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Analysis on The Lesson Plan of English Speaking Class Based on School-Based Curriculum (SBC) at Public Senior High Schools

in Malang Andriys Ariesson Harieska Prajas Key Words: Lesson plan, Speaking skill, School Based Curriculum (SBC), English teachers This study is conducted in order to analyze the lesson plan of English speaking class based on School-Based Curriculum (SBC) at Public Senior High Schools in Malang. To be more specific, it tries to find information concerning the development of the lesson plan from the components that construct it, they are the competence standards, basic competences, and indicators of the lesson plans, the learning objectives, the instructional materials, the teaching and learning methods, the learning stages, the material/ learning resources, and the assessment of the lesson plans. This study is a descriptive qualitative study. The subjects of the study are six public schools. There are six English teachers of different schools from whom the data was obtained. Each English teacher provides one lesson plan of English speaking class to be the source of data. The instrument used in this study is check list, which is in form of rubric of lesson plan assessment. From the finding, in general the lesson plans for English speaking class developed by the English teachers can be considered welldeveloped. The lesson plans components on which most of the teachers make mistake of are the material/ learning resources and assessments. Preparation and planning are the important aspects to contribute to the success of the teaching process. Good teachers are the ones that think carefully and systematically about what they are going to do in the classes, and who prepare or plan how they are going to organize the teaching and learning in order to achieve the objectives that have been decided before. In Government Regulation No. 19 Year 2005 Chapter IV section 20 (2005:9), it is stated that teaching preparations include syllabus, lesson plan covering at least teaching objective, teaching material, teaching method, source of and learning, and also the assessment. Therefore, one of the most important preparations the teachers need to pay attention to is the lesson plan. Lesson plan is teachers` guide in conducting teaching and learning process inside classes. It is a detailed plan aimed to help the teachers conduct a classroom interaction in a guided way. According to Muslich (2007:45), lesson plan is defined as a plan of certain subject matter applied in teaching instruction in a class. The purpose is to plan students learning experience to achieve the teaching objectives. On School-Based Curriculum (SBC), lesson plan can be defined as a set of plan describing procedure and management of learning to achieve one or more basic competence stated inside the content standards and elaborated in the

syllabus (Mulyasa, 2006:15). Lesson plan gives detail plans and steps of what teachers are going to do in class. A good and systematic lesson plan helps teachers to deliver the teaching materials well in class. As a result, it helps the teachers to be able to achieve the students` competences more easily. Lesson plan is very important in the teaching process. Before constructing a lesson plan, teachers need to know and comprehend the curriculum well, so that they know what to expect from the students and how to achieve that. Teachers must be able to elaborate, define, and map the competence standard and basic competence determined by the government and finally achieve the objective through the lesson plan. Another important thing about the curriculum is that in this new curriculum English has objectives to improve competence of communicating in both spoken and in written skills. Both receptive and productive skills are also need to be developed in English teaching instruction (Depdiknas, 2007b:1). This curriculum considers that four English basic skills, namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are the competences that must be mastered. If we compare this curriculum with the 1994 Curriculum, the previous curriculum tends to emphasize on written skills, reading and writing. On SBC, the teaching of speaking and listening has the same portion as the teaching of reading and writing. Speaking as a part of productive skills is taught with the same portion as the other skills. On SBC, this skill comes after listening skill. If we look at the competence standard and basic competence of listening and speaking on SBC, they are basically the same in case of general competence and material which have to be achieved. They are not the same from competences which make listening as a skill that receiving language and speaking as a skill that producing language. Also, they actually belong to the same cycle, which is oral cycle. Because in the current curriculum all skills have the same portion of teaching, this constitutes a new view compared to the 1994 Curriculum which focused only to written skills. The teachers need to have good comprehension of this new view. Due to this fact, this study is trying to analyze the lesson plan made by the teachers at public senior high schools in Malang especially for the speaking skill. School-Based Curriculum (SBC) SBC is an operational curriculum which is developed and applied by each educational unit (Depdiknas, 2007a). This curriculum is used by certain school as a basis to conduct the teaching and learning processes. It enables accommodation of the educational program according to needs and potencies found in certain region. In developing SBC, schools must refer to Education National Standards. These standards are used as reference of the curriculum development. There are eight Education National Standards: content standard, process standard, graduate competence standard, educational staff standard, budgeting standard, structure and infrastructure standard, management standard, and education evaluation standard (Depdiknas, 2007a:10). Two of them, content standard and graduate competence standard are main standards in developing the curriculum. By applying SBC, schools or educational units have wider authority to develop their own curriculum. Among one school and others might have different

