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External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We owe profound acknowledgement to all those persons who made this project successful. We present the names of those people whom we were very much grateful. We would like to express most sincere feelings to all those people who were involved in our project work.

Any omissions are regretted.

We express our sincere thanks to the Principal Dr.G.DurgaPrasad ,Head of the DepartmentProfMrs.Hymavathi,For giving us the opportunity to do project at chip craft without whose blessings it would not have been possible for us to carry out this treatise work.

We express our deep sense of gratitude to Miss .Anusha(Asst Professor), Internal guide and her team for their help through provoking discussions invigoration suggestions extended to us with immense care, throught out work.

.

It gives us the immense please to acknowledgement sincere thanks to our project guide Mr.Srinivas(Asst Manager)Chip Craft, Somarouthu Technologiesfor their able guidance and valuable suggestions.

Last but not the least ,we would like to thank all of our parents for supporting us financially and college who made us to complete this project work very successfully.

CONTENTS

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PAGE

ABSTRACT

i

 

List of Figures

ii

List of Tables

ii

CHAPTER:1

1.1Introduction

1

1.2

History

2

CHAPTER:2

Literature Survey

  • 2.1 Hardware Components

  • 2.1.1 Voice chip APR9600

5

  • 2.1.2 Microcontroller AT89C52

8

  • 2.1.3 RFID Reader SR90C

13

 
  • 2.1.4 LM386

14

  • 2.1.5 RF Transmitter

15

  • 2.1.6 RF Reciever

18

  • 2.2 Software Requirements

2.2

.1 Keil Software-Introduction

20

  • 2.2.2 Directiv categories

21

  • 2.2.3 Language Extensions

25

CHAPTER:3

RFID Technology

  • 3.1 Introduction

26

  • 3.2 RFID Tag

29

  • 3.3 RFID Reader

32

  • 3.4 Difference Between Barcode & RFID

35

  • 3.5 Indoor navigation system through RFID

37

CHAPTER:4

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Block diagram of RFID Navigation system through voice

  • 4.1 General Block Diagram

40

  • 4.2 Project Block Diagram

41

  • 4.3 Description

42

  • 4.4 Circuit Diagram

43

  • 4.5 Flow Chart

44

APPLICATIONS

45

FUTURE SCOPE

46

CONCLUSION

47

SOURCE CODE

48

BIBLIOGRAPHY

52

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LIST OF FIGURES

 

PAGE

Fig 2.1.1(a) Pin out of APR9600

6

Fig 2.1.1(b) Block Diagram of APR9600

7

Fig 2.1.2 Pin Diagram of P89V52

 

10

Fig 2.1.4 LM 386 amp circuit 20dbgain

15

Fig 3.1(a) RFID System

26

Fig 3.1(b) RFID Working

 

28

Fig 3.2

RF Tags

30

Fig 3.3

RF Reader

33

Fig 3.4 Block diagram of general RFID system

34

Fig 3.4(a) Transfer Of Data

 

38

Fig 3.4(b) Routing by tactile system & RF tags

39

Fig 4.1 Block Diagram

40

Fig 4.2 Block Diagram

41

Fig 4.3 Circuit Diagram Fig 4.4 Flow Chart

43

44

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1.2 Port 3 description of P89v51

11

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ABSTRACT

―Radio-frequency identification (RFID)‖ is a technology, which includes wireless data capture and transaction processing. Proximity (short range i.e., Access control applications) and Vicinity (long range i.e., Track and trace applications) are two major application areas where RFID technology is used.

Simply, Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term that is used to describe a system that transmits the identity (in the form of a unique serial number) of an object or person wirelessly, using radio waves. It is grouped under the broad category of automatic identification technologies. RFID technology provides a more granular visibility for industrial assets and inventory thereby offering a strategic advantage to the business.

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term that is used to describe a system that transmits the identity (in the form of a unique serial number) of an object or person wirelessly, using radio waves. It's grouped under the broad category of automatic identification technologies. This system consists of antenna or coil, transceiver with decoder (RFID reader), transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information.

RF tag is applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. In addition, RFID is increasingly used with biometric technologies for security. In this project tags are deployed at different locations in an indoor environment, a RFID reader is interfaced to the Microcontroller (P89v51) to read the location of each tag. The location found is played with a voice chip interfaced to micro controller for assisting blind person.

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

`CHAPTER -1

Major of the modern world’s communication is carried out on by the radio waves. So Radio waves play a vital role in the sectors of communication.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a means of identifying a person or object using a radio frequency transmission. The technology can be used to identify, track, sort or detect a wide variety of objects. Communication takes place between a reader and a transponder (tag). Tags can either be active (powered by battery) or passive (powered by the reader field), and come in various forms. Some variants of tags and readers are shown RFID Tag and RFID Reader respectively. The communication frequencies used depends to a large extent on the application, and range from 125kHz to 2.45 GHz. Regulations are imposed by most countries (grouped into 3 Regions) to control emissions and prevent interference with other Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) equipment.

In recent years automatic identification procedures (Auto ID) have become very popular in many service industries, purchasing and distribution logistics, industry, manufacturing companies and material flow systems. Automatic identification procedures exist to provide information about people, animals, goods and products.

The omnipresent barcode labels that triggered a revolution in identification systems some considerable time ago, are being found to be inadequate in an increasing number of cases. Barcodes may be extremely cheap, but their stumbling block is their low storage capacity and the fact that they cannot be reprogrammed.

The technically optimal solution would be the storage of data in a silicon chip. The most common form of electronic data carrying device in use in everyday life is the chip card based upon a contact field (telephone chip card, bank cards). However, the mechanical contact used in the chip card is often impractical. A contactless transfer of data between the data carrying device and its reader is far more flexible.

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In the ideal case, the power required to operate the electronic data carrying device would also be transferred from the reader using contactless technology. Because of the procedures used for the transfer of power and data, contactless ID systems are called RFID systems (Radio Frequency Identification)

1.2. HISTORY

It’s generally said that the roots of radio frequency identification technology can be traced back to World War II. The Germans, Japanese, Americans and British were all using radarwhich had been discovered in 1935 by Scottish physicist Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Wattto warn of approaching planes while they were still miles away.

The Germans discovered that if pilots rolled their planes as they returned to base, it would change the radio signal reflected back. This crude method alerted the radar crew on the ground that these were German planes and not Allied aircraft ,this is, essentially, the first passive RFID system.

