, zmin) as well as wave height zmax 2 zmin :

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Fig. 9. Particle tracks with starting location at x 126 m.

proles at arbitrary instants (top, right) as well as velocity, acceleration and pressure elds. Fig. 8 shows the maximum (crest) and minimum (trough) surface elevation in the wave tank, zmax and zmin , as well as the difference, i.e. the wave height zmax 2 zmin : Note the sudden rise of water level (crest and trough) at the concentration point. Fig. 9 shows numerically calculated orbital tracks of particles with starting locations at 126 m, which is very close to the concentration point. Generally, the orbital tracks are not closed. Particles with starting locations z . 21 m are shifted in the x-direction, and due to mass conservation particles with lower z-coordinates are shifted in the opposite direction. Fig. 10 nally proofs that the technique for generating nonlinear wave packets is adaptable to different wave machines. The diagrams present results for a two-ap wave generator, i.e. the angular motions (and speed) of the lower and upper aps as well as the resulting wave group registration. Excellent agreement between numerical and experimental results is observed. Note that the short leading waves are generated by the upper ap. As the lower ap starts working, the motion of the upper ap is reduced, and nally oscillates anti-phase with the lower ap [22,23].

Fig. 10. Motions of a two-ap wave generator and related wave group registration comparing numerical and experimental results.

As long as linear wave theory is applied, the seastate can be regarded as superposition of independent harmonic waves, each having a particular direction, amplitude, frequency and phase. For a given design variance spectrum of an unidirectional wave train, the phase spectrum is responsible for all local characteristics, e.g. the wave height and period distribution as well as the location of the highest wave crest in time and space. For this reason, an initially random phase spectrum arg Fv is optimized to generate the desired design wave train with specied local properties. The phase values b b1 ; b2 ; bn T are bounded by 2p # b # p and are initially determined from bi 2pRj 2 0:5 where Rj are random numbers in the interval 0 1 [24]. The set-up of the optimization problem is illustrated for a high transient design wave within a tailored group of three successive waves in random sea. The crest front steepness of the design wave in time-domain 1i as dened by Kjeldsen [9]: 1t 2pzcrest gTrise Tzd 6

4. Integration of design wave groups in irregular seaslinear approach In general, extremely high rogue waves or critical wave groups are rare events embedded in a random seaway.

is maximized during the optimization process. zcrest denotes the crest height, Trise the time between the zero-upcrossing and crest elevation, and Tzd the zero-downcrossing period which includes the design wave. The target zero-upcrossing wave heights of the leading,

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process. A sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method is used which allows to closely imitate Newtons method for constrained optimization just as is done for unconstrained optimization [29]. For evaluating the objective function and constraints, the complex Fourier transform is generated from the amplitude and phase spectrum. Application of the IFFT algorithm yields the associated time-dependent wave train at target location. Zero-upcrossing wave and crest heights as well as the crest front steepness 1t of the design wave are calculated. The motion of the wave board xb t is determined by transforming the wave train at x xtarget in terms of the complex Fourier transform Ftarget v to the location of the wave generator at x 0 and applying the complex hydrodynamic transfer function Fhydro v which relates wave board motion to surface elevation close to the wave generator xb t IFFTFtarget vFtrans vFhydro v 8

Fig. 11. Optimized phase spectra and associated wave trains resulting from different initial phase distributions.

the design and the trailing wave are dened by Hl, Hd and Ht. The target locations in space and time of the design wave crest height zd are xtarget and ttarget. These data dene equality constraints. The maximum values of stroke xmax, velocity umax, and acceleration amax of the wave board motion xb t dene inequality constraints to be taken into account. Hence the optimization problem is stated as minimize f b 21t n
b[R

with Ftrans vj expikj xtarget : The maximum stroke of the wave board is set to xmax 2 m; maximum velocity to umax 1:3 m=s and maximum acceleration to amax 1:7 m=s2 : The optimization terminates if the magnitude of the directional derivative in search direction is less than 1023 and the constraint violation is less than 1022. In our example the design variance spectrum is chosen to be the nite depth variant of the Jonswap spectrum known as TMA spectrum [25]

v4 Eq 24 2r 2 =2 tanh2 kd p e21:25q ge aq25 2 1 2kd=sinh2kd g

subject to

g1 Hi21 2 Hl 0; g2 Hi 2 Hd 0; g3 Hi1 2 Ht 0; g4 zxtarget ; ttarget 2 zd 0; g5 max{lxb tl} 2 xmax # 0; g6 max{l_ b tl} 2 umax # 0; x g7 max{l b tl} 2 amax # 0; x g7j 2p 2 bj # 0; j 1; ; n g7nj 2p bj # 0; j 1; ; n

where f b is the objective function to be minimized. The general aim in constrained optimization is to transform the problem into an easier subproblem that can be solved, and is used as the basis of an iterative