curriculum, but still those curriculum must refer to Education National Standard. SBC as school operational curriculum is developed based on content standard and graduate competence standard which is improved in line with the principles of diversity. Although educational units or schools have the authority to develop their own curriculum, they are not allowed to construct a curriculum that is below the national standards. Because these standards are actually minimum standards, of course schools can develop their own standards which are higher than the standards from the government. The Practical Implementation of SBC Practically, SBC is actually considered as a concept which emphasizes on the students` individual competence development. The competences the students have to master are derived from those national standards given the government, or the content standard. The competences have to be able to be known, responded, or done by students at every class and school level. The formulations of these competences are the so-called standards of competences and basic competences. They are minimum abilities students must possess for certain standard of competences of certain subject matters (Depdiknas, 2006b:18). It is important to know that these standards of competences and basic competences have been decided by the government. What teachers need to do is to make the students achieve these competences. In doing this, the teachers need to apply and bring these competences into the class. Firstly, the teachers must plan the teaching and learning process by mapping the competences into syllabus. Then, the teachers make a set of plan describing procedure and management of learning in form of lesson plan. The relationship between competence standards/basic competences, syllabus, and lesson plans can be seen in Figure 2.1 (Suharmanto, 2007:16) below. Standard Competences and Basic Competences

Syllabus

Lesson Plan
Figure 2.1 The relationship between competence standards/basic competences, syllabus, and lesson plans

The first step to do to make the students achieve the competence standards and basic competence is by constructing syllabus. According to Depdiknas (2006b:7), syllabus is a plan for the students` learning on a subject matter which involves competences standards, basic competences, instructional materials, learning activities, indicators of learning achievement, evaluation, time allocation, and learning resources (Depdiknas, 2007a:126).

After finishing the syllabus development process, the teachers need to apply the teaching and learning process in order to make students achieve competences standards and basic competences by constructing the lesson plan. Lesson Plan Good techniques and activities will not give much point if they are not integrated into a program of studies, and few teachers would take an activity or piece of material into class without first having a reason for doing so. The best teachers are the ones that think carefully and systematically about what they are going to do in the classes and who plan how they are going to organize the teaching and learning. This is the reason why teaching preparation is definitely important for the success of the teaching. One of the important teaching preparations is lesson plan. It is a detailed plan aimed to help the teachers conduct a classroom interaction in a guided way. Brown (2001:149) states that the term lesson is popularly considered to be a unified set of activities that cover a period of classroom time. Plan is an arrangement for doing the lesson. There are some components that construct lesson plans, such as: goals, objectives, materials and equipment, procedures, evaluation, and extra-class work. According to SBC, lesson plan is a set of plan describing procedure and management of learning to achieve one or more basic competence stated inside the content standards and elaborated in the syllabus (Mulyasa, 2006:15). According to Model of Lesson Plan of English (Depdiknas, 2007b:1), lesson plan is teachers` guide in conducting teaching and learning process inside classes, laboratories, and/or in the field for every single basic competence. Therefore, what is stated inside the lesson plan contains any items directly related to learning process in order to achieve certain basic competence. Lesson plan must be compiled in systematic and detailed way. It needs also to have rigid purpose and content so that it is understandable and applicable to the teacher who compile it or other teachers. Lesson plan is compiled by teachers before coming into early new semester so that teachers have had a guide of teaching during a whole semester. Lesson plan is actually short-term planning to estimate or reflect actions that will be done in teaching and learning process. In SBC, lesson plan has two functions: planning and acting. Planning is the teachers` preparations in conducting teaching instructions in a good way, and acting is an effort to make the teaching and learning process effective base on the plan. Lesson plan will give detail plans and steps of what teachers are going to do in class. For the teachers, a good, systematic, and applicable lesson plan can help them doing the teaching instruction more easily. As a result, it will be easier for the teachers to help the students to achieve the competences through the teaching instructions conducted. In this lesson plan of SBC, teachers have more authorities to decide the indicators base on competence standard and basic competence given. From these Competence Standard and Basic Competence, teachers can determine indicators and teaching objectives to establish the lesson plan. To make a lesson plan, there are some steps to take. According to the Guide of Lesson Plan Development published by Board of Education National Standard and Department of Depdiknas (2007b), it is stated that there are seven steps to develop a lesson plan: (1) mentioning the identity (name of the school,

