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YOL.

TIL
A MANUAL
OF
MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
BY
0,
CODRINGTON, M.D,
F.S.A.
LONDON :
PUBLISHED EY THE EOYAL ASIATIC
SOCIETY,
22,
ALBEMAELE STREET,
W.
1904.
I'UtXTKU 1JY STKl'tlKN Al'STIN" AND SONS.
PREFACE.
fTIHIS book is intended for the
help
of those
who,
not
being
Arabic or Persian
scholars,
would like to know
something
about the Oriental coins which
may
come in
their
way,
as well as of others who with a
knowledge
of
these
languages
find difficulties in the
lettering, arrange-
ments,
and
reading
of the
legends,
which are often so
different in these
respects
from the
plain writing
of a MS.
or the
print
of a
book,
and in the
meanings
of marks and
symbols
which are to be found on coins.
It
originated
in
notes,
made
during
several
years,
in
a
copy
of that valuable but now scarce
book,
"
Elements
de la
Numismatique
Musulinane,"
by
R
Soret, Brussels,
1864,
a
reprint
from Revue de la
Numismafique Beige,
ser.
iv,
tome ii. Considerable
correspondence
from India
and at
home,
personal
references made to
me,
and the
remembrance of
my
own troubles when
beginning
to work
at Oriental coins some
years ago
in India without much
aid
frgin.books,
have
guided
me as to what
might
be most
usefully
included in such a Manual as this.
The book
will,
I'
hope,'
b'e found
useful,
as one of
ready
reference,
to Oriental numismatists
generally,
in the same
way
as Soret's has been to those who had a
copy
of it.
My
thanks are due to Mr.
Guy
Le
Strange
and Mr. H. R
Ainedroz for information
regarding
the location of some-
mint
towns,
and to the latter also for
help
in Arabic
legends.
0. C.
INDEX.
EEEATA.
Page 12,
line
21, for
on Coins read of Coins.
17,
line
6,
for
Hafsidi read Hafsid.
31,
line
9, for
UUji read
U^UjI
.
,, 31,
last
line, for
15 Jb read Ujb .
,, 39,
line
1, for
ci-
,, 41,
line
17,
for
'
,, 48,
line
25, for
Ghaznawi read Grhaznawid.
51,
line
19,
for Julayhid
read
Sulayhid.
54,
line
2, for
Yaku read Yakub.
,, 57,
lines 5 and
15, for
,
82,
line
24,
for
^
J^l
.
91,
line
18, for
Jjs*\
read
jl
127,
line
22, for
44 35' read 42 27'.
127,
line
23, for
67 20' read 68 10'.
129,
line
10, far
^UsrUjjl
read
^Irsru^jl
.
129,
last line but
4, for Rodgers
read
Rogers.
133,
after line 27 insert :
Allahabad. In Jtf.'W.
Provinces,
India.
^
2526
/
K;
8155
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
134,
line
6, for
Siras read Sivas.
,, 134,
last line but
1, for Rodgers
read
Rogers.
,, 149,
after line 22 insert :
Junaghar.
In Kathia
war,
India. 2131
/
K;
70 36' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Local
Rajah.
157,
line
27, for
Bieyal read Diwal.
,, 160,
line
13,
for
Morocco read Mecca.
ALPHABET.
PLATE S.
PLATE II.
SEPARATED.
FINAL
MEDIAL
^ r,
<
, O .
<t v
y
v
y
/ f^1
Jf
ff Y
y
CIPHERS.
/ .f|y
U M.^
V
M
VVv/x/v
< P
-Jg O t
MUSALMAN
THE ALPHABET,
Osr Plates
1 and II are shown the letters of the Arabic
alphabet
In the various forms in which
they appear
on coins. In each
column,
on the left is the letter as written in Kufic on the coins
'of the
Umayyad Khalifs,
in
isolate, initial, medial,
or final
form;
and
following
it to the
right
are other
shapes
in which it
appears,
more or less in order of time and
progress
of
change.
\ was at first a
straight, even, perpendicular
line of a
height
about double that of the
ordinary
letters. It has not much
changed, except
in
showing
a
slight
curve at the bottom and
a
broadening
at the
top.
It
may
be
joined
to its
preceding
letter,
but not to the one
following,
and is therefore in
only
isolate and final form. In ornamental
writing
the
top
of the
letter is often curved over and
lengthened
into a curl or
loop,
and when the
legend
is
arranged
in.
arabesque
or
fancy pattern
it is often
misplaced
from its
proper position
in the
word,
or
slanting,
or even
omitted,
an \ in another
place doing duty
for it also.
L.J O
%
<i? . The diacritical dots are often omitted
(always
so in
the
Kufic) ;
there is then
nothing
to
distinguish
these letters
from one
another,
or from
^
aad
^j
in the initial aad medial
. state. In Persian there is also the letter LJ
,
and in Hindu-
stani the O
, or,
as it is more often written
on
coins,
^
;
it is
so found on some of the
coinage
of Indian native states
bearing
the name of
ftueen
Yietoria,
<?,
~
>
; 'and im Persian . Itese letters are also to be known
(L C C:
(.',''
one another
by
their
dots; they
are
subject,
as will be
1
2 MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
seen,
to
many
variations of
form,
and
may
sometimes be mis-
taken for c or c .
J in KiiHc are
very
like
^j* ^o
]s ]o and
uJ,
but as a rule the
upright
limb is shorter than in the uJ
and the
body
is
open
on the left side instead of closed as in the
^
. On coins of
later date the j is sometimes so thin as to be almost a
j
,
and
at other times
approaches
in fatness to
^
.
, i
final are sometimes
very
like
^
final. In Hindustani there
is a letter ? or . .
> j
j*
i do not
present
much
difficulty
when in this
form,
but
when the
upright
limbs or
'
teeth
'
are
replaced by
the
sweeping
curve of Persian talilc
writing,
in the middle of
a word it
may
be read as L-J L-J ^^
^
or
^
,
tjs tje
k - are troublesome in
Kufie,
as mentioned above under J .
They
are
subject
to a
good
deal of variation in form.
c v as initial or final niav be mistaken for . + .
Cc
"
e.
c.
uJ
j
must not be mistaken for * medial or
^
,
nor as initial for
c
c
. The
loop
in medial is above the line
(A)
instead of
below,
as in * .
t^ has
many varieties,
and in Kufic is
very
like J and
^
,
as
mentioned above. In Persian and Turkish there is also the
letter ^f or u/.
J
can almost
always
be known from \
by
the curve to the left at
the
bottom,
or in Kufic a short
rectangular
turn.
* has
many
forms. Sometimes it
may
be confused with uJ
j
or
c
medial,
or
L^J
and
-
initial,
or in one form for & or
^
.
U
final has
many
variations
;
may easily
be mistaken for final
j
,
x has
many
forms,
but is
usually easily
made out.
^
is sometimes like < $
jj
,
at other times like ^
,
and more
rarely
like 4 .
ij
final or isolate is
usually
distinct,
but medial or initial without
dots is not so.
THE ALPHABET. 3
l
f
is
represented
in such a variety of forms that an assortment of
them is
given
on the Plate.
c
ny
and wJ>
p
are used in
Malay-
Arabic
writing only.
For
reading
Kufie
coins,
which have no diacritical
dots,
the
following
hints
may
be useful. The mint name and the date are
tlie
only parts
as a rule which
require
attention. The mint names
all
begin
with the
preposition
<_?
,
in
'
or at.' If the second
and third letters are both
equally
about double as tall as the
initial
< >
,
they
are
probably J
\ 'the
J
there are but two or
three mint towns
beginning
with
J!
. In that case the next letter
will be the initial of the
name, which, having
been made
out,
simplifies
matters
much,
as one can then
get
the
help
of the List
of Hint Towns.' If the second and third letters be not
J\ ,
then
the second is of course the initial of the mint name. Two short
upright
strokes will
probably
be u~? C-2 or
^
with a
following
^ ;
often the stroke for
^
is a little taller than for the other three
letters. Three short
upright
strokes in succession are most
likely
\j*
,
; four,
u* jji
and (~~J
cj
^
or
^
before or after it the
three strokes of the
^
are
usually just
a little shorter than the
one before or after it. Doubts as to Kufic J
^
t
uJ
may
often
be cleared
away by
looking
at those letters where
they
occur in
known words in the
legends
on the same
coin,
such as L
^o
,
1 JJ&
,
s^aJ
,
uJo
.-)
,
and in the same
way comparison may
be made if
needed with the * and * . A final
^
can
very
often be found in
one of the words of the date to clear
up
a doubt between it and
j
.
In
reading
the dates care is needed not to mistake
^-.xil
(one long,
three short
strokes),
Li-Jj
(one
short,
one
long,
one
short),
and
L^-V-J
(four
short).
.*} and
.j*****
should have the fourth stroke
rather
taller,
^*J
and
jj.***uJ
the first stroke taller than the
others
;
but there is sometimes so little difference that it is hard
to tell which is meant.
^^AMAJ>.
and
<J^AJ
are sometimes much
alike,
but if the strokes after the A can be
counted,
that will decide
as to which numeral it
is,
for in the former there are five and. in
the latter but three.
AID
The dates of
striking
are almost
always given
on Husalmai.
coins,
in words or in
ciphers.
Until the seventh
century
of the
Hijra
we find the former
only,
but after that
ciphers
came
gradually
into
use,
so that
by
the
beginning
of the ninth
century
they
were
generally adopted.
The earliest dates in
cipher
are on
TJrtukid
coinSj e.g.
II
r
on a coin struck at Amid. Sometimes we
find the date
given
both in words and
ciphers,
or
partly
in words
and
partly
in
ciphers ; e.g.
on a coin of the Golden
Horde, c/^y^
for A.H. 770. The number is
usually expressed
in the feminine
form,
but sometimes in the masculine. The
conjunction
^
is
almost
always used, e.g.
&x/
^^-^
*
*-*wJ
?
but
occasionally
omitted. Reference has
already
been made to difficulties in
reading
some of the numbers in the Kufic
writing.
The same
will be found often on coins of a later
time,
especially
with
regard
to seven and
nine,
as sometimes there is no difference between the
height
of the
L^
or O and the teeth of the
(jw
,
but then the
spacing usually indicates,
thus
^^^
,
^x*^
. The
following
is a list of the numbers.
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ARABIC.
Jo- 1 masc.
^tX^-l fern.
PEESIAX.
i masc.
fern.
fern.
ern.
fern.
masc.
Lj\*3masc.
iuJ masc.
t-
two hundred
three hundred
four hundred
five hundred
'
sis hundred
seven hundred
eight
hundred
|
nine hundred
one thousand
\
one-quarter
.
one-half . .
three-quarters
one-third . .
one-and-a-half
two-and-a-half
3IUSAIOIAN NUMISMATICS.
AEABIC.
*
n
ft
or
,.M*X)W
PEBSIA.N,
) or Ju
Jue
jjj
,
jb
(Hindustani).
5*jLi3
,
>J
(Pers.)
;
U
^b
(Hindustani).
(Hindustani).
. ,
a?Jj
J
(Hindustani).
<J\j\
(Hindustani).
On some coins of
Malay
States and Netherlands and
English
Settlements in the Straits numerals are
given
in
Malay.
i
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
and
(J
^
tf*
\ju
Tu
-A-
NUMBERS
AND CIPHERS. 7
The Arabic
ciphers,
in
varying
forms in which
they appear
on
Muhanimadan
coins,
are
given
on Plate II.
They
are often ill-
formed,
and
require
a
practised eye
to read them.
The I
may
be
out of
place,
slanting
one
way
or the
other,
or mixed
tip
with
neighbouring
lettering.
T
may
have its horizontal arm
shaky,
and so look like T. T sometimes has its arm so
irregularly
formed
as to be taken for
i~.
P
has more
variety
of
shape
than
any
other
cipher,
and in one of its forms is the same as one
variety
of .
The form
%
is used on Turkish and African coins. has
many
forms
too,
but
usually
it is either
6 or o . The is some-
times too
small,
and therefore like a
figure
used for 0. 1
may
have its arm at an acute
angle
ancl so be taken for
V,
or be
reversed to
T,
or have its arm rounded and
nearly
closed at the
top
and so be like
Q
i .
v
ancl
A
are
usually pretty distinct,
but
sometimes
they
slant a
good
deal,
even to the extent of
lying
on
their sides
;
in that case
they may
be taken to have fallen over to
the
right,
so that
<
is
V
and > is A. ^
may
be like a 1 if not
closed at the
top,
and is not
rarely
reversed,
i.e. with its
ring
to
the
right.
"When ten is indicated
by
it is not
always visible,
and when is used there is a doubt sometimes from its size
whether 5 or is intended.
Bates
expressed
in
ciphers
are read from left to
right, except
those on the coins of Maisur
(Mysore),
which,
as in Arabic
writing,
are written from
right
to left. But sometimes the whole date is-
by
mistake
reversed, e.g.
^AV
for
VAp
On a coin of the Golden
Horde,
and sometimes with the further error of the
ciphers being
reversed,
e.g.
1
AV
for VAf.
Sometimes, too,
the
ciphers
are not
placed
in order in a
Ike,
but distributed in the area of the
coin,
IIP t
e.g.
|
r
^ P
on coins of Shahs of Persia.
Generally, however,
in
any
of these cases there is not much
difficulty
in
discovering
the
error or in
seeing
the
proper
order of the
ciphers,
as one can tell
from other
signs
what is within a
century
or so the
age
of a coin.
NUMISMATICS,
DIACRITICAL
These are
?
as has been
mentioned,
almost
always
omitted on
Knfic coins
;
on later ones
they
are found
irregularly generally
there were none or
only
a few until
comparatively
modern times.
When
given they
often do not
help
much in the
reading
of the
legend,
from
being placed
not
immediately
above or below the
consonant of which
they
form
part
;
and on coins which are
ornamented,
as
many
are,
by
dots and
groups
of
dots,
it is not
easy
to tell which are for use and which are for decoration
;
a difference in size or
shape,
will, however,
often indicate this,
The vowel marks are almost
always
omitted as in
ordinary writing.
The two dots
indicating
the
o
or
<j
are sometimes
placed
like
a colon
(:),
and the
gronps
of three in u*
*.
,p
may
be
arranged
in a line
(...).
On the Kufic coins there are
'
points'
above or
below certain letters in the
legends
which seem to be marks of
genuineness
or
engravers'
marks,
although they
are often the
correct diacritical ones for the letter near which
they
are
placed,
ISOLATED
LETTERS AND WORDS.
ISOLATED
LETTERS AID WORDS,
In the areas of Arabic
coins,
sometimes
above,
sometimes below
the
legend
and not
forming
a
part
of
it,
are often found letters or
words,
the
signification
of some of which has been a
good
deal
discussed.
If it be a
name,
it is in all
probability
that of
a
governor,
vizier,
or
moneyer,
but more often it is one of the
words or initials
given
in the
following list, being
marks of
genuineness
or mint
marks, indicating goodness
of
weight
or
fineness of metal. The list is
compiled
from one made
by
E.
Meir,
with a few additions of other writers. It will be seen that
a
single
letter is in some cases
given
to denote a
word, e.g.
^
for
*L and *La
,
& for
Jd
,
Jb
for
c-^b
,
CJ for
^
. These are
very
common on the coins of the Abbaside
period.
10
MUSAIHAS XOISIA1IC8,
heavy
richly
t*
!
complete
.
pure
. . . . ,
^.i)
purity
. . , . .
cjj!
lawful is -
u^
right weight
. . . L .
j
extremely good weight
&li
J
beautiful . . .
cus
-
JL
P
st
^-
J*
very just
weight
excellent
good weight
j.z
beautiful,
just
increased,
just
excellent . .
prover (assayer)
superior
, .
incomparable
,
fixed . . .
just
weight
, .
j
mass . . . .
just
mass . , .
;
mass of
weight
.
1
regular
mass . .
'
excellent . . .
, rich
weight
. .
.
precious
. . .
:
excellent
weight
.
jfo
>
pure
*
sufficient
*
a
profitable
. . ,
refined . . . .
refined in the fire
good weight
increased
just
weight
.
old
weight
, .
full
weight
j
-
J
of
good augury
stout , . .
|
rich
weight
A -
Ml
weight
. . . .
pure
, a . Jb . Ljjvjb
X OP TYPES OF COINAGE. 11
OBIGIK OF OF C0XIAGE AND
VARIETIES.
At the time of the rise of the
power
of the
early Ehalifs,
the
coinages
of the
regions
-which were
brought
under their rule
were,
speaking
generally,
the
Byzantine
in the "West and the Persian
Sassanian
in the East. At
first, following
the usual
practice
of
Oriental
conquerors,
the new rulers made use of that which was
the
currency
of the
country, altering
the coins
by degrees
to be indicative of the new
ruling power
and
religion,
but
making
the
changes
so
gradually
as not to
give
an unfamiliar
appearance
to the coins in the
eyes
of the
people,
but to
preserve
the
continuity
of the accustomed
coinage
with
only
such
changes
as were
necessary.
Thus we see in the earliest
gold
of the Khalifs
an imitation of the coin of the
Byzantine emperor adapted by
the
figure
of the Ehalif with a sword in his hand
being
substituted for
that of the
emperor holding
a staff with a cross on
it,
on the
obverse
;
and on the reverse the
cross,
standing
on four
steps,
altered into a column with a ball on its
top.
The
legends
OR
both sides are
changed
to Arabic ones in Kufic character :
CU-v-J <U*d ,X>A!| iJJb L-jJe <UJl
*AiuJ
Similarly
the silver coins of the last Sassanian
king
were altered
by
the additions of crescents and stars and <d! \
+HJJ
on the
margins,
and later
by
the name of the
governor
of the
province being
added
in Kufic in the area.
So, too,
the
Byzantine copper
of the
M
variety
of Heraclius had small additions of Arabic Ifusalman
words on them. Others in
copper
of the same
type
as the
gold
above mentioned were also struck.
N NUMISMATICS.
Then when the Khalli Abd-al-Malik In A.H.
76,
In
compliance
with the rale of the
Prophet
"which
prohibits
the
making
of
representations
of
living things
and declares that
every painter
is
in
hell-fire,
established the first
purely
Musalnian
coins,
he still
preserved
in them a semblance to the
gold Byzantine
and silver
Sassanian,
in
size, form,
and
general appearance.
Mr. G. E.
Eeary?
in an article in the Numismatic Chronicle for 1885 and 1886 on
The
Morphology
of
Coins,"
shows that the reverse of a coin of
Khusru
II,
turned a
quarter
round,
at a little distance seems
almost identical with one of
Abd-al-Malik,
struck at Basra A.H. 79
;
but, looking closer,
one sees that the two
figures
with a fire altar
between them on the former are
replaced by
three lines of Rufic
Arabic on the
latter,
and the
marginal
Pehlvi
legend
altered to
a EMe one also. But the
marginal
circles are
preserved
almost
intact,
and the crescents and stars on the one have
changed
to
corresponding
annulets in the other.
There was little variation from this
type
in the
coinage
of the
Umayyads
of
Spain,
the
Abbasid, Buwayhid,
Samanld, Hamdanid,
Ukaylid,
and other
dynasties
in Irak and Yaman
up
to the times
of the
Mongols,
but in Africa the
Aghlabis, according
to Mr.
Keary,
whose
Morphology
on Coins"
supplies
the substance of these
paragraphs,
founded their
currency
in both
gold
and silver on the
pattern
of the
gold
coins of the Abbasis. The Fatimis followed
the
Aghlabis
with the
development
of a new
variety,
i.e. coins
which have their
inscriptions arranged
in a series of concentric
circles. Their
successors,
the
Ayyubis, adopted
at first the same
pattern,
but later
changed
it to a
plainer
form in
straight lines,
and this form was continued without much
change by
theMamluks.
In about the
beginning
of the sixth
century
A.H. the
enclosing
of
the area
legend
in a
compartment
came into use
squares,
star-
shapes,
circles,
ovals
; 4, 6,
and 8
foils,
etc. This is noticeable in
the
Ayyubid, Saljuk,
and
especially
in the
Mongol
series.
There was a remarkable
departure
from the Musalman
type
in
some of the
coinages
of Asia Minor and
Syria Ayyubid, Saljuk,
Urtukid,
and
Zangid
in
reverting
to imitations of
Greek, Seleucid,
ORIGIN OP TYPES OF COINAGE. 13
and Eoman coin obverses
;
heads and
busts,
and full and half
figures
of men
; horsemen, eagle,
lion and
sun, centaur,
etc.
This,
no
doubt,
arose from a desire to
adapt
the
coinage
to that current in
the
neighbourhood
and in use in the
trading
transactions with
the West.
The
coinage
of the
Mongols
of Persia followed much the same
pattern
as that of the
dynasties
which
they supplanted,
and the
same character was continued
up
to and
throughout
the
reigns
of
Tinmr
and his house.
But in the farther East there was an
altogether
different initial
type
the
Bactrian,
from which
sprang
the coins of more
solidity
and thickness
developing
into the
rupee.
The two
great coinages
of the Muhamniadan world of modern times show a marked
difference
suggestive
of
varying original types,
more so
perhaps
a
century ago
than now.
Compare,
for
instance,
a
gold
or silver
coin of jSTadir Shah of Persia with one of Sultan llahmud
I,
his
contemporary
in
Turkey.
liaMe is the
language generally
used on ITusalman
coins,
but
Persian is that which is usual on the
coinage
of the Shahs of
Persia,
the
kings
and
emperors
of
Dehli,
native Indian
states,
and the East India
Company,
mixed in the cases of the two last-
named with some Sanskrit or vernacular
words,
and
llalay
on
coins of that
region.