Leo’n Theremin gave an idea about RFID in 1946.

Harry Stockman first to invent RFID in 1948.

Mario Cardullo’s is considered as the first true ancestor of modern rfid from 1973.

CharlesWalton

abbreviated RFID as “Radio Frequency Identification” in 1983.

Actual RFID commercial use came in to existence only after 1990s.

In the early 1990s, IBM engineers developed and patented an ultra-high frequency (UHF) RFID system. UHF offered longer read range (up to 20 feet under good conditions) and faster data transfer. IBM did some early pilots with Wal-Mart, but never commercialized this technology. When it ran into financial trouble in the mid-1990s, IBM sold its patents to Intermec, a bar code systems provider.

Intermec RFID systems have been installed in numerous different applications, from warehouse tracking to farming. But the technology was expensive at the time due to the low volume of sales and the lack of open, international standards.

Over time, companies commercialized 125 kHz systems and then moved up the radio spectrum to high frequency 13.56 MHz, which was unregulated and unused in most parts of the world. High frequency offered greater range and faster data transfer rates. Companies, particularly those in Europe, began using it to track reusable containers and other assets. Today, 13.56

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MHzRFID systems

are

used

for

access

control,

payment

systems

Mobile

Speed

pass

and

contactless smart cards. They’re also used as an anti-theft device in cars. A reader in the steering

column reads the passive RFID tag in the plastic housing around the key. If it doesn’t get the ID

number

it

is

programmed

to

look

for,

the

car

won't

start.

In the early 1990s, IBM engineers developed and patented an ultra-high frequency UHF RFID system. UHF offered longer read range up to 20 feet under good conditions and faster data transfer. IBM did some early pilots with Wal-Mart, but never commercialized this technology. When it ran into financial trouble in the mid-1990s, IBM sold its patents to Intermec, a bar code systems provider. Intermec RFID systems have been installed in numerous different applications, from warehouse tracking to farming. But the technology was expensive at the time due to the low volume

of

sales

and

the

lack

of

open,

international

standards.

UHF RFID got a boost in 1999, when the Uniform Code Council, EANInternational, Procter & Gamble and Gillette put up funding to establish the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Two professors there, David Brock and Sanjay Sarma, had been doing some research into the possibility of putting low-cost RFID tags on all products made to track them through the supply chain. Their idea was to put only a serial number on the tag to keep the price down (a simple microchip that stored very little information would be less expensive to produce than a more complex chip with more memory). Data associated with the serial number on the tag would be stored in a database that

would

be

accessible

over

the

Internet.

Sarma and Brock essentially changed the way people thought about RFID in the supply chain. Previously, tags were a mobile database that carried information about the product or container they were on with them as they traveled. Sarma and Brock turned RFID into a networking technology by linking objects to the Internet through the tag. For businesses, this was an important change, because now a manufacturer could automatically let a business partner know when a shipment was leaving the dock at a manufacturing facility or warehouse, and a retailer could automatically let the manufacturer

know

when

the

goods

.

Between 1999 and 2003, the Auto-ID Center gained the support of more than 100 large end-user

companies, plus the U.S. Department of Defense and many key RFID vendors. It opened research labs in Australia, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Japan and China. It developed two air interface protocols Class 1 and Class 0, the Electronic Product Code (EPC) numbering scheme, and network architecture for looking up data associated on an RFID tag on the Internet. The technology was licensed to the Uniform Code Council in 2003, and the Uniform Code Council createdEPCglobal, as a joint venture with EAN International, to commercialize EPC technology. The Auto-ID Center closed

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its doors

in October

2003, and its research responsibilities were passed on to Auto-ID Labs.

Some of the biggest retailers in the worldAlbertsons, Metro, Target, Tesco, Wal-Mart and the U.S.

Department of Defense have said they plan to use EPC technology to track goods in their supply

chain.

The

pharmaceutical,

tire,

defense

and

other

industries

are

also

moving

to

adopt

the

technology. EPCglobal ratified

 

a

second-generation

 

standard.

RFID becomes reality

The 1960s were the prelude to the RFID explosion of the 1970s. R.F. Harrington studied the electromagnetic theory related to RFID in his papers including ―Theory of Loaded Scatterers‖ in 1964. Inventors were busy with RFID-related inventions such as Robert Richardson’s ―Remotely activated radio frequency powered devices,‖ and J. H. Vogelman’s ―Passive data transmission techniques utilizing radar echoes.‖Commercial activities were

beginning in the 1960s. Sensor matic and Check point were founded in the late 1960s. These

companies, with others such as Knogo developed electronic article surveillance (EAS) equipment to counter the theft of merchandise.

These types of systems are often use 1-b tags; only the presence or absence of a tag could be detected, but the tags could be made inexpensively and provided effective antitheft measures .These types of systems used either microwave or inductive technology.

EAS is arguably the first and most widespread commercial use of RFID. Tags containing multiple bits were generally experimental in nature and were built with discrete components. While single-bit EAS tags were small, multi bit tags were the size of a loaf of bread, constrained in size by the dictates of the circuitry.

\

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CHAPTER - 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 HARDWARE COMPONENTS

2.1.1 Voice Chip APR9600

General Description

The APR9600 device offers true single-chip voice recording non-volatile storage, and playback capability for 40 to 60 seconds. The device supports both random and sequential access of multiple messages. Sample rates are user-selectable, allowing designers to customize their design for unique quality and storage time needs. Integrated output amplifier, micro phone amplifier, and AGC circuits greatly simplify system design. The device is ideal for use in portable voice recorders, toys, and many other consumer and industrialapplications.

APLUS integrated achieves these high levels of storage capability by using its proprietary analog/multilevel storage technology implemented in an advanced Flash non- volatile memory process, where each memory cell can store 256 voltage levels. This technology enables the APR9600 device to reproduce voice signals in their natural form. It eliminates the need for encoding and compression, which often introduce distortion.

Functional Description

The APR9600 block diagram is included in order to give understanding of the APR9600 internal architecture. At the left hand side of the diagram are the analog inputs. A differential microphone amplifier, including integrated AGC, is included on-chip for applications requiring its use. The amplified microphone signal is fed into the device by connecting the Ana_Out pin to the Ana_In pin through an external DC blocking capacitor. Recording can be fed directly into the Ana_In pin through a DC blocking capacitor, however, the connection between Ana_In and Ana_Out is still required for playback. The next block encountered by the input signal is the internal anti-aliasing filter.