subject matter, class/semester, competence standard, basic competence, indicator, time allotment), (2) mentioning the learning objectives, (3) mentioning the instructional materials, (4) mentioning method of teaching/learning, (5) mentioning the leaning stages instruction, (6) mentioning material/learning resources, (7) mentioning assessment. These seven steps are efforts to compile and develop a lesson plan based on their components. From those steps, we will find some components of lesson plan, namely (1) competence standard, (2) basic competence, (3) indicators, (4) learning objectives, (5) instructional materials, (6) teaching and learning methods, (7) learning stages, (8) material and learning resources, (8) assessment. These components must be developed correctly and systematically according to the standards given by SBC so that it reflects a good planning. Teachers must comprehend each component well. They need to know which components and aspects that must refer to the standards given by the government and which components and aspects that demand teachers` creativities or schools. For the teachers, it is important to understand the concept above so that eventually they are able to develop good lesson plan components. As a consequence, there will be a good unity in the lesson plan. Lesson plan is something important, thats why teachers need to realize this. They need to know and comprehend this curriculum well, so that they know what to do in conducting teaching instruction, including how to make lesson plan according to the curriculum. Teachers must be able to elaborate, define, and map the competence standards and basic competences given and determined by the government, and to apply those concepts in class through the lesson plan. Thus, the study aims to describe the development of the lesson plan of English speaking class based on School-Based Curriculum (SBC) at Public Senior High Schools in Malang. To be more specific, this research has objectives to describe: (1) the development of competence standards, basic competences, and indicators of the lesson plans, (2) the development of learning objectives of the lesson plans, (3) the development of instructional materials of the lesson plans, (4) the development of teaching and learning methods of the lesson plans, (5) the development of learning stages of the lesson plans, (6) the development of material/learning resources of the lesson plans, (7) the development of assessment of the lesson plans. This study is expected to be useful for teachers, Indonesian National Education Department of Malang Region, and other researchers. For the English teachers at Public Senior High Schools in Malang, the results of this research can offer information and feedback for them concerning the way to develop a good English speaking lesson plan based on SBC, theoretically and practically. For other English teachers in public senior high schools setting, the findings of this study can be taken as consideration to develop lesson plan based on SBC. It is assumed that there are still a lot of English teachers who find difficulties to comprehend this new curriculum and develop the lesson plan based on this curriculum. For the Indonesian National Education Department of Malang Region, the finding of this research can be used as a model to develop lesson plan based on SBC. For other researchers, the findings of this research can be useful since it can be used as recent data and valuable source to conduct further research of the same aspect of study.

