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Role Of Pharmacist In Rational Dispensing

Submitted By: Gohar Malik

Submitted TO: Sadia Mushtaq

Subject: Clinical Pharmacy

Semester: 9th

Section: B

Roll Number: Dp 307-213

Dated: 5th December 2011

The University Of Lahore

Role Of Pharmacist In Rational Dispensing


Inroduction:
Dispensing is to ensure that an effective form of the correct drug is delivered to the right patient, in the prescribed dosage and quantity with clear instruction, and in a package that maintains the potency of the drug. Good dispensing practices are under the greatest threat when there is a crowd of patients demanding immediate attention. The need for speed must be balanced with the need for accuracy and care in the dispensing process. At this point the patients care, or even life, is in the hands of the dispenser. In dispensing, accuracy is more important than speed.
In situations where medicines are dispensed in small, screwed-up pieces of brown paper, the need for instructions to the patient takes on a whole new dimension.

it is a process of supplying goods to a patient on the basis of a written order, and that it can be done successfully by anyone who can read the prescription, count, and pour. As a result, dispensing is often delegated to any staff members who has nothing else to do, who then perform this function with out any training or supervision. This situation is irrational and dangerous.

Objectives
To describe the importance of good dispensing practices as part of rational drug use To illustrate the role of the dispenser in promoting quality patient care To understand mechanism of good dispensing practices

Dispensing process
1. Receive and validate the prescription 2. Understand and interpret the prescription 3. Prepare items for issue 4. Record the action taken 5. Issue medicine to the patient with clear instruction and advice.

Dispensing Indicators
Average dispensing communication time Percentage of prescribed drugs actually dispensed Percentage of prescribed drugs properly labeled Percentage of patients knowledgeable about the correct medication dosage/regimen Identification of risk factors that may contribute to non-compliance

Role of pharmacist:
maintenance of records on what drugs and products have been issued maintenance by the pharmacy department of a daily list of drugs in stock to inform prescribers which drugs are available thereby ensuring that only these drugs are prescribed a two prescription system, whereby two separate prescription are written: one for drugs available in the pharmacy, and one for those that are not but can be ordered this helps avoid rewriting of prescription.

How to take the medicine (chewed, swallowed whole taken with plenty of water ) Correctly interpret any abbreviations used by the prescriber Confirm that the doses prescribed are in the normal range for the patient (noting gender and age ) Correctly perform any calculation of dose and issue quantity Identify any common drug-drug interactions Prepare items for issue Record the action taken Issue medicine to the patient with clear instruction and advice

When to take the medicine (particularly in relation to food and other medicines) How to store and care for the medicine Collect a container of an item, and check its expiry date.

Label the package clearly with the patients name, date, name of the item, quantity dispensed, and written instructions for the patient

Educating the patient : by means of effective verbal and written communication with the patient Development of treatment plan with recognition of patients normal pattern of activities Open the container. Check the quality of its contents. Count the quantity needed in a clean, safe manner.

Designation of specific items of day at which medication is to be taken Monitoring therapy Patient motivation

Additional roles:
o Communication with physician o Treatment guidelines o Research on prescribing and utilization

Consumer education Procurement Distribution Prescribing Information

Errors can be avoided by involvement of pharmacist in dispensing:


Wrong drug dispensed Wrong strength dispensed Wrong quantity dispensed Wrong form dispensed (e.g. tablet instead of liquid) Labeling error o Wrong drug name, strength or quantity on label o Wrong patient name on label

Failure to supply drug

Conclusion:
Dispensing is a critical part of drug use Dispensing is often neglected in training and Essential Drugs Program

Interventions exist to improve dispensing Patients benefit from better dispensing

Summary:
Good dispensing practices enhance patient adherence, satisfaction, and treatment outcomes A dispenser has responsibility to ensure that drugs are given To the right patient; in the prescribed dosage and quantity; with clear instructions and In a package that maintains potency

Resources:
1.Management Sciences for Health. Ensuring Good Dispensing Practices (chapter 2, Pg 485). In: Managing Drug Supply, Second Edition, Kumarian Press (1997). 2.google search engine