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1. Electronics - The flow of electrons through vaccum or gas or semiconductor is known as electronics 2. Types of electronic components 3.

a)active components - this component producing some power also called as non-linear components eg: transistor,diode,SCR,UJT,FET b)passive components - this components consuming some power also called as linear components eg: resistor , capacitor, inductor 4. Resistor a)resist the flow of current (unit: ohm) 5. B) The energy may stored in the form of heat 6. Inductor - b) it stores energy in the form of magnetic field (unit :henry) 7. Capacitor it stores charges and discharges Types of capacitor a) disc capacitor b) electrolytic capacitor c) variable capacitor 8.Semiconductor-It is the substance which has resistivity in between conductors and insulators(egGe, si) Hole - It is represented by the absence of electrons It has positive change Electron - It is represented by presence of electrons It has negative charge. 9. Semiconductor a)Intrinsic( semiconductor in a pure form ) b)Extrinsic (Impure form ). A) Intrinsic - a)P type - A small amount of pentavalent semiconductor impurity is added to a pure semiconductor . b) N type A small amount of tetravalent impurity is added to pure semiconductor c) PN type A P type semiconductor is joined to N type 10 . FORWARD BIAS P type to positive electrode (anode), N type to negative electrode (cathode) REVERSE BIAS - P type to negative electrode (cathode), N type to positive electrode(anode) 11 . TRANSISTOR - a)PNP forward bias to emitter junction, reverse bias to collector junction. (current flowing towards the emitter junction) b)NPN The direction of current is flowing outwards from the emitter junction

STUDY OF CRO 1) A CRO is basically an X-Y plotter where the amplitude with to frequency (ie) time of an electrical signals 2) APPLICATIONS OF CRO - a) study of waveform b) Measurement of voltages c) Measurement Of current d) Measurement of frequency e) Measurement of phase difference f ) Measurement of Component value

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

TIME PERIOD : The time taken by an alternating voltage to complete one cycle . FREQUENCY : it is given by reciprocal of time period T . f= 1/T. RMS value (root mean square value): Vrms = V peak / square root of 2,Vm/ square root of 2 AC it means alternating of current(N). the current or voltages which alternates its direction and magnitude every time. DC it means direct current which does not change its directing and magnitude . CYCLE a complete change in value and direction of alternating quantity is called cycle AMPLITUDE IT is the highest value attained by the current or voltages in a half cycle. PERIOD It is the time taken to complete one cycle Clock signal 1)Ic 555 timer connected as an astable multivibrator It produce duty cycle in range 55% to 95% ,the duty cycle can be adjusted by varying R1 and R2 T1=0.693(R1+R2)x C T2=0.693xR2xC Soldering 1)Flux-It is used for avoiding oxidation and present short circuit. 2)Reel of solder- the best size for electronics is 22SWG (standard wire guage) Rectifier 3)Rectifier-It converts A.C into D.C current. 4)Transformer-It works on the principle of mutual Induction

3)Half-wave Rectifier: one PN diode is used. Full wave Rectifier: two PN diode is used. Bridge Rectifier: four PN diode is used.