In this book all
legends
in the Arabic character are taken into
consideration,
for
although
some coins
bearing
them were not
issued
by
llusalinan
rulers,
and so
should,
strictly speaking,
perhaps
be
excluded, yet
all with Arabic
lettering upon
them
were issued for the use of,
or to be read
by, Huhammadans,
by
whom alone that character is
used,
or were imitations of Uusalman
coins, It is convenient to thus
arrange
Oriental numismatics
into
Husalman, Chinese,
and Hindu.
But there are
many bilingual
and some
trilingual
coins which
are
specially interesting
in an historical
way,
and should be con-
sidered. As has been said
above,
the earliest Husalman coins
were
copied
from Greek-Eoman and Sassanian
ones,
with Arabic
additions;
they
are therefore
bilingual, having
in the former
series Greek and
Latin,
and in the latter Pehlvi
legends,
the
Arabic additions
being
either
pious phrases
of translations of the
mint names or some words
indicating genuineness.
There are
also some
early
African imitations of the
Byzantine coinage
with
Latin
legends,
which have been read as Non est Deus nisi Deus et
Alius non est
"
and In nomine
tuo,
Deus
Omnipotens" ;
these
were followed
by
others
having
on them the Kalima in
Arabic,
at
first in
part,
afterwards entire.
The coins of
Tabaristan,
a detached
province
of the Persian
Empire,
were of a
slightly
different module to those of the
.Sassanian
proper
3
although
of the same
type, being
smaller and
LANGUAGES.
finer with Tabaristan
upon
them in Pehlvi. After the
conquest
of the
province "by
the Arab
Musalmans, governors
were
appointed
whose names are to be found
upon
the coins at the side of the
Sassanian
king's
head,
written in fine Kufic : .A
Of Northern
India at the end of the third
century (Hijra),
there
are coins of the horseman and bull
variety,
with Sanskrit on one
side over the bull and the name of the Khalif juJuS\ on the other
above the horseman. The same
type
was used
by
some of the
Ghazni
kings,
and also later
by
the
early
Pathan
kings
of Dehli.
As
early
as A.H. 660 a coin of
Khubilay
Khan was struck at
Bukhara with Chinese on one side and Arabic on the
other,
and
there are coins of the time of the Muhammadan rebellion in China
in the last
century
which are also in both these
languages.
The jSTorman
kings
of Salerno and
Sicily,
who drove out the
Saracen chiefs from those
regions
in the seventh
century
(Hijra),
issued Arabic coins in imitation of some of the
Ayyubid,
but with
a Christian formula of faith in
imperfect lettering
which
might
easily
deceive their Muhammadan
subjects.
In the same
way
Alphonse
VIII of
Spain
struck coins on which were in Arabic the
ascription
to the
Holy Trinity
and the declaration that he was the
Amir of the
Catholics,
and the
Pope
the Imam of the Church of
Messiah.
Georgia,
from it's
position,
was overrun
by
invaders from the
north and south at all
times,
and its
coinage
shows a
strange
variety,
of
bilingual character,
in
consequence
: at one time
imitation of
Sassanian,
at another
Byzantine
with Greek and
Georgian,
at others
Georgian
and
Arabic,
and in the time of the
Mongol power, Georgian,
Arabic,
and
Mongolian.
Mongolian writing
is also seen intermixed with Arabic on
many
of the coins of the
Mongols
of Persia.
Armenia was in much the same
position
as
Georgia
with
regard
to
exposure
to invasions. Its
coinage,
with the Christian
king
on one side and a lion on the
other,
with Armenian
marginal
legends^ was,
during
the time of
subjection
to the
Saljuks
of Asia
16
MUSAL11AN NUMISMATICS.
Minor in the seventh
century (Hijra), changed
into one
having
on one side the
figure
of the
king
and Armenian
legend,
and on
the other side Arabic
legends
similar to those on the
contemporary
Saljuk
coins. Also when a little later the Maniluk Sultan Xasir
al-Din Muhammad raided
Armenia,
he overstruck the Armenian
!dng
?
s coins with his own coin dies : an unusual
proceeding
for
an Oriental
king.
In
India,
some of the later Dehli
kings,
as well as the earliest
before referred
to,
used the
Devanagari
characters on their coins
as well as
Arabic,
and the last
kings
of the
dynasty
had their
names on coins in the same characters as did also
kings
of
Bengal.
M. Drouin
quite lately
discovered a Sanskrit
legend upon
a
gold
coin of Akhar.
Many
native states of India have
bilingual
coins,
partly
in
Persian, partly
in the vernacular of the
state,
and sometimes
partly
in
English.
The East India
Company
issued
bilingual, trilingual,
and even
multilingual
coins
using English, Persian, Hindustani,
Bengali, Tamil,
and
Telugu.
In the Straits there are
Company
coins with.
English,
Persian,
and
Malay legends,
and one with
Chinese in addition to these three.
The Netherlands Government issued
coinage
for their states
with
Malay
reverses to the obverses of the
European pattern.
The
Portuguese, although
in other
ways very ready
to imitate
the
coinage
of their
neighbours
in
India,
never used the Arabic
character. The
French,
on the other
hand,
imitated the Behli
coinage
as
closely
as did the
English.
ORXAMBXTATION. 17
ORNAMENTATION.
The ornamentation of Musalman coins lies
chiefly
in the
lettering,
the
arrangement
and
grouping
of the
inscriptions,
and
the
shapes
and
arabesque
outlines of the
spaces
in which
parts
pf
the
legends
are enclosed. This is seen at its best
probably
on the
Hafsidi and other
Moorish,
the Persian
Mongols (TJljaitu
and Abu
Said),
and the Safavi of Persia
(Ismail
I and
Tahmasp I) coinages.
On the later Persian and Dehli
coins, too,
it is fine. The Persian
style
of
writing
lends itself well to this in
curves, graceful sweeps
of the
pen,
and
prolongation
and
grouping
of the letters. One
very
common
practice
is to
prolong
the tail
<-_
the full breadth of
the
coin,
and to stretch a <-~? or ^J
right
across so as to make
them as
dividing
strokes between the lines of the
legend.
The
word
^Ls
,
so
important
in the Shiah
formula,
is a favourite one
for
using
in this
way
: for
instance,
on coins of
Tahmasp
I of
Persia,
in the
way
which Mr. Poole called the mill-sail
pattern,
where it forms the four arms of the sail-wheel with the names of
the
eight
other Imams two
by
two between
them,
the
junction
of the four initial letters
forming
a rosette in the centre. On
Behli
coins, too,
the names and attributes of the four orthodox
Khalifs are used in somewhat the same
way
to form the sides of
2
18 3OJS1L3IAN XUMISlfAIICS.
quadrangular
areas. The EMc character also Is used to form the
square geometrical pattern
in which, the Kalimah Is
arranged
on
the
pretty "bilingual
coins of Abu
Said,
the Persian
Mongol.
Interspersed commonly
on the coin areas are dots in
groups
and
singly,
annulets,
rosettes,
sprigs
of
flowers, knots,
and so on.
There
are, however,
certain
figures
called
tamghas
which seem
meant to be the
signs
of
particular dynasties
or
persons
or
countries. It is hard to describe in words
many
of
them,
or to
say
what
they
are intended to
represent,
or in what
they originated.
Some,
as on the
gold
coins of Great
Saljuks,
are at the
top
of the
area
; others,
as on the
large
Urtukicl
copper
coins,
are at the side
or bottom. Some
suggest
an imitation of a
monogram
on a Greek
or Parthian coin
; others,
as the fleur de
lys
on the Mamluks and
the thunderbolt on the Great Kaans
coins,
are
recognizable,
as is
also the double-ended trident of the Golden Horde. The curious
figure
in the centre of the area of the
Chagatai
coins,
somewhat
like the Greek letter
>,
has been
thought
to be the Tibetan letter
cJia
inverted,
the initial of
Chagatai.
The
representations
of animals are
numerous,
and made in all
times.
They
are sometimes indicative of a
place,
or
peculiar
to
a
person
or
dynasty,
as the double-headed
eagle
on Urtukicl and
Zangid,
the lion on the
Mamluk,
the lion and sun on
Saljuk
and
Persian
Shahs,
the
fish, birds,
and human
figures
on the Basulid
coins,
and the
many
varieties on the autonomous
copper coinage
of
Persia.
The coins of the later
Moghul Emperors
of Dehli and of the
native
States,
struck in the same
pattern,
have almost
always
a
symbol
within the
loop
of a final letter on one or both sides.
These are sometimes
sufficiently peculiar
to be indicative of
a
particular
State or mint
; such,
for
example,
as the sun-face of
Indore,
and the
curiously shaped dagger,
like a
pair
of
scissors,
of
Kutch
;
but more often the
symbol
is not
peculiar
to one State or
mint.
Prinsep,
in his
"
Indian
Antiquities," gives
a
plate
with
some 126 of these
symbols
on
it,
and attributes them to some
extent
;
but there are
many
more than he
describes,
and some of
ORNAMENTATION,
19
those wtdeli lie attributes to one are also OIL coins of other States.
These
symbols
on modern Indian coins
being,
in
many
cases,
the
only
mark
by
which the
currency
of one State
may
be
distinguished
from that of
another,
it has been the endeavour of several Indian
numismatists to reduce them to order and locate their use
;
but
it is a
very
difficult
matter,
for
many
of them have been used
by
several
States,
and
many
States have used several
symbols
at
different
times,
and local
knowledge
and tradition
give
but little
help.
The
symbols, moreover,
are not
always
mint-marks,
but
seem, sometimes to have been used to indicate the issue or the
year ;
for
example,
more than
thirty
different
symbols
are to be
found on the coins of the Dehli
Emperor Aurangzib,
struck at Surat.
Perhaps,
of all these Indian
symbols,
the one which is most
remarked is the J.H.S. on coins of Kashmir. Two or three ex-
planations
or reasons for the use of this Christian
monogram
have
been
given,
but no doubt it was
expected
to be a
lucky symbol.*
The
Tughra
is
peculiar
to the Othmanli
coinage.
It is a mono-
gram consisting
of the Sultan's name and that of his
father,
of which the
composing
letters intercross and have their
upright
portions prolonged upwards,
curled and twisted in such a
way
as
to make an interlacement difficult to
decipher.
*
General G. G.
Pearse, C.B., E.A.,
writes as follows :
"
Whilst Lord
"William Bsatmck was Governor- General of
India, 1828-35,
two
very
remarkable
conversions to
Christianity
took
place ;
one was of a celebrated Muhamniadau
Moulvie,
the other of an
equally
celebrated
Brahmin, by
name Ammd. These
men were
great controversialists,
and their
change
of
religion
caused much stir
and excitement. Annncl
died, leaving
a
son,
Anund
Messiah,
a
sharp, intelligent
man, good-looking
and full of
energy,
a
very stormy petrel
of a
Christian,
never
so
happy
as when
launching
his Christian controversial
arguments
at the heads
of Hindoos. In 1850 Anund Messiah was at the court of
Maharaja
Goolab
Sing,
of Cashmere, In the
Spring
of
1851,
when I was Assistant-Commissioner of
Hazara on the Cashmere
frontier,
Anund
Messiah,
who was
passing through
Hazara,
came to
pay
his
respects
to me. I saw a
good
deal of him for a few
days.
"With much
delight
he showed me the new Cashmere
rupees
of G-oolab
Sing,
with the Eoman letters J.H.S.
conspicuously
in the centre of the coins
amidst the Persian. He said he had induced the
wily,
clever
Dogra king
to
place
these letters on his
coins,
assuring
him that
thereby
he would
please
the British
Indian
Government,
and would himself be favoured
by
fortune. Never was
any
Muhammadan who had somehow
managed
to make an unbeliever
say
the Kalima
more
delighted
than was Anund with this little bit of work of his."
MUSAL3IA3S" XUXISMATICS.
EELIGIGIJS LEGffilBS.
Some
pious expression
or
religious plirase
or formula is
very
general upon
all Musalrsian coins. On the
early
Khalif ones there
was
nothing else,
except
the date
and,
on the
silver,
the mint
;
a little later the name o the
king
or ruler was
given ;
then titles
and other
particulars
about the
king
were
added,
displacing
a
good
deal of the
religious
forms
;
so that when we come to modern times
there is little of them left. On a modern Turkish
coin,
for
instance,
there is
nothing
in this
way
but
s^sj
\z
,
and on a coin of the late
Shah of Persia
nothing
but the names and
titles,
with
mint-place
and date.
These
religious legends may
be divided into
(1)
formulce,
or
symbols
as
they
are sometimes called
;
(2)
verses or
phrases
taken
from the
Horan;
and
(3) pious expressions
or
ejaculations.
(1)
Formulae.
The formula
'
Bismillah
'
is found
very commonly
on coins of
earlier
times, usually
as the
beginning
of the
legend referring
to
the
striking
of the
piece:
^l^!l
1X&
<--^
<d!\*Mj . But it is
often, too,
in other
parts
of the ield or
marginal legends,
sometimes
detached,
but more
usually prefixed
to the Kalimah or other
professions
of faith such as are to be seen in the
following list,
and in that case the formula
*p~Jh tf^j^
*&\***
is used as it
Is at the
beginning
of all Musalman books and
writings.
On coins
of one of the
Mongol kings
of
Persia, Arghun,
and on some of
Syria
and
Palestine,
struck under Christian
influences,
there is
substituted for it this formula :
(jwjjJiM
^-^}\
5
crf^ J
^'^
(^
J^li <dS "in the name of the Father and the Son and the
Holy
Ghost,
one God." The same formula is
lengthened
on coins of
Alphonse
Till of
Spain
into
:
(jwiJJi!!
~$)\ j ^)\
.
c^S!
~uj
(or
U!L
^.<j
j*w)
USL
^J*^ ^\ ^ J^H
M "In the
name of the Eather and the Son and the
Holy Ghost,
the one
God;
whoso believeth and is
baptized
shall be saved."
11ELIGIOUS LEGENDS.
21
TJie Jialhnah.
The Kalimah
(Z*&\
literally
'the
Word/
called also the
*
Muslim
Creed,'
and In numismatic books
generally
the Muham-
madan
symbol
or
formula,
is found on most of the coins of rulers
holding
the orthodox faith
(Sunni).
The
first,
or
negative part
of
it,
<d)l 111 ail
N
J,
is taken from, the 47th surah of the
Koran,
verse 21
;
the second
part,
affirmative,
*U1
Oj^j
AA.S-'*,
is in the
29th. verse of the 48th surah :
"
There is no
god
but
God,
Muhammad is the
Apostle
of God
"
(Palmer's translation).
The
Kalimah is often followed
by
one or more of the
'
Pious Phrases
'
given
in the list
below,
such as the
following
:
Jusj
<ule <xU\
^u*
d\
J^
j
Uis <dSl
Jus
_ <dl
<d^J!
- (UU &\
Ju*.
The first
part
of the Kalimah is followed
by
other
endings
than the above :
e.g.,
&
t*^jj$
$3&.j
"who has no
associate,"
the formula used
on the
early
Khalif coins
;
<d! AS
^\
. ilSb SI
Jy
D ail
A$jA\
^SJl
^31^
Lujl
dllb SI
^y3 *lT^^3l\
- *tf 1^1
J^
"who
gives complete
deliverance." The second
part
is varied as follows:
, <d!l j*
U. id!!
^.^
.
On a coin of a Sultan of Dehli the Kalimah is in this form :
<^*
*jj\ A,*^
^
d^l
jj
<dl\ 3\ *J1 S
^\ j^l
"
I
testify
that
there is no
god
but
God,
and I
testify
that Muhammad is His
servant and
apostle."
On coins of rulers of the Shiah sect the
Kalimah has added to it 4-U!
^*
tc^
"
^ ^ s ^e ^en^
(
or
favourite)
of God." This constitutes what is referred to in
numismatic books as the Shiite formula.
Other Continuations
of
the Bismillah and the Kalimah.
sJt ft 31 <11 S
Ood bless our lord
Muhammad,
and
your
God is one
;
there is
no God but He who is the
compassionate,
the merciful.
XTTMISMATIO.
There Is no
god
but
God,
Muhammad is the
prophet
of
God,
the Mahdi is the Imam of the nation.
God bless Huliaminad and his
family,
etc.
L,^\
jU1
-J^!i
ill!
J.
Praise to God
alone,
etc.
.
,
> *
-.
-/
XI
All
l^-.-
J'.
dAs^ Ij: <d!\
God bless
Muhammad,
the seal of the
prophets.
God bless Muhammad and his
family,
the
good,
the
pure.
God bless Muhammad and his
family,
and
peace
be with them.
God is our
Lord,
Muhammad is our
prophet
and the Imam.
KELXGIOUS LEG-ENDS. 23
The
following
Koranic sentences are also included
amongst
the
symbols
or
formulary
sentences of numismatic writers.
Kor.
cxii,
. J*J
\^i<
<
^-
^\ oj
God is
alone,
God is
eternal,
He
begets
not and is not
begotten,
nor is there like unto Him
anyone.
This is called the
Urnayyad symbol.
^jjjl ^
*^kJ
J^cSt
^Jj
L/^lb *L,1
id!!
Kor.
ix,
33.
u^uSI */ Jj
<*L
Muhammad is the
prophet
of God sent with
guidance
and the
religion
of
truth,
to make it
prevail
over
every
other
religion,
averse
although
idolaters
may
be.
This is sometimes called the second
symbol.
Kor.
xxx, 3,
4.
To God
belongs
the order before and after
;
and in that
day
the believers shall
rejoice
in the
help
of God.
The translation of the sentences taken from the Koran are those
of E. H.
Palmer,
vols. vi and ix of
"
Sacred Books of the East."
(2)
Sentences from the Koran.
Kor.xxxv,
31.
Praise
belongs
to
God,
who has removed from us our
grief ;
verily
our lord is
forgiving, grateful.
Kor.
i,
1.
^W! L^J
<d!
Praise
belongs
to
God,
the Lord of the "Worlds.
Kor.
xxii,
40.
Permission is
given
to those who
fight
because
they
have been
wronged,
and
verily
God to
help
them has the
might.
24
JIUSALHAN
Kor.
iv,
62.
--
Obey
God,
and
obey
tlie
Apostle,
and those in
authority
amongst you.
Kor. x, 36.
^
Is then lie who
guides
unto the truth more
worthy
to he
followed,
or he that
guides
not
except
he be himself
guided
? What ails
you then,
how
ye judge
?
J
U A
U
Juu
.
5b Uj 31 .uLi
^ ^
^.k^ ^
j^U
U
*^ ^
Kor.
ii,
256.
God,
there is no God but
He,
the
living,
the self-subsistent.
Slumber takes Him
not,
nor
sleep.
His is what is in
the heavens and what is in the earth. Who is it that
intercedes with him save
by permission
? He knows
what is before them and what is behind
them,
and
they
comprehend
not
aught
of His
knowledge
but what He
pleases.
Kor.ii,
258.
God is the
patron
of those who believe.
Kor.
ii, 208,
and
iii,
32. t
God
provides
for whom He
pleases
without count.
Kor.
iii,
17.
^SLJl
<d!l
Yerily (the true) religion
in God's
sight
is Islam.
Kor.
ix,
112. <dll
J.*^:
J
Yerily7
God hath
bought
of the believers their
persons
and
their
wealth,
for the
paradise they
are to have
;
they
shall
fight
in the
way
of God.
RELIGIOUS LEGENDS. 25
Kor.
Ixi,
4.
Yerily,
God loves those who
fight
in His cause in ranks as
though they
were a
compact building.
LJ<J j U u cdll
uXliJ L l-srii
i_O
Lsft
.*S
->
Ivor,
xlviii,
1-3.
\'j
;^
1.^ <d!1
o-^J* 7
^/-y
v ^o
>
Yerily
we have
given
thee an obvious
victory
! that God
may
pardon
thee
thy
former and later
sin,
and
may
fulfil His
favour
upon thee,
and
guide
thee in a
right way,
and
that God
may help
thee with a
mighty help.
<dl\ jj
u>
>j
vj^-
<
(j^>-
Kor.
xxxiii,
33.
God
only
wishes to take
away
from
you
the horrors as
people
of His
house,
and to
purify you throughly.
Kor.
kvii,
1.
jte
^
j
(J^ fy
ujCUl ^A-j
^jJl
u
Blessed be He in whose hand is the
kingdom,
for He is
mighty
over all.
Kor.
ix,
113.
Those who
repent,
those who
worship,
those who
praise,
those who
fast,
those who bow
clown,
those who
adore,
those who bid what is
right
and forbid what is
wrong,
and those who
keep
the bounds of
God, glad tidings
to
those that believe.
Kor.
xvii,
83.
l5yy
Truth has
come,
and falsehood has vanished !
verily
falsehood
is
transient.
Kor.
ix,
130.
dH ^*u^.
God is
enough
for me.
MUSAL31AK NUMISMATICS.
Kor.
iii,
167.
J/J1
^
*SJ1 La
God Is
enough
for
us,
a
good guardian
is He.
Kor.
vlij
123.
..^L***
UsJ
.
\*** L*ifi
c
J! LJ
*
W" V > >
" "
C_>
-/
Oil)
our Lord !
pour
out
upon
us
patience
and cause us to die
-Moslems.
Kor.
Is,
4.
^\
LjlX
LJ\
uXJlj
L1<J
uXi^
b,
Oh,
our Lord ! on Thee do we
rely,
unto Thee we
turn,
and
unto Thee the
journey
is.
Kor.
si,
51.
^Jlx*l!
-LsUH
The issue is for those who fear.
Kor.
xii,
64.
^^^Ul *^J\
JN lliiU-
^.-^
^HU
But God is the best of
keepers,
and He is the most merciful
of the merciful.
Kor.
xx,
113.
j
Exalted then be
God,
the
lung,
the Truth.
j
1^1,
iisb
^.o
\.j^j.
,u.cn
t
.^
J^
^ s
j
>-/> W
(
>
Kor.
is,
124.
^JL^I
fc
^ /d!\
Fight
those who are near to
you
of the
misbelievers,
and let
them find in
you
sternness
;
and know that God is with
those who fear.
