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Aquatic Avifauna: Its Importance for Wetland Conservation in Rajasthan, India

Aquatic Avifauna: Its Importance for Wetland Conservation in Rajasthan, India


Sarita Mehra1, Satya Prakash Mehra2 & Krishan Kumar Sharma3
Biodiversity Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University, Ajmer 305009 Rajasthan, India & Rajputana Society of Natural History, Kesar Bhawan, P. No. 90, B/d Saraswati Hosp., Ganeshnagar, Pahada, Udaipur 313001 Rajasthan, India Email: 1. greenmunia@yahoo.co.in, 2. spmehra@yahoo.com, 3. kksmds@gmail.com Corresponding Author: Satya Prakash Mehra Email: spmehra@yahoo.com

Southern Rajasthan holds many water bodies of significance either in form of lakes, dams and rivers. Many aquatic lives are associated with these water bodies. Avifauna is one of the most important and eye-catching organism among them. Approximately 30% of the avifauna of Rajasthan is dependent on wetlands. The paper document the list of birds of the southern region of Rajasthan which are directly or indirectly dependent on the wetlands based on the observations and surveys for 9 years (1999 2007). The southern part of the state under study comprises of six districts of Udaipur region (Banswara, Chittorgarh, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh, Rajsamand and Udaipur) and one district from Jodhpur region (Sirohi). The aquatic habitats of southern region of state provide base for 105 species representing 26 families of birds. 11 species of global interest are found in the wetlands of the study area. Among the species of global interest Spot-billed Pelican, Sarus Crane and Indian Skimmer are categorized as vulnerable whereas Dalmatian Pelican is conservation dependent. Darter, Painted Stork, Black-necked Stork, Black-headed Ibis, Lesser Flamingo, Ferruginous Pochard, Lesser Fish-Eagle and Blackbellied Tern are categorized as near threatened. Spot-billed Pelican and Indian Skimmer had not been sighted by the authors in the study period. Sarus Crane was common in whole of the study area but Banswara, Dungarpur and Chittorgarh districts had comparatively high numbers of individuals. Similarly, many aquatic bodies of Banswara and Dungarpur found to be ideal sites for the other threatened species. Through this work, the importance of the southern part of the desert state is tried to highlight through avifauna. Monitoring of water birds can provide valuable
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Keywords: wetland, southern Rajasthan, avifauna, sarus crane, pelican, stork, lesser fish-eagle INTRODUCTION Waterbirds play an important role in several spheres of human interest: culturally, socially, scientifically and as food resource (Pandey 1993, Manihar and Trisal 2001). They represent important components of our wetland ecosystems as they form important links in the food web and nutrient cycles (Chen and Zhang 1998). Many wetland species also play a role in the control of agricultural pests, whilst some species are themselves considered as pests of certain crops. After fish, birds are probably the most important faunal group that attracts people to wetlands. Many waterbirds are migratory, undertaking annual migrations along different flyways spanning the length and breadth of the globe between their breeding and non-breeding grounds (Ali 1959, Alerstam 1990). According to the Ramsar Convention, the waterbirds are broadly defined as the birds depend on the wetlands for their living, including what we used to say: ducks and geese, shorebirds and waders and some other species depending on wetlands, such as kingfishers, raptors and some passerines. However, only 20 families of birds are included in the Species List of Ramsar Convention. Except Glareolidae, they are all natatorial birds, wading birds and shorebirds. In these 20 families, there are at least 404 species occurring in Asia-Pacific region and 243 species of them are migratory birds (Anon. 2001). Out of total 510 avian species of state, 155 species comprising approximately 30% of the total number of birds found in Rajasthan depend on the wetlands (Ali and Ripley 1968-1999, Grimmett et al. 1999). Most are collectively called waterbirds and include the grebes (Podicipediformes); pelicans and cormorants (Pelecaniformes); herons, ibis, spoonbills and bitterns (Ciconiiformes); ducks, geese (Anseriformes); cranes, gallinules (Gruiformes); and waders, guls and terns (Charadriiformes). Species such as fish-eagles, osprey, harrier not usually called waterbirds, also depend on wetlands. There are also some waterbirds which have virtually lost any association with wetlands (plovers, pratincoles) (Ali and Ripley 1968-1999, Grimmett et al. 1999). Alike all over the world aquatic birds attracted the attention of ornithologists, specialists on hunting management and hunters from the very past time in the princely state of Rajasthan (Adam 1873, Barnes 1891, Oates 1899, Messurier 1904, Impey 1909, Whistler 1938, Prakash 1960, Kushlan