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The filter automatically adjusts its response according to the sampling frequency selected so Shannon’s Sampling Theorem is satisfied. After anti-aliasing filtering is accomplished the signal is ready to be clocked into the memory array. This storage is accomplished through a combination of the Sample and Hold circuit and the analog Write/Read circuit. These circuits are clocked by either the Internal Oscillator or an external clock source. When play back is desired the previously stored recording is retrieved from memory, low pass filtered, and amplified as shown on the right hand side of the diagram.

Pin out diagram of APR9600

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com The filter automatically adjusts its response according to the sampling frequency selected so

Fig 2.1.1(a) Pin out diagram of APR9600

The signal can be heard by connecting a speaker to the SP+ and SP- pins. Chip-wide management is accomplished through the device control block shown in the upper right hand corner. Message management is controlled through the message control block represented in the lower centre of the block diagram. More detail on actual device application can be found in the Sample Applications section. More detail on sampling control can be found in the Sample Rate and Voice Quality section. More detail on message management and device control can be found in the Message Management section

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Block Diagram of APR9600

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com Block Diagram of APR9600 Fig 2.1.1(b) Block Diagram of APR9600 Features • Single

Fig 2.1.1(b) Block Diagram of APR9600

Features

• Single-chip, high-quality voice recording & playback solution

  • - No external ICs required

  • - Minimum external components

• Non-volatile Flash memory technology

  • - No battery backup required

• User-Selectable messaging options

  • - Random access of multiple fixed-duration messages

  • - Sequential access of multiple variable-durationMessages

• User-friendly, easy-to-use operation

  • - Programming & development systems not required

  • - Level-activated recording & edge-activated playback switches

• Low power consumption

  • - Operating current: 25 mA typical

  • - Standby current: 1 uA typical

  • - Automatic power-down

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2.1.2 MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51

A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor, which combines the processor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) microprocessor(s) as its CPUs, while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. This chip is used for only specific applications.

ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLER:

A designer will use a Microcontroller to

  • 1. Gather input from various sensors

  • 2. Process this input into a set of actions

  • 3. Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful

  • 4. RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC.

  • 5. Multi machine control is possible simultaneously.

  • 6. ROM, EPROM, [EEPROM] or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage.

Examples:

8051,

89C51 (ATMAL),

PIC (Microchip),

Motorola (Motorola),

ARM Processor,

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Applications: Cell phones, Computers, Robots, Interfacing to two pc’s.

AT89C51 MICTROCONTROLLER:

Description:

The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

AT89c51 features:

  • 1. 8-bit Microcontroller with 4K Bytes Flash

  • 2. Compatible with MCS-51™ Products

  • 3. 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles

  • 4. Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz

  • 5. Three-level Program Memory Lock

  • 6. 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM

  • 7. 32 Programmable I/O Lines

  • 8. Two 16-bit Timer/Counters

  • 9. Six Interrupt Sources

    • 10. Programmable Serial Channel

    • 11. Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

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Pin diagram of AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com Pin diagram of AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER Fig 2.1.5(a) Pin Diagram of AT89C51 Pin Description:

Fig 2.1.5(a) Pin Diagram of AT89C51

Pin Description:

The AT89C51 micro controller is a 40-pin IC. The 40th pin of the controller is Vcc pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin. This 20 th pin is ground pin. A 12 MHZ crystal oscillator is connected to 18 th and 19 th pins of the AT 89c51 micro controller and two 22pf capacitors are connected to ground from 18 th and 19 th pins. The 9 th pin is Reset pin.

VCC: Supply voltage.

GND: Ground.

Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull- ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.

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Port 1:Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 2 In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.

Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below:

Port PinAlternate Functions

 

P3.0

RXD (serial input port)

 

P3.1

TXD (serial output port)

P3.2

INT0 (external interrupt 0)

P3.3

INT1 (external interrupt 1)

P3.4

T0 (timer 0 external input)

P3.5

T1 (timer 1 external input)

P3.6

WR (external data memory write strobe)

P3.7

RD (external data memory read strobe)

   

Table 2.1.5 - Port3 description of AT89C51 Microcontroller

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RST: Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.

ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the micro controller is in external execution mode.

PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the

AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.

EA/V PP : External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP.

XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

XTAL2: It is the output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

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2.1.3 RFID Reader SR90c

SR90C is a compact and cost-effective contactless reader and writer which supports ISO14443 A and Mifare cards, operates by proximity to the card and causes no friction, thus prolonging the life of the smart card. It has no moving parts, thereby considerably reducing maintenance and recurring cost.

SR90C

can

be

easily

integrated

into

any

PC

based

applications,existing

data

collection applications such as portable terminals,ticketing, vending machine or access control.

SR90C designed, developed and manufactured by M/s ParamountTechnologies for fast integration into different embedded systemsand PC applications.

Technical Specification

  • Read / Write Distance

: Reading range upto 50mm ( optionally upto 75mm

  • Communication Speed : Upto 115,200 kbps

  • : With ISO 14443 A and Mifare® Cards

Compatible

  • Operating Frequency

: 13.56 MHz

  • : Serial RS232 interface

Interface

  • Operating Temp. range

: 0ºC - 70ºC

  • : Red Operation LED

Power LED

  • : Green Activity Buzzer

Buzzer

  • : TTL output for Relay operation on 12 volts

Additional Ouput

  • : External Adaptor 9V DC / 1A

Power supply

  • Physical Dimensions

: L=120mm x 60mm x 35 mm

  • : 214 grams ( Excluding adaptor )

Unit Weight

  • Operating System Support

: Windows98, ME, XP, LInux, embedded devices

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2.1.4 LM 386:

The LM386 circuit is an audio amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200.The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage. The quiescent power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the LM386 ideal for battery operation.

LM386 circuit features

Battery operation

Minimum external parts

Wide supply voltage range: 4V12V or 5V18V

Low quiescent current drain: 4mA

Voltage gains from 20 to 200

Ground referenced input

Self-centering output quiescent voltage

Low distortion: 0.2% (AV = 20, VS = 6V, RL = 8Ω, PO = 125mW, f = 1kHz)

Available in 8 pin MSOP package

LM386 circuit applications

AM-FM radio amplifiers

Portable tape player amplifiers

Intercoms

TV sound systems

Line drivers

Ultrasonic drivers

Small serv

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Power converters

LM 386 series output power (Pout)

LM386N-1, LM386M-1 at VS = 6V, RL = 8ohms, THD = 10% is 250-325 mW

LM386N-3 at VS = 9V, RL = 8ohms, THD = 10% is 500-700 mW

LM386N-4 at VS = 16V, RL = 32ohms, THD = 10% is 700-1000 mW.