Kor.
ii,
131.
^ix!\
^^
\
"
c_"
God will suffice thee
against them,
for He both hears and knows.
Kor.
iii,
66. <d!l
^JJb
^J^J! u
l
J5-
Say, verily
the true
guidance
is the
guidance
of God.
Kor.
xlii,
22.
Say,
I do not ask for it a
hire,
only
the love of
my
kinsfolk. And
he who
gains
a
good
action we will increase
good
for him.
J*yJj
<dH
J*
j Wy. p
U AlH
^
U S!
U_^t
J
Ji-
Kor.
ix,
51.
^^H
Say, naught
shall befall us save what God has written down
for us
;
He is our Lord and
upon
God believers do
rely.
EELIGIOUS LEGEXDS. 27
lij
^
L_<L!1
Jf
J
L_<U!I iJJl. JM
J-
Kor.
iii,
25.
Say,
God,
Lord of the
kingdom
I Thou
givest
the
kingdom
to whomsoever
Thou
pleasest,
and
strippest
the
kingdom
from, whomsoever Thou
pleasest,
Thou honourest whom.
Thou
pleas
est and abasest whom Thou
pleasest ;
in
Thy
hand is
good.
!l o,^.! <tU!
y
J-
Zor.
exiij
.
Say,
He is God
alone,
God is
eternal,
He
begets
not and is
not
begotten,
nor is there like unto Him
anyone.
Kor.
scix,
7.
^j
Lp~
^,J
JUi^ Ju*j
(
He who does the
weight
of an atom of
good
shall see it.
Kor.
xviii,
37. ^dllj SI
There is no
power
save in God.
Kor.
sxx, 3,
4.
To God
belongs
the order before and after
;
and in that
day
the believers shall
rejoice
in the
help
of God.
Kor.
xl,
16.
^WJLII
J^Ul *il
[^
Jl]
Whose is the
kingdom
?
God's,
the
On'e,
the Dominant.
Kor.
Ixi,
13.
Help
from God and
victory nigh,
so do Thou
give glacl tidings
unto the believers.
"
L*
ij^tu
Ji
tly
A.J
cd!! 11 <ui
^yt^y
Lu. l
Kor.
ii,
281.
Fear the
clay
wherein
ye
shall return to God
;
then shall each
soul be
paid
what it has
earned,
and
they
shall not be
wronged.
28
MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
Ivor,
si,
47, <dH
J\
^
I entrust
ray
affair to God.
Kor.
xvii,
106.
Jj3
JLsSl^
*^r^
In truth have we sent it down, and in truth has it conie clown
Kor.
vi, 114,
115.
The
perfect
words we know are sent down from
thy
Lord
with truth. Ee not
thou, then,
of those who doubt.
Jut
Kor.
xlviii,
29.
And those who are with him are vehement
against
the mis-
believers,
compassionate amongst
themselves
;
thou
mayest
see them
bowing down, adoring, craving grace
from
God,
and His
good-will ;
their marks are on their
faces from the effects of adoration.
_ ^j*
ill
Kor.
ix, 34,
35.
^j^So
v-^
U
Those who store
up gold
and silver and
expend
it not in
God's
way ; taste, then,
what
yc
stored
up.
Kor.
sxiv,
54. L*l
^^
^
^
p$A\~*)
God
promises
those of
you
who believe and do
right
that He
will
give
them the succession in the earth as He
gave
the succession to those before
them,
and He will establish
for them their
religion
which He has chosen for
them,
and
give
them after their fear
safety
in
exchange.
Kor.
xlvii,
40.
*\jL&\
^
(j*)\
<
Tor God is the rich and
you
the
poor.
RELIGIOUS LEGENDS. 29'
Kor.
xvi,
55. &J\
<4
-
;
w
{
$-
And whatever favours
ye
have,
they
are from God.
Kor.
si,
90.
t^l
<u!U
c^^
**^
^'
!Nor comes
my grace through anyone
but God
;
on Him do
I
rely
and unto Him I turn.
Kor.
vii,
41. <d!l U\jJb
J\
L!
^Jofi
^ U
j>
For we should not have been
guided
had not God
guided
us.
EOT.
iii,
122.
r
fj\
^\
dd!l ^
^ 21^1
U
3
For
victory
is but from
God,
the
mighty,
the wise.
Kor.
iii,
96.
^L^u^,
]s\^ ]\
^jSte
jJii ^Ub
*&& ** &
But Tvhoso takes
tight
hold on
God,
he is
guided
into the
right way.
^
J^
N
J1 J
^
dix,
J_Jb
^i
LJ J
^SL
Kor.
iii,
79.
^.^U
Whosoever craves other than Islam for a
religion,
it shall
surely
not be
accepted
for
him,
and he shall be in the
next world of those who lose.
Kor.
kv,
2.
And whosoever fears
God,
He will make for him a
[ happy]
issue,
and will
provide
for him from whence he
reckoneth not.
<d!l
J*>-
jJyl jJb
dill
^t
<u*j>-
^
<d!l ^
Kor.
Ixv,
3.
^jj ^
JJLl
And whosoever relies on God
}
He is sufficient for him
;
verily
God will attain His
purpose
;
God has set for
everything
a
period.
Kor.
xvii,
99.
A^J!
^
id!!
J^j
And whom God
guides
he is
guided
indeed.
30 MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Kor.
xvii,
84.
^
And we -will send down of the Koran that which
is
healing
and a
mercy
to believers.
Kor.
ii,
114.
o^V
^
God's
guidance
is the
guidance.
Kor.
ii,
158.
r
^)\ ,^^)\
p
31 & 3
^
<"
Your God is one
God;
there is no God but
He,
the
merciful,
the
compassionate.
Kor.lvii,3.
jj^
^ft^AM,^,
J
He is the first and the
last,
and the outer and the inner
;
and He all
things
doth know.
Kor.
k,
33.
He it is who is sent with
guidance
and the
religion
of
truth,
to make it
prevail
over
every
other
religion,
averse
although
idolaters
may
be.
UU L>3J
^
Ll^
U*U u/UW
Ijl
^1
i
Kor.
sxxiii,
44.
Oh,
thou
prophet! verily
we have sent thee as a witness
and a herald of
glad tidings,
and a warner
and to call.
\ \JLS\ \\ \.J^
\\ \
Kor.
iii,
200.
^
ye
who believe ! be
patient
and vie in
being patient,
and be
on the
alert,
and fear
God,
that
haply ye may prosper.
(3)
Pious
Expressions
or
Ejaculations.
May
God
prolong
his
kingdom.
SjJ
<*U1
God
preserve
him.
<d
Long
life to him.
KELIGIOTJS LEGENDS. 31
y^i-Jt
JlJ
ilN Ulwt
The Host
High
God
preserve
the Ifusalmans.
God
protect.
<dS! U?U\
God order him
aright.
<d!l
Hay
God
prolong
Ms
government.
i\^ <dll
Ha his
might
endure under God's favour.
<
+
God aid and assist him.
^'^
dUl djlc
God make him
glorious.
djJl #;^ - diSl u
God make him
glorious
in
victory.
IfcLzJl
cdSij^
God make his
victory glorious,
i-^ <dSl
J^
Hay
his reward be
great.
J^f
^
God make him illustrious. <d!l
God is most
great; glorified
be -His
glory.
$L>-
God is
enough
for us
;
a
good guardian
is He.
J-^&Sl
^3
^
lu*u>-
God is
enough
for me. _-
God aruard him. ^L
'The true
God, protector
of the manifest truth.
The eternal God and
everlasting
Lord.
>^U!1
c~?JU JijJ!
i
"
"
-/ y
I
God is our
Lord,
Huhammad our
Apostle,
the Hahdi our Imam.
God is our
Lord,
Muhammad our
Apostle,
the Abbas our Imam.
God is sufficient. dl
<
God is
my
Lord,
^j
a
OGod.
God ordered faith and
justice.
32
MUSA.L3IAN XUMISILATICS.
a
^ fy ^1,
J!
J*
UJI.
j
J'o
^
God ordered faith and
justice
on
piety
and reverence.
Blessing
from Clod.
All
power
is of God. <dJ <d .VJ !
I trusted in God. <d!lj e^!
God make clear his
proof.
AJb^j
<d!l Ajl
God illuminate Ms
proof. ^Ifc
j <d!t
jlil
God
strengthen
his
authority
and make him
glorious
in
victory.
etc. LjX*
jjl . ^Jll^L Jjl .
ilS^J
Jj\
God
strengthen
him and make him
happy.
sd*~\ iU\ i
The Most
High
God
strengthen
him.
^JUi'
cdl! ^
God
strengthen
him and his
victory,
x+sj * JJI ^
God
strengthen
and
help
him. <Ulc! il!l ^
According
to God's ordinances. <d!l
He seeks
guidance
in God.
j^j
He
jSrmly
trusts in God. JJL^*J
Blessings.
etc. l - jl -
Blessing
on Musi
?
the successor under the Muslim covenant.
Blessings
from God. <d!l
^* ^>
In the name of God. <d!l ***>
In the name of God the All Bountiful.
>^^
<*iSI
>^
In the name of God the
Supreme. *^*!i
^\
+**}
May
the enemies of God be scattered. il!\ IkXc!
i}'
Hallowed "be the
might
of God. aiil
Trusting
in God.
I have
put my
trust in God. <dSI
RELIGIOUS LEGEXDS. 3-
Trust in
God;
glory
be to God. <d!
$j*\\
<d!t
J^ J<^
Glory
be to God's
protection
arid
majesty.
d!L>-a dlilb dJl
J,s>
His
glory
is
protecting
and
very great. jSbf
JSi J-^>
Glory,
God. <dH L
:
God
protect
it. <d!t
God is the
preserver
of all
things.
<d!l
May
God
protect
him. <dl
*
& <U* .^
God
guard
it. <d!l U^.^
God
guard
it
by
His favour. <UA; *!J\
^,>-
The Most
High
Gocl
guard
it.
^!Uj
diil
l^^
The Most
High
God
guard
and make it safe.
l^<\ LC'
The Lord is sufficient for me.
God is sufficient for me.
God is sufficient for us. <dl\ l
By royal
order.
^y.U,
By
order of the Just One.
J
JoJb
Praise to God alone. ifArx. <d!
Praise to God. <d!
(or
^USl) ^^Ul ^
cdi
Praise to
God,
Lord of all created
beings.
Strength
and
power
are God's. <d!
^S^ J^^
_ diS
ijSl^
May
God
perpetuate.
dJJ!
May
He
perpetuate.
- 4jlk
May
the Most
High
God
perpetuate,
etc.
\*t\
*S1U adJ\ dU> - <ul
May
God
perpetuate
his
kingdom
for ever.
34 MrSAJQIAN SOIS1UTIC3.
May
God
perpetuate
his
kingdom,
and regard him
abundantly.
ITay
his
kingdom
endure.
Hay
Ms khalifat endure.
May
Ms
reign
endure for ever. <uL*
,J
J
Jjd\j\
Jl
AillaL
^
*O.
fb
Hay
Ms
kingdom
and rule endure to the end of time's revolutions.
Hay
his
khalifat, etc.,
endure. <fc^!aLs cu^l
The Imam summons
(all men)
to the
profession
of the
Unity
of the Eternal God.
God
guiding
them.
^
<dSl
Earthly things
are
transitory,
so
keep
them in
subjection
to God.
y
Lord is God. <d!l
^
Mercy
be
upon,
j jU
L^%^=>-J
God reward them.
^A^
<d!l
\
^
God reward him. <Ue diH
Peace
upon
him.
Peace
upon
Mm and his ancestors. <u
Praise to God alone, a ^ <A!
Thanks be to God.
God bless Mm and his
family.
d\j
<uL <dll
God bless him. ^ulc <dl\
Bless him.
God bless our lord Muhammad. *x*s=* U Juo 1-c- <d!l
God bless Muhammad an'd his
family3
all of them
pure.
RELIGIOUS LEGENDS.
God bless Muhammad and Ms
family,
and save them.
Blessings
of God on him and his
ancestors,
the
pure,
and his
descendants,
the illustrious.
God increase his
majesty.
^liU-l <d!l L^
God increase Ms
majesty
and further
good
fortune,
and make
it victorious.
God illuminate them. <d!i \
It is God who
gains
the
victory.
<dll
Safety
lies in
scrupulous piety,
May
his future life he
prosperous.
May
Ms future life be
praiseworthy.
The Abbasi is our Imam.
May
his
victory
be
glorious.
Perpetual glory
to the eternal Lord. JUi\
^Jl
Glory
is from God.
God
glorify
his
victory,
^aj
<d!l l.
The
glory
is a
proof
of God. <dll <JLsf^
J!l
Glory
and
apostleship
are of God.
d'-L^ij
<d!
5jx!l
Glory
be to God. <dl
Jj*H
Majesty
is God's. <d! <uk*ll
In the name of God. <d!1
^1
A*
In God is
my
trust,
My
reliance is on Him. <^J J <u
Peace be with him. ,*LJ
1
God
prolong
his life.
jJJl b
Peace and
piety
are of God.
^jJl ^
*LJUin
36
31CSAL3IAX NUMISMATICS.
Vt'ith God. <d!l ja~
Help,
God. <d! I
cjCu:r
I am
seeking protection,
God. <d! I?
jjyi
He lias
conquered.
w^xi.
.
^^2*.
<UJ1 dJJI
.
jl L^r^ e>
Vnw"' \a^
-*
I have committed
my
cause to
God,
with whom is
my
reckoning.
*,x=*. <d!l .
^^^ (
JU; <d!^
( jl ^c.
-/
W^
1
"
I-- V^
-"'
I have committed
my
cause to God the Most
High,
with Him
alone is
my reckoning.
In the
way
of God. *SJl
J-^
d
God is
power.
<dl
'ij^&\
The Koran is the word of God. ttt] +&
^^!|
Power is with God. <dJU
ijJiH
Strength
is
wholly
God's.
May
he be
happy.
God
guard
him. ^d! !
All is from God. <dl
All
power
is of God. No
strength
but from God.
All
government
is God's. *U 3\
There is no
power
or
strength
but from God. <d!
!
o 1\
iySj
]N
T
o service but of Islam. ^SLUb 31
!No crown but
by justice. J
JjtSl; 11
There is no victor but God. <OJ\ S! L.JU J
]S
T
o
strength
but from God. <d!b S\
Jy
3
To God. <d!
To God be the
power.
^\
*ii
UELIGIOUS LEGrENDS. 37
J^x) **.
J-o
* -^ <dl
li/ v
u.
^7 >
To God be the
power,
as in old time so henceforth.
Praised be God. ^^s\ <di
Praised be
God,
and to Him be the
power.
i_L*J! il
j
Ju^el <di
To God be the
glory.
Sjdl
<d!
^-Jl Jhtfl^U J^
dlt
It is God's
justice
that
prevails
the manifest
justice.
To God be the
power.
$j&\
<dS
Praise be to God. L*A\ aii
To God and
by
Him. <Lu <d!
Glory
to God for ever and ever.
Amen, Amen,
Amen.
(Christian.)
As God
pleases.
<dJ\
How near is the consolation of God. <xlll
^i
S
The
blessing
of the Most
High
be
upon
him. <uL:
May
God
strengthen
him with
victory.
*A&\ <d!l ^O
The Faith be to God. <dS <LUi
Maledictions on the enemies. <XjjU!l
^
Cursed be those who darken counsel.
The
kingdom
be to the one
God,
the
Compeller.
The
kingdom
be to God. <d!
The
kingdom
be to God the
Bountiful,
whose aid is
begged.
The
sovereignty
and
justice
are twins.
^Uly Jd*!!^
The dominion and
glory
be to God. <dl
>J\
^
The dominion and
grandeur
be to God. A!
38 MUSAL3IAX ISTMISMATICS.
The
praise
be to God. <dl
The 3Iacllii is the Ehalif of God.
<d)l
^U
By
the
victory
and the
triumph
and the
felicity
and the
prosperity.
Victory
"but
by
the
goodness
o! God. <d!b
^^P-
Help
of God is near,
*^j*
<d!i
Victory
from
God,
and no
power
"but
by
God.
most excellent Lord God. <d!l c
>Ji\
**
most excellent the able God. ill
j\sl\
**
most excellent
victory
from God. <d!l
.^ UJ , L
"We
glory
in the Cross of our Lord Jesus the
Messiah,
by
whom we have our
safety
and our life and our resur-
rection,
and
by
whom we are delivered and
pardoned.
He is
generous.
He is the defender.
j*
Oh!
protecting
God. <dH
Oh! Imam Ja^far the true. *
b
^Is-
5
b
^b
J b
(jL*
b
^kr^
b
Oh!
compassionate
one,
oh! ever
yearning
one,
oh! ever
bestowing one,
oh I
recruiter
of
good
and
evil,
oh !
Shahan,
oh 1 Sultan.
Oh ! Lord of the
age.
J^j>\
L^^U
b
U;\
^y* ^
Jjs
b
Oh !
Ali,
son of
Musa,
with whom God is well
pleased.
RELIGIOUS LEGENDS, 39
L^OtAu^/* oc u) p-v^.
-*
* *
vo
Ok !
judge
of
necessities,
oli ! sufficient in difficulties.
Oh! Lord.
Oh 1 aider.
i^****
V.
etc.
J^
. J^5^
r
;/
- *U\
Jj J^
.
J^ .j^r
U
He trusts in God. <d!b
jij
, <dH
j^j
He
glories
in
great qualities.
UJsic
J
Jj
He seeks
help
of God. <dJb
^j
Pate works for him.
Holding
the
rope
of God.
OF GOD,
Instead of
iSJI,
or in addition to
it,
God is sometimes mentioned
on coins
by
one or more of His other names or attributes. These
names are called
^j^.s'1
*UJ1 in the words of the Koran
(xx, 7)
:
^0*^1
*UJI *! 4^
S
J1 A\ i
1
<dl!
"God,
there is no
god
but He! His
are the excellent names
"
(Palmer). By
tradition there are
ninety
and nine excellent names
'
or
comely names/
but there seems to
be no
certainty
as to what those 99
are,
as different writers
give
different lists. Hr.
Redhouse,
in an article in the
Royal
Asiatic
Society's Journal, 1880,
on "The most
Comely
Sames,"
gives
as
many
as
552,
which he had
obtained from various sources
;
from
these have been
gathered,
in the
following list,
those which are
the most often
used,
according
to
authors
(Hottinger, Herklot,
Meninski, Rogers Bey, Yratislas,
T. P.
Hughes),
and
usually
found
on talismans and
amulets,
for
they
are much used in that
way.
One
The God
The
"Worshipped
One .
The Last
The Erst
The Maker . . . .
The
Outstretcher , .
The Interior
(hidden)
One
The Sender Porth ,
v.
The
Enduring
One . .
The
Contriver . .
i
The Good
The All
Seeing
. .
JoJ
UJ!
The
Repenter (of wrath)
<_>ljj
TheTJniter . . .
^Ls!
The All
Compeller
. .
^
The Awe
Inspiring
One
J-Ls)
The Guardian
The
Judge.
. .
The Reckoner .
The All
Preserving
One liui
The Truth ....
The
Arbitrator . . .
The All Wise* . . .
The Ever Slow to
Anger
TheAll
Praiseworthy
One Ju
NAMES OF GOD. 41
Jl
The Ever
Yearning
One
The
Living
One .
The Abaser . . .
t
The Creator . .
The All
Cognizant
One .
^
The Ever
Creating
One
jlsn
fi/%
jUijj
Possessor of
Majesty
and Honour
Longsuffering
Possessor of
Strength
Jj
The
Upraiser
. . . .
<
Lord
The
Compassionate
One
^
The Most Merciful One
i
The Ever
Providing
One
The
Eight
Guider .
The "Watcher .- . .
The Most
Indulgent
One
'The Swift One . .
The All
Hearing
One
The
Safety
. . .
The Thankful One . ,
The
Yery
Strenuous One jj
The Grateful One .
The Witness . . .
The True One . .
The
Longsuffering
One
The Eternal One . .
The Hurtful One .
\\
i
The
Externally
Evident One
The Just One . . .
Jj*Jl
The Most
Mighty
One .
The Most
Supreme
One
f
The Ever
Pardoning
One
The Most
High
, . .
The All
Knowing
I The Pardoner ....
i
|
The Ever
Forgiving
One
j
The Most
Forgiving
One
The
Independent
One .
The Ever
Opener
. .
The
Grasper ,<
The
Acceptor
. . . .
(
The Able One ...
The
Compellor
. . .
The Existent One . .
The Most
Holy
One .
^
The
Almighty
. . .
The All Previous One .
,
i
The
Yery
Near One .
The
Yery Strong
One .
C$$\
The All
Compelling
One
^llail
TheEver Self-E xistent
Ono^^a!
\
The Sufficient One . .
The
Yery
Great One .
The All Bountiful One .
The Most Pleasant One L
3IUSALMA.N ^O
The Glorious One .
Owner of the
Kingdom
The Hinderer . ,
The
Originator
.
The Manifest One .
|
The Putter Forward .
^
iL*l:
;
The Just Distributor kwJUll
|
TheGiverofDailyBreadc^JUl!
: The
Iving
.... t_U!l
;
The Death
Causing
One
C^/MJ\
The Ever
Bestowing
One
^\L^\
:
The Taker of
Vengeance
*u/
The
High
Exalted One
The Proud One . .
The
Tory
Firm One .
The
Favourably Answering
One
The Host Glorious One
The Teller or Numbcrer
The
Comprehending
One k
TheYivifier .
The Abaser .
The Eemover .
-
The One whose Aid is invoked
The
Shaper
....
The Eaiser to Honour .
The Giver. . . .
^
The Returner ....
The Aider
w
-
The Maker
Independent
^**M
The Able One . .
The Meter Out . .
;
"Who hath not been
begotten
The
Postponer
. .