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1986). Keoladeo is a well known man-made wetland from the State. It was estimated that roughly 40118.4 sq. km is under 872 wetlands in India (Anon. 1990). The State of Rajasthan is one of the driest state of the country and the total surface water resources in the State is only about 1% of the total surface water resources of the country. Nevertheless there are thousands of temporary freshwater and salt aquatic bodies in the region, varying enormously in size. 52 wetlands, including three natural, have been identified in state which expands in approx. 34% of the geographic area of state (Anon. 1990). The rivers of the state are rainfed and identified by 14 major basins divided into 59 subbasins (Rajasthan Irrigation Department 2007). There are many wetlands in the state which are well recognized. The different origin and ecological peculiarities of wetlands make up the typology of wetlands which are the main habitats of aquatic birds. The surface water play major role in providing the ground to aquatic birds along with its characteristics with respect to the food availability and protection. The surface water resources in Rajasthan are mainly confined to south and southeastern part of the State. The paper deals with the southern part of the state with respect to the avifauna. Study Area The southern part of the State under study comprises of six districts of Udaipur region and one district from Jodhpur region constituting 12.3% part of total geographic area of the state. The area under investigation holds manmade water bodies of large size (> 1000 ha), medium size (500 - 999 ha) and small size (100 - 499 ha) along with several less known lakes and dams useful for the biodiversity. Methodology The water birds of the study area were documented from 1999 to 2008 in winter and summer. Periodical studies were made to know the status and distribution of the water birds at the respective sites (Javed & Kaul 2002). During the winter seasons, the frequency of visits was weekly whereas for other season the visits were monthly or bimonthly depending on the water availability in the aquatic bodies. Waterbirds were identified with the help of field guides Grimmett et al. (1999), Kazmierczak (2000) and Grimmett et al. (2004). The scientific names and classification were used as according to Manakadan and Pittie (2001). Results In total, 304 bird species were recorded out of these 111 species are directly or indirectly dependent on the wetlands (Table 1). They represent 26 families of the birds excluding Rynchopidae (Indian Skimmer is the only
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representative species of Rynchopidae which was not sighted in any part of the study area during the time of studies). Four species, viz. Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis from Udaipur Lake Complex (R. Tehsin, pers. comm. 2001), Falcated Duck Anas falcata from waterbodies of Dungarpur (in litt.), Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola and Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis from Mount Abu (Butler 1875-1877, Shivrajkumar 1949) showed their existence in the past and were not recorded during the study period whereas Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans was doubtful sighting (from West Banas, December 2005 by the authors) and need further authentic confirmation before getting enlisted in the checklist of the study area. 12 species in the threatened category (BirdLife international 2001) showed their presence in the wetlands of the study area. Nine sites were already identified as Important Bird Areas (Islam and Rahmani 2004). Wetlands were the first major ecosystem to be protected by an international treaty to stop the decline of waterfowl populations which was then linked to habitat loss (Amezaga et al. 2002). The number of waterbirds using a particular habitat is related to types and quality of habitats, abundance and availability of food, and level of disturbance (Mukherjee 1969 - 1976, Krishnan 1978, Pandit 1982, Gopakumar 1990, Green 1996, Hafner 1997). Anatomical adaptations, bill and leg shape of the waterbirds ensure that a wide variety of different food types are accessible in wetlands (Perrins 1990). Monitoring of waterbirds can provide valuable information on the status of wetlands (Custer et al. 1991, Kushlan 1993), and can be a key tool for increasing the awareness of importance of wetlands and conservation values. There is growing concern of the need to conserve waterbirds and wetlands and recognition that birds can serve as indicators of the health of our surroundings (Anon 2001). Recommendations Conservation through Community Participation: There is always a conflict between protection of habitats and human involvement. Uncontrolled urbanization has forced both wetland habitats and biodiversity in a situation that both are struggling for their existence. There is need to bring the concept of conserving these habitats as well as biodiversity. Community based nature conservation that is coming up very successful in many parts of the globe could be used in the region. REFERENCES
Adam, R. M. (1873): Notes on Birds of Sambhar Lake and its Vicinity. Stray Feathers 1: 361-404.