where q v=vp f =fp represents the normalized frequency with respect to the peak frequency fp 1=Tp : The Jonswap peak enhancement factor g is set to 3.3 and the spectral width parameter sp to 0.07 for q # 1 and 0.09 for q . 1 with r q 2 1=sp : The frequency-dependent wave number k is calculated from the dispersion relationship v2 gk tanhkd where g is the acceleration due to gravity and d the water depth. For the selected spectrumsignicant wave height, Hs 0:7 m; peak period, Tp 4:43 s; water depth, d 5:5 ma high transient design wave within a tailored group of three successive waves in random sea is optimized. The target zero-upcrossing wave height of the design wave is Hd 2Hs with a maximum crest height zd xtarget ; ttarget 0:6Hd 1:2Hs : Target location is at a distance of xtarget 100 m from the wave generator, and target time is ttarget 80 s: The heights of the leading and the trailing waves adjoining the design wave are set to be Hl Ht Hs : Note that this wave sequence is quite representative for rogue wave groups as has been proved by Wolfram et al. [4] who classied 114 extremely high waves with their

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Fig. 12. Linear wave train with predetermined wave sequence.

Fig. 14. Comparison of optimized wave board motions.

immediate neighbours out of 345 245 waves collected between 1994 and 1998 at North Alwyn. As shown in Fig. 11, the optimization process nds local minima, i.e. a number of different wave trains, which depend on the initial phase values. Hence the random character of the optimized seastate is not completely lost. From this linear approach we obtain an initial guess of the wave board motion which yields the design wave sequence at target location.

realizations of the wave trains in Fig. 11) all target features regarding global and local wave characteristics, including the rogue wave specication Hmax 2Hs and hc 0:6Hmax are met. Of course, this result is only a rst initial guess as linear wave theory used is not appropriate for describing extreme waves since nonlinear free surface effects signicantly inuence the wave evolution. However, the linear description of the wave train is a good starting

5. Integration of a nonlinear rogue wave sequence into extreme seas In Section 4 it is shown how a tailored group of three successive waves is integrated into a random sea using a SQP method. As shown in Fig. 12 (which is one of the

Fig. 13. Nonlinear wave train simulation with predetermined wave sequence. Wave board motion optimized with the linear SQP method.

Fig. 15. Nonlinear wave train simulation with predetermined wave sequence. Wave board motion optimized with subplex method.

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point to further improve the wave board motion (i.e. timedependent boundary conditions) required in the fully nonlinear numerical simulation. If the control signal from the linear approach and the related wave board motion is used as an input for the nonlinear evolution of the wave train, Fig. 13 shows that the nonlinear wave train signicantly deviates from the target values if this rst guess of the wave board motion is used in the numerical simulation. As a consequence, the nonlinear wave train at target location that originates from the rst optimization process must be further improved. This is achieved by applying the subplex method developed by Rowan [26] for unconstrained minimization of noisy objective functions. The domain space of the optimization problem is decomposed into smaller subdomains which are minimized by the popular Nelder and Mead simplex method [27]. The subplex method is introduced because SQP cannot handle wave instability and breaking since the gradient of the objective function is difcult to determine in this case. Nonlinear free surface effects are included in the tting procedure since the values of objective function and constraints are determined from the nonlinear simulation in the numerical wave tank. The target wave characteristics dene equality constraints. The maximum values of stroke xmax 2 m; velocity umax 1:7 m=s; and acceleration amax 2:2 m=s2 of the wave board motion xB t dene inequality constraints to be taken into account.

The subplex minimization problem is formulated as !2 !2 Hi21 2 H1;target Ti21 2 T1;target minimize f c c[Rn H1;target T1;target !2 !2 Hi 2 H2;target Ti 2 T2;target H2;target T2;target !2 ! tzc ;i 2 tzc;target 2 zc;i 2 zc;target zc;target tzc;target !2 !2 Hi1 2 H3;target Ti1 2 T3;target H3;target T3;target  2 sxB t 2 sxB tinitial 10 sxB tinitial subject to g1 max{lxB tl} 2 xmax # 0; g2 max{l_ B tl} 2 umax # 0; x g3 max{l B tl} 2 amax # 0; x where sxB t is the standard deviation of the wave board motion. As a result Fig. 14 shows the improved wave board motion. The zero-downcrossing characteristics of the wave train are presented in Fig. 15. The target values of the transient wave are signicantly improved. Note that the rogue wave sequence is exactly tted, with Hmax 2Hs and hc 0:6Hmax : As a result we obtain a control signal of the wave generator which yields a specied rogue wave sequence embedded in an extreme irregular seaway 11

Fig. 16. Evolution of rogue wave sequenceregistrations at x 5 m; 50 m and 100 m (left) as well as wave proles at t 75 s; 81 s and 87 s (right hand side) (water depth h 5 m, Tp 3:13 s).