The Believer . . .
The
Confiding
One .
The
Advantageous
One
j-JUl
i
The Good Patron .
^Jd\
>*5
The Good Aider . .
}
^\
**J
The
Light
jJl
The Perceiver . . .
te*-\^\
The Sole One ....
te~\}\
I
The Inheritor . .
CJ^Ul
|
The
Ample
One ...
-j-J^V
The
Adjoining
One . .
^J\f\
TheMost Affectionate One
tyfi
The
Comprehensive
One
*-*-*^l
The Guardian . . .
J^V
The
Yery
Next
Adjoining
One
The All Bestower .
c-;lS^l
The Eoad Guide . . -jUi
THE FOUR KHALIFS. ^
THE FOUR KHALIFS.
The four orthodox
Ivhalifs, Imams,
or Immediate successors of
the
Prophet,
are
^Lc
-
(jUls
~
j^z. -^^\
. Their names
appear
very commonly
on
coins,
often
arranged
around the central
legend
or obverse area. Sometimes their L-^! or title is also added. "What
these titles are will be seen from the
following
coin
legends.
Abu Bakr the faithful
witness,
Umar the
timid,
Uthman the
father of two
lights,
Ali the chosen.
The
same,
with the definitive
Jl prefixed
to the titles. On
the Dehli coins the
Ji
is
prefixed
to the titles
very
irregularly,
one or two
having it,
the others not.
Abu Bakr the faithful
witness,
Umar the
eloquent,
Uthman
the
defender,
Ali the chosen.
Abu Bakr the faithful
witness,
God reward
him,
Umar the
timid,
G-od reward
him,
Uthman the lord of two
lights,
Grod reward
him,
Ali the
chosen,
^od^xawa*44irm.
Abu
Bakr, Umar, Uthman,
Haidar
(i.e. Ali).
By
the truth of Abu
Bakr,
by
the
justice
of
Umar,
by
the
modesty
of
Uthman, by
the wisdom of Ali.
By
the truth of Abu
Bakr,
the
justice
of
Umar,
the
modesty
of
Uthman,
and wisdom of Ali.
^b
^Lc
^Uifr
(J^^fr
J
j^^j ^!
By
the truth of Abu
Bakr,
justice
of
Umar,
meekness of
Uthman,
wisdom of Ali.
COALMAN NUMISMATICS.
THE TWELVE IMAMS,
The Shiahs claim as the
only legitimate
Khalifs or successors
of the
Prophet,
his son-in-law
All,
husband of
Fatima,
and their
descendants to the number of
twelve,
the last of whom is to
reappear
as the Hahdi or Director before the end of the world.
cU-ii or i---i! or
SON OF PATRONYMIC. TITLE.
AbuTalib
i
Chosen.
Lion of God.
2.
^^
Ali
3.
<*
4.
All
s- Husain
5.
6. Jbt^-
s
7-
Js-.
Aba Abdallnh
Abu ^Muhammad
.. t
w
Pleasing.
\ The
Martyr.
Prince
by
birth.
c Lord of the
servants of God.
\ Ornament of the
servants of God.
The"Worshipper.
Ali Zain Abu Ja'far
yLJI
The Great.
al-Abidin.
^luhammad Abu Abdallah
j
oLall The Just.
al-Bakir
\~**Y*
Ja'far Abul Hasan JiliSl The Silent.
Abu Ibrahim
Abu Abdallah
8. U Musa Abul Hasan *UJ1 The
Pleasing.
9. Aliar-Eaza Eakir
Abu Ja'far Sani
The Chosen.
The Pious.
The Liberal.
THE TWELVE 13IA3IS.
10,
^^
or
SON OF PATRONYMIC.
^s.
Muhammad Abul Hasan
al-Taki
11.
TITLE.
^\
The Pure.
*
jUl The Director.
\ The Soldier.
J! The Tirtuotis.
The Soldier.
The Pure.
Coming.
Alial-ffaki Abu
Muhammad
12. ^s'* Hasan al- Abul Ivasim
Askari
tlsf*-
Hajjat
JL? Good.
,_c^f
Mahdi
Their names and attributes are on coins of Shiah
kings, notably
on some of
Uljaitu, Mongol
of
Persia,
and other more recent
Persian
kings.
*
The
blessing
of God be on Muhammad and
Ali,
and Hasan
and
Husain,
etc.
The same
legend
with the addition of Hs^-\ the
'
proof,'
after
the name of the last Imam.
God bless Muhammad the
Chosen,
and Ali the
Friend,
and
Hasan
[the Pleasing],
and Husain the
Martyr,
and Ali
the Ornament of the Servants of
God,
and Muhammad
the
Great,
and Ja'far the
True,
and Musa the
Silent,
and
Ali the
Pleasing,
and Muhammad the
Liberal,
and Ali
the
Director,
and Hasan the
Soldier,
and Muhammad the
Coming
Proof.
46
JIUSADIAN SCHISirATICS,
! ,
,
<
J,1 , JI
,
L
y
(Jy
y
jj-^ (J
God Mess the
Prophet,
and the
Friend,
and the
Virgin,
and
the two Gentle
Ones,
and the
"Worshipper,
and the Great
One,
and the
Just,
and the
Silent,
and the
Pleasing,
and
the
Pious,
and the
Chaste,
and the
Pure,
and the llahdi.
Patimi,
the
daughter
of Muhammad and wife of
Ali,
is here
referred to under the title of the
Virgin
;
the two Gentle Ones are
Hasan and Husak
a a
y
O
-/
Ali is the favourite of God.
iSJ!
J^
1^
Ali is the most excellent of the Commissioners
[of God],
and
the Vazir of the best of the
Messengers
(S.
Lane
Poole).
Ali is the test of God's elect,
iUl
IP
CLASSIFICAIIOf
OF COIIAGES,
In the
introduction,
to the first volume of the British Museum
Oriental
Coins
Catalogue
it is
said,"
These
plohammadan dynasties]
will
be
arranged
in the order
proposed
and
adopted by
Fraehn,"
and in other
books on Oriental numismatics reference is made to
such and such a class. But Fraehn's
arrangement
is not to be
easily
found,
although
so
spoken
of as if it were
generally
known.
It is here
given
in the
original
form as
published
in the Nova
Supplementa"
of that
author,
ed. B.
Born,
1855
;
and
alongside
each class is added the name of it as used in this book and in
modern books
generally,
and the volume of the
Catalogue
of
Oriental
Coins of the British Museum in which the class is
described.
It will be seen that
many coinages
are not included in Fraehn's
list, notably
the
Kings
of Dehli and the ITuhamniadan States of
India. He himseli made some
appendices,
and
Dorn, Soret,
and
others did the same. Mr.
Stanley
Lane
Poole, however,
in his
"
Mohammadan
Dynasties/'
a book of the
highest
value to the
student of Oriental
numismatics,
adopts
an
arrangement
of the
dynasties,
after the Khalifs of
Baghdad,
in
geographical
order from
west to
east,
i.e. from
Spain
to
India,
with certain modifications
arising
from historical
sequence
;
and that
arrangement
is one
which,
probably,
will now be
generally
followed.
This table of classification will
also,
it is
hoped,
remove some
difficulties as to names or
synonyms
used
by
writers
;
for
instance,
Chulaguidse
and
Hulaguidi
for the Ilkhans or
Mongols
of
Persia,
DschutschidsDj Dsehudschidse,
and
Jujidse
for the Ehans of the
Golden
Horde,
Ileki and Eelik for the Khans of
Turkistan,
Patani
for Pathan
Kings
of
Dehli, Sebaktiginiclse
for the Ghaznawi or
Kings
of
Ghazni,
and Babaridse for the
Moghul Emperors
of Dehli,
Ml'SAKMAX ^rMIS3
'S CONSPECTUS CLASSIOL CLASSES AS GIVES or THIS BOOK,
Claris.
L Chalifcc
Uniaijada?.
II. Chalifce Abbasidss.
III. Chalifoe
Umaijadio
in
Hispania.
Ecguli
3Inrciie et
Talenciiu.
Eeguli Hispanire
:
Dhirl Xun.
Imanii Edrisidoe in
Mauritania.
Emiri
Aghlebida?.
IT. Emiri Tahiridsc.
Y. Sofiaridic.
TI. Emiri Samanidse.
Eeges Bulgharorum
Wolganoruin.
Emiriis Scheddadides.
VII. Chani Turkistaniso s.
Held.
VIII, Sultani Ghasnewidac
s.
Sibuktiginida).
Vnia. Glmridee.
IX. Choresmiscliahi.
X. Emiri BuweihidsB.
Hamdanid^.
Principes Sijaridaa.
XI. Einiri Okeilidse.
Einiri Merwanidae.
TV.
r.f
Z.3L Cat,
Umayyad.
i
Abbasid.
,,
Spanish Umayyad.
ii
Hamniudid, Abbadid,
Zayrid,
Jahwarid,
Amirid,
HudicL
Kings
of Denia and Murcia.
,,
l^unid, Xasrid.
,,
Idiisid.
, ;
Aghlabid,
Tulunid,
Ikhshidid.
, ,
Tahirid.
Saffarid.
Samanid,
Sajid,
Dulafid.
,,
Khan of
Wolffa-Bulghan. ,,
Khans of Turkistan.
Ghaznawi.
Ghurid.
Shahs of Khwarizni.
Buwayhid.
Hamdanid.
Ziyarid.
Governors of
Sijistan.
Kakwayhid.
Ukaylid.
Marwanid,
Mirdasid.
CLASSIFICATION OF COINAGES. 49
EEAEEN'S CONSPECTUS CLASSIUM. CLASSES AS GIVEN IN THIS BOOK.
Vol.
of
J5.il/. Cat Ctassis.
XII. Sultani Seldschukidce
A. In Persia.
B. In Asia 3iinore.
XIII. OrtokidBB.
A.
RegesMaredini.
B.
Eeges
Keifse.
XIV. Atabeki.
A. llosulensis.
B. Helebensis.
C. Sindscharensis.
D. In Dschesiret
ibn Oman.
DD. Aserbeidscha-
E,
Buktiginidse.
XIV. Chalifae Patimida).
XlVfla. Murabitse.
XIVJ. Muwahliidaj.
XV. Sultani
Aijubidse.
A. In
JGgypto
et
Syria.
B. In Haleb.
BB. In Hama.
C.
InMeyafarekin.
Great
Saljuks.
Saljuks
of
Elarman,
of
Toknaristan,
of Irak.
Of
al-Eum,
of Arzarum.
Burid, Saldukid,
BaEisn-
mandid.
Urfcukid of Maridin.
TJrtukid of
Kayfa.
Zangid.
of MosiL
of Halak
j,
of
Sinjar.
of Jazirah.
Atabegs
of
Azarbaijan.
Salgharid
of
Earis, Kings
of Ahar.
Buktiginid,
Eatimid.
Murabit.
Huwahhid.
Hafsid, Ziyanid,
Hudid
;
Marinid.
Ayyubid.
Of
Egypt,
Damascus,
Aleppo, Mesopotamia,
Hainan, Hinis,
and
Arabia.
B.
Dsclianidas,
Bocliarenses.
C. Chokandenses.
D. Chrwenses.
Janid of
Astrakhan,
Mangit
of Bukhara.
Khans of Khokand.
Khans of
Khiva,
Amir
of
Kashghar.
Amirs of Budlis.
XXIY.
ImperatoresBaberidse
Eehli
Emperors
(Emperors
Tipu
Sultan Meisur-
Mysore
Sultan.
ensis.
Cananore,
Atschin. South
India,
Achin.
Xepal, Assam,
Ceylon
(not Musalman).
Xone.
*T.X.
Xepalenses,
Assamenses,
Ceylonenses.
XXY. A.
Kara-Kojunli.
B.
Ak-Kojunli.
C. Schirwanschahi.
Kara-Kuyunlid.
Ak-Kuyunlid.
Shirwan Shahs.
Till
Vll
CLASSIFICATION OP COINAGES.
51
PRAEHX'S CONSPECTUS CLASSIUH. CLASSES AS GIVEX ix THIS BOOK.
Vol.
of
Claris.
B.M. Cat.
XXV.
Sefidcc,
Oweisidse.
Safavid,
Afghan,
\
^
Efscharidoc,
Sendidoj. Afsharid
} Zand,
/
Ivatscharidie.
Kajar.
A. Chani Caucasici.
a. Chanatus Derben-
densis.
I. Chanatus
Schirwanensis.
c. Chanatus
Schekiensis.
d. Chanatus
Karabaahensis.
Amirs of Asia Minor. viii
XXVI. Sultani Osmanidas. Othmanli.
XXVII, Scherifi Mauritania}. Sharifs of
Morocco,
Hasani.
and Filili.
v
A. Abd-ul-Kadir. Abd al-Kadir.
B. Imami Arabia)
Jukyhid, Zurayid,
Easulid,
Felicis.
Eassid,
Imams of Sana.
J?
XXVIII.
Afghani.
KN. Asisc
Centralis.
Durrani,
Barakzai.
Central Asian.
Xone.
Appendix
I. a. A.
Eeges Kings
of
Spain.
Hispania}.
A. Xorraanni Xorman
Kings
of
Sicily.
,,
Eeges
Sicilia3.
a.B.
Eeges Georgia
-
Antiqidores.
B.
Eeges
Pagratida?.
XX.
Georg.
a Eussis
Kings
of
Georgia.
MUSALUAX NUMISMATICS.
Vs COXSPECTUS CLASSIFM. CLASSES AS GIVES* ix THIS BOOK.,
VoL
of
3.3T. Oaf. Class!s.
C.
Europseorum
in
India Orientali
Collegia
llercatoria.
'Num.
I/usit.
Appendix
II. X.X. lluhamina-
dani Incerti.
E.L
Company
and
Malay
Settlements.
Pathan
Kings
of Dehli.
'
Governors and
Kings
of
Bengal.
Governors of Sind.
Kings
of Kashmir.
Kings
of
Jaunpur.
Kings
of Malwah. and
Gujarat.
Bahmani Kin^s.
Emperors,
None.
v
11
CLASSIFICATION OP COINAGES.
51
PRAEHX'S CONSPECTUS CLASSIUH. CLASSES AS GIVEX ix THIS BOOK.
Vol.
of
Claris.
B.M. Cat.
XXV.
Sefidcc,
Oweisidse.
Safavid,
Afghan,
\
^
Efscharidoc,
Sendidoj. Afsharid
} Zand,
/
Ivatscharidie.
Kajar.
A. Chani Caucasici.
a. Chanatus Derben-
densis.
I. Chanatus
Schirwanensis.
c. Chanatus
Schekiensis.
d. Chanatus
Karabaahensis.
Amirs of Asia Minor. viii
XXVI. Sultani Osmanidas. Othmanli.
XXVII, Scherifi Mauritania}. Sharifs of
Morocco,
Hasani.
and Filili.
v
A. Abd-ul-Kadir. Abd al-Kadir.
B. Imami Arabia)
Jukyhid, Zurayid,
Easulid,
Felicis.
Eassid,
Imams of Sana.
J?
XXVIII.
Afghani.
KN. Asisc
Centralis.
Durrani,
Barakzai.
Central Asian.
Xone.
Appendix
I. a. A.
Eeges Kings
of
Spain.
Hispania}.
A. Xorraanni Xorman
Kings
of
Sicily.
,,
Eeges
Sicilia3.
a.B.
Eeges Georgia
-
Antiqidores.
B.
Eeges
Pagratida?.
XX.
Georg.
a Eussis
Kings
of
Georgia.
0*
MTSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
^\jiL: J
Jt2
Jyt*u*
(a
governor)
-
V
I
^j
Baysunkur Ak-Kuyunlid.
A
l1 ;t-J
J-X- ^ILL:
<_**! Yaku
Ak-Kuy
mil-id. On Alimad Sliali's.
^L'i
*^
^lliL;
Ptiistam
(a governor)
-
J^
<U V
'
JU&
^
<k
On Abu Said's.
.
J
J
. vr
^u>^u ^
,!ijb
(jllsLc J
Ai On coins of Husain Baikara
(governor).
^. The
meaning
of ~*** Is still doubtful.
The
following
counter-marks are on
Shaybanid
coins :
c-:
J
Ai
Most of the
places
mentioned here will be found in the list of
mint
towns,
but others are uncertain
; they
are
given chiefly
on
the
authority
of Tiesenhausen.
A coin of Pir Buclak and Yusuf
Fuyan, Kara-Kuyunlid,
is
counter-marked AT T
^^U^
;
the date is
probably
an error for
Al 1 .
Eustanij
Ak-Kuyunlid
?
counter-marked coins of his
pre-
decessor,
Yakub
^U- *z~aj
^llsLs J
dj: .
On a coin of Ala
al-Din,
Karaman
Amir,
is a counter-strike <d!
;
and one of Muhammad
Artin,
Amir of
Mantasha,
is counter-struck
with a Solomon's
seal,
a mark used
by
the Othmanlis.
^U^Lc
is counter-struck on a coin of G-hazan
Mahrnud, Mongol
of
Persia,
and
^
on Jalair coins. One of
Shaykh
Hasan
Buzurg
and
many
of
Shaykh Oways
bear
counter-marks,
-
*
COUXTER-2IAHKS. 55
*
; 1 U
\
\ t , ;
-
"f
{ *"' -
v^Hy
-
crr!^-
-
^.p*
'
some
Caving
on tliem both one of the niint-nanies and also
-^p- d!\ .
These counter-marks
are of various
shapes^
round, oral,
multi-
foil,
etc., having usually
within double lines the words in small
letters
arranged
in a
pattern,
and are often hard to
decipher.
The coins of the Native States of India often bear marks of
stamping
with
punches
of various
shapes,
known in that
country
as shrof-marks
; they
are made
by money-changers,
uJU*s, sarraf,
commonly
called
shrof,
in the bazaars as
private
marks for
currency purposes,
and also to see whether the coin is
really
all
silver or
gold
or a baser metal coated
over,
and
they correspond
pretty
much to the
chop-marks
made on dollars in China. Counter-
marks are not common on
them,
but
occasionally
^sft
or some other
JNagari
letter or two
may
be seen.
56
MUSAL31AX XOI
The names of iiusalmans are not
easy
to
understand,
and are
often a
difficulty
to the student. The
following,
taken
mainly
from an article on
*'
The
Proper
Xames of the
Ifohammadans,"
by
Sir T, E. Colebrooke
(Royal
Asiatic
Society's
Journal, 1879),
will
explain
the
system.
The
different classes of
proper
names are seven :
1. The
^L?
,
Alam,
is the
proper
name of the individual.
Among
the Musalmans there are no
family
names as in
Europe,
and the Alam
corresponds nearly
with the Christian
name,
as it is
given
soon after birth or at
circumcision,
and is
that
by
which he is
familiarly
known.
2. The
<L^ ,
Ejinyat,
is the name of
relationship,
as when a
person
is described as the
father, son, mother,
or
daughter
of some
other
person
or
object.
3. The u-^JL!
, Lakab,
includes titles of
honour, religious
and
political,
and terms of
reproach, descending
even to
personal
defects.
4.
i.AwJ^, al-Ansab,
or L^-W*J
*
J
, Ism-i-nisbat,
name of
relations as to
origin,
kindred,
land of birth or
adoption,
religion,
trade or
business, personal
or other
peculiarities,
etc.
5. <uLJI
, al-Alamat,
certain titles borne
by princes
which are not
reckoned
among
the
personal appellations,
but
appear
in
diplomas
or in the
heading
of State documents.
6. The
(j\^y
Anwan,
titles of honour
applied
to others than
princes.
7. The
u^s*,
Makhalas,
or
u
AsC, Takhallas,
the name of
fancy
assumed
by poets.
The Alam are
arranged
under three
heads,
viz. :
(1)
Names
borne
by
Muhammad's own.
family
or his
companions, including
the name of the
Prophet
himself in its threefold form
PROPER NAMES. 07
the
praised,
^z~\ the most
praised,
and **** the
praised),
JUJsU -
(juz
,
the first four Khalifs and the twelve Imams.
(2)
Sanies of
patriarchs
and
prophets
mentioned in the
Koran,
such
as >jl
Adam,
iJU.^
Seth,
(^.^
Enoch,
- J
^oah,
>U
Shem,
^Jb^jl
Abraham, J-ow-sl
Ishmael,
fj^s^\
Isaac,
<>*
Jacob,
_
L^rl
Joseph,
L-^-jt-i
Jethro,
J^y
Hoses,
^,b>
Aaron,
c^yj
Job,
L^J^-J
Jonah,
!?jJ
Lot,
CJ*Jli
Saul,
Jjlj
David,
^l^Ls
Solomon,
^-^
Zechariah,
y
.~?
j-s
Ezra,
u-Ul
Elias,
^c"^
Jesus,
.^sT
John,
jyb
Hud,
&\y*\
Imran.
(3)
<d!l A
f
,
servant of
G-od,
and its
synonyms,
i.e. servant of God under
any
other of His
names, e.g.
Some of these are also included under Lakab.
The
Kunyat might
be translated as the surname or
cognomen ;
it is made
up generally
of *>\
father,
or
^\
son,
with the name of
the father or
son,
as
J^-s*^
*J\ -
s*~^ [^j\
,
or with some other
word
making
a sort of character
name,
sobriquet,
or
nickname,
such as
ija&>-
*}\ father of a
young lion, ^j
**\ father of
victory.
Under this class come such surnames as
Babar, Arghun, Aghlib,
Arslan, Timur,
and others.
The
Lakab,
or
honorary title,
is
applied
either in the form of
a
compound,
of which those
expressive
of zeal for the faith or of
political importance
are the most
common,
or
by
a
single
word or
epithet,
like the
Augustus, Pius,
or Felix of the Romans. The
Lakab is
largely
used
upon
coins, and
ruling princes
are more
known
by
it than
by
their Alain or
Ivanyat.