LM 386 amp circuit 20dB gain

LM386 Audio Amplifier with Gain = 20 and minimum part count.

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com  Power converters LM 386 series output power (Pout)  LM386N-1, LM386M-1 atelectronics and telecommunications a transmitter an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna , produces radio waves . The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current , which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves . In addition to their use in broadcasting , transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate " id="pdf-obj-19-35" src="pdf-obj-19-35.jpg">
  • 2.1.5 RF TRANSMITTER:

In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter

an electronic device which, with

the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate

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by radio, such as cell phones, Wifi and Bluetooth enabled devices,garage door openers, two- way radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons.

The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such asmicrowave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters even though they often have similar circuits.

The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to transmitting equipment used for broadcasting, as in radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage usually includes both the transmitter proper as described above, and the antenna, and often the building it is housed in.

An unrelated use of the term is in industrial process control, where a "transmitter" is a device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal, and sends it, usually via wires, to be received by some display or control device located a distance away.

WORKING OF RF TRANSMITTER:

A radio transmitter is an electronic circuit which transforms electric power from a battery

or electrical mains into a radio frequency alternating current, which reverses direction millions to

billions of times per second. The energy in such a rapidly-reversing current can radiate off a conductor (the antenna) as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). The transmitter also "piggybacks" information, such as an audio or video signal, onto the radio frequency current to be carried by the radio waves. When they strike the antenna of a radio receiver, the waves excite similar (but less powerful) radio frequency currents in it. The radio receiver extracts the information from the received waves. A practical radio transmitter usually consists of these parts:

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this is a crystal oscillator in which the frequency is precisely controlled by the vibrations of

to the impedance of the antenna (or the transmission line to the antenna), to transfer power efficiently to the antenna. If these impedances are not equal, it causes a condition called standing waves, in which the power is reflected back from the antenna toward the transmitter, wasting power and sometimes overheating the transmitter.

In higher frequency transmitters, in the UHF and microwave range, oscillators that operate stably at the output frequency cannot be built. In these transmitters the oscillator usually operates at a lower frequency, usually a submultiple of the output frequency, and this intermediate frequency (IF) is multiplied to get a signal at the output frequency by frequency multipliers.

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2.1.6 RF RECEIVER:

A radio receiver is an electronic circuit that receives its input from an antenna, uses electronic filters to separate a wanted radio signal from all other signals picked up by this

antenna, amplifies it to

a level suitable for further processing, and finally converts

through demodulation and decoding the signal into a form usable for the consumer, such as

sound, pictures, digital data, measurement values, navigational positions, etc.

Early broadcast radio receiver--wireless Truetone model from about 1940

In consumer electronics, the terms radio and radio receiver are often used specifically for receivers designed for the sound signals transmitted by radio broadcasting services.

TYPES OF RF RECEIVERS:

Various types of radio receivers may include:

fidelity audio

receivers

and AV

by

home stereo listeners and audio and home theatre system enthusiasts.

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  • Satellite television receivers, used to receive television programming from communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit.

  • Specialized-use receivers such as telemetry receivers that allow the remote measurement and reporting of information.

  • Measuring receivers also are calibrated laboratory-grade devices that are used to measure the signal strength of broadcasting stations, the electromagnetic interference radiation emitted by electrical products, as well as to calibrate RF attenuators and signal generators.

  • Scanners are specialized receivers that can automatically scan two or more discrete frequencies, stopping when they find a signal on one of them and then continuing to scan other frequencies when the initial transmission ceases. They are mainly used for monitoring VHF and UHF radio systems.

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2.2 SOFTWARE REQUIRMENTS 2.2.1 KEIL SOFTWARE

INTRODUCTION

An assembler is a software tool designed to simplify the task of writing computer programs. It translates symbolic code into executable object code. This object code may then be programmed into a microcontroller and executed. Assembly language programs translate directly into CPU instructions which instruct the processor what operations to perform. Therefore, to effectively write assembly programs, you should be familiar with both the microcomputer architecture and the assembly language.

Assembly language operation codes (mnemonics) are easily remembered. You can also symbolically express addresses and values referenced in the operand field of instructions. Since you assign these names, you can make them as meaningful as the mnemonics for the instructions.

For example, if your program must manipulate a date as data, you can assign it the symbolic name DATE.

If

your program contains a set

of instructions used

as

a

timing loop

(a

set

of

instructions executed repeatedly until a specific amount of time has passed), you can name the instruction group TIMER_LOOP.

An assembly program has three constituent parts:

  • 1. Machine instructions

  • 2. Assembler directives

  • 3. Assembler controls

A Machine instruction is a machine code that can be executed by the machine. It is the set of machine executable instructions.

Assembler directives are used to define the program structure and symbols, and generate non-executable code (data, messages. etc.). Assembler directives instruct the

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assembler how to process subsequent assembly language instructions. Directives also provide a way for you to define program constants and reserve space for variables.

Assembler controls set the assembly modes and direct the assembly flow. Assembler controls direct the operation of the assembler when generating a listing file or object file.

Typically, controls don’t impact the code that is generated by the assembler. Controls can be

specified on the command line or within an assembler within an assembler source file.

2.2.2 DIRECTIVE CATEGORIES:

The Ax51 assembler has several directives that permit you to define symbol values, reserve and initialize storage, and control the placement of your code. The directives should not be confused with instructions. They do not produce executable code, and with the exception of the DB, DW and DD directives, they have no direct effect on the contents of code memory. These directives change the state of the assembler, define user symbols, and add information to the object file.

The following table provides an overview of the assembler directives. Page refers to

the page number in this user’s guide where you can find detailed information about the

directive.

BIT 114 symbol BIT bit address Define a bit address in bit data space.

BSEG 111 BSEG [AT absolute address] Define an absolute segment within the bit address space.

CODE 114 symbol CODE code_addressAssign a symbol name to a specific address in the code space.

CSEG 111 CSEG [AT absolute address] Define an absolute segment within the code address space.