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Alerstam, T. (1990): Bird Migration. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 420 pp. Ali, S. (1959): Local Movements of Resident Waterbirds. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 56(2): 346-347 Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1968 - 1999): Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. 10 Volume, Mumbai: Oxford University Press. Amezaga, J. M., Santamaria, L. and Green, A. J. (2002): Biotic Wetland Connectivity Supporting a New Approach for wetland policy. Acta Oecologica 23: 213-222. Anonymous (1990): Wetlands of India A Directory. Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Anonymous (2001): Asia-Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy: 20012005. Asia-Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Committee - 2001. Wetlands International - Asia Pacific. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 67pp. Anonymous (u.d.): Wetland Birds of Dungarpur (in Hindi). Pp 8. Unpublished. Barnes, H. E. (1891): Nesting in Western India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 6(3): 285317. BirdLife international (2001): Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. Butler, E. A. (18751877): Notes on the Avifauna of Mount Aboo and Northern Guzerat. Stray Feathers 3: 437500; 4: 141; 5: 207235. Chen Kelin and Zhang Guixin (eds.). (1998): Wetland and Waterbird Conservation Proceedings of an International Workshop on Wetland and Waterbird Conservation in North East Asia. Wetland International - China Programme. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. China. 294pp. Clement A., Tisdell, A. and Zhu Xiang (1996): Tourism Development and Nature Conservation in Xishuanbanna, Yunnan: A Case Study. Tigerpaper 23(2): 2028 Custer, T. W., Rattner, B. A., Ohlendorf and Melancon, M. J. (1991): Herons and Egrets Proposed as Indicators of Estuarine Contamination in the United States. Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress 20: 2474-2479. Gopakumar, G. (1990): Habitat Utilization Pattern of Waterbirds in Artificial Wetlands of an Arid to Semi-arid Region. Indian J. For. 13(2), 85-91. Green, A. J. (1996): Analyses of globally threatened Anatidae in relation to threats, distribution, migration patterns and habitat use. Conserv. Biol. 10: 1435-1445. Grimmett, R.; Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T. (1999): Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. Grimmett, R., Inskipp, T. and Mehra, S. P. (2004): Uttar Bharat Ke Pakshi (in Hindi). Bombay Natural Histroy Society: Mumbai. Hafner, H. (1997): Ecology of Wading Birds. Colonial Waterbirds 20(1): 115-120. Impey, L. (1909): Duck Shooting in Rajputana. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 19(3): 750-751.
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Islam, M. Z. and Rahmani, A. R. (2004): Important Bird Areas in India: Priority Sites for Conservation. Indian Bird Conservation Network: Bombay natural History Society and BirdLife International (UK). xviii + 1133. Javed, S. and Kaul, R. (2002): Field Methods for Bird Surveys. Bombay Natural History Society; Department of Wildlife Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh and World Pheasant Association, South Asia Regional Office (SARO), New Delhi, India. Kazmierczak, K and van Perlo, B. (2000): A Field Guide to the Birds of India. Om Book Service: New Delhi. Krishnan, M. (1978): The Availability of Nesting Materials and Nesting Sites as Vital Factors in the Gregarious Breeding of Indian waterbirds. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75(Supp): 1143-1152. Kushlan, J. A. (1986): The Management of Wetlands for Aquatic Birds. Colonial Waterbirds 9(2): 246-248. Kushlan, J. A. (1993): Colonial Waterbirds as Bioindicators of Environmental Change. Colonial Waterbirds 16: 223-251. Manakadan, R. and Pittie, A. (2001): Standardised Common and Scientific Names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Buceros 6(1): ix + 37. Manihar, T. and Trisal, C. L. (2001): Sustainable Development and Water Resources Management of Loktak Lake. Asian Wetland Symposium 2001: Bringing Partnerships into Good Wetland Practices. 27-30 August 2001, Penang, Malaysia, 27pp. Messurier, A. le (1904): Game, Shore, and Water Birds of India. W. Thacker and Co, London. Mukherjee, A. K. (1969 - 1976): Food Habits of Waterbirds of the Sundarban, 24Parganas District, West Bengal, India I - VI. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 66(2): 345-360, 68(1): 37-64, 68(3): 691-716, 71(2): 188-200, 72(2): 422-447, 73(3): 482-486. Oates, E. W. (1899): A Manual of the Game Birds of India. Water Birds. Vol. 2. 2 vols. Messrs. A.J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 506pp. Pandey, S. (1993): The Importance of a Man-made Reservoir in India for Conserving Waterbird Diversity. Wetland and waterfowl conservation in south and west Asia., IWRB Spec. Publ. #25, AWB Publ.#85 Pandit, A. K. (1982): Feeding Ecology of Breeding Birds in Five Wetlands of Kashmir. Indian J. Ecol. 9, 181-190. Perrins, C. M. (1990): The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Birds. Marshall Editions Development, Ltd., London. Prakash, I. (1960): Shikar in Rajasthan. Cheetal 2(2): 68-72. Rajasthan Irrigation Department (2007): State Water Policy derived from http://www.rajirrigation.gov.in/5need.htm on 25 April 2007. Shivrajkumar, Y. S. (1949): Occurrence of the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola L.) at Mount Abu. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 48(3): 585.
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Whistler, H. (1938): Ornithological Survey of Jodhpur State. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 40: 213-235.