A list of those found
oa llusalman coins is
given
below,
and as a
help
in
attributing
coins the class or
dynasty
in which the
particular
title was used
is added.
The al-Ansab and the Takhallas need not be considered with
regard
to
coin-legends,
but the al-Alamat and the Anwan are of
much interest in
numismatics,
as the
kingly
titles are in
many
cases characteristic or
peculiar
to the
dynasty ;
a list of them is
therefore
given
of a similar kind to that of the Lakab.
(Lakab).
Gujarat,
Brother. +\
Choosing
the
Country
and
Pteligion. ,.;
J! t Lo oJ!
^U->-
-
Bengal.
Lion of the State, IS.jJi jJ
Shaybanid.
Alexander Bahadur.
,jl#
,
Dehli
Kings.
Of the
Age.
^UjJ!
Good Fortune of the State.
<LL\il
JU-I
Kings
of Denia and
Majorca.
Abbasid. The
Trusty.
^
Dehli
King.
Amir of the Faithful,
^f^y
Ghaznawid. Of the Faith.
Atabegs. Zangid,
Marnluk.
^jSljU^I
Full Moon,
Zangid.
Ghaznavid.
Paleinbang Eaja.
^^
Georgia,
Of the Messiah.
Slave. ^JuJ-
Of the Shah of the
illayat,
i.e. Ali. c-AUU
Shah of
Persia.
Dehli
King (Muhammad
b.
Taghlak).
Dependent.
,lJu*l
Hudid. Ghurid.
^jjJL
UjJl
Splendour. \$
Buwayhid.
Marwanid. Hudid, Ceuta
Kings.
iljdSl
Ukaylid.
Chief of Batika. Turkistan.
Samanid, Ghurid,
HONORARY TITLES. 5
Dehli
Kings.
Bahmani.
^OuK
Ljol Crown. _
Hudicl. Ghaznawid.
King
of
Saragossa.
<LLjJl
Governor of
Sijistan.
&1.^
Sultan of Aehin. Of the World. JUll
Buwayhid.
Sitting
on the Throne.
^j^J
Eajgarh
State
(of
Queen
Victoria).
Ayyubid.
Pious in the Faith.
^
Muwahhid. The Constant.
^^UH
Seeker.
3Iarinicl. ]\Iuwahhid. In the
way
of God. <d!\
J^f*
5
1^
->>
^jJljLj^
Glory. JL>-
Golden Horde. Dehli
Kings. Bengal. Georgia.
Shah of Msabur.
Saljuk.
Ghaznawid. Mirdasicl. il jJ\ .
Golden Horde. Jalair.
Bengal.
^i^\
Dehli
Emperor.
Kashmir. Khwarizm.
Dehli
Queen
Eizia.
^JJi ^
Lj
Shah Inchu Ahu Ishak.
&^\
j
^
^
Beauty.
Bnrid. Mamluk.
Ghaznawid.
il^ll
Aehin. JUS!
Ghaznawid. <ILJI
Ukaylid.
<L!jd!\
Hand,
^.l
Dehli
Emperor. Conqueror
of the World.
Fatimid. aJJl
^d!
Guardian.
Ghaznawid.
Of the mark of God. <d!l
^Lt
60
MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Ayrubid.
Maniluk. Dehli
King.
Fatimid.
Judge.
Dehli
Kings
and
Emperors.
E.I. Co.
^JJ
Defender.
Indian States.
Bahmani.
Mamluk.
Saraanid,
Ukaylid. King
of Toledo.
Urtukid. ITamluk.
Georgia.
jSasricL Idrisid. Zairid.
Moorish.
Mongols
of Persia.
Dehli
Emperor.
Imam of Sana.
Tabaristan.
Abbasid.
HndicL
Abbasid.
Spanish King
of Teifa.
Abbasid. Dulafid.
Abbasid. Tahirid.
Behli
Emperor.
Sword. *L
i
Beautr.
Slave of God.
Just Ruler. J?ji J
One who invokes
(God).
^J
<U;i
, }
To the truth.
jLsJi
Jl
Holder of two offices.
M
^o-l> J! J
U/" "J ^
Of two dominions. .J'jLJl & j
Of two swords.
Of two
glories. t.;
j
Of two vizicratcs.
(
,*-J
,1
;S\ j
Of two
right
hands.
Asylum
of the Faith.
Dehli
King. Hoper
for tie
mercy
of God the bountiful.
HONORARY TITLES, 61
Saljuk (
Abbasid
Khalif).
<d!b Orthodox.
Abbasicl. Samanid.
Buwayhid.
Easid. <dib Content.
\
Abbasid. Marinid. MuwahMd. <d!b The Guider. J
Spanish
Abbasid.
Mirdasid. Zl*d\
Abbasid
(All).
The
Pleasing.
Dehli
Queen
Bizia.
^AlLuJwvH
Accepted.
Of eminent
degree.
^j^}\
c^W,\!!
Dehli
Emperor.
Indian State
Saronj (of
Queen
Victoria)
.
Behli
Emperor.
Ll^l\
Saljuk.
^L4
!
l Pillar.
Saljuk.
Maoiluk.
^oJl^LjjJ
Turldstan. Dehli
Kings. Bengal.
Saljuk. Ziyarid. Buwayhid.
LLjJ
Urtukid.
Zangid.
Amul Prince.
Saljuk.
Urtukid. Khwarizm. Achin.
^^\
TJkaylid.
Leader of the State.
JjjJl
Achin
Queen.
Pure in the Eaith.
Of the servants of God.
^UH
Ornament.
Kashmir. Filili Sharifs.
Mamluk.
^jJ
Buktiginid.
Mamluk.
Ghaznawid.
Shadow of Divine Favour, ill
J^
Dehli
Emperor (Shah Alam)
.
Ghaznawid. Abbadid.
ty<d\
Lamp.
J\^-
Dehli
Emperor (Bahadur Shah).
^i^'
62
MUSALHAN NUMISMATICS.
Eamdanid.
<LhjJJ
Felicity.
liarlnicL llamluk.
The Fortunate.
DehiiKing.
The Second.
.jW
Alexander.
Dehli
Emperor
3Iurad Bakhsh.
Bengal.
Afalwah.
Bengal. Jondhpur.
d.
KakwayMd,
^jj\
Eminence. *U
Bahmani.
"Worthy
to "be called the
^^J
^
J*^
5-
"V*
friend of the
Compassionate.
Kakwayhid.
ILjJI
Light.
Kakwayhid.
Ghaznawid.
IS^!I
Spear.
Samanid.
lUl
1
!
Prop.
Ayyubid.
Burid.
Easnlid.
^iL!l!i
Sword.
G-haznawid.
^JJI
King
of Sana. Yaman.
,*U^
Danishmandid. Dehli
King.
Mamluk. Behli
Kings.
Jaimpur.
Bengal.
Sind.
Samanid. Ghaznawid. Hamdanid.
Zangid.
L!
Zairid. Hudid.
Turkistan.
TJrtukid. Fatirnid.
AyynMd. Zangid. ^
li
King.
King
of Tortosa.
Mirdasid-
Whelp.
HONORARY TITLES. 63
Ghaznawid.
Ail I
Glory.
<_J
Spanish Iloiayyad. Buwayhid.
Zairicl. Toledo. &$*^\
1'kaylid.
Turlastan.
Aubid.
i-^
Danishmandid.
Atabeg. DeliliKing.
^.jJJKLjj^
Sun.
Bengal. Gujarat.
Bahmani.
Jaunpnr.
BuwayMcl.
Atabeg.
Turldstan. Budlis. .\*^\
Urtukid.
Atabeg.
Budlis. Kasulid. Hashmir,
^Jdll
DeHi
Kings
and
Emperors.
Buwayhid. Saljnk.
1UH
Ziyarid.
Eminence.
JLwJl
Burid.
ol*3\
v*
Behli
Kings. Bengal.
^jJ^
LjjJ\
Bright
Star.
Dehli
Emperor (Jahangir).
Ghaznawid. Turkistan. dJ
5
j!|
Behli
Emperor (Shah Jahan).
Kashmir.
^^
Burid. Maniluk.
Tunis. Just.
Ayyubid.
ITamluk. Hadramaut. Good.
ISTasrid.
Little.
Queen
of Achin. ^
Brightness,
Zangid. Ayyubid.
Maniluk. Rectitude. -L>
Ayyubid.
Mamluk.
Buktiginid.
Easulid.
^jJl^
LjjJ\
Ayyubid.
amluk. Easulid. Achin.
^Jl
Buwayhid.
Mirdasid.
I^t
Keen Sword. *
Easulid.
^\ Lion.
64 3IUSAL3IAN
Budlis.
Buwayhid.
llarwanid.
Ukaylid.
Batiha.
Barakzai 'Abel
al-Rahman)
Abbasid.
Buwayhid.
Sataanid.
Ziyarid. Sijistan.
Abbasid. Idrisid. Uncertain Moorish,
Abbasid.
Ayyubid.
Fatimid,
Idrisid.
Abbasid.
Saljuk.
cd
Ayyubid.
MainInk. Dehli
Xing.
Fatimic'L
Dehli
King,
Saljuk. Malay.
A chin.
Saljuk.
Shah of Persia
(Abbas
III).
Lucknow.
Ghaznawid.
Ziyarid. Kakwayhid.
Kashmir. Dehli
Emperor.
Georgia.
Ghaznawid.
Danishmandid.
Ayyubid.
Ayyubid.
Idrisid.
Very commonly
used.
Eatimid.
Shaybanid.
Light.
Lc=
Obedient.
Conqueror.
Jit
[i Manifest.
Shadow.
Ji
Supporter. -^
The Just.
<d!b Excellent.
<d!l Slave. tX-
Of God and his
"Waliyat.
iJj j
<dll
HONORARY TITLES.
Abbasid. Fatimid. Othmanii.
Dehli
King (Muhammad
b.
Taghiak).
The Aster.
Spanish Umayyad. Ziyanid,
Filili Sharif.
Afghanistan.
Sintl.
Fatimid.
Ghaznawid.
Dehli
Eing.
Abbas.
Umayyad.
Hafsid. Marinid.
King
of Mercia.
Othmanli.
Kashghar.
Sharif of Morocco.
Abbasid.
Shaybanid.
Fatimid. Othmanli.
'
Bahmani. The Adored One.
Umayyad.
Abbasid.
Spanish Umayyad.
Samanid. Yalencia. Sharifs of Morocco.
Marinid. Muwahhid.
Shaybanid.
^^
lluwahhid. d^
Abbasid.
Shaybanid.
<dil Little Slave.
Abbasid.
Buktiginid.
e^^J
^^ Bisposition.
Zangid.
Urtnkid.
Ayyubid.
Ghaznawid. Hamdanid.
^^\
Saljuk.
^\
Saljuk. Zangid.
Dehli
Kings.
^^11^
LjjJl
Glory.
Bengal.
Shirwan Shah.
^^\ ^
Buwayhid.
Ghaznawid.
Ghaznawid.
Zangid.
Saldutid. Danishmandid.
Mamluk.
Buwayhid.
5
66 MTJSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
Fatimid. Avrubid. Uanxhik, Golden Horde. Excellent, j *.^
>*>
Fatiinid. <d!'j
Dchli
Emperor (Ahmad Shall).
E.I. Co.
^j
jjl
Bengal Kings.
<.d!! 4jLL>- Arm. j*is
Buwayhid. Spanish
Abbasid.
Spanish Kings.
<L!.jJ\
Ghaznawid.
Saljuk. Zangld. Siyarid.
Msabur.
^
jj K
i!j
Jvl I
Ghaznawid.
Kakwayhid. Saljuk. Sijistan.
&:.^
KakwayMd.
TJrtukid.
^^
*\J^.\
Glory.
Is.
Saljuk.
Ehwarizm. Kisabin. Mamluk.
llongols
of Persia. Karainan. Dehli
Kings.
llalwah.
Bengal.
Bahmani.
Kakvayhid.
Ghaznawid. Malwah.
*JjjJ\
,,
Ghaznawid. Khwarizm. Xaraman. Kashmir.
, ^j^i
(*s
Bahmani. Malwah. Achin.
Bengal.
^l]
*
jJ\
Ukaylid.
&i^\
Knowing.
*k~
Buwayhid.
Urtukid.
^oil^
UjjH Pillar. jUt
Zangid. Ayynbid.
Mamlnk.
Hudid.
Saragossa.
Denia.
Buwayhid.
<LLjJl
??
Ghaznawid.
Saljuk.
Buwayhid.
Urtukid.
Zangid.
&}.^
Danishmandid. Mamluk.
Saljuk.
^.^\
Pillar or
Support. Saljuk.
Abbasid.
llarwanid.
Banishmandid.
Khokand.
i!^jj\
Chief or
Safety.
Of the Amirs.
\j*$\
Bridle.
Hu^\
Eye.
<dSl
Champion.
HONORARY TITLES.
67
Xasrid. Marwankl. Ghaznawid.
d!b
Overcoming.
e^'U
Luckno\v.
^*rl~
x''
??
Xasricl.
&J'o Rich,
^^i
Bengal.
^Lu^i *!L/J! Defender. eL?*~
Buwayhid.
^U^ Assister.
cL?^
Siiliuk. Mongols of Persia.
'
,.
s
'j,;^ Ljjll
J
^-
LL" v
'
Shahs of Persia.
Zangid.
Ghnrid. Othmanli.
Dehli
Kings. Bengal.
South India.
Gujarat.
Bahmani.
Golden Horde. LA! 1
^\
Saljuk.
Urtukicl. Ghnrid. Golden Horde.
&:\^
?
Khwarizm.
Ayyubid.
Malwah.
Gujarat.
Fatimid. t&\
j&j
Overcoiner.
j5U
Durrani. War.
L*\i5f Victory,
^vi
Bengal.
^.jiU
LjjJ\
J}
Shah of Persia. Az
,,
Ghaznawid. in-l
Glory.
*sr
Bengal.
^ji\j
UjjJ!
Buwayhid. Saljuk.
l!.jj\
Ghaznawid. Urtukicl. Danishmandid. Mamluk.
,.tJ^H
{
^.
}}
Saljuk.
^1^!!
Dehli
King (Shir Shah).
^oM
. LJ jJI Pearl. JuJ
Abbasid. Excellence.
J*s
Hamdanid,
^111
Xasricl.
Preceptor.
iJii
Buwayhid.
i^Sl Orbit or
Ship.
Ziyarid. High
Matters.
JUJ1
05
31USALMA3? XOII83IATICS.
Abbasid.
Buwayhid.
Ghaznawid. <dl'o Powerful.
,jj
Kakwayhitl.
3Iarwanid. Turkistan. Toledo.
Ximitl Amirid. Teifa, Valencia.
Spanish Umayyad.
Hammudid. Idrisid. Distributor.
*J3
Fatimid.
Abbasicl.
Saljuk.
AJJl?
Conqueror.
JbU
Bengal.
Of the Enemies of God. A!!! 1 J^3
Ghaznawid.
Abbasicl. Ghaznawid.
Buwayhid. Saljuk.
Stedfast. J
Turkistan. Patimid.
Lliaylici
Fatimid.
Ayyubicl
ajjb
Abbasid. Muwaahid. Ghaznawid.
Saljuk.
<d!|
^sb
,
?
Eakwayliid.
Turkistan. Eatimid. Mamluk.
Hafsid. Hasani Sharifs. MurabiticL
Ghaznawid.
By
the Decree of God. <dll (c^s^
/
Mamluk.
Bengal.
^x^43\
.^ Companion.
Ghaznawid.
^^^a^Sl
.^/tl
L
Zangid.
Dehli
lung.
^\j
LJjil Pole Star.
Gu
j
arat. South India.
Turkistan.
^JjjJl
Buktiginid.
TJrtukid.
Zangid.' Saljuk.
^jJl
Ehwarizm. Dehli
Kings. Gujarat.
Kashmir.
Ghaznawid. Marwanid.
Bengal.
i'Jjdii
Moon.
Buwayhid.
iljjJl
Support.
Buwayhid.
^jJI
Urtukicl.
Zangid, Buktiginid. Ayyubicl.
Perfect.
Mamluk.
HONORARY TITLES. 69
Zangid.
^jM
Perfection.
JUS
Ghaznavid.
Bmrayhid.
Kurdish Chief.
/-!!
Asylum.
Haindankl.
U1
Bounty.
Spanish.
Abbasid.
King
of Keifa. Preserved.
Xunid. Muwahhid.
BehliKing.
^jjJIj
LjjJt Warrior,
Hamudid. ^l!b
Strengthened.
Abbasid. Samanid. Ikhshidid. <d! Pious.
Buwayhid.
Hamdanid.
Sijistan.
Xasrid. ^UU
Holding
fast,
Abbasid. Tahirid. ^SJ!
^
Trusting
in God.
Inchu. Sana. Marinid. Hafsid.
Sp. Umayyad.
Cordova. Hudid.
Badajoz. Ziyadid.
Bahmani.
Rasulid. Benia.
Ayyubid.
Warrior.
Gujarat.
iJjA!\
Hudid.
^Ji\
In the Path of God. ^\
JU-M
J
Dehli
King. Bengal.
Buwayhid. TJkaylid. Badajoz,
.1^1
Grandeur.
Kakwayhid.
Cordova. Kurdish Chief.
Urtukid.
^oJ
Burid.
^^
Protector.
Urtukid. Ghaznawid.
Ayyubid.
<L!^*xH
Eeviver.
Mamluk. ^
Saljuk.
Behli
Emperor (Aurangzib).
^
Urtukid.
70
3IUSALMAX NUMIS3IATIC&.
Bengal. Distinguished by
the
^^J,\
c^oUj
Grace of the
Compassionate
One.
iluwahhid. Xasrid.
Eejcctecl
c
lluwahhid.
Sp. Umayyad. Majorca.
Cliosen.
BiiwayMd.
Guardian of Frontier.
Timurid.
,.JjJ\
Guide.
ti/
Dehli
Emperor (Iturad Bakhsh).
^J^
"Wedded to.
Abbasid. <d!L One who seeks
directipn.
Ghaznawid.
Saljuk,
Atabeg.
Abbasid. Msabur.
dlSl^b
Seeker of
Light.
TJrtukid.
2angid. Atabeg. Ayynbid.
Abbasid. Ghaznawid. id!b "Who
implores help.
Sp. Umayyad. Saljnk.
Burid.
Abbasid.
Saljuk.
d)b Who takes fast hold,
Urtukid.
Zangid. Atabeg. Ayyubid.
Mamluk.
Dehli
Kings.
Easulid.
Gujarat.
Bahmani.
Belonging
to al-llust asim
; belonging
to al-Salih.
Mamluk
Queen
Shajar
al-Durr.
Eatimid. Hamudid. IdrisicL ^sJJlj Most
High.
Abbasid. a.Ub Who seeks assistance,
Sp. Umayyad.
Hudid. ISTasrid. Mebla.
Mamluk.
Abbasid, <d!U "Who
puts
his whole trust.
Sp, Umayyad.
Samanid.
Volga Bulghar.
Tuzun.
Yaman.
Buwayhid.
Hamdanid.
Sijistan.
Dehli
Kings. Bengal.
HONORARY TITLES,
71
Abbasid. Urtnkid. ^Ul? "Who
implores help,
Zangid.
<d!b "Who seeks aid.
On
many
varieties of coins of between A.H. 623 and 640.
Also 3Iuwahhid. Fatiaiid. Hafsid. Hammudid.
llarinid.
Sp. TJmayyad.
Dehli
Kings.
Sind.
l
Established
by
God the
Shield,
the
Bahmani.
Ever
Bestowing,
the
Overcoming.
Buwayhid.
4-LiM Exalted.
J
Abbasid. Ikshidid. Sarnanid. <0i Obedient.
-fc-jk*
Buwayhid.
Hamdanid.
Ziyarid. Sijistan.
Yaman
Governors. Amul Prince.
Abbasid.
Ayyubid. Badajoz. Conqueror.
Easulid. Tuzun. Amiricl. 3Iainluk.
Zayrid.
Turkistan. Talencia.
Gujarat.
Buktiginid.
^jtJJl^LjjJ
Buktiginid.
\*jL^\
3 Jj**S
Buktiginid. Mangit. Salgharid.
Yaman.
^JJ
Abbasid. ^uJb "Who is made illustrious.
King
of
Saragossa
and of
Sicily.
Abbasid. Euclid. Valencia. <d!b "Who relies on.
>,
lluwahhid. Easulid. BahmanL
Gujarat.
Abbasid. lluwahhid. Saraanid. <d!b Petitioner.
Dulafid. Tulunid. Muzaffarid. Abbadid.
Dehli
Kings.
Of God the Gracious.
Bahmani.
Dehli
Kings.
0! God the Protector.
NUMISMATICS.
Hammudid. ^b Lion.
Abbasid. Tulunid. ^\
^^L:
"Who relies
upon.
Saffarid. Dawudid. Abbadid. Bulafid.
Ukaylid.
j.ji\
Sp. TJmayyad.
<d!b
Arranged.
Fatimid. ITamlnk.
Zayrid.
"Who honours,
Saljuk. Atabeg,
Hazandaran.
^ojj^
U3^\
DeMi
King.
Kings
of
Denia, Tortosa,
and
Saragossa.
<L!jjJl
BuwayMd,
(xhaznawid.
Saljuk.
Mirdasid.
Saljuk.
Fatimid.
Zangid.
Dehli
Emperors.
&i^
Maldive.
Fatimid.
Ayyubid.
<d!l
^l
Urtukid.
(^^^\
^i\
Fixed.
Urtukid.
^Ul!\
Urtukid.
il^jJl
Saljuk.
Timurid. Dehli
Emperors.
&}^
Buwayhid.
<v^
Giving
aid to.
Saljuk. Atabeg. Bengal.
^jJl ^
LoJl
Othmanli.
,.^A!!