METHOD This study is intended to give description on English lesson plans developed by English teachers based on SBC at public senior high schools in Malang. More specifically, this study is to describe the development of teachers` speaking lesson plans in term of (1) competence standards, basic competences, and indicators, (2) learning objectives, (3) instructional material, (4) teaching and learning method, (5) learning stages, (6) material/learning resource, and (7) assessment of the lesson plan. The lesson plans obtained from the teachers at Public Senior High Schools in Malang are examined to know their qualities whether they are appropriate to the demand of SBC or not. The qualities of those lesson plans are determined by their components which construct the lesson plans themselves. It makes the study to focus on the quality of the lesson plans in general and each of lesson plans` components. All of the lesson plans collected from the teachers are classified based on those components. Then, analysis is done qualitatively by using check list. The check list contains some indicators used as guide on analyzing the components. There are 25 indicators used as aspects of assessment. Score 1 to 4 are given to indicate the value of the lesson plans components based on the indicators stated inside the check list. Score 1 indicates that the indicator is poor, score 2 indicates that the indicator is fair, score 3 is good, and score 4 indicates that the indicator is very good. Scoring inside the check list is given then. After scoring is given, there are total score obtained. Then, the grade is obtained by this formula: grade = the achieved score This grade represents the value of the lesson plans which are assessed in general. Based on the grade and given score, the lesson plans are analyzed and described descriptively. Finally, the results of the analysis are displayed qualitatively, and the conclusions are drawn based on the result of the analysis. Thus, this study is developed based on the descriptive qualitative design. This study is descriptive because it is trying to describe the characteristics of certain variable at certain population. The real condition of teachers` lesson plan of English speaking class at Public Senior High Schools in Malang is then compared with the demand of SBC as the current curriculum in this country. Then, some reasons that make this study are considered as qualitative are: (1) a natural setting is adopted as sources of data, (2) using the researcher as the key instrument, and (3) describing the facts of the subject (Bogdan and Biklen, 1992:4). This study was conducted at public senior high schools in Malang. Malang is chosen as the place the study because of some considerations. This city belongs to the second biggest city in East Java after Surabaya, and it belongs to city which records good reputation in education in East Java or even in Indonesia. In the level of higher education, there are three famous state universities here: Brawijaya University, Malang State University, and Malang Islamic State University. In the level of primary, high, and vocational school, there are about ten schools which try to be International Standard School. Moreover, Malang government has been announced that Malang as a city of education has been a program that must be done for several years.

The population of the study was taken from public senior high schools in Malang, and as the sample, it was chosen six public schools: SMAN 1 Malang, SMAN 2 Malang, SMAN 3 Malang, SMAN 4 Malang, SMAN 5 Malang and SMAN 8 Malang. The study was done at public schools under the consideration that public schools have greater responsibility to apply SBC as the government has decided. Compared to private schools, public schools must be able to provide good model of the application of SBC as they are directly connected to the government. Lesson plan belongs to one of the components of SBC that has to be applied in line with the curriculum. The subjects of this study were those six schools. Each school was represented by one English teacher from grade 1. It meant that there were six English teachers from whom the data was obtained. Each English teacher provided one lesson plan of English speaking class as the source of data. The lesson plans asked from the teachers were the lesson plans which the teachers considered to be the best lesson plans they had made. Finally, the analysis was constituted to those six collected lesson plans. FINDINGS The lesson plans of the teachers of the six public senior high schools are randomly represented by LP 1, LP 2, LP 3, LP 4, LP 5, and LP 6 in order to describe the findings more easily. From the collected six lesson plans, it is found that LP 1 has grade 74 (good), LP 2 has grade 86 (very good), LP 3 has grade 87 (very good), LP 4 has grade 91 (very good), LP 5 has grade 71 (good), and LP 6 has grade 86 (very good) (for the detail score of the data analysis, see appendix). It indicates that in general the English teachers in the public senior high schools in Malang do not have many difficulties to develop the lesson plan of English speaking class. From the finding, there are only two lesson plans whose grades are seventies, they are LP 1 and LP 5, which mean that the lesson plans are categorized good. LP 1 belongs to the lower grade because it the basic competences are not developed appropriately based on the content standard, it has material/learning resources which are not written operationally, and it develops the assessment not quite well. Then, LP 5 belongs to the lower grade among the other lesson plans because in this lesson plan the teacher does not develop learning objectives inside, and he does not develop the assessment correctly. The other four lesson plans are categorized very good. It is found also that in general most of the lesson plans have the assessment component not quite well. The teachers still find it difficult to develop techniques of assessment which are in accordance with the instrument, and also the rubrics. Most of them also do not develop the material/learning resources operationally. DISCUSSION From the finding, in general most of the teachers do not get a lot of problems to develop good lesson plans. There are only two lesson plans which get grades seventies, nevertheless, the rest get eighties and one lesson plan gets grade 91. It means that there are two lesson plans which are categorized good and four lesson plans which are categorized very good.

