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Time: - 4:30PM - 7:30PM Question 1

Total Marks- 120 (20 marks)

The state of Rajasthan is blessed with plenty of sunshine. Hence it is desirable that as much of solar energy as possible should be converted to electrical energy. Generally Silicon P-N junctions are used for this purpose. For these solar cells, answer the following questions: (a) For a solar cell it is found that if ISC1=1 mA then VOC1= 443.9 mV at T=300K. For the same solar cell at the same temperature, if solar intensity is changed so that ISC2=2.5 mA, then find the value of corresponding VOC2. (b) The reverse saturation current J0 of a PN junction has to be reduced to increase the opencircuit voltage of solar cell. Derive the relation: [ ]

where the symbols have their usual meaning. Suggest ways to reduce J0. (c)A silicon solar cell is placed under an illumination of 100mW/cm2. The area of the cell is 28 cm2. The fill factor is 0.8. The optical power to electrical power conversion efficiency is 10%. If the open circuit-voltage Voc=0.7 V, then find the value of Isc. Question 2 (a) The minority carrier profile of holes on N-side of a PN junction is: ( ) ( )[ ] . It is also known that total current density J is 1.2 times the hole diffusion current at the edge of the depletion region. If area of diode is 10 -4 cm2, find the operating (I, V) point of the diode. Take Dp= 10 cm2/s, Lp= 10m and q=1.6x10-19 C. (20 marks)

(b) The reverse saturation current of a PN junction is found to increase by 100 times when the temperature is raised from 300 K to 355 K. Estimate the band gap Eg of the semiconductor. Assume that diffusion constants, recombination lifetimes, band gap and density of states are independent of temperature. (k= 8.6 x 10-5 eV/K). (c) Draw the minority carrier profile in the base of a PNP transistor when the transistor is operating in reverse active mode.

Question 3

(20 marks)

(a) A PNP transistor is biased in the forward active mode in such a way that the magnitude of the electron current injected from the base into the emitter is 0.1mA. Determine the magnitude of the emitter, base and collector current if the emitter injection efficiency (IC/IE) is 0.99. Neglect recombination in the base and reverse saturation current of the collector-base junction. (b) Find out the voltage gain of given circuit in Fig 1, if RC=RL=100 ohms, hie=1K ohms,

and hfe=100. Take the value of RS=0 and Rb=.

Fig 1 (c) An energy band diagram of an MOS structure is shown in Fig 2. Mark the following variables on this diagram; m ,Voxo, m, i, , so, fp. Show that Voxo + so= ms. Express ms , the metal semiconductor work function difference, in terms of the parameters used on the diagram.

Fig 2 Question 4 (20 marks)

(a) Draw a typical C-V characteristic for an MOS capacitor made on p-silicon substrate. If the value of capacitance per unit area (in accumulation) is measured to be 6.28x10 -8 F/cm2, find the value of thickness of oxide layer. (Take r = 3.9 for SiO2 and o = 8.85x10-14 F/cm).

(b) Consider an MOS capacitor. The substrate is p-silicon at room temperature. In this case one has fp= 0.359V and QDmax = q NA xdT = - 4.8x10-4 c/m2. Calculate the value of maximum depletion width xdT (take ni = 1.5 1010 cm-3 and (c) Note that for n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET : ID = ( ) . If VGS=1.5 V, ID=150 A, VTn = 1V, = 5, ox= 3.9 885410-14 F/cm, n=1400 cm2/ (Vs). Calculate the value of oxide thickness tox. = 26 mV).

Question 5

(20 marks)

(a)A Difference amplifier is shown in Fig 3. Calculate the value of biasing current Io that flows in the collector of T3, if VCC = 12 V, -VEE = -12 V, R1=R2= 3 K ohms, RC= 10 K ohms, R3 = 3Kohms, and VBE= 0.7 volts.

Fig 3 (b) Draw the incremental equivalent circuit of this amplifier. Assume that the BJTs T1 and T2 are identical and are represented by hie and hfe only. (c)Show that the output voltage of a difference amplifier can be written as: [ ( ) ]

where the symbols have their usual meaning. How does this expression help in choosing the value of in a practical case?

Question 6 Answer the following questions:

(20 marks)

(a) Clearly mention the relation between potential energy E, electrical potential , electric field , and charge density in a semiconductor. How is charge density varied in a semiconductor? (b) The energy band diagram of a semiconductor is shown below:

Fig 4 (i) (ii) What will be direction of hole drift current Jp(x)? What will the direction of hole diffusion current JpD(x)?

(c) A PN junction diode is switched between forward biased and reversed biased condition by a suitable voltage pulse. In this case knowledge of storage delay time (ts) becomes important. Explain the mechanism of origin of ts. How is storage delay time experimentally determined? (d) What are the differences between a direct (energy) band gap and an indirect (energy) band gap semiconductor? Explain this by taking the case of absorption of photons in direct and indirect band gap semiconductor. (e) The transconductance of an N-channel enhancement mode MOSFET in non-saturation region is given as: gmsat = ( ) where VT is threshold voltage. where VT = .

Also note that thes transconductance of BJT is: gm

Choosing typical values calculate the values of gm for MOSFET as well as for BJT. Compare the two values.