Conqueror.
o
i
Abbasid. Committed to the care of God. <d!\
Jl
Tulunid.
Saffarid. Samanid.
Sijistan.
<d!U Powerful.
Hudid.
Sajid.
Yaman Governor.
Abbasid.
<dl^lj
Abbasid.
Follower of the order of God.
t!&\ ~\i
Ghazna-wid.
Saljuk.
HONORARY TITLES,
The order of God. <d!l
y
.VJ Who follows.
^
Abbasid. Ghaznawid.
Saljuk.
ITazandaran. Murcia.
Abbasid. Tulunid. Saffarid. *Ub Content.
Samanid.
3Iarwanid. cJajJ! Who
lays
the foundation. J^l
Easulid.
&:.^
Abbasid. Hafsid. <dlb
Conqueror.
+*>
Of the Eace of the Divine
Prophet.
*d!l
J^,
J'J
Samanid.
The
Expected
for the Command of God.
di!\^*3^!iu*
Fatimid
interregnum.
Avenger
of God's Enemies for the sake of God's
Religion.
Abbasid
(Kahir).
Abbasid.
Ayynbid.
Fatimid. Protected
Easicl. Samanid. Ghaznawid. 3Iamluk.
^ajahid.
Sp. Umayyad.
Muwahhid.
Kings
of
Valencia,
Ceuta,
Eadajoz,
and Cordova. Hasani Sharifs.
Kings
of
Sicily.
Fatimid.
Ayyubid.
^U
Hafsid.
Eahmani.
Kashmir.
ij^
Illuminating,
Undid. Curator.
Abbasid. Samanid. Hammuclid.
<xi!lj Favoured.
Idrisid. Dulafid. Denia.
Majorca. Badajoz.
uwahhid. ^i!b Faithful,
Samanid. Basulid.
Strengthener
or
Strengthened.
Jo **
Ayyubid.
Mamluk.
Sp. Umayyad.
Undid, Tortosa. <dllj
,
Valencia. Ceuta.
Bengal By
the
help
of the ITereiful.
^^)\
Jj*b
Gujarat. Jaunpur.
Bahmani.
Bu\rayhid.
Bawandid.
<LSjdl!
Samanid. <d!l
^^
??
Turkistan.
Jj\J\ 7J
Bahmani.
i**^
Abbadid. ITarinid. Bahrnani. ^111 .^s^j
>
"
Directing by
the order of God. $\ ^b
^jlf^
King
of
Sicily.
Abbasid. <d!b Guided
aright.
Sp. Umayyad.
Hammudid. d!U Presented.
iFatimid. Easid. Idrisid. Abbadid. Sana.
Buwayhid.
Marwanid. iJtjJi Sincere.
Lovecl of the Amir of the Faithful.
Dehli
Queen
Eizia.
Zangid.
Yalencia. Sana. Hammudid. Defender.
Ayyubid.
Marnluk. Basulid.
Spanish.
Bengal.
Urtukid. Dehli
King. Bengal.
Turkistan.
Urtukid.
Zangid. Ayyubid,
llamluk. Dehli
Kings.
Sind.
Bengal. Gujarat.
Hamclanid. Samanid.
Majorca.
Bawandid.
ii^jJ
Yery commonly
used. *1!1
^^\
and
(
HONORARY TITLES.,
Mamluk.
01 tlie Nazarenes
(Christians).
Norman
Kings
of
Sicily.
Ayyubid.
Urtukid.
Ayyubid.
3Iamluk.
llarwanid.
Kashmir.
Buwayhid.
Dehli
Queen Eizia.
King
of Aliar.
Urtukid, Danishmandid.
Urtukid.
Ghaznawid.
Ghaznawid. Kashmir. Lucknow.
Ghaznawid.
Afghanistan.
Of the World,
Zangid.
Easulid.
Bengal.
Turkistan.
Urtukid. Ghaznawid. Mamlnk.
Dehli
Emperor Jahangir.
Durrani.
Achin
Queen.
Inchu. Marinid. Jalair.
Ahbasid. Hudid. MuwahMd. Hafsid.
Hasani Sharifs. Dehli
Kings, Gujarat.
Gujarat.
Dehli
Kings. Bengal.
Bahmani.
BahmanL
<LL! I
**! 1 Lj A! \ Star.
Helping.
Defence,
Defender.
r Light.
JU!\
Confiding.
ilSb .
76 MUSALHAX NUMISMATICS.
In the
help
of the
Almighty.
^A
Dehli
King
Firuz II.
Khwarizm,
JIalwah. The
Eternal,
the Firm.
,^j*
Inchu. Doubtful. Ji> or
llalwah. The
King
the Protector.
.^Ui
Jalair. The
King,
the
Country. ,l;jJ'
Dehli
Kings.
llamluk.
Queen
llothcr.
Ghaznawid. *d*!l
Veigher.
^u
Son of the Prince of the
Apostles.
ct*L^Jl
^
d*
Bengal (Husain).
Umayyad.
Hasani Sharif, Son. JuL
Abbasid. Guide.
ijjU
Rasid.
ijsA
Jl ?J
Sana. <dii
,jjJ
Rasulid.
lt
,>^\ Lion,
j^
Bengal.
o^y!^S
Eight
Hand.
Dehli
King,
ilalwah.
Bengal,
<J
Ghaznawid.
BEGAL TITLES.
/<'
EEGAL TITLES
(Alamat
and
Aawan).
Imam.
Keligious
Chief.
Chagatai.
Of Amirs. UVJ1
Muwahhid. Hudid. Of the
People.
l^l\
Hasani Sharifs. Of the Imams. <rUj-i
Chagatai.
Dehli
lungs.
The Great. +*zl\
Bengal Kings.
Of the Church of the Messiah. *srUA/*!\ <U.J1
King
of Cordova.
(Of
the
Pope
of
Eome.)
Abbasid. Zand of Persia. Of the Truth.
^J-sT
or
Of the
Age
and the Khalifat. dUrL
Shaybanid.
Ayyubid.
The Manifest.
^U!I ^
alll
Lp-
JJ^b
JUl!
o
The directed
Imam,
the Overseer
by
the Command
of
God,
the Evidence of God
against
the
Creation.
(S.
Lane
Poole.)
Eatiniid
(interregnum).
Saljuk.
^W
tJoljl
Zangid.
Lord Father.
Golden Horde.
King
of the Horde,
ujl^
*A
Amir. Prince. ^\ -
j*
Samanid. Ghaznawid. Most Illustrious.
Hafsid.
Saljuk.
Turkistan.
Buwayhid.
Timurid. The Greatest.
78 MUSAL31AN NI
Bu
way
hid. Gliaznairid.
Kakwayhid.
Of Amirs. .VJ'
Of the
Amirs,
the Directors.
^J
Ju-i J! LVJ1
lluwahhid. Hafsid. Marinid.
Ziyanid.
Samanid. Turkistan.
Illustrious.
JJ^i
,,
Dehli
King.
Protector of the Paith.
,.,
r
jJ
,
Buwayhid.
Ghaznawid. Mirdasid. Lord.
Dehli
Kings.
Of the East and the West. <_>.i!l .
j;
^
Turkistan.
Buwayhicl.
Just.
J^ltl!
King
of Mebla. Of the West
*-^
Alphonso
VIII of
Spain.
Of the Catholics.
^iLii!!
J?
3Iurabit. Manranid. Of the Moslems.
Huclid. ^"asrid. Cordova.
Yaman
King. Conqueror,
.i
Timurid. Eminent.
King
of Mercia. Our Lord.
Very commonly
used.
'
Of the Faithful.
(1^^>
Hamdanid.
Strengthened.
Jo
Mongols
of Persia. Illvhan.
Mongols
of Persia.
Salgharid. ^k^ll
Mongols
of Persia.
King Alphonso
VIII.
King
of Cordova.
Pope,
bb
Mongols
of Persia. Of Islam. >Lsl
King
of Cordova. Of Eome. <U
Mangit.
Padshah. i'Lijb
Mongols
of Persia,
Ji^S
Excellent
King
of the Surface of the Earth.
Ataheg. Zangid.
REGAL TITLES.
Dehli
Emperor
(Earukh Siyar).
Dehli
Emperor. Bhopal.
Dehli
Emperor (Jahandar).
Dehli
Emperor.
Lucknow.
Golden Horde.
Mongols
of Persia.
Salgharid.
Of Sea and Land. 1 & .2
> xV
Begum.
Queen,
Of the World.
Of the
Age.
Of the World.
JL
79
alt jb
Othmanli. Dehli
Emperors.
Kashmir.
Durrani. Native States of India. E.I. Co.
Dehli
Emperor (Azam Shah).
Othmanli.
Saljuk.
Achin
King.
Bengal King,
Mongols
of Persia.
Very commonly
used.
Samanid.
Kings
of
Saragossa,
Cordova,
and Denia.
Dehli
Emperors.
Of Ptcalms.
Pashah.
Princes.
Eegent.
Prince.
Prince.
L-X.^
Chamberlain. L
His
Majesty.
2>Us <
Mongols
of Persia. Shahs of Persia.
Emperor.
Dehli
Emperors.
Astrakan. Turkistan.
Tnrkistan. Timuricl.
Shaybanid.
Jar!
1
Chagatai.
Krim.
Mongols
of Persia.
Shahs of Persia. Greatest,
Shaybanid.
Krim. Most 3s
T
oble.
OthmanlL Of the Two Seas.
80 MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Shahs of Persia. Son of the
Emperor.
^Uls^
j
Tlmiiriii.
Shaybanid. Chagatai. Jjlx>
Shaybanid.
Dehli
Emperor.
Xoble.
,*t\,4.!<
Khokand. Golden Horde. Krim. Khan.
Shaybanid.
Othmanli. Kara and
Ak-Kuyunlid.
Turkistan.
J^-S
Great Khans.
^^:
Afghanistan. Afghan. ^Uj
Indian Native States. jU
Golden Horde.
Shaybanid.
Great Khans.
Khiva.
Turkistan.
Atabeg
of !Mosil.
Zangid.
Lord of the World.
*!U
jj\Jo-
in
very
common use. Khalif.
Abbasid. lluwahhid.
^U*
!
Abbasid. Ghaznawid. Behli
Kings.
<dl
Dehli
Kings. Jaunpur.
Mahvah.
(^^^\
Shaybanid. Malay.
Dehli
King.
3S"asrid. Hudid. Abbaside.
-5-^^
King
of
Sicily.
Duke.
Indian Native States.
Eaja.
,,
EajaofEajas.
T
j^Jfcj
Lord.
Muwahhid. Marinid. Of the Worlds.
Hafsid. Hudid.
Zayad. Kings
of Mercia.
Dehli
Kings. Ziyanid.
ITorocco Sharifs.
REGAL TITLES. 81
Sliahs of Persia. Of the Easts.
Lucknow.
Possessed of
Many
Claims.
Sultan.
Ukaylid. \j"
Shahs of Persia. Othmanli. Dehli
Kings.
^
Bengal,
Uaiwah.
Bahmani. Excellent.
_
Atabegs
of Mosil. Ghaznawid. *Lsl1
Mamluk.
AyyubicL
^j-^Lu^ll ^
^!Lo-\
Very commonly
used. Jas5H
Othmanli.
.^\
Bengal.
Munificent.
Othmanli. Of the Two Continents.
Among
the Sultans of the World.
^
Shah of Persia
(Hadir).
Othmanli. Maldive
King.
Afghanistan.
e)^"*
Malwah. The Gracious.
**bz\
1 *JJ!
The
Gracious,
the
Generous,
Kind to the Servants
of
God,
the
Eich,
the Protector.
Bahmani.
Buwayhid,
Ghaznawid, U
Bahmani.
Afghanistan.
Dehli
King.
Happy.
Bengal.
Malwah.
6
S2
MUSALHAN NUMISMATICS.
Othmanii.
Bahmani.
Besembling
the Friend of the Merciful One.
Ghaznawid. Dehli
King.
Of the East, v ^Jl
w>
Mamluk. Dehli
King.
The Witness.
Ju^j\
Very commonly
used.
J
JciSl _
Jj^Sl
.
J
jW\
Mongols
of Persia.
Othmanli.
Bengal ^Uli
Ayyubicl. ;j :J(
vv
Bahmani. Of the
Epoch
and
Age.
^UJ!^^!!
Saljuk.
Shahs of Persia.
Shaybanid. ^-;U!1
Eara
Kuynnlid.
Othmanli. Dehli
Kings.
Atabeg.
Saljuk.
Sen
gal.
Conqueror.
*
Bahmani. i
*
Bahmani.
Powerful k Islam.
Mongol
of Persia
(Abu
Said).
Malwah.
Muzafiarid
Obedient and
Obeyed,
clk^l
(Shah
Shuja).
Yery commonly
used.
Mamluk.
Timurid.
Othmanli.
Golden Horde
(Aziz Shaykh),
Deceased.
*p-
UM
Mysore
(Tipu).
^\
Mongols
of Persia
(Abu
Said).
j
J |
Mongols
of
Persia
The
Directing. O
~A^
(Abu
Said).
Mongol
of Persia
(Sati
Beg).
KEGAL TITLES. 83
'Samanid.
Buwayhid. Mangit.
Khokand. Prince. Juj
Khiva. Astrakhan.
Samanid. L*l'1
,,
King
of Benia. !jJl
Bengal.
L~JJ>\
The Chief.
^U!
The
Princes,
Chiefs.
*L^
ijLJI
Sayyid
Chiefs of Karmati.
Ghaznawid. Dehli
Emperor (Humayun).
^.^JsLJl
Fatimid.
Bengal.
Of the
Apostles.
^L^M
llongols
of Persia. Shahs of Persia. Shah. 5 Li
Dehli.
Bengal.
Kashmir. Indian States.
Ayynbid.
Of Armenia.
^J\
n
Behli
Emperors. kJ^rT
Kings
of Benia and Tortosa.
UjjJl
J?
Urtukicl. OfDiarbakr.
J^J^
J?
Behli
Emperor. Asylum
of the Faith, asl^j jj
,,
Lucknow.
Behli
Emperor.
E.I. Co. Indian States. Jlc
Achin.
Partabgarh State,
Eajpntana.
Of London.
^JcJ
Buwayhid. Eong
of
Kings.
Saljnk. Kakwayhid.
llarwanid. Shahs of Persia. Behli
Emperors.
Saljnk.
llongols
of Persia.
Bengal.
Generous.
JjL
Behli
Emperor (Eafi
al-Barjat).
Jj
84:
MUSALM1X KU1EISMATICS.
Dehli
Emperor (Jahangir).
Shall of Persia
QMIr).
Of
Kings.
Shall of Persia
(Muhammad).
Of the
Prophets.
LJ.1
Sharifs of Morocco.
o*?^
an(i
^M^\
Sharif. L^i' -*
Mongols
of Persia. Mamluk. Shaikh,
Hasani Sharif.
Lord.
L^^
Afghanistan.
^UJl
Shahs of Persia,
^Uj
,,
Othmanli.
JjUS\
Othmanli. Of
ITight
and
Victory by
land and sea.
Of the
Happy
Conjunction. ^L
Shah of Persia
(jS'adir).
Dehli
Emperors.
Second Lord of the
Happy Conjunction.
^Jll
;
^\
Behli
Emperors.
Indian States.
ATbbasid.
^\
Officer.
U
Abbasid.
Kings
of
Majorca. Ayyubid.
t&\ Slave
Patimicl. Of God and his Wall.
<U^ ^
^
Dehli
King (Muhammad
b.
Taghlak). Hoper.
Spanish Umayyad.
Bahmani.
Abbasid.
IljjJl
Officer.
Shah of Persia
(Tahmasp I).
Slaye of Ali.
Indian State.
Mongols
of Persia.
Salgharid. Atabegs.
Kan
.J13
_ ..
er
REGAL TITLES, 85
Zangid. llongols
of Persia.
Golden Horde.
Mongols
of Persia.
J
J*
Ctesar
Augustus.
u^uJ^l
- s^*ui - L^%^
King
of
Sicily.
Kutch and other Indian
States,
Kaiser i Hind. A
applie'd
to
Queen
Yictoria.
Dog.
Of the threshold of the
Pleasing
One.
\&j
^li
Shah of Persia
(Shah Eukh).
Of the threshold of Ali.
^
^k
Shah of Persia
(Husain).
Of the Amir of the Faithful.
^^\^
Shah of Persia
(Husain).
Of the Sultan of Khurasan.
^U
.^
Shah of Persia
(Shah Bukb).
Shah of Persia
(Abbas II).
Of Ali.
Kings
of
Sicily.
Count.
Yictoria.
V.jt^?
Queen.
England
or
Inglistan.
^
Jo,j&
^ ^\j\
<
^1
Queen
Yictoria
adorning
the throne of
Inglistan
and Hind.
Indian States.
-
King.
LJ3U .
'Saljuk.
Ghaznawid.
Saljuk. Zangid. Ayyubid.
Mamluk.
Atabeg.
Ghaznawid.
Urtukid. Excellent.
Urtukid.
Atabeg.
Danishmandid.
Zangid.
Ahar.
\j*i\
Bu^-ayhid.
bt> MU8ALMAX NUMISMATICS.
L^SL J^JI
Zangid.
Of Amirs of the East and the West.
Urtukid. Of Honoured Amirs.
(^s^ \
AyynMd.
J^
Saljuk.
ysdLj
^Jc
Of the two Continents and two Seas.
Sadite Sharif,
Of the two Continents and two Seas and
Syria
and the fovo Iraks.
Othmanli
(llurad III),
Urtukid. Diarbakr. &
Bengal Kings.
^^
Zangid.
Of the necks of the Nations. **
i
Mongol
of Persia
(Uljaitu).
Of the necks of Christians.
\^J
King
of
Sicily.
Urtukid. Mamlak. Ghuricl.
Ghnrid. Banishmandid.
Zangid.
Urtukid.
Ayyubid.
Mamluk,
Urtukid.
Ayyubid.
Mamluk.
Urtukid. Danishmandid.
Atabeg.
JUl!
Buvayhid.
Urtukid.
Zangid.
Eatimid.
Ayyubid.
Maniluk.
Dehli
Kings.
Of the Arabs and
foreigners.
^slU c-yJ!
n
King
of Aden.
Zangid.
Ayyubid.
KEGAL TITLES. 87
Fatrmid.
Ayyubid.
Saljuk.
Urfrukid.
Ayyubid
Mainluk.
Shaybaiiid.
Danishmandid.
Powerful.
Urtukicl.
Prosperous.
J
Saraanid
(Mansur
b.
jSTuh). Strengthened.
Commonly
used.
Ghaznawid.
King
of
Sicily.
Delili
Emperor (Jaliangir).
Buwayhid. Kakwayhid. Georgia.
Georgia.
Of
Eings
and
Queens.
^-?liiU^
Samanid. Ghaznawid.
Zangid.
Urtukid.
Saljuk. Ayyubid.
llamluk. Easulid.
Samanid. Favoured.
Samanid. Mainluk. Hasani Sharifs. Easulid,
Urtukid.
Ayyubid.
Mamluk. .^
Kings
of
Sicily.
Christians,
Eaja
of Cannanore
(according
to
Soret)
The
Unique
of the
lungs
of the
Age,
Zurayid. Elng
of the Arabs and of the Yamin.
Zurayid.
Dehli
Queen
(Eizia).
Queen.
Mamluk.
Georgia.
Indian States.
Georgia.
Of
Queens.
Georgia.
tuliUH
Dehli
Eing (Taj
al-Din
Tildiz).
Slave.
88 MUSALMA3T NUMISMATICS.
.
Of Mamun.
Mongols
of Persia. Prince.
Abbasid. TaMricl. Samanid. ~i*+i*.\ ^t
o- j
>
Amir al-Umara.
Ghaznawid.
Abbasid.
Indian States.
ITaharaja,
As*-UU* - l
Indian States. ITaliarao.'
The Malidi.
Our Imam.
Yiceroy.
Muwahhid.
MnwaliMd.
Imam of Sana.
Hafsid.
SulayMd.
Kasbnir. Banmani. Dehli
Kings.
Jaunpur. Eing
of Sana.
And Great Khalii.
timid Wazir
(Abu
AH
Ahmad).
Shahs of Persia.
Abbasid,
Haidarabad in Decean. Mzam.
Tnrkistan.
iljjJ
Ghaznawid. Danishmandid. Marwanid.
^.^
Taman
King.
(
jy^t^
Prophet.
Chief of Makalla. Chief.
REGAL TITLES,
89
Indian States.
Shahs of Persia.
Samanid.
Fatimid.
Xawab.
Governor.
Yizir.
^-H
^
Lt Heir.
Belili
Emperor. Hurnayun.
BatLmani. "Wali.
TJmayyad.
ALbasid.
Samanid.
Ghaznawid. Dehli
Kings.
Atabeg.
Hamndid.
Abbasid. Hudid. Patimid.
Ghaznawid.
Buwayhid.
Hamndid.
Zangid.
Saljuk.
Murabitid.
Ayyubid.
EatimicL
King
of Mercia.
Bengal.
'Timurid.
31USA.L31AN XOllSMATICS*
LIST OF THE OF AID
The names and dates of the
kings
of the
many dynasties
who issued Musalman coins will be found in Lane Poolers
ilohammaclan
Dynasties
"
and in the volumes o! the British
Museum
Catalogue.
A list of them would be too
long
to "be
given here,
but as the names of the Khalifs of
Baghdad
and
of the
Egyptian
Ehalifs are
upon
the coins of
many dynasties
who
acknowledged
the
authority
of the Khali
?
more or
less,
and
the name often
helps
to fix a doubtful
date,
the
following may
"be useful.
SHOBT
1.
Mtuiwiya
I.
2. Tazidl.
3.
Htuiwiyall.
4. Harwfin I.
5. 'Abdal-MaHk.
6. al-Widl.
7.
Sulayman.
8. 'TJmar.