In order to have good or very good lesson plans, there are some criteria which must be fulfilled. These criteria refer to each components of the lesson plan which construct the lesson plan itself. There are seven components of a lesson plan, they are (1) competence standards, basic competences, and indicators, (2) learning objectives, (3) instructional material, (4) teaching and learning method, (5) learning stages, (6) material/learning resource, and (7) assessment of the lesson plan. A good or very good lesson plan has to have standard of competences and basic competences which are appropriate with the content standards in the curriculum. The learning indicators need to be developed in accordance with the basic competences, and they also need to be developed operationally. The time allotment of the lesson plan has to be in accordance with the learning indicators. The objectives of the study of the lesson plan have to be appropriate with the basic competences and learning indicators, and they also have to be developed clearly. About the instructional materials, they have to be in accordance with the basics competences and learning indicators. They have to be appropriate with the students context and provide adequate exercises. The teaching and learning methods used in the lesson plan have to reflect the basic competences. Then, the learning stages have to be appropriate with the method. They have to be also students-centered, give the students opportunities to interact with their friends or surrounding environments, and emphasize on the problem solving. About the material/learning resources of the lesson plan, they have to have good quality and current resources, and they are formulated operationally. The last, a good or very good lesson plan has to have assessment which is in line with the basic competence and learning indicators. The technique of assessment has to be in accordance with the instrument, and the instrument itself has to appropriate with the rubric. Then, the rubric and scoring guide of the assessment have to be developed correctly and clearly. From these criteria of a good or very good lesson plan, it is known that good lesson plan is determined by its components. Among one and other components in the lesson plan are interrelated. One component influences and reflects the other components. Regarding the finding of the lesson plans, there are four lesson plans which are categorized very good and two lesson plans which are good. These two lesson plans are worse that the other four lesson plans due to the fact that they do not develop the material/learning resources and assessment well. Besides, for LP 1, its basic competences are inappropriate with the content standard, and for LP 5, it does not develop learning objectives inside. The material/learning resources and assessments are the lesson plans components that almost all of the teachers make mistake of. About the material/learning resources, most of them only write the form of the material/learning resources, and for books as material/learning resources, commonly they are written only the title and the writer of the books. Material/learning resources which are not written operationally will enable the one who read or examine the lesson plan get difficulties to access the related resources. To write material/learning resources, the important related information dealing with the background of the resources has to be written. One of the ways to write the material/learning resources is by writing the writer, year of publication, the title of the book, city of publication, and the publisher. For the assessment,

