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A paper on:

4G Technology

Sri Venkateswara College of Eng & Tech.,


RVS Nagar,Chittoor.

Presented by :
P.NIVYA C.BHAVYA LAHARI

III B.Tech CSE Email: reddynivya@gmail.com bhaavya.c@gmail.com

III B.Tech CSE

ABSTRACT: The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGICMobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks. This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features, framework, and integration of mobile communication. The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one wordintegration. The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals, networks, and applications to satisfy increasing user demands. The continuous expansion of mobile communication and wireless networks shows evidence of exceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber, wireless network access, mobile services,applications.

Service Evolution: Standard of 4G:


The evolution from 3G to 4G will be driven by services that offer better quality (e.g. video and sound) thanks to greater bandwidth, more sophistication in the association of a large quantity of information, and improved personalization. Convergence with other network (enterprise, fixed) services will come about through the high session data rate. Machine-to-machine transmission will involve two basic equipment types: sensors (which measure parameters) and tags (which are generally read/write equipment). It is expected that users will require high data rates, similar to those on fixed networks, for data and streaming applications. Mobile terminal usage (laptops, Personal digital assistants, handhelds) is expected to Figure 1:Service evolution vision Grow rapidly as they become more users friendly. Fluid high quality video and network creativity are important user requirements. Key infrastructure design requirements include: fast response, high session rate, high capacity, low user charges, rapid return on investment for

Talking about the standard of 4G technology, still not defined as set standard, two technologies are supposed to be the based features of 4G.
WiMAX LTE

What is Wimax Technology ?


WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access previously worked as fixed wireless facility under the 802.16e band. Now the modified standard 802.16m has been developed with the properties of speed, wide spectrum, and increase band. 4G has an advantage of having the WiMAX as a product because IEEE introduces and releases it already therefore economic as no need to pay for its manufacturing price. Based on the IP wireless connectivity, it increases the optimization for the internet. It manages the voice through packet-switching instead of circuit switching. Internet connectivity with specific IP not only increases the speed but also reliability of the sending and receiving of data. During a phone call when caller send the information by connecting to WiMAX network, this information first processed to the internet home and then spread widely. Most of the time this transmission happens very fast problems arise in case of spectrum, bandwidth and data. In case spectrum is not wide, shorten bandwidth and specific data carries through the internet. Arrival of 4G has diminished all the fears of lower bandwidth, narrow spectrum and amount of data send / receive. This WiMAX

operators, investment that is in line with the growth in demand, and simple autonomous terminals.

technology has a high speed of data transfer rate with additional capacity for the subscribers and ready to carry big amount of data. Previous generations were suffering because of low speed which ultimately covered in the 4G.

As shown in below figure, the signal is split into orthogonal sub carriers, on each of which the signal is narrowband (a few kHz) and therefore immune to multi-path effects, provided a guard interval is inserted between each OFDM symbol. An important issue about this OFDMA is, it ensures very robust transmission.

LTE:
LTE stands for Long Term Evolution is a new technology that offers enhancements to existing mobile technologies or may replace them by the time. LTE is 4G (4th Generation) technology that aimed to provide better quality of service as compare to other 3G and Wimax technology. LTE is widely called the competitor technology to WiMAX because of its wireless nature and mobile services. During the period of 2009 most of the mobile phones and other mobile broadband services are operated on conventional GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) and CDMA. Now LTE offers lower cost for users of mobile wireless with high data speed and improved bandwidth for network service providers. As LTE is compatible with 3G technology so it not only increases the speed but also prevents the need of new network and can work through the same infrastructure. LTE will not only support the functions of 3G but also incorporate some newer ones. LTE is using MIMO (Multiple input multiple output) able to send and receive huge data negative in the sense that it will overload the base stations networks.

Multiple-input multiple-output: [MIMO]


MIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas with time and frequency. It is well suited to OFDM, as it is possible to process independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the channel. In principle, MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received. However, it is generally admitted that the gain in

KEY TECHNOLOGIES FOR 4G : 1) OFDMA:


Using ODFM, it is possible to exploit the time domain, the space domain, the frequency domain and even the code domain to optimize radio channel usage.

spectrum efficiency is directly related to the minimum number of antennas in the link.