9. YazidIL
10. Hisham.
11. al-WalidIL
IJmayyad
Zhalifs.
FULL J^AME.
uXUll
^U-L
Juj;
^
JLO
DATE A.E.
41
60
64
64
65
86
96
99
101
105
125
EHALTFS OF BAGHDAD AXD EGYPT. 91
XOEISilATICS.
22. d-Mustakil.
24. al-Ta'l.
25.
al-Qadir.
26.
al-Qa*im.
28. cil-lliistazhir.
29. al-3Instarshid.
30. al-Eashid.
31.
al-3Iuqtafi.
32.
al-llustanjid.
33. al-Mnstadl. <d!i **U
35. al-Zahir.
36. al-Mustansir.
AXJU^S,
37. al~Miista'sim. <d3b
^
i
-
v
An interval occurred between the death of al-Musta'sim in
the month Salar
?
656
,
and the succession of the first
Egyptian
Khali! in 659 A.H.
Ahhasld Khalifs of
Egypt.
1. al-Zahir. ^A^\ *J(&\
y\ <dJl^b^l!:i!l
659
2. al-Hakim I. Xw?-l
^l^l^l cdll^b
^iJl
661
3. al-llustakfi I.
^U-jLa
j-^.^ ^^
^b
^ix^^uAS^
701
4.
al-Wathiq
^1^1
^b
JJUi
740
5. al-Hakim II. d^s-l <d!l
yb ^U
1 740
6. al-Hu tadid. S** *>\
^^\
*Ji <wJb JkAdjjt^Ji 753
KHALIFS OF BAGHDAD AXD EGYPT.
93-
7. al-Mutawakkil I.
8. al-Mu'tasim.
9. al-Mutawakkil
I, again.
10.
al-"Wathiq, again.
11.
al-Mu^tasim,
again.
12. al-Mutawakkil
I, again.
13. al-Musta'in.
14. al-Mu'tadid II.
15. al-Mustakfi II.
16.
al-Qa'im.
17.
al-Mustanjid.
18. al-Mutawakkil II.
jjj*S!
Ju
19. al-Mustamsik.
20. al-Mutawakkil III.
Passed to Othmanli Sultan Selim I.
POETICAL IEGEIDS,
The
legends
on coins in the Persian
language
are often in verse,
called
o-j, couplet,
distich. Sometimes
they
are in a double
couplet. Owing
to the
way
in which the words are
arranged
to
bring
the verse within the
compass
of the
area,
they
are difficult
to make
out,
so a
fairly
full list of them is
given
below,
with
translations,
the latter
being
those in E. S. Poole's
"
Shahs of
Persia," S. Lane Poole's
"lloghul Emperors/'
L. "White
King's
'"Baiakzai,"
il.
Longworth
Dames' "Durrani
Dynasties,"
and
C. J.
Ptodgers'
various
writings.
The verse
begins
most often,
as is the case too when the
legend
is not in
verse,
at the
bottom,
and is to be read
upwards,
as in
(<T.)
Persian Shah Nadir Shah 'So. 2
;
sometimes at the
top,
as
(5)
Persian Shah ITahniud No. 2
;
sometimes at the second line
from the
top,
as
(c)
Persian Shah Ashraf No.
2,
or lower
still,
as
(rf)
Ashraf No. 3 : in these
two,
(c)
and
(d),
it will be seen the
reading
is first
upwards
for the first verse and then downwards
for the second. In all these
examples,
too,
the words or
parts
of
words are not consecutive in the
way given
in the
couplets
as
written out and as the metre and
rhyme require,
but are
placed
or divided in a fanciful
way.
Often one verse of the
couplet
is
on the obverse and the other on the reverse of the
coin,
as
(e) Jahangir
No.
22,
which
begins
at the
top
of the obverse
and bottom of the reverse.
(/)
The double distich on the five
muhr
piece
of
Jahangir
No, 7
gives
an
example
of several of these
difficulties on one coin.
POETICAL
LEGENDS.
{c\
ls>- j j;
(d)
,Ui , ;^-
\
v
;
.
>. v
N /
j
C'
.
(^
Obv.
t'H Eev. iLi
X ^^
L>a
Ifj-r^^
^l^.^
,^Li
^U^j
(/)
Obv.
^Ur
Key.
L
.,U;
,o J
'
>
Shahs of Persia.
ISMAIL I. i
-JLs.*! ^^ LLc
Call
upon
Ali,
the manifesto! of miracles
;
Thou shalt find Mm a
help
unto thee in adversities.
All care and
grief
shall vanish
By thy holiness, AH, Ali,
Ali.
ISMAIL II. \z~J\ >Ult-?JLj
\3 ^--*
L^w:' *\AJ
\jLs*
j
\
J
\
If an Imam there be between the East and
West,
Ali alone with Ali's house for us is the best.
96 MrSALDIAX NUMISMATICS,
ABBAS II. m
,
J
!
. JL*^L,
Throughout
the world
Imperial money
came,
Struck
by
God's
grace
in Abbas Sani's name.
(2)
Lo ! at this time
throughout
the world
imperial money
came,
Struck
by
God's
grace
in Ali's
watchdog
Abbas Sani's name.
II, STJLAI3E1N.
(1)
.
,-jlJ
^wL^
^.mJb
Since Abbas Sani from the -world is
passed away?
Safi
(the
second's) money
has
imperial sway.
(2)
For the sake of
winning grace
of him who men and
genii
leads
,
The
age's
Solomon struck
golden money
for the
people's
needs.
(3)
^U. JJL^-J
jJj
U
1;
,w> A
v^j
Since on
my
soul I struck the
stamp
of Ali's
love,
The world
obeyed my
rule
by grace
of God
(above).
HTJBAIBT. L-
^-
j
..
Money
he struck
by
the
grace
of the Lord of East and
"West,
the twain
Everywhere, dog
of the Prince of the Faithful's
shrine,,
Sultan Husain.
POETICAL LEGENDS. 97
TAHSIASP II.
(I)
Similar
to the first of Abbas
II,
"being
substituted for
(jwU^
in the second line.
(2)
j
,UL&J! *J \}\ LJ-^ 3 . JUT 5! .
^
X
J -s
L5 w
Tahmasp
the Second struck in
purest gold assayed
K"o man but
All,
and no sword but Ali's blade
(the
Zu
al-fakar).
ABBAS III.
u r^" J^ L^
(J^*P> *"*)
jjj""**
*****
Throughout
the universe
by grace
divine a
golden money
came,
Struck
by
God's
Shadow,
a new
Emperor,
Abbas the Third
by
name.
STTLAIMAN II.
(1)
By grace
divine he struck a coin of
happy fame,
The
Sovereign just,
who second Solomon became.
(2)
2^^
Shines as the
rising
sun and moon
upon
the
earth,
Heir of Sulaiman's
right,
the Shah of
saintly
birth.
MAHMTJD.
(1)
<_>bil
^J
Prom the east of Iran he struck coin like the solar
face,
Shah
Mahmud, world-conqueror,
of the
saintly
race.
(2)
Below the earth sank down the moon and
shining sun,
Envying
the coin of Shah
Mahmud,
world-conquering
one.
7
98
(3)
Like SUE and inoon the
imperial
coin is
world-renowned,
For its
pure
metal
by
God's
grace
is free of
alloy.
(4)
For the trne faith te
prepared
coin
by
God's direction.
May
Mahmiid
flourisli,
the
faith-protecting king.
ASHEIF.
(1)
Upon
the Ashrafi vas
wrought
the
magic
of his
grace's
name
;
jSTobility
from Ashraf's name
upon
the sun there came.
(2)
>
"
J
Ashraf laid hold on
majesty
with
might ;
Let his coin's
legend
read
e
Requited
be
unright."
(3)
By grace
of Ashraf
Shah,
who
keeps
the
right,
The
gold
of the four friends now sees the
light.
(4)
^j)j>
**
^*j^
uJ^l
(tij
^
j^
5j^LJ
:\
Sj*aj L^l^i^
it
In the exalted name
(Ashraf)
of sun and moon coin was made
from
gold.
Gold and the sun of
victory "by
His
grace
were made
bright.
(This
is an
unsatisfactory couplet,
read
conjecturally
by
Dr. Eieu from a
single coin,
on which there is
POETICAL LEGENDS.
99
apparently
another uJl-il
or
tJ^j
which he has not
Included in
it.)
(1)
By gold
in all the earth Ms
kingship
shall be
famed,
Phoenix
(Nadir)
of Persia's
land,
world
-conqueror,
sovereign
named.
(2)
Over Sultans of earth is
Sultan,
Sadir,
Shah of
Shahs,
Sahibkaran.
(3)
[or
^l^b]
jjl^Jj
A3 ^
^
JbLi :^
The order issued from the Shah of
Shahs, Nadir, Sahibkaran,
Let coin obtain in Herat from Shah Eukh's name and mark
(or glory).
ADIL SHAH.
(1)
^J
JLI: AUJ
Decreed of him who ceases
not,
a
currency
there
came,
The
coinage
of the
sovereignty
sent forth in Ali
?
s name.
(2)
After the fortune of
Nadir,
Adil had coin on
gold ;
In the name of the
king
of the
faith,
the exalted
Lord,
the world was illumined.
100
MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
(1)
<
I
"
-/ vvy
By grace
divine he struck a
coinage
of
imperial worth,
Shah
Ibrahim,
his
gold
sun-like
illumining
the earth.
(-> )
"
l*~***'j~s j
uJy
.
j*
(J^j
U,
^Lxtl
<L_X~J
,;_j
u^-Jl
j ^.U,
j
r
^-^
CL^
By
the Creator's
bounty,
and
by
fate's
decree,
Gold of
saintly
Eiza has its
currency.
SHAH BUSH.
(1)
\j
^jLiL
"Whenas Shah Eukh
imperial money coined,
't was then
A second time Iran renewed herself
again.
(2)
Throughout
the world he struck his coin
by grace divine,
Shah
Eukh,
the watchful
dog
of Ali Eiza's shrine.
(3)
Another
emperor
has
coined,
thanks to Nadir's efforts
7
worth,
Dog
of the
king
of the East
(Khurasan),
Shah
Eukh,
the
king
of the earth.
LTJTF ALI.
Its
stamp
has
golden money
won
From. Lutf Ali
;
la far's son.
POETICAL LEGE2TOS. 101
TAHMASP II and Ijo-
J^^
JJ*
tj
J
ABBAS III.
U,
Erom out of Khurasan a
golden
coin
by grace
divine was
sent,
And aid of Ali Musa's son the
kingly
saint benevolent.
MUHAMMAD HASAN and
AKA MUHAMMAD.
A
golden
coin
by happy
fate has run
In name of
peaceful Ali,
Musa's son.
EJJIDE KHAN and
KA MUHAMMAD.
"While
gold
and silver
through
the world shall
flow,
Coin of the
Age's
Lord
(the
true
Imam)
shall
go.
KAEIM KHAIS
T
?
ABU
SADIK,
An
MFRAD,
and
AKA MUHAMMAD.
Silver and
gold through
all the world have now become the
moon and
sun,
Thanks to the true Imam's
imprint,
the
Age's
Lord
(the
rightful one).
AZAD KHAN.
As
long
as Azad on the earth shall
stand,
The
Age's
Master shall the coin command,
AKA MUHAMMAD.
(1)
<xib
^
"While
stamped
shall be the
gold
and silver
ore,
The
coinage
of the
Age's
Master shall endure.
102 MU3ALMAN NUMISMATICS.
(2)
"While
stamp
shall be on
gold
and silver
ore,
The
coinage
of the
Age's
Master shall endure.
Durrani,
(1)
The order
proceeded
from the
Incomparable
Creator to
Ahmad the
king
: Strike coins in silver and
gold
from
the ascension of Pisces
up
to the moon."
(2)
<
ali Ju^-1 ilx JU 2s'Uij
'
r
The
xrorld-protecting king
Ahmad Shah struck coins in
gold
by
God's
grace.
as Mzam.
The coin of Taimnr Shah
got
current in the world
by
the
order of Grod and the
Prophet
of the
people.
TAIHUB,
as
king.
The revolution
(of
the
heavens) brings gold
and silver from
the sun and
moon,
that it
may
make on its face the
impression
of the
coinage
of Tainmr Shah.
POETICAL
LEGEIS'DS. 103
SHAH.
,tj
...MJ
,%._
Cl^-i-Je^ <WvJ
-r-^J
The
currency
of the coin of the realm in the name of Shah
Zaman obtained
permanency hy
the order of the Lord
of both Worlds.
MAHMTJD SHAH.
(1)
*J1
J^Jiyj jjj
X\J* Ja/kS.^ .ols^
>
*""'
The
world-conquering
Khusrau Mahmud Shah struck coins
in
gold through
God's
support.
(2)
Sultan
Mahmud,
the second
Khusrau,
increased the
coinage
of the realm in
gold
and silver.
SHIJJA Ai-MuLE. $
The
religious king, Shuja
al-Hulk
Shah,
struck coins in silver
and
gold
like the sun and moon.
QAISAE
SHAH. a
jj
The
coinage
in
gold
and silver in the name of
Qaisar
Shah
is current in the world
by
Grod's
grace.
-DlJT.
The
coinage
became
bright
from
King
Kur al-Bin
(Light
of
the
Faith),
current from the saint Kutb al-Arifin
(Pole
Star of the
Wise).
104: MUSALHAX
ATTUB SHAH.
In the world the sun and moon were illuminated
by
the
darting
forth of the
rays
of the
coinage
of
Ayyub
Shah.
(2)
+~>
*j\ j)
il
*J^
jl&Lj
JLsT Ju~
The
coinage
of
Ayynb
Shah in
gold
and silver came into
existence
by
the order of the exalted Creator.
(1)
sooner did Dost Muhammad reach dominion and
dignity
than the
period
of the circulation of
Payindah
Khan's
coinage
arrived.
(2)
<xy
<x&ju^ !L *-**-;
<XwJ
i , .
,L^. % JCO Lj ^X0
J
a t k^L^J a
J C/
v
(l.^
-^
The sun and moon
give good tidings
to silver and
gold,
for
the
period
of the circulation of the coins of
Payindah
Khan has arrived,
By
the
grace
of the
great Creator,
the
Amir,
Dost
Muhammad,
struck coins a second time in metal.
SUITA.N MUHAMMAD.
The
money
of the
kingdom
of the
Sovereign
of the
Age
has
engraved
on its face the likeness of the sun and heavens.
POETICAL LEGENDS. 105
SHIE ALL
(I)
(j^}-i
*-^
j*j- Zt^-j*
^j
C
lj2 .**> ..A/) *.
j
^.'sj
AXJ L^^JUJ
By
the favour of the Eternal Creator the
money
of Amir Shir
All has found circulation.
(2)
-X u*.*a .*/ I
By
the abundant kindness of the Beneficent
King
of
Heaven,
Amir Shir Ali coined
money
like the
bright
full moon.
(3)
Jjj>
jj
uJliJL cjljLfi
jl
Jul
Through
the
graces
and favours of the Eternal
One,
money
began
to be circulated in the name of Shir Ali,
(4) i<W"
J^. ^(^T
f-^^
f~<A-J*'
BIMniA /^
1 &:~-
J aO 1 \ J
Amir Shir
Ali,
a second
time,
struck coins in the
world,
like
the
bright
full moon.
MUHAMMAD AFZAL.
Two armies from the East and "West
joined
in
battle,
and
separated,
and so Muhammad Afzal became the Amir of
the
kingdom
of Khurasan.
MUHAMMAD AZAM. jJb
*jL
J^
L_JlU! L^
Jwj Jifil Ju/l..^
9
^
As soon
as, by
the
grace
of Heaven's
favours,
his
rights
became
established,
money began
to circulate in Mu-
hammad Azam's name.
106
ilUSALMAN" XUMISMAXICS.
SHIS AIT.
^jj
J
^J^-
J*=3j
By
tlie
grace
o! the eternal God Shir Ail has become the
GoTernor of Kandahar.
rebel.
j^i
Id
I make madness till on
my
head a tumult falls. Coin I strike
on
metal,
till its master is found.
Moghul Emperors.
AEBAE.
(1)
c^J
j\
^
c$
->1 -^ *l i
-^ -^xt
The sun of the seal of Shah Akbar is the
glory
of this
gold,
"Whilst earth and
sky
are illumined
by
the
shining
sun.
(2)
By
the seal of Akbar Padishah
gold
becomes
bright.
On this
gold
the Shah's name is
"
light upon light."
(3)
Like the
golden
orb of sun and
moon, may
ever
pass
In the -world's "West and East the
stamp
of Allahabad.
JAHAJSTOIB.
(1)
The lord of the realm struck
money
of
gold,
Shah Sultan
Salim,
Akbar Shah's
(son).
POETICAL LEGENDS. 107
(2)
*U_ 7r
Made tlie face of
gold
to sMne like tlie sun and moon
?
Shall Nur al-Din
Jahangir,
son of Akbar Padishah.
(3)
Money
struck in the
city
of
Agra,
the
Caesar, refuge
of
the
world,
Shah Nur al-Din
Jahangir,
son of Akbar Padishah.
(4)
The same with
Jjlf
substituted for
&j*\
in the
first line.
The
Shah, refuge
of the
faith, put
this
stamp
on
gold
at
Ajmir,
Shah "Nui al-Din
Jahangir,
son of Akbar Padishah.
(6)
u^i L-^C
ob
^^
^-ib
^^
I;
In East and West
may
the
stamp
of
Ahmadabad,
G-od,
while the world
lasts,
be current.
(7)
(iA-*j
}}*
Ja
(jlAi^
_^;
i^^s.\
^LJj
^.S
1
jj
-*o
,-u
uUJ o*u.]b U
To Shah
Jahangir belongs
the
whirligig
of time
;
In
Agra by
his name
gold
shines
brightly
:
So
long
as the
pomp
of the Eive Ghiards lasts in the
world,
May
the
stamp
of his Eiye Muhrs be current.
108
MrSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
(8)
<&$ 1C
u5y-^
o
On the
money
of Lahore
may
there ever be
Light, by
the name of Shah
Jahangir,
Shah Akbars
(son).
(9)
On the face of the
golden coin,
ornament and
grace gave
The
picture
of Shah 2s ur al-JDin
Jahangir,
son of Akhar Shah.
The
Shah,
refuge
of the
faith,
struck this coin of
gold
at
Ajmir,
Shah !S"ur al-Din
Jahangir,
son of Akbar Padishah.
(10)
^
j;j
^^/S^^ib
^Uli teJj^^rf
The face of
gold
was decorated at
Agra by Jahangir Shah,
Shah Akbar's
(son).
(11)
j\
us^jj
^yjJ\
^
^UbiU^^jl
The
money
of
Agra gave
ornament to
gold,
etc.
(12)
&\\
L^LjL:^
jl_jlju^ljJ
J: ^L-j
Honey
struck at
Ahmadabad,
God's
Paradise,
Shah ISfar al-Din
Jahangir,
son of Akbar Padishah.
(13)
The
same,
with the first line
ending
4! I cubUs
j\
instead of A!! c^l)
POETICAL LEGENDS.
109
(14)
j\
jlj
\j
jLjltXA^l
j\
j^\
ilAx^
a Li
^-^J
To the
gold
of Ahmadabad
gave
adornment
Jahangir Shah, Shahanshah,
Akbar's
(son).
(15)
j*j
J*j
t_ij
b
^^
^b
^.i>S ^Lc^LjL^
*L i *
So
long
as the heavens
revolve,
current be
In the name of Shah
Jahangir
the
money
of Lahore.
(16)
In Isfandarmiz at
Agra
this
stamp
struck on
gold,
The Shah of Shahs of the
world,
Shah
Jahangir,
son of
Shah Akhar.
(17)
The
same,
with
jUb^jA
instead of
xj\ jJ \j
in
the first
line,
and +*\
,
'
of the
people/
for
{^;t*j
in the second.
(1 8)
jj ji \j
J5JL)
i*r-t\
^
;
jj
b il
j
J
r-H
*
W
In the month of
Tir,
the
King,
the defender of the
faith,
Shah
Jahangir,
son of Akbar
Shah, stamped
this coin in
gold
at Lahore.
C
19
)
JJJ tyj^jA
^
^O^H^ <*S*J\
^
Second line as ]S"o. 16.
[10 MUSA.L1LO" NUMISMATICS.
(20)
j^\
<
The
gold
of Lahore in the month Bahman became like
the
shiniBg moon,
In the
reign
of Shah 2s"ur al-Din
Jahangir,
son of Shah
Akbar.
(21)
The
light
of the world at
Ajmir
became the
money
of
gold,
By
the
light
of the name of
Jahangir
Shah,
Shah Akbar's
(son).
(22)
The
money
of Kandahar became beauteous
Ey Jahangir
Shah,
Akbar Shah's
(son).
(23)
j.\
Uf>.
^&
In the month of Earwardin the
gold
of
Agra
became luminous
like a
star, by
the
light
of the
stamp
of Shah
Jahangir,
son of Shah Akbar.
(24)
jj\
<
Second line as Ko. 23.
In the month of Earwardin the
gold
of Lahore became an
object
of
jealousy
to the
bright moon, through
the
light
of the
stamp,
etc.
POETICAL LEGENDS.
Ill
,*:
J^ w^-vit> ~j\sj>- *L$ A^S^
^>jj
*
> ^
i
*
^j
*x-j *L.i jb
(jU^r jy
^l-Jj
By
order of Shall
Jahangir
a hundred "beauties
gained
Gold
by
the name of 2frir Jahan Padishah
Begam.
SHAH JAHAK.
By
the
money
of
Shahjahanabad
current
through
the world
For ever
by
the name of the second Sahib Kiran.
MTJEAD EAKHSH.
Took the
heritage
of Sahib Kiran Shah
Jahan,
Murad Bakhsh iTuham'mad
Shah,
second Alexander.
AdBAXGZIB.