Table 1: Annotated Checklist of Wetland Dependent Avifauna in Southern Rajasthan


Sr No 1 2 3 ? 4 5 6 7 8 Species Common, Scientific Name Grebes Podicipedidae Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis (Pallas, 1764) Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Pelicans Pelecanidae Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus Linnaeus, 1758 Comments (describes status in southern Rajasthan and places of sighting, i.e., distribution) Common, resident; sighting from all the large/medium wetlands Rare, winter migratory, sighted only at Baghdarra (31/12/ 2006)

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Common, winter migratory; sighted in all the parts but restricted to few wetlands (West Banas, Ora, Udaisagar, Vallabhnagar, etc.) Spot-billed Pelican VU #Pelecanus Rare, winter migratory; sighted in Udaipur philippensis Gmelin, 1789 Lake Complex before 1996 (R. Tehsin, pers. comm., 2001) Dalmatian Pelican CD #Pelecanus Common winter migratory; as like other crispus Bruch, 1832 pelican species Cormorants/Shags Phalacrocoracidae Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax Common, local movement; sighted in every niger (Vieillot, 1817) aquatic body where water remains throughout the year Indian Cormorant or Indian Shag Not so common, local movement; restricted to Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Stephens, few aquatic water bodies of Banswara, Sirohi 1826 and Udaipur Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax Common, resident; sighted in every aquatic carbo (Linnaeus, 1758) body where water remains throughout the year Darters Anhingidae Darter NT #Anhinga melanogaster Not so common, local movement; restricted to Pennant, 1769 few aquatic water bodies of Banswara and Dungarpur Herons, Egrets & Bitterns Ardeidae Little Egret Egretta garzetta Very common, resident; sighted everywhere (Linnaeus, 1766) Grey Heron Ardea cinerea Common, local movement; sighted Linnaeus, 1758 everywhere Purple Heron Ardea purpurea Not so common, local movement; sighted Linnaeus, 1766 everywhere Large Egret Casmerodius albus Very common, resident; sighted everywhere (Linnaeus, 1758) Median Egret Mesophoyx Very common, resident; sighted everywhere intermedia (Wagler, 1829) Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Very common, resident; sighted everywhere (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Pond-Heron Ardeola grayii Very common, resident; sighted everywhere (Sykes, 1832) Little Green Heron Butorides Not so common, ?; sighted at Udaipur and striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Dungarpur
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17 Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) Storks Ciconiidae Painted Stork NT #Mycteria leucocephala (Pennant, 1769) Common, local movement; sighted everywhere

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18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26