DATA 114 symbol DATA data_addressAssign a symbol name to a specific on-chip data address.

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DB 119 [label:] DB expression [, expr…] Generate a list of byte values.

DD 121 [label:] DD expression [, expr…] Generate a list of double word values.

DBIT 122 [label:] DBIT expression Reserve a space in bit units.

DS 123 [label:] DS expression Reserve space in byte units.

DSB 124 [label:] DSB expression Reserve space in byte units.

DSD 124 [label:] DSD expression Reserve space in double word units.

DSEG 111 DSEG [AT absolute address] Define an absolute segment within the indirect internal data space. Shaded directives and options are available only in AX51 and A251.

DSW 125 [label:] DSW expression Reserve space in word units; advances the location counter of the current segment.

DW 120 [label:] DW expression [, expr…] Generate a listof word values.

END 136 END Indicate end of program.

EQU 113 EQU expression Set symbol value permanently.

EVEN 134 EVEN Ensure word alignment for variables.

EXTRN 131

EXTERN EXTRN class [:type] (symbol[,…])

Defines symbols referenced in the current module that are defined in other modules.

IDATA 114 symbol IDATA idata_addressAssign a symbol name to a specific indirect internal address.

ISEG 111 ISEG [AT absolute address] Define an absolute segment within the internal data space.

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LABEL 129 name [:] LABEL [type] Assign a symbol name to an address location within a segment.

LIT 116 symbol LIT ‘literal string’ Assign a symbol name to a string.

NAME 132 NAME modulname Specify the name of the current module.

ORG 133 ORG expression Set the location counter of the current segment.

PROC 127

ENDPname PROC [type] name ENDP

Define a function start and end.

PUBLIC 130 PUBLIC symbol [, symbol…] Identify symbols which can be used outside the current module.

RSEG 110 RSEG seg Select a relocatable segment.

SEGMENT 106 seg SEGMENT class [reloctype][alloctype]

Define a relocatable segment.

SET 113 SET expression Set symbol value temporarily

sfr,116

sfr16

sbit

sfr symbol = address;

sfr16 symbol = address;

sbit symbol = address;

Define a special function register (SFR) symbol or a SFR bit symbol.

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USING 134 USING expression Set the predefined symbolic register address and reserve space for the specified register bank.

XDATA 114 symbol XDATA xdata_addressAssign a symbol name to a specific off-chip data address.

XSEG 111 XSEG [AT absoluteaddress] Define an absolute segment within the external data address space.

Shared directives and options are available only in AX51 and A251.

The directives are divided into the following categories:

_Segment Control

Generic Segments: SEGMENT, RSEG

Absolute Segments: CSEG, DSEG, BSEG, ISEG, XSEG

_Symbol Definition

Generic Symbols: EQU, SET

Address Symbols: BIT, CODE, DATA, IDATA, XDATA

SFR Symbols: sfr, sfr16, sbit

Text Replacement: LIT

_Memory Initialization: DB, DW, DD

Memory Reservation: DBIT, DS, DSB, DSW, DSD

_Procedure Declaration

PROC/ENDP, LABEL

_Program Linkage

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PUBLIC, EXTRN/EXTERN, NAME

_Address Control

ORG, EVEN, USING

_Others

END,

ERROR _

2.2.3 LANGUAGE EXTENSIONS

Several new variants of the 8051extend the code and/or xdata space of the classic 8051 with address extension registers. The memory classes used for programming the extended 8051 devices are available for classic 8051 devices when you are using memory banking with the LX51 linker/locater. In addition to the code banking known from the BL51 linker/locater, the LX51 linker/locater supports also data banking for data and code areas with standard 8051 devices.

Each line of an assembly program can contain only one control, directive, or instruction statement. Statements must be contained in exactly one line. Multi- line statements are not allowed. Statements in x51 assembly programs are not column sensitive. Controls, directives and instructions may start in any column.

Indentation used in the programs in this project is done for program clarity and I is neither required nor expected by the assembler. The only expectation is that arguments and instruction operands must be separated from controls, directives and instructions by at least one space.

All x51 assembly programs must include END directive. This directive signals to the assembler that this is the end of the assembly program. Any instructions, directives or

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controls found after the END directive are ignored. The shortest valid assembly program contains only an END directive

CHAPTER - 3 RFID Technology

3.1 Introduction

Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) is a technology, which includes wireless data capture and transaction processing. Proximity or short range i.e., Access control applications and Vicinity long range i.e., Track and trace applications, are two major application areas where RFID technology is used. Simply, Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term that is used to describe a system that transmits the identity in the form of a unique serial number of an object or person wirelessly, using radio waves.

It is grouped under the broad category of automatic identification technologies. RFID technology provides a more granular visibility for industrial assets and inventory thereby offering a strategic advantage to the business.

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www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com Fig 3.1(a) RFID System A basic RFID system consists of three components: antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data to it. The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. When a n RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation signal. " id="pdf-obj-31-6" src="pdf-obj-31-6.jpg">

Fig 3.1(a) RFID System

A basic RFID system consists of three components:

An antenna or coil

A transceiver (with decoder)

A transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information

 An antenna or coil  A transceiver (with decoder)  A transponder (RF tag) electronicallyantenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data to it. The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. When a n RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation signal. " id="pdf-obj-31-32" src="pdf-obj-31-32.jpg">

The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data to it. The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. When anRFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation signal.

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The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer for processing.

The purpose of an RFID system is to enable data to be transmitted by a portable device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the needs of a particular application.

The data transmitted by the tag may provide identification or location information, or specifics about the product tagged, such as price, color, date of purchase, etc. RFID

technology has been used by thousands of companies for a decade or

more. .

RFID quickly

gained attention because of its ability to track moving objects. As the technology is refined,

more pervasive - and invasive - uses for RFID tags are in the works.

A typical RFID tag consists of a microchip attached to a radio antenna mounted on a substrate. Thechip can store as much as 2 kilobytes of data. To retrieve the data stored on an RFID tag, you need a reader.

A typical reader is a device that has one or more antennas that emit radio waves and receive signals back from the tag. The reader then passes the information in digital form to a computer system.

WORKING PROCESS

In a typical RFID system, tags are attached to objects. Each tag has a certain amount of internal memory (EEPROM) in which it stores information about the object, such as unique ID (serial) number, or in some cases more details including manufacture date and product composition. When these tags pass through a field generated by a reader, they transmit this information back to the reader, thereby identifying the object.