Issues with 4G:


First and foremost priority is giving to the security issue. International Telecommunication Union using Radio defined 4G mobile technology as IMTAdvanced (International Mobile telecommunication Advanced). Expected issues considered to be resolved in this 4G mobile technology are as follows; It is considered to embed IP feature in the set for more security purpose as high data rates are send and receive through the phone using 4G mobile technology. 4G mobile technology is going to be able to download at a rate of 100Mbps like mobile access and less mobility of 1GBps for local access of wireless. Instead of hybrid technology used in 3G with the combination of CDMA and IS-95 a new technology OFDMA is introduced 4G. In OFDMA, the concept is again of division multiple accesses but this is neither time like TDMA nor code divided CDMA rather frequency domain equalization process symbolizes as OFDMA. CDMA sends data through one channel but with the division of time in three slots. While CDMA also sends data through one channel identifying the receiver with the help of code. Whereas in 4G mobile technology OFDMA is going to introduce in which data packets sends by dividing the channel into a narrow band for the greater efficiency comprises a prominent feature of 4G mobile technology. IEEE 802.16m is processing for the IEE802.16e comprising the 4G brand will define it as WMBA (Wireless Mobile Broadband Access). This is a plain indicator for the internet availability. The implementation is in progress to avoid the call interference in case of data download from a website. It will propose 128 Mbps

downlink data rate and 56Mbps uplink data rate which is an extra ordinary step in 4G mobile technology. The service will limit as the availability of hotspot is condition for the internet connectivity. Parallel with WiMAX, LTE is intended to incorporate in 4G mobiles. It is also a wireless technology for the broadband access. The difference between WiMAX and LTE is that LTE goes for the IP Address. It follows the same TCP / IP concept inherited from networking technology. Restricted for the IP addresses it will provide great security as well as high data transferability, avoid latency, having the ability to adjust the bandwidth. LTE is compatible with CDMA so able to back n forth the data in between both networks. 3GPP Organization is going to introduce two major wireless standards; LTE and IEEE802.16m. Former is granted permission for the further process while second is under consideration and that will become a part of 4G mobile technology. IPv6 is approved by Verizon as a 4G standard on June 2009.

Coverage:
Coverage is achieved by adding new technologies (possibly in overlay mode) and progressively enhancing density. Take a WiMAX deployment, for example: first the parent coverage is deployed; it is then made denser by adding discontinuous Pico cells, after which the Pico cell is made denser but still discontinuously. Finally the Pico cell coverage is made continuous either by using MIMO or by deploying another Pico cell Coverage in a different frequency band (see Figure 9). The ultimate performances of the various technologies are shown in Figure 10. Parent coverage performance may vary From 1 to 20 bit/s/Hz/km, while Pico cell technology can achieve from 100 to 500

multimedia applications and services can be delivered to the user on an Anytime, Anywhere' basis with a satisfactory high data rate, premium quality and high security

Figure : example of deployment in dense traffic areas Bit/s/Hz/km?, depending on the complexity of the terminal hardware and software. These performances only refer to outdoor coverage; not all the issues associated with indoor coverage have yet been resolved. However, indoor coverage can be obtained by: Direct penetration; this is only possible in low frequency bands (significantly Below 1 GHz) and requires an excess of power, which may raise significant Interference issues. Indoor short range radio connected to the fixed network. Connection via a relay to a Pico cellular access point.

Tips to Use Wireless 4G:


1. Determine your 4G eligibility by

contacting a nationwide service provider, such as Sprint. Currently, 4G connectivity is only available in certain areas. You can also determine your 4G eligibility online. 2. Subscribe to a 4G service provider in your area. Most service providers will require you provide them with your name, address, Social Security number and additional personal information to set up your account. You must subscribe to the service before you will be able to access the wireless signal. 3. Purchase a device that is already 4G capable. Most 4G service providers offer options for 4G-enabled devices including netbooks and smartphones. 4. Power on the 4G device and it will automatically connect to your wireless 4G service. Once connected, you can use the Internet and check your email from your mobile device.