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Fig. 19. Computer controlled experimental simulation of tailored design wave sequences.

Fig. 17. Energy ux of nonlinear wave at x 5; 50 and 100 m (target).

Fig. 18. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of rogue wave sequence Hs,,2Hs,,Hs at target time t 81 s.

characterized by the selected global parameters Hs and Tp [28]. Fig. 16 shows the evolution of this design wave sequence, with registrations at 5, 50 and 100 m (target position) behind the wave board (left side) as well as wave proles (photos of surface elevation) at t 75 s, 81 s (target) and 87 s (water depth h 5 m, Tp 3:13 s). The associated energy ux at the locations x 5; 50 and 100 m is shown in Fig. 17. As has been expected the energy ux focuses at the target position. From the velocity potential which has been determined as a function of time and space all kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the wave sequence are evaluated. Fig. 18 presents the associated velocity, acceleration and pressure elds [29]. Note that the effects of the three extremely high waves are reaching down to the bottom. The above optimization method has also been applied to generate the Yura wave and the New Year Wave (Fig. 1) in the wave tank (Fig. 19). Firstly, for the specied design variance spectrum, the SQP-method yields an optimized phase spectrum which corresponds to the desired wave characteristics at target position. The wave generator control signal is determined by transforming this wave train in terms of the complex Fourier transform to the location of the wave generator. The measured wave train at target position is then iteratively improved by systematic variation of the wave board control signal. To synthesize the control signal wavelet coefcients are used. The number of free variables is signicantly reduced if this signal is compressed by low-pass discrete wavelet decomposition, concentrating on the high energy band. Based on deviations between the measured wave sequence and the design wave group at target location the control signal for generating the seaway is iteratively optimized in a fully automatic computer-controlled model test procedure (Fig. 19). Fig. 20 presents the evolution of the Yura wave at a scale of 1:112. The registrations show how the extremely high wave develops on its way to the target position at x 7 m. As compared to full-scale data the experimental simulation is quite satisfactory. The evolution of the Draupner New Year Wave is shown in Fig. 21. Again the full-scale data correlate quite well with

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Fig. 20. Evolution of the Yura wave (scale 1:112) (full-scale wave data collected by National Maritime Research Institute, Japan [11]).

model test results at target position x 7:9 m. The wave tank tests illustrate how these extremely high waves are developing from rather inconspicuous wave trains and disperse shortly later. If wave/structure interactions are investigated the tank tests allow for considering memory effects as structure motions are excited deterministically by tailored wave sequences. In addition, the mechanism of nonlinear structure dynamics is evaluated, and cause effect relationship can be analysed.

6. Computer controlled capsizing tests using tailored wave sequences The technique of generating deterministic wave sequences embedded in irregular seas is used to analyse the mechanism of large roll motions with subsequent capsizing of cruising ships [30]. The parameters of the model seastransient wave sequences consisting of random seas or regular wave trains with an embedded deterministic high transient waveare systematically varied to investigate the ship model response with regard to metacentric height, model velocity, and course angle. The wave elevation at the

position of the ship model at any position in time and space is calculated (and controlled by registrations during model tests) in order to relate wave excitation to the resulting roll motion. Fig. 22 presents a model test with a RO RO vessel (GM 1:36 m, natural roll period TR 19:2 s, v 15 kn) in extremely high seas from astern (ITTC spectrum with Hs 15:3 m, Tp 14:6 s, Z-manoeuvre: target course m ^108). The vessel broaches and nally capsizes as the vessel roll exceeds 408 and the course becomes uncontrollable (Fig. 23). Note that the wave elevation refers to the ship centre (moving frame), and has been calculated from the registration at a stationary wave probe. Thus, relevant wave elevation is directly related to the associated ship motions.

7. Dynamics of semi-submersibles in rogue waves The method of synthesizing extremely high waves in severe irregular seas is also applied to analyse the impact of reported rogue waves on semi-submersibles. As the procedure is strictly deterministic we can compare the

Fig. 21. Evolution of the New Year Wave (scale 1:175) (full-scale wave data collected by Statoil [8]).

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Fig. 24. Semi-submersible GVA 4000: main dimensions and discretization of the wetted surface using 760 panels.