almost all of the lesson plans find it hard to develop techniques of assessment which are in accordance with the instrument, and also the rubrics. The rubric needs to be constructed appropriately with the instrument, and the instrument itself has to be constructed appropriately with the techniques of assessment. The assessment are conducted based on the learning indicator, by using test and non test in written and oral, observation, attitude, project/exhibition, portfolio, and self assessment, which are depend on the techniques of assessment, instruments, and rubrics used. CONSLUSIONS According to the study about analysis on the lesson plan of English speaking class based on SBC at Senior High Schools in Malang, there are some conclusions which can be drawn. In general, the lesson plans of English speaking class developed by the English teachers can be considered well-developed. From those lesson plans, LP 1 has grade 74 (good), LP 2 has grade 86 (very good), LP 3 has grade 87 (very good), LP 4 has grade 91 (very good), LP 5 has grade 71 (good), and LP 6 has grade 86 (very good). It means that the teachers do not have difficulties in constructing good lesson plan for English speaking class. The lesson plans components on which most of the teachers make mistake are the material/learning resources and assessments. For the material/learning resources, most of them only write the form of the material/learning resources, and for books as material/learning resources, commonly it is written only the title and the writer of the books. For the assessment, almost all of the teachers find it hard to develop techniques of assessment which are in accordance with the instrument, and also the rubrics. Most of the teacher can develop the competence standards and basic competences in accordance with the content standard of SBC. Nevertheless, there is still a teacher who develops them inappropriately with the content standard. He/ she apparently misplaced the basic competences with its standard of competences. And about the indicators, all of the teachers have developed them according to their basic competences. They are also developed operationally. In developing the objectives of the study, most of the teachers have developed them in accordance with the basic competences and indicators. They have also formulated the objectives of the study clearly. There is one lesson plan which does not have objectives of the study. There is a big possibility that it happens because of the assumption that objective of the study is the same with the indicators. All of the collected lesson plans have the instructional materials developed appropriately with the basic competences, indicators, and context of students. There is only one lesson plan which does not have adequate exercises of the material. All of the teaching and learning methods of the lesson plans have already been developed in accordance with the basic competences and objectives of the study. The teaching and learning steps on these lesson plans are all developed by focusing on the students, giving chances to the students to interact with their friends and environment, and emphasizing on problem solving. All of the teaching and learning steps are also developed in accordance with the teaching and learning methods, other than one lesson plan. The teaching and learning steps on this lesson plan are not appropriate with the teaching and learning method. Most of the material/learning resources on this lesson plan are not written operationally. Most

of them are written only the form of the material/learning resources. For books as material/learning resources, they are commonly written only the title and the writer of the books without writing the year and place of publication, publisher, and the page of the books the teachers refer to. Most of the lesson plans have also poor quality of the material/learning resources. There is only one lesson plan whose material/learning resources have good quality. There are two lesson plans whose assessments are not developed quite in accordance with the basic competences and indicators. They are not in accordance with the basic competences and indicators because the verbs are not stated operationally and they are also too general. In addition, half of the lesson plans have techniques of assessment that are not developed in line with the forms instrument, the forms of instrument that are not developed in accordance with the rubrics, and the rubrics that are not developed correctly. Based on the conclusions, some suggestions are offered. The suggestions are primarily addressed to English teachers and other researchers who are interested in conducting similar study. For English teachers, they are supposed to be able to develop a good lesson plan, there are some knowledge and skills the teachers should have. Some of the practical knowledge is: first, the teachers should master SBC well so that they can develop and apply the standard of competences and basic competences on their lesson plan correctly. Second, the teachers should be able to develop learning indicators from the basic competences correctly and operationally. In doing this, they can make use of Blooms taxonomy or the concepts of micro skills as the ones proposed by Munby (1978). Third, the teachers should develop objectives of the study on their lesson plan because objectives of the study are not the same with learning indicators, and the learning objectives themselves do not represent the objectives of the study yet. Fourth, the teachers should provide adequate exercises of the material. The materials and their exercises can also be made as attachment. Fifth, the teachers should know various kind of teaching and learning methods/technique. Sixth, it is important for the teachers to provide qualified and up date material/learning resources, and write the material/learning resources operationally on the lesson plan. Seventh, the teachers should understand and develop the technique of assessment, form of instrument, and the rubrics well. For other researchers, it is suggested that future studies be conducted to know not only the lesson plan documents, but also the practice of the lesson plans in the classroom. This can provide information whether a good lesson plan can bring into good output students. A similar study of lesson plan on other skills, such as reading, writing, or listening could also be conducted. It can provide useful information whether good lesson plans in different skills such as listening, reading, and writing bear different characteristics compared to speaking skill. REFERENCES Anwar. 1996. The Model of Instructional Material Development for Junior High School. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: Faculty of Language and Art IKIP Malang.

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