The communication process between the reader and tag is managed and controlled by one of several protocols, such as the ISO 15693 and ISO 18000-3 for HF or the ISO 18000-6, and EPC for UHF. Basically what happens is that when the reader is switched on, it starts emitting a signal at the selected frequency band (typically 860 915 MHz for UHF or 13.56 MHz for HF).

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Any corresponding tag in the vicinity of the reader will detect the signal and use the energy from it to wake up and supply operating power to its internal circuits. Once the tag has decoded the signal as valid, it replies to the reader, and indicates its presence by modulating the reader field.

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com Any corresponding tag in the vicinity of the reader will detect the signal

Fig 3.1(b) RFID Working

RFID is in use all around us. If you have ever chipped your pet with an ID tag, used EZPass through a toll booth, or paid for gas using SpeedPass, you've used RFID.

In addition, RFID is increasingly used with biometric technologies for security. Unlike ubiquitous UPC bar-code technology, RFID technology does not require contact or line of sight for communication.

3.2 RFID Tag

An RFID tag is a microchip combined with an antenna in a compact package; the packaging is structured to allow the RFID tag to be attached to an object to be tracked. "RFID" stands for Radio Frequency Identification.

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The tag's antenna picks up signals from an RFID reader or scanner and then returns the signal, usually with some additional data, like a unique serial number or other customized information.

RFID tags can be very small - the size of a large rice grain. Others may be the size of a small paperback book.

Generally Tags are classified in to two types namely

1.Active Tags

2.Passive Tags

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com The tag's antenna picks up signals from an <a href=RFID reader or scanner and then returns the signal, usually with some additional data, like a unique serial number or other customized information. RFID tags can be very small - the size of a large rice grain. Others may be the size of a small paperback book. Generally Tags are classified in to two types namely 1.Active Tags 2.Passive Tags  Active Tag Fig 3.2 RF Tags " id="pdf-obj-34-18" src="pdf-obj-34-18.jpg">
www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com The tag's antenna picks up signals from an <a href=RFID reader or scanner and then returns the signal, usually with some additional data, like a unique serial number or other customized information. RFID tags can be very small - the size of a large rice grain. Others may be the size of a small paperback book. Generally Tags are classified in to two types namely 1.Active Tags 2.Passive Tags  Active Tag Fig 3.2 RF Tags " id="pdf-obj-34-20" src="pdf-obj-34-20.jpg">
  • Active Tag

Fig 3.2 RF Tags

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An RFID tag is an active tag when it is equipped with a battery that can be used as a partial or complete source of power for the tag's circuitry and antenna. Some active tags contain replaceable batteries for years of use; others are sealed units. It is also possible to connect the tag to an external power source.

The major advantages of an active RFID tag are:

  • 1. It can be read at distances of one hundred feet or more, greatly improving the utility of the device

  • 2. It may have other sensors that can use electricity for power.

The problems and disadvantages of an active RFID tag are:

  • 1. The tag cannot function without battery power, which limits the lifetime of the tag.

  • 2. The tag is typically more expensive, often costing $20 or more each

  • 3. The tag is physically larger, which may limit applications.

  • 4. The long-term maintenance costs for an active RFID tag can be greater than those of a passive tag if the batteries are replaced.

  • 5. Battery outages in an active tag can result in expensive misreads.

Active RFID tags may have all or some of the following features:

longest communication range of any tag the capability to perform independent monitoring and control the capability of initiating communications the capability of performing diagnostics the highest data bandwidth activerfid tags may even be equipped with autonomous networking; the tags autonomously determine the best communication path.

  • Passive Tags

A passive tag is an RFID tag that does not contain a battery; the power is supplied by the reader. When radio waves from the reader are encountered by a passive rfid tag, the coiled antenna within the tag forms a magnetic field. The tag draws power from it, energizing the circuits in the tag. The tag then sends the information encoded in the tag's memory.

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The major disadvantages of a passive rfid tag are:

  • 1. The tag can be read only at very short distances, typically a few feet at most. This greatly limits the device for certain applications.

  • 2. It may not be possible to include sensors that can use electricity for power.

  • 3. The tag remains readable for a very long time, even after the product to which the tag is attached has been sold and is no longer being tracked.

The advantages of a passive tag are:

  • 1. The tag functions without a battery; these tags have a useful life of twenty years or more.

  • 2. The tag is typically much less expensive to manufacture

  • 3. The tag is much smaller (some tags are the size of a grain of rice). These tags have almost unlimited applications in consumer goods and other areas.

3.3 RFID Reader

An RFID reader is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID tag. The reader has an antenna that emits radio waves; the tag responds by sending back its data.

A number of factors can affect the distance at which a tag can be read the read range. The frequency used for identification, the antenna gain, the orientation and polarization of the reader antenna and the transponder antenna, as well as the placement of the tag on the object

to be identified will all have an impact on the RFID system’s read range.

A control unit of a reader superimposes a control signal for antenna switching on a high frequency signal outputted into an antenna unit from a high frequency circuit. The antenna unit includes: separators for separating the superimposed signals into high frequency

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signals and control signals; a switch circuit for switching loop antennas; and a control circuit for controlling the switch circuit based on the control signal separated by the separator.

The term RFID Reader is often used as a general term to describe not only RFID Readers but RFID Interrogators and RFID Scanners. Typically, the solution will dictate the best frequency to use to solve a particular RFID application challenge. There are two general groups of RFID readers: passive and active.

A passive RFID reader provides the energy to the RFID tag which does not have its own onboard power source and the tag then uses backscatter technology to return information to the reader. An active RFID reader receives energy transmitted from an active RFID tag which has its own built in power source. It is recommended to hire an experienced RFID consultant or company to provide the solution design to ensure high read accuracy of the RFID system. Passive UHF Readers Ultra High Frequency are used for RFID applications requiring longer read ranges less than30 feet and the need for low cost RFID tags. The supply chain related mandates from retailers such as Wal-Mart, Sams Club and Metro require that UHF Passive RFID readers be used. These readers must comply with the international recognized standard set by EPC global (UHF Gen 2). UHF frequencies typically offer better range (20-30 ft) and can transfer data faster than LF and HF tags, but they use more power and are less likely to pass through materials. Passive HF Readers (High Frequency) are used for applications that require read distances of less than three feet. Historically, HF tags work better on objects made of metal (RFID Metal Tag) and can work around goods with high water content. Advances in UHF reader and tag technology is now allowing for reading around metal and water. Passive LF Readers (Low Frequency) are used for applications that require read distances of less than one foot. They are better able to penetrate non-metallic substances and are ideal for scanning objects with high-water content, such as fruit. Active RFID Readers are used to track items at longer distances (100 feet+). Reader distance is strongly correlated to the power of the RFID active tag. Tag cost is typically a major consideration when evaluating the use of an active RFID system. Average RFID active tag cost can often exceed /tag.