4G features:
Some key features (primarily from users' points of view) of 4G mobile networks are as follows: High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology support for multimedia services at low transmission cost, Personalization, and Integrated services. While maintaining seamless mobility, 4G will offer very high data rates with expectations of 100 Mbit/s wireless service. The increased bandwidth and higher data transmission rates will allow 4G users the ability to utilize high definition video and the video conferencing features of mobile devices attached to a 4G network. The 4G wireless system is expected to provide a comprehensive IP solution where

Connecting Devices That are Not 4G Enabled :


1. Purchase a 4G modem from a 4G
service provider, such as Sprint, if you have a computer or net book that is not 4G wireless enabled.

2. Install software via a CD-ROM included in the packaging of your USB modem, if needed, to connect a singular computer to your 4G network. Insert the CD-ROM into your computer and a series of prompts will guide you through the installation processprocess. 3. Plug in your USB modem to your computers USB port. Your computer will automatically detect the device and begin to install the drivers. Once the drivers are installed, you can connect to the Internet via your wireless 4G connection.

Home Use - For instance, you can use it


with any web-enabled device in your home. This might be your PC, your laptop or a net book. Simply connect the device to the 4G modem and you can surf. In fact, you can use this technology the same way you would use any other type of connection, surfing and searching, sharing and enjoying.

ADVANTAGES:
1) Higher bandwidth. 2) Better response time is 10 times better than 3G. 3) Works at 2.6GHz frequency which means better coverage even though it uses the same tower where the receiver and transmitter for 3G are. 4) Less time to build 4G because, it uses the same tower and fiber cables as 3Gs and they only have to upgrade the towers with 4G components.

4G networks are IP-based and flatter with fewer nodes to manage. The benefits are significant and can make 4G mobile broadband a truly disruptive technology providing service providers a cost-effective way to deploy next generation technology and services and redefining the end-user experience. Big advantage of 4G wireless is the huge range of coverage areas it can service. Instead of providing access to the internet to a household, apartment building or even a city block, fourth generation signals can reach across entire cities, providing you with a secure and fast internet connection wherever your busy day may take you. In addition to being clearly superior in terms of connection speeds, fourth generation provides a much more reliable signal than any previous service has ever been able to offer. You know how frustrating it can be when you are trying to finish a big project for school or work, and your internet connection is on the fritz; it can really cause a lot of unneeded stress or panic. With fourth generation, you can rest easy knowing that your internet connection will be there for you whenever you need it. In addition, it is also much safer than connecting over a traditional Wi-Fi signal. The connection is much more secure and you don't have to worry about hackers getting into the signal and gaining access to your personal files and information.

Much more related advantages:

Mobile Use - Unlike other Internet


technologies that can be used at home, such as DSL or cable, 4G Internet can be taken on the road with you. This is largely because of the way in which the signal is delivered to the modem. In a traditional situation, the Internet signal is transmitted via a physical connection to your phone or cable lines.

a number of technologies to a single global standard. Projected 4G systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of integration. Future wireless networks will need to support diverse IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users. There must be a low complexity of implementation and an efficient means of negotiation between the end users and the wireless infrastructure. The fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal of PCC (personal computing and communication)a vision that affordably provides high data rates everywhere over a wireless network. The provision of megabit/s data rates to thousands of radio and mobile terminals per square kilometer presents several challenges. Some key technologies permit the progressive introduction of such networks without jeopardizing existing investment. Disruptive technologies are needed to achieve high capacity at low cost, but it can still be done in a progressive manner. The key enablers are: Sufficient spectrum, with associated sharing mechanisms. Coverage with two technologies: parent (2G,3G, and WiMAX) for real-time delivery,and discontinuous Pico cell for high data rate delivery. Caching technology in the network and terminals. OFDM and MIMO. IP mobility. Multi-technology distributed architecture. Fixed-mobile convergence (for indoor service). Network selection mechanisms. Many other features, such as robust transmission and cross-layer optimization, will contribute to optimizing the performance, which can reach between 100 and 500 bit/s/Hz/km2. The distributed, full IP architecture can

Conclusion:
As the history of mobile communications shows, attempts have been made to reduce

deployed using two main products: base stations and the associated controllers. Terminal complexity depends on the number of technologies they can work with. The minimum number of technologies is two: one for the radio coverage and one for short range use (e.g. PANs). However, the presence of legacy networks will increase this to six or seven.