27 28

29 30 31 32 33

Common, resident; sighted everywhere but breeding was restricted to few wetlands of Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur Asian Openbill-Stork #Anastomus Common, resident; sighted everywhere but oscitans (Boddaert, 1783) breeding was restricted to few wetlands of Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur Black Stork Ciconia nigra Rare, winter migratory, sighted only at West (Linnaeus, 1758) Banas (19/01/ 2008) Woolly-necked Stork or WhiteCommon, resident; sighted everywhere but necked Stork Ciconia episcopus breeding was restricted to few wetlands of (Boddaert, 1783) Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur Black-necked Stork NT Common, local movement; sighted Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus everywhere but limited to few water bodies in (Latham, 1790) every district Ibises & Spoonbills Threskiornithidae Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus Not so common, local movement; sighted at (Linnaeus, 1766) the marshy areas of Banswara, Dungarpur, Sirohi and Udaipur Black-headed Ibis or Oriental White Common, resident; sighted everywhere but Ibis NT #Threskiornis limited to few water bodies in every district melanocephalus (Latham, 1790) Black Ibis #Pseudibis papillosa Common, resident; sighted everywhere but (Temminck, 1824) limited to few water bodies in every district Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea Common, resident; sighted everywhere but leucorodia Linnaeus, 1758 breeding was restricted to few water bodies in Banswara and Dungarpur Flamingos Phoenicopteridae Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus Common, summer visitor; sighted at few ruber Linnaeus, 1758 aquatic bodies of every district Lesser Flamingo NT Rare, summer visitor; sighted at Dungarpur, #Phoenicopterus minor (Geoffroy, Sirohi and Udaipur 1798) Swans, Geese & Ducks Anatidae Lesser Whistling-Duck Common, resident; sighted everywhere but Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, breeding records were restricted from few 1821) wetlands of Dungarpur, Sirohi and Udaipur Greylag Goose Anser anser Common, winter migratory; sighting was (Linnaeus, 1758) restricted to few wetlands of Banswara, Chittorgarh and Dungarpur Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus Common, winter migratory; sighting was (Latham, 1790) restricted to few wetlands of Banswara, Chittorgarh, Dungarpur and Sirohi Ruddy Shelduck or Brahminy Common, winter migratory; sighted Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea everywhere but large congregation were (Pallas, 1764) sighted in wetlands of Dungarpur (Nov. 2006) Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos Common, local movement; sighted (Pennant, 1769) everywhere but limited to few shallow water bodies (rich in vegetation) in every district
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Cotton Pygmy Goose or Cotton Teal Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin, 1789) Gadwall Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758 Falcated Duck Anas falcata Georgi, 1775 Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope Linnaeus, 1758 Common, winter migratory; sighted everywhere in major wetlands of every district

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

47 48

49 50 51

Common, winter migratory; sighted at few medium/small aquatic bodies of every district ?, ?; presence was documented in literature in Dungarpur Common, winter migratory; sighted at few medium/small/large aquatic bodies of every district but large congregations was recorded from Banswara (Dec. 2006) Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Not so common, winter migratory; sighting Linnaeus, 1758 was restricted to few wetlands of Banswara, Dungarpur, Sirohi and Udaipur Spot-billed Duck Anas Common, resident; sighted everywhere but poecilorhyncha J.R. Forester, 1781 breeding records were only from few wetlands of Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata Common, winter migratory; sighted Linnaeus, 1758 everywhere Northern Pintail Anas acuta Common, winter migratory; sighting was Linnaeus, 1758 restricted to few wetlands of every district Garganey Anas querquedula Not so common, winter migratory; sighted Linnaeus, 1758 only in Banswara & Mt Abu (21/03/08) Common Teal Anas crecca Common, winter migratory; sighted Linnaeus, 1758 everywhere Red-crested Pochard Rhodonessa Not so common, winter migratory; sighted rufina (Pallas, 1773) only in Dungarpur Common Pochard Aythya ferina Common, winter migratory; sighted (Linnaeus, 1758) everywhere but large congregation was recorded from Banswara (Dec 2006) Ferruginous Pochard NT #Aythya Common, winter migratory; recorded only nyroca (Guldenstadt, 1770) from the wetlands of Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur Tufted Duck or Tufted Pochard Not so common, winter migratory; recorded Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758) largely from wetlands of Banswara & West Banas (Sirohi) Hawks, Eagles, Buzzards, Old World Vultures,Kites, Harriers Accipitridae Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus Not so common, local movement; sighting was (Boddaert, 1783) irregular but recorded from all the districts of study area Lesser Fish-Eagle or Lesser GreyRare, ?; recorded only from the wetland of headed Fish-Eagle NT Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary (Chittorgarh) #Ichthyophaga humilis (S. Muller & Schlegel, 1841) Eurasian Marsh Harrier or Western Common, winter migratory; sighted Marsh-Harrier Circus aeruginosus everywhere (Linnaeus, 1758) Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis Not so common, winter migratory; sighted Hodgson, 1833 only in Rajsamand and Sirohi Osprey Pandionidae Osprey Pandion haliaetus Common, winter migratory; sighted (Linnaeus, 1758) everywhere on the large/medium sized
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reservoirs 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 Falcons Falconidae Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 Cranes Gruidae Sarus Crane VU #Grus antigone (Linnaeus, 1758) Demoiselle Crane Grus virgo (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Crane Grus grus (Linnaeus, 1758) Crakes, Moorhens, Coots Rallidae Brown Crake Amaurornis akool (Sykes, 1832) White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769) Purple Swamphen and Purple Moorhen Porphyrio porphyrio (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Coot Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758 Jacanas Jacanidae Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus (Scopoli, 1786) Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus (Latham, 1790) Plovers, Lapwings Charadriidae Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius Scopoli, 1786 Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus, 1758 Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus (Boddaert, 1783) White-tailed Lapwing Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein, 1823)