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There are four kinds of readers are available namely;

1.Gate Reader

2. Compact Reader

3.Vechile-mounted Reader

4.Mobile Reader.

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com There are four kinds of readers are available namely; 1.Gate Reader 2. Compact
www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com There are four kinds of readers are available namely; 1.Gate Reader 2. Compact
www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com There are four kinds of readers are available namely; 1.Gate Reader 2. Compact

Fig 3.3 RF Reader’s

Block Diagram of general RFID System

RF Tag
RF Tag
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A N T E N A
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LCD
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www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com There are four kinds of readers are available namely; 1.Gate Reader 2. Compact

APPLICATION

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3.4 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BARCODE AND RFID:

Before looking at the differences between barcode and RFDI, an example of each technology has been included below to demonstrate how each is used. Although the way they function is very different, barcode and RFDI technology are both useful for inventory management and other applications. A quick note about terminology RFDI stands for Radio Frequency Data Identification or Radio Frequency Data Identifier. It is more commonly referred to as RFID which stands for Radio Frequency Identification, or less commonly, Radio Frequency Identification Device.

A barcode is a series of lines and numbers used to record information about an item. For example, a product bar code found in a supermarket on a can of chicken noodle soup might contain the manufacturer lot number for the can, which also tells the user when this can of soup was produced.

It might also dictate the item code that tells the user which item has been selected. Barcodes can also include the price of the item, as would be the case for the chicken noodle soup, allowing the cash register to scan the barcode and record the price of the item. This also serves as an inventory tracking mechanism for the soup, when the item is scanned by the cashier, these units can be removed from inventory

A Radio frequency data identifier or RFDI is a microchip embedded in a product's packaging or label. This microchip, like a barcode, stores data about the product or item to which it is attached. When the RFDI is scanned, the data on the RFDI chip can be used to move an item into and out of a company’s inventory system, or simply allow the RFDI and its attached item to be tracked throughout the system.

The barcode and RFDI technology can be used together for the same item. If the RFDI cannot be used but the barcode still appears, the information about a product can be obtained by scanning it.

The primary difference between a barcode and RFDI is that an RFDI is a microchip that is attached to or embedded inside a product's packaging, making it much more secure and less

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likely to be illegible or be removed. A barcode is usually printed on a product's label and can be smudged or removed before it can be used.

Bar codes and RFID technologies are NOT mutually exclusive, nor will one replace the other. They are both enabling technologies with different physical attributes. Bar codes utilize one- way, serialized, and periodic data. RFID utilizes two-way, parallel, and real-time data. Leading-thinking companies are using their current bar code systems to benchmark RFID technology in order to gauge impact on performance. This baseline is a crucial measure in determining the effectiveness of a new RFID system.

Separating the data aspect of RFID systems from the physical architecture is a very good way to start to learn the physical properties of RFID. The determination of when to use RFID technologies instead of bar codes should be driven by whether RFID can improve an existing business process. Basically, RFID should be deployed just like any other technologywhen the benefits justify the cost and effort involved in implementing it.

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3.5 INDOOR NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Description

The project ―RFID Navigation with voice‖ is using passive RFID-tags to indentify indoor routes, barriers and means of public transport for visually impaired and blind people. The basis for this project is the tactile guidance system. At all strategic spots inside the building (entrance, platforms, intersections) a passive RFID-tag will be placed into the tactile guidance system Those RFID-tags send their unique code trough an RFID-reader interfaced to micro controller.

Imagine a world without barriers, where all people and particularly people with special needs can enjoy daily life without running into obstacles or problems which undermine their self-determination. This is a dream which could come true within the next years.

In Austria the Federal Law on Equality of People with Disabilities which has been in force since the year2006, is a positive factor towards improving the situation for the visually impaired and blind people .However, barriers related to roads, transportation and transport facilities built before January 2006 have time to neutralize these barriers until the 31 of December 2015. So barrier free public transport for people with special needs is still a dream and not yet a reality.

Currently visually impaired and blind people travel with the help of a white cane, a dog or are escorted by a friend or mobility trainer. With this new law, all passengers and particularly people with special needs will have access to public transport and up-to-date traffic information in a much more simplified way than nowadays. A new individual (indoor) navigation system can raise accessibility to public transport for this group of people.

Additionally, the communication between the navigational device and the respective means of public transportation (bus, tram, train and subway) as well as the static/dynamic

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information time tables should be aimed at increasing the feeling of safe travel. This way the visually impaired and blind people can be self-determined.

At the moment different projects in Public transport and Navigation are using the RFID-technology for routing blind people.

Example Projects are:

1) Sesamonet, Italy [2] which uses passive RFID-tags and an RFID-reader built in the white cane for a route along the promenade at Lake Maggiore. 2) Route Online, the Netherlands [3] which uses active RFID-tags and a hand held reader to find a route at different stations. 3) BIGS, Korea [4] which uses a portable terminal unit and a smart floor (each tile of the floor has a passive RFID-tag). 4) Bus-ID, Germany,[5] uses the RFID-tag for sending public transport information towards a reader and a database. 5) RFID Information Grid[6] which uses the RFID-tag for indoor routing in the Campus. The RFID-tags are programmed with spatial coordinates and information to describe the surroundings. No centralized database or wireless infrastructure for communications is used. 6) Self contained Sensor System [7] which places RFID readers inside the building. The user will carry his/her own.

RFID-tag with him/her to capture his/her position. Taking these examples into consideration it can be concluded that different institutes are researching the use of RFID- tags to make daily life for visuallyimpaired and blind people more enjoyable.