Fig. 22. Roll motion of the RO RO vessel in a severe storm wave train Tp 14:6 s, Hs 15:3 m at GM 1:36 m v 15 kn, Z-manoeuvre with m ^108.

numerical (time-domain) approach and model test results [31]. For the numerical simulations the program TiMIT (Timedomain investigations, developed at the Massachusetts

Institute of Technology) is used, a panel-method program for transient wave-body interactions [32] to evaluate the motions of the semi-submersible. TiMIT performs linear seakeeping analysis for bodies with or without forward speed. In a rst module the transient radiation and diffraction problem is solved. The second module provides results like the steady force and moment, frequency-domain coefcients, response amplitude operators, time-histories of body response in a prescribed sea of arbitrary frequency content on the basis of impulse-response functions. The drilling semi-submersible GVA 4000 has been selected as a typical harsh weather offshore structure to investigate the seakeeping behaviour in rogue waves in time-domain. The wetted surface of the body is discretized into 760 panels (Fig. 24). The number of panels is sufcient to simulate accurate results. For validating TiMIT results of wave/structure interactions in extreme seas the Draupner New Year Wave (Fig. 1) has been synthesized in a wave tank at a scale of 1:81. Using the proposed wave generation technique, the wave board signal is calculated from the target wave sequence at the selected wave tank location. Fig. 25 presents the modelled wave train at target location. For comparison the exact New Year Wave is also shown to illustrate that we have not reached an accurate agreement so far. However, this is not detrimental since the associated numerical analysis is based on the modelled wave train, registered at target position. Fig. 26 presents the modelled wave train as well as the heave and pitch motions of the semi-submersible comparing numerical results and experimental data (scale 1:81). The

Fig. 23. RORO vessel in a severe storm.

Fig. 25. Comparison of model wave (scale 1:81) as compared to the registered New Year Wave [8] presented as full-scale data.

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Fig. 26. Results of numerical simulation and experimental tests for semisubmersible GVA 4000: heave, pitch and airgap (measured at a scale 1:81, presented as full-scale data).

airgap as a function of time is also shown. Note that this airgap is quite sufcient, even if the rogue wave passes the structure. However, wave run-up at the columns (observed in model tests) is quite dramatic, with the consequence that green water will splash up to the platform deck. As a general observation, the rogue wave is not dramatically boosting the motion response. The semisubmersible is rather oscillating at a period of about 14 s with moderate amplitudes. Related to the (modelled) maximum wave height of Hmax 23 m we observe a maximum measured double heave amplitude of 7 m. The corresponding peak value from numerical simulation is 8.6 m. As a consequence, the measured airgap is slightly smaller than the one from numerical simulation. The associated maximum double pitch amplitudes compare quite well. Note that the impact results in a sudden inclination of about 38. Considering the complete registration it can be stated that the numerical approach gives reliable results. At rogue events the associated response is overestimated due to the disregard of viscous effects in TiMIT calculations.

to reveal the relevant physical mechanism. Based on the wave focussing technique for the generation of task-related wave packets a new technique is proposed for the synthetization of tailored design wave sequences in extreme seas. The physical wave eld is tted to predetermined global and local target characteristics designed in terms of signicant wave height, peak period as well as wave height, crest height and period of individual waves. The generation procedure is based on two steps: rstly, a linear approximation of the desired wave train is computed by a SQP method which optimizes an initially random phase spectrum for a given variance spectrum. The wave board motion derived from this initial guess serves as starting point for directly tting the physical wave train to the target parameters. The subplex method is applied to improve systematically a certain time-frame of the wave board motion which is responsible for the evolution of the design wave sequence. The discrete wavelet transform is introduced to reduce signicantly the number of free variables to be considered in the tting problem. Wavelet analysis allows one to localize efciently the relevant information of the electrical control signal of the wave maker in time and frequency domain. As the presented technique permits the deterministic generation of design rogue wave sequences in extreme seas it is well suited for investigating the mechanism of arbitrary wave/structure interactions, including capsizing, slamming and green water as well as other survivability design aspects. Even worst case wave sequences like the Draupner New Year Wave can be modelled in the wave tank to analyse the evolution of these events and evaluate the response of offshore structures under abnormal conditions.

Acknowledgements The fundamentals of transient wave generation and optimization have been achieved in a research project funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG). Applications of this technique, i.e. the signicant improvement of seakeeping tests and the analysis of wave breakers and articial reefs in deterministic wave packets have been funded by the Federal Ministry of Education, Research and Development (BMBF). Results are published in outstanding PhD theses (J. Bergmann, W. Kuhnlein, R. Habel, U. Steinhagen). The technique is further developed to synthesize abnormal rogue waves in extreme seas within the MAXWAVE project funded by the European Union (contract number EVK-CT-2000-00026) and to evaluate the mechanism of large roll motions and capsizing of cruising ships (BMBF funded research project ROLL-S). The author wishes to thank the above research agencies for their generous support. He is also grateful for the invaluable contributions of Dr Steinhagen, Dipl.-Ing. C. Pakozdi,

8. Conclusions For the evaluation of wave structure interactions the relation of cause and effects is investigated deterministically

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Dipl.-Math. Techn. Janou Hennig and Dipl.-Ing. C. Schmittner.

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