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Rare, ?; sighted only in Sirohi (West Banas) and Udaipur (Udaipur Lake Complex) Common, resident; sighted everywhere Not so common, winter migratory; sighted in Sirohi only but passage migratory to other parts Not so common, winter migratory; sighted in Chittorgarh only (31/01/07) and Sirohi Not so common, local movement; sighted in Dungarpur and Sirohi Very common, resident; sighted everywhere depending on the water availability Common, resident; sighted everywhere depending on the availability of water and aquatic vegetation Common, resident; sighted everywhere depending on the availability of water and aquatic vegetation Common, local movement; sighted everywhere Common, resident; sighted everywhere depending on the availability of aquatic vegetation Common, resident; sighted everywhere depending on the availability of water and aquatic vegetation Common, local movement; sighted everywhere Not so common, winter migratory; recorded from Banswara, Dungarpur, Sirohi and Udaipur Very common, resident; sighted everywhere

63 64 65 66

? 67 68 69

Not so common, winter migratory; recorded from Banswara (Talwara), Sirohi (West Banas, Ora, Kalakaji) and Udaipur (Pichola) Sandpipers, Stints, Snipes, Godwits & Curlews Scolopacidae Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax ?, ?; past record from Mount Abu rusticola Linnaeus, 1758 Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura Not so common, winter migratory; recorded (Bonaparte, 1830) from Dungarpur, Sirohi and Udaipur Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago Common, winter migratory; recorded (Linnaeus, 1758) everywhere but restricted to few wetlands Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus Not so common, winter migratory; recorded
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(Brnnich, 1764)

Aquatic Avifauna: Its Importance for Wetland Conservation in Rajasthan, India


from Sirohi (Ora, West Banas) and Udaipur (Udaisagar) Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa Common, winter migratory; recorded (Linnaeus, 1758) everywhere but restricted to few wetlands Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa Not so common, winter migratory; recorded lapponica (Linnaeus, 1758) from Chittorgarh, Sirohi and Udaipur Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata Rare, ?; recorded from Sirohi (West Banas, (Linnaeus, 1758) Nov 2006) Spotted Redshank Tringa Common, winter migratory; recorded erythropus (Pallas, 1764) everywhere but restricted to few wetlands Common Redshank Tringa totanus Common, winter migratory; recorded (Linnaeus, 1758) everywhere but restricted to few wetlands Marsh Sandpiper (395) Tringa Common, winter migratory; recorded from stagnatilis (Bechstein, 1803) Sirohi (Ora, West Banas, Kalkaji, Kadambari) Common Greenshank Tringa Not so common, winter migratory; recorded nebularia (Gunner, 1767) from Dungarpur, Rajsamand, Sirohi and Udaipur Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus Not so common, winter migratory; recorded Linnaeus, 1758 from Sirohi and Udaipur Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola Common, winter migratory; sighted Linnaeus, 1758 everywhere Common Sandpiper Actitis Common, winter migratory; sighted hypoleucos Linnaeus, 1758 everywhere Little Stint Calidris minuta (Leisler, Common, winter migratory; sighted 1812) everywhere but restricted to certain wetlands Temmincks Stint Calidris Not so common, winter migratory; recorded temminckii (Leisler, 1812) from Sirohi (Ora, West Banas) and Udaipur Ruff (426) Philomachus pugnax Common, winter migratory; sighted (Linnaeus, 1758) everywhere but restricted to certain wetlands Ibisbill, Avocets & Stilts Recurvirostridae Black-winged Stilt Himantopus Very common, resident; sighted everywhere himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758) Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta Not so common, winter migratory; recorded Linnaeus, 1758 from Sirohi (Ora, West Banas) and Udaipur (Udaipur Lake Complex, Udaisagar) Stone-Curlew & Stone-Plovers/Thick-knees Burhinidae Great Thick-Knee or Great StoneCommon, resident; sighted everywhere Plover Esacus recurvirostris (Cuvier, 1829) Coursers & Pratincoles Glareolidae Small Pratincole Glareola lactea Not so common, local movement; recorded Temminck, 1820 from Dungarpur, Sirohi and Udaipur Gulls, Terns & Noddies Laridae Yellow-legged Gull Larus ?, ?; recorded from West Banas (Sirohi, Dec cachinnans Pallas, 1811 2005), need authentic confirmation Brown-headed Gull Larus Not so common, winter migratory; sighted brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840 everywhere but limited to few wetlands, could be sighted best at West Banas (Sirohi) Black-headed Gull Larus Not so common, winter migratory; sighted ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 everywhere but limited to few wetlands, could be sighted best at West Banas (Sirohi) Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon Not so common, passage winter migratory;
Sponsored By: Department of Environment, Government of Rajasthan, Jaipur [February 19-20, 2010]