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www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com Fig 3.4(a) Transfer of Data Fig 3.4(b) Routing by tactile guidance system and

Fig 3.4(a) Transfer of Data

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com Fig 3.4(a) Transfer of Data Fig 3.4(b) Routing by tactile guidance system and

Fig 3.4(b) Routing by tactile guidance system and RFID-tags

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CHAPTER 4

Block Diagram of RFID Navigation System Through Voice

4.1 Block Diagram

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APR9600

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SR90c

TAG TAG TAG
TAG
TAG
TAG

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4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

TAG
TAG
READER
READER
RF TX
RF TX
www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com 4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM TAG READER RF TX SPEAKER (APR9600) MICRO RF Rx CONTROLL
www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com 4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM TAG READER RF TX SPEAKER (APR9600) MICRO RF Rx CONTROLL
SPEAKER (APR9600) MICRO RF Rx CONTROLL ER APPLICATION
SPEAKER
(APR9600)
MICRO
RF Rx
CONTROLL
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APPLICATION

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4.2 Description of Block Diagram

The blind person or the user carry RFID tags with him. Every tag has its own unique code which can be linked to RFID data-base. After installing the tags in the database, their location,the position and the particulars are defined.

At all strategic spots inside the house (entrance, platforms, intersections of the tactile guidance system, etc. the RFID-tags will be placed into the tactile guidance system.

A speaker connected to the RFID database system. The voice as a guidance to the user is pre-recorded in the APR9600 which is a recorder cum speaker.

When the blind man enters his house, if he want to pass on into the room he desire and carrying the reader with him, he tries to make contact of the tag to the RFID system attached to the all doors available in his house, The RFID contains a reader, speaker that is voice chip and these two are interfaced with the main RFID SYSTEM server board.In the voice chip the data of the particular room is stored in it.

When the person tries to tap the RF Reader to the RFID Tags mounted on the door here the reader reads the code in the tag and sends it to the voice chip where it cross-checks the code and if the code get matched a voice from the speaker comes out guiding the blind person that he is standing in front of the bedroom door or toilet or kitchen depending up on his destination spot.

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4.3

CircuitDiagram

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4.4 Flow Chart

START MATC DISMATCH TAG H TAG READE APPLICATION
START
MATC
DISMATCH
TAG
H
TAG
READE
APPLICATION

STOP

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APPLICATIONS

Major application areas of RFID:

Proximity (short range)

- Access control applications

Vicinity (long range)

- Track and trace applications

Track & Trace Applications:

  • 1. Asset Tracking

  • 2. Document tracking

  • 3. Promotion Tracking

  • 4. People Tracking

Access Control applications:

  • 1. Passports

  • 2. Transportation payments

  • 3. Human implants

  • 4. Libraries

  • 5. Telemetry

  • 6. Healthcare

  • 7. Manufacturing & Aerospace

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FUTURE SCOPE

By this project, currentlyvisually impaired and blind people travel with the help of a white cane, a dog or are escorted by a friend or mobility trainer. With this new law, all passengers and particularly people with special needs will have access to public transport and up-to-date traffic information in a much more simplified way than nowadays.

A new individual (indoor) voice navigation system can raise accessibility to public transport for this group of people. Additionally, the communication between the navigational device and the respective means of public transportation (bus, tram, train and subway) as well as the static/dynamic information time tables should be aimed at increasing the feeling of safe travel. This way the visually impaired and blind people can be self-determined.

By using SUPER RFID TAGS the range of the RFID communication increases so that the user can identify his destination spots situated at a range of 8mtrs-14mtrs.

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CONCLUSION

The first phase for Indoor navigation for visually impaired and blind people has been made. As soon as the indoor routing communications of long range tags is achieved it can be easily implemented to different means of transportation works, new opportunities may arise to make travelling for people with special needs more comfortable.

These new opportunities are for example locating the entrance door with the help of an acoustic sound, telling the driver when he/she wants to exit, or if he/she needs help with getting on or off the transportation.

So, ―RFID NAVIGATION‖ will be input for new projects.

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SOURCE CODE

#include <reg52.h> #include <F:\MyFiles\lcd_4bit_module.h> #include <F:\MyFiles\Keyboard_Module.h> #include <F:\MyFiles\My_Functions.h> sbit buzz=P3^3;

sbit

TE =P3^2;

sbit

TL =P3^6;

sbit

TC =P3^7;

voidTransmit_RF(unsigned char ); //unsigned char Password[4]={"1234"}; void main(void) {

buzz=0;

Lcd_Initial();

Clear_LCD;

buzz=0;

Disp_Message("RF BASED NAVIGATION",0x80); Disp_Message(" CRASH PREVENT SYS ",0xc0);

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Clear_LCD;

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Disp_Message("

WELCOME

",0x80);

Disp_Message(" CHIPCraft/SRTS",0xC0);

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Clear_LCD;

while(1)

 

{

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Transmit_RF('*');

Disp_Message("TRANSMISSION CODE",0x80);

Disp_Message("

AERO#1

",0xC0);

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Clear_LCD;

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Transmit_RF('A');

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Transmit_RF('#');

Disp_Message("TRANSMITTED CODE",0x80); Wait_a_Sec; Wait_a_Sec; Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

 

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

 

Wait_a_Sec;

Wait_a_Sec;

Clear_LCD;

}

}

voidTransmit_RF(unsigned char S) {

unsigned char i,j;

TL=0;

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TE=1;

P2=S;

buzz=1;

for(i=0;i<250;i++)

for(j=0;j<250;j++);

}

buzz=0;

TE=0;

TL=1;

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

TEXTBOOKS:

 

S.No

Title of the Book

 

Author

 

Publication

Year

1

8051

Microcontroller

and

Mazidi and Mazidi

 

Prentice Hall

August

Embedded Systems

   

2009

2

RFID:a technical overview

R Weinstein

 

IEEE

IT

May 2005

and its application to the enterprise Vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 27-33

 

Professional

3

A

survey

on

sensor

I. Akyildiz, W. Su,

IEEE

August

networks,‖ vol.

40,

no.

8,

Y. Sankarasubramaniam,

Communicatio

2002

pp. 102114

 

and E. Cayirci

n Magazine

4

A Group

Tour

Guide

P.

Y. Chen,

W.

T. Chen,

Proc.

July 2007

System with

RFIDs

and

C. H. Wu, Y.-C. Tseng

International

Wireless Sensor networks

and C.-F. Huang

 

Conference on

pp. 561-562

 

Information

Processing

in

Sensor

Networks

(IPSN)

WEB PREFERENCES:

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