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84

85

86 ? 87 88 89

Proceedings of Conservation of Lakes and Water Resources: Management Strategies


nilotica (Gmelin, 1789) 90 91 92 ? ? 93 94 95 96 97 River Tern Sterna aurantia J.E. Gray, 1831 Black-bellied Tern NT #Sterna acuticauda J.E. Gray, 1831 Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus (Pallas, 1811) Skimmers Rynchopidae Indian Skimmer VU #Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 Kingfishers Alcedinidae Common Kingfisher or Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo atthis (Linnaeus, 1758) Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx erithaca (Linnaeus, 1758) Stork-billed Kingfisher Halcyon capensis (Linnaeus, 1766) White-throated Kingfisher or White-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Pied Kingfisher or Lesser Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis (Linnaeus, 1758) Swallows & Martins Hirundinidae Streak-throated Swallow Hirundo fluvicola Blyth, 1855

213

recorded from Sirohi (Kalkaji) and Udaipur (Udaisagar) Very common, resident; sighted everywhere Not so common, ?; recorded from Chittorgarh (Barwai) and Sirohi (West Banas) Not so common, ?; recorded from Udaipur Lake Complex (Udaipur) ?, ?; past record from Mount Abu Common, resident; sighted everywhere Rare, ?; recorded from Panarwa forests by R. Tehsin (Udaipur) Not so common, resident; recorded from Banswara and Chittorgarh Very common, resident; sighted everywhere Common, resident; sighted everywhere

98

Common, resident; sighted in the wetlands of every district having structures/ bridges/ other structures etc. nearby

99 100 101 102 103 104

105 106

Wagtails & Pipits Motacillidae White Wagtail Motacilla alba Common, winter migratory; sighted Linnaeus, 1758 everywhere White-browed Wagtail or Large Common, local movement; sighted Pied Wagtail Motacilla everywhere maderaspatensis Gmelin, 1789 Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola Common, winter migratory; sighted Pallas, 1776 everywhere Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava Common, winter migratory; sighted Linnaeus, 1758 everywhere Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea Common, winter migratory; sighted Tunstall, 1771 everywhere Goldcrest, Prinias, Tesias, Warblers Sylviinae Clamorous Reed Warbler or Indian Not so common, winter migratory; sighted in Great Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus the wetlands of Banswara, Dungarpur, Sirohi stentoreus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, and Udaipur 1833) Starlings & Mynas Sturnidae Asian Pied Starling Sturnus contra Common, resident; sighted everywhere Linnaeus, 1758 Bank Myna Acridotheres Very common, resident; sighted everywhere ginginianus (Latham, 1790)

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214

Aquatic Avifauna: Its Importance for Wetland Conservation in Rajasthan, India

Symbols Description # When preceding English name, denotes a species endemic to India. CD Conservation Dependent (BirdLife International 2001). CR Critical (BirdLife International 2001). DD Data Defficient (BirdLife International 2001). EN Endangered (BirdLife International 2001). NT Near Threatened (BirdLife International 2001). VU Vulnerable (BirdLife International 2001). # When preceding Scientific name, denotes a globally threatened or nearthreatened species

Sponsored By: Department of Environment, Government of Rajasthan, Jaipur [February 19-20, 2010]