(1)
j++st jjf* j&~ U^rTj^ ^j
^^
~^*.JL.c
i
^;u-&jO
^ ^
-x
"
r.
>
^y
Struck
money through
the world like the
shining sun,
Shah
Aurangzib Alamgir.
(2)
The
same,
with the substitution of
jJJ,
moon,
for
jjf*
} sun,
in the rst line.
AZAM SHAH. a\f>-
.
L^iSaJo
t
Struck
money through
the world with
might
and
majesty,
Padishah of the
realms,
Azam Shah.
BAKHSH.
*Uj
Ju-ij^^L^j Jj
iLC
<3 if Li
Struck
money
on sun and
moon,
the Shah of the Deccan
Kam Bakhsh Padishah.
112
MUSALMIN NUMISMATICS.
B.
(1) J3 L^U
Struck
money
of
gold
like the
sun,
the Sahib Elian
Jahandar
Shah,
Padishah oi the world.
(2)
,\Jut^-
c^jl
In the horizons struck
money
like sun and
moon,
Abu
al-Path,
victorious Jahandar Shah.
SIYAE.
,;
a *-w: j / 'is>- /Lis
;1
J;
^xs
^
>
p.
_y.
C/
"^
Jl
y
j-wa
^
2 __j ^s^ iL-^jL-j
>
(^y
>
*
v
Struck
money
of
gold
and silver
by grace
of the
Truth,
The Padishah of sea and
land,
Earrukh
Siyar.
EAFJ AL-DAKAJAT.
Struck
money
in
India,
with a thousand
blessings,
Shah of Shahs
by
sea and
land,
Eafi
al-Darajat.
Struck
money through
the world
by grace
of
Grod,
Muhammad
Shah,
Padishah of the
age.
IBEAHIM.
(1)
Money
of silver struck
through
the
world,
By
favour of
Muhammad,
Ibrahim Shah of Shahs.
POETICAL LEG-ENDS. US
(2)
Another
reading
of the same :
Strack
money through
the
world, by
favour of the Bountiful
One,
Shah of
Shahs,
Muhammad Ibrahim.
ALAMGIS II.
(1)
*U
^,^
^blj
jjg+^jJuZ e^i&^j
j:
Struck
money
in the seven climates
shining
like the sun
and
moon,
Shah Aziz al-Din
Alamgir,
victorious Padishah.
(2)
J\j3
L^
Bahadur Shah
Alamgir
Said struck coin like that of the
Sahib Kiran on
gold.
BIDAR BAKHT.
U^csTjljuJ
ifl-i
u
The master of crown and
throne,
Muhammad Jahan
Shah,
Bidar Bakht
put
Ms
stamp
on
gold (or silver).
SHAH AIAM.
(1)
*JI ^-ob* :
The defender of the
religion
of
Muhammad,
Shah
Alam,
Padishah
through
the aid of
Grod,
struck coins like those
of the Sahib Kiran.
(2)
<d!
J^Li
Jj\~ij
2fl-i jb
Jlc i'La
The defender of the
religion
of
Muhammad,
Shah Alam
Padishah,
Shadow of the divine
favour, put
his
stamp
on the seven climes.
114 MUSALMAIST NUMISMATICS.
G-njarat
Sultan.
MUHAMMAD II. jl> $li j^^s^*
,.^J^\
C^Lc.
,.,lkL-
^/*
jb *U
May
tlie coin of Mulianiinad Shall
Sultan,
the Aid of the
Faith,
remain so
long
as in the
sphere
of the seat of
the mint the orb of the sun and moon remains.
Kashmir.
EAKJIT DEO.
j^
jLi 1
,
J
J
^j
(j*~r-
Eanjit
Deo
peopled
this
part,
Lachmi ^arain made
glad
its heart.
Sikh.
GoTINE SINGH.
LjC^JuJ
ci
^xxi AxuS
^
jaS
ux-3
1-3 :
Abundance,
the
sword, victory
and
help
without
delay,
Guru Gobind
Singh
obtained from JSTanak.
CERONOGHRAm 115
CH10IOGEAMS,
The
Abjad,
The
f^k>,
chronogram, composed by
means of the
Abjad system,
is but seldom found on
coins, although
it is
commonly
used to
record dates in MSS. and
inscriptions.
The
Abjad,
so called from
the first four letters J ^ c-> \ in its
table,
is an
arrangement by
which each letter of the Arabic
alphabet represents
a number in
the
following
scale :
\
=
I u/or uJ
=
20
jf
oi
j
=
200
c-J or t-j
=
2
J
=
30
^
=
300
^
or
T
=
3
p
=
40 cL> or cu
=
400
4
^
=
50 L*J
=
500
5
(jw
=
60
^
=
600
v
a
=
6
cj=
70 j
=
700
j
or
j
=
7 uJ
=
80
yo
=
800
-
=
8
yo
=
90 fe
=
900
\y
=
9
j
=
100 c
=
1000
o
=
10
The date is found
by adding together
the value of the letters
composing
the word or words
indicated,
as will be seen in the
following examples.
On a coin of Fakhr al-Din Kara
Arslan,
Urtukid of
Kayfa,
there is
alongside
the head on obv.
yJ
!L~i : 4^
=
500,
u
=:
50,
^
=
6,
i.e. 500 + 50 + 6
=
556
;
or C 1 L^ of
Eijra,
A coin of Nadir Shah of Persia has on its obv. a
couplet
and
date
HfAj
and on rev.
arranged
in
Tughra
form
j-^J ^^
jJ^
UJ
By
the
Tarikh,
"
Whatever
happens
is best."'
70
4-
100
+
6
+
1
+
40
+
10
+
80
-f
200
+ 10-f
600
-f
30
+
1
=
1148.
OF COIIS.
Until
comparatively
modern times no otter denominations were
put upon
Musalman
coins than
jLjJ,
dinar,
on
gold;
*J>jJ,
dirham,
on silver
;
and
^Jj
,
f
als,
on
copper. Exceptions
to this
are the fractional
pieces
of the dinar noticed below.
The
,L>
J, or,
as it was
spelt
in the oldest times and
very rarely
afterwards,
jj J
,
was of
good gold, weighing
at the time of the
first Khalifs about 66
grains,
and
being
about -75 inch in
diameter.
later on the same denomination was used for
gold
coins of
greater
or less
weight
and size. The
quality
of the metal was almost
always
fine
gold, exceptions being
Turkish and
Morocco
coins,
some of which were far from
being
so. Divisions of the dinar
were but
rarely
noted in
words,
the
legend being
A^J
Ijjb,
this
dinar,
whether the coin was a
whole, half,
or
quarter one;
but sometimes
they
were in these terms: LjLaJ
!jj&,
this
half,
oJJ
U~a>,
this
third,
j-J^Jl
IjJb,
this
fourth,
without the
word
jbj
J
following.
So
they
are called a
nasf,
a
thilth,
a
ruba,
in much the same
way
as we
speak
of a tiers or a cent. The
value of a dinar is now so small in Persia that a
copper piece
of
Nasir
al-Din,
A,H.
1290,
of the size of a
penny
is marked .IjJ
*
and a smaller
piece
.UjJ f
&
.
The
J&,J
is the
general
name for a silver
coin,
as the <L)J is
of
gold.
It
corresponds
to the
drachma,
and when used as
a
weight
should
equal
48
grains.
But silver coins
having
the
name dirham on them
vary
much in
weight
and
size,
and
although
half and double dirhams are not
uncommon, they
are not so
denoted in the
legends they
bear. The character of the metal
varies
very
much
;
some of almost all
periods
is of
very poor
quality.
A
plural
form of the word is seen on a Morocco
coin,
,
ten dirhams. On some coins of the Dehli
king
118 MUSALHAN XUMSMATICS.
Muhammad b.
Taghlak
is the
phrase
^j
o
^j^\
>&jAJl
,
The
dirham
legal
in the
age.
(joAi
or
(jwji-i
is the
ordinary
name for the
copper or,
in a few
cases,
bronze
coinage.
The
plural
form
.j-Jj
is often used ia
a
general way
as a falus.'
Besides the above denominations several
special
ones must be
mentioned.
The nomenclature of the Turkish
coinage
is difficult to com-
prehend ;
the
changes
have been so
many
and various. The
denominations are
not, however,
denoted
upon
the
coins,
so an
account of them need not be
given
here
;
but some have their
value
given ; thus,
c^>
and ,Jj with
ciphers
above them
represent
so
many piastras
or
ghurush,
and c
> stands in the same
way
for
paras.
The
coinage
of Persia has much
changed
in nomenclature
during
the last 200
years,
but none of the names are
upon
the coins
except
(Jy^
? Ashrafi,
and
^UJ
on
gold,
and the
jta^
already
referred to on
copper
and on silver. The autonomous
copper
coins of
Persia, too,
are
nearly
all marked
jj*>Jj
The curious
wire coins called
Larin,
from
Lar,
a Persian district at the head
of the Persian
Gulf,
where
they
were
produced,
were between 200
and 300
years ago
the chief
currency
of the traffic between the
Western India coast and that
Gulf,
so much so that
they
became
a standard of value in the Konkan and
Dekkan,
and were made
there
also,
the Adil Shah
dynasty
of
Bijapur adopting
the
pattern.
The coin is a
piece
of silver wire of the size of a
crow-quill,
and
from five to six inches
long,
doubled on its
middle,
and struck at
the folded
part
with a
stamp
on which was some Persian
legend,
but
only
three or four letters of the
stamp
are
upon any Larin,
and
the
legend
has not been made out
beyond
-
jjlkLa
-
J
jlc -
<y*
and Ai. The source of issue of the Larin is not
known,
nor
its
origin. Probably
it was found to be a convenient form of
money
for
carrying about,
as
they
could be so
easily
stuck into
the folds of the turban or
waist-cloth,
and in that
way
too be
DENOMINATIONS OF COINS, 119
concealed in case of trouble in those
piratical
times and
regions.
About
Ceylon they
are often found bent
up
in the form of a
hook,
and are known in those
parts
as the fish-hook
money/
Gold
pieces
of Khwarizm and of
Afghanistan
are called tilla
;
the
name, however,
is not
put upon
the coins
except
in a
part
of
the
legend,
as Ik
^
<U
,
in silver and
gold.
The words *L(~: and
^li
, meaning coinage
or
currency,
are
very
common
upon
the coins of India and the
neighbouring
countries, the former word
especially
so,
and often in the
phrase
LjjU^
<^~;
, auspicious coinage.
In India the Husalman
coinage began
with
adaptation
of the
Hindu
currency
it was to
replace,
as will be seen
by
the
early
coins of the Dehli
kings
who introduced the
tankah,
4&J
,
as the
standard in both silver and
gold,
of the
weight
of about 1 74
grains
in each
metal,
and the kani
,<J^>
"Ar of a
tankah,
and
equal
to
four fals. These words are
found,
but
rarely,
on coins of this
class. In the
reign
of Sher
Shah,
A.H.
946-952,
came into use
the silver
rupee,
*-Jjj,
of 178
grains weight,
which with little
variety
in
weight
has been the standard coin of India to this
day,
the
gold piece being
the^,^
, muhr,
and the
copper
the
^J,
dam.
The
Emperor
Akbar,
with his other
reforms,
instituted an elaborate
coinage
with
great
varieties of value and of
shape,
each
variety
having
a
special name,
but as none of these
names, except
those
of some of the
copper,
are found on the
coins,
they
need not be
mentioned here. The muhr and the
rupee, however,
remained
the standard. On the
copper
coins of Akbar we find several
denominations
given,
ifjti
,
,jj
^'
,
and &j lJ
,
with their
divisions,
*.J
half,
d*2*-
*i^->-
fourth
part,
&^z>- ^lojuJb
eighth part,
and
<Us>.
*JbJJjU)
sixteenth
part,
and their
multiples
* and
j>-
(in
Hindustani) ;
the
(j^-*^
damri,
the >\ J **j
half-dam,
and ,Jai
also
meaning
a half-dam. On the
copper
coins of Akbar's son
Jahangir
we find
^J^j
rawani and
*z\j
raij,
both words
meaning
current
coin,
and their half *.J
,
the former
corresponding
in
weight
with the
tankah,
the latter with
one-eighth
of a tankah.
120 MrSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
The
gold
coin called ,bj
nisar,
was made for the
purpose
of
distribution on tlie occasions of
great
festivals,
such as State
pro-
cessions or at
marriages,
when
they
were scattered
amongst
the
crowd.
They
are
usually
somewhat thinner than the coins of
currency,
and are marked with the word
J^J
. The custom of
scattering
coin on
great
occasions is still
kept up
in the
East,
but
the
pieces
for the nisar are
usually
now
only
of
very
thin
gold,
little more than
gold-leaf.
Also there are the
large
handsome
gold
pieces
of
200, 100,
50,
and 10 muhrs of Akbar and his three
successors,
which
were,
no
doubt,
not for
currency
use
exactly,
but for
presentation
in the
way
of honour from the
emperor
or
offered to the
emperor
or
king,
for tribute or
acknowledgment
of
fealty,
<jlj3u
,
nazarana as it is called.
Under the East India
Company
the
rupee
remained the
standard,
and its fineness and
weight
were fixed. So it has been since.
Gold muhrs of the value of at one time 16 and at others 15
rupees
have been
struck,
with
half, third,
quarter, eighth,
and sixteenth
of muhr
gold pieces,
at Various
dates,
but the issue of a
gold
currency
was
only temporary.
Some were made in imitation of
the Dehli
emperor's coinage,
others have the arms of the
Company
and the
legend .jl$
Jj>
Jol
i**^
L_J~"^
Ashrafi,
or
gold
coin of
the Honourable
English Company.
In 1835 and 1854 the lion and
palm-tree
muhr and double
muhr,
marked
,y-^
t
^i
-
lAr^^j
were
issued,
and in 1870 a 10
rupee gold piece
of
Queen Yictoria.
In
silver,
besides the
rupee,
there are its divisions
i,
i,
and
i,
marked
respectively
&5l L^A& -
&j]j\j^
. <Ul
^J.
The
copper
money
is the <ui
ana,
16 to a
rupee,
the Uu-o
paisa,
4 to an
ana,
and the
^b pai,
3 to the
paisa.
The ana is but a
money
of
account,
the
copper
coins
being
the <Gl
*.J
half-ana,
the Uu-j or
quarter ana,
and the
^l>
with its
multiples
\Jj\$>-
and
^l>
j<3.
But in Southern India the Hindu
system
of
currency,
which had
remained
unchanged during
the time of the Musalman
power,
con-
tinued to be in use for a considerable
period
under the East India
Company.
In
gold
the
^yb
hun,
or
pagoda,
and double
pagoda
DENOMINATIONS OF COINS. 121
a
J5
*j,
one
being
marked as
J*-^
^^
flowery pagoda.
In
silver the
,jJ*
*J
and
&** *^t
half and
quarter pagoda,
the
*L$
fanam,
JJ
jJ
and
JJ
^o
;
and in
copper
the
^w!J
falus,
and the
J& kas. The monev table
being
20 kas
=
1 falus. 4 falus =
w
v
1
fanam,
42 fanam
=
1
pagoda
or him. But
owing
to
attempts
made
by
orders to
equalize
the currencies of the
Presidencies,
the
relative value of the coins became
altered,
and we have
copper
coins of Ifadras with a
variety
of
legends stating
their
value,
such
as u^d
^*l J~r~
^j
this is
forty kas;
others of
twenty,
ten, five,
two and a
half,
and two kas of a like character
;
and
others
bearing
their relative
value,
such as c^-.-\
^/wAi
*
(jj
s,
c" ^
L/"A*
Lm
^'"
U*^ ^i
'
an(^ ^*-"~*\
(j*>*^ ^tr" L^^
L^-^-J
,
when 5 kas were
equal
to 1 falus. The coins
bearing
the
following
inscriptions
were
proofs
not made current.
Coin of the
Ehinpani (Company),
1793,
Christian era.
Two falus of the Honourable
Company,
1801,
Christian era.
^Jyj**Z
lA'V
Jj^S.
Jj (_
This
coin,
three
falus,
of the Honourable
Company,
is one little
fanam, 1807,
Christian era,
The Native States of India which owed
allegiance
to
theltoghul
emperor, usually
coined silver in the name of the
emperor,
and
copper
of their own
style,
often of
irregular shape
and
bearing
a
stamp
of some
figure
or device without a
legend.
The common
name for them was
'
dub.'
The
coinage
of the Native States of India is a difiicult but
interesting subject.
The
legend
on the silver is
usually
a
part,
sometimes but a small
part,
of the
coin-legend
of one of the later
emperors,
without date or mint
place ; moreover,
the die was
generally
a
good
deal
longer
than the coin to be
struck,
and con-
sequently
there is but a
portion
of this
imperfect legend
on
any
l^xS JULUSA-LALAJN
one
piece.
There are almost
always
marks or
symbols
which, were
intended to be indicative of the
mint-place
or
State,
and sometimes
they
are
so,
but too often the same
symbols
-were used at different
times
by
more than one
State,
and a
great
number of the coins
remain still
unassigned.
The
money-changers
and dealers in India
know them
generally by
some
nickname,
but care and know little
as to what State
they
are the
coinage
of,
During
the last
twenty
years
or so the chiefs of
many
States hare
adopted coinage
of
a modern
pattern
struck from dies made in
England, usually
bearing
some
figure
as a characteristic mark
; thus,
there is the
horse's hoof and fetlock for Baroda and the sun-face for Indore.
Tipu
Sultan of ITaisur had a
coinage
of
muhrs,
rupees,
and
paisa
or
kas,
but
gave
new names to them in the 5th
year
of his
reign.
These names
appear
on some of his
coins,
and are as
follows :
Gold.
$&*JP-\
for
muhr,
^^
for half
muhr,
and
tJ^
for
pagoda.
Silver.
o t^t-^-
^or double
rupee,
.^^
for
rupee, ^Jolc
for
half
rupee,
tjy
V
^or
quarter rupee,
i*jjS&>-
for
one-eighth rupee,
^^
for one-sixteenth of a
rupee,
and
^jjJ^
for one
thirty-
second of a
rupee.
Copper.
JUdi and
^j:^^*
for double
paisa,
#Jbj
or
L&j
for
one
paisa,
J
^j
for half
paisa,
^>. \ for
quarter paisa,
and c-^ks
for
one-eighth
of a
paisa.
The names were no doubt derived for the most
part
from
the names of the
Prophet
and the Imams. **>] one of the
names of the
Prophet himself,
(J-i***
X?
*-*\ the 1st
Khalif,
jjjU j*&
the 2nd
Khalif,
^Lc- j^>-
the 1st
Imam,
^U\
Imams,
^JoU! ^\ -yb
A^jsS*
_yi*^
- Ji^
{*y*
^e ^
5th, 6th,
and 7th
Imam,
^ssL
a
Prophet
who is
supposed
to
have discovered the Water of
Life, ^Uls
the 3rd
Khalif,
the
planet Jupiter,
yuj
Yenus,
J^
Mars,^xc^l
a star.
DENOMINATIONS OP COINS. 123
Travancore is a Hindu
State,
and has still a Hindu
coinage,
Imt
there are Hindustani words
in Persian characters on a few of the
coins,
viz.. <Lu
M ^j H
^*
xnuhr,
five
rupees,
<LJ &
,
**J <LJ &
,
*L .
"v-V vJ \
' A "
v^/
\
"
"v-^y
>
v
The
money table, according
to
Mateer,
is:
Copper:
16 kas
=
1 chuckram. $e7^r : 4 chuckram
=
1 fanam
;
7 fanam
=
I
rupee.
0^? : Panam of various sorts
=
from 4J to 7 chuckram
;
rasi= 10
chuckram;
varahan= 52i- fanam.
Xutch and Kathiawar have a
special currency,
the standard for
which is a small silver coin called a kori. The denominations
are:
Copper:
*U*J!y
tranbiya
;
<d^J
dokda
=
2
tranbiya.
Silver :
$j
kori
=
24 dokda. The word is dokta on the
coins,
but is
really
dokda.
On
coinage
of the
Malay
Peninsula and
Archipelago
we find
some other denominations. Native States have the
\j**
mas,
in
gold,
the 4JL
kapang,
the
^J
kas,
and the
(jwAi
falus,
in
copper.
A ducat of the Dutch East India
Company,
written in
Malay
<j^Ju! 15^^
an<^
U"*:.^J
,AJu,
and of the Netherlands
Government,
is called
f^o
dirham,
a duit
o:^,
and a
rupee
<U^
,
with divisions of the
rupee
of
J, -Ar, T-OO,
and TO-Q in
Malay
(see p. 6).
A Java
rupee
of the
English
East India
Company
is marked
jj^Lxxfc
j^Jui
^Li
,
coin of the
Henglish Company,
a Port
Marlborough rupee
is called *** LJ
(J^*
?V
>
moiie
y
f
Company
two
soko,
and there are also 4Jo and
multiples
of
the same.
A soko
corresponds
to a
quarter
dollar. A
kapang
is a small
copper
coin of which 400
equal
a
Spanish
dollar.
The small
currency
of these
parts was,
and still
is,
made of
tin,
or of
pewter largely composed
of that
metal,
which is the
commonest one
there,
the tin-mines of the Peninsula and
neigh-
bouring
islands
being
the source of
supply
of it in the East. The
Portuguese
made
every endeavour, early
in their traffic with
Sumatra and the
Peninsula,
to
get
the trade and to control the
124 3IUSAL1IAN NUMISMATICS.
mines,
and the Dutch. were not slow in
doing
the same in the
islands where their
possessions
and influence
lay. Following
on
this the
Portuguese
Oovernraent in the sixteenth
century
made
pewter,
or
tiitenag
coins for
currency
in "Western
India,
and as
it became
recognized
and
acceptable
for
trade,
the
English
Government made
tiitenag
coins
early
in the
eighteenth century
for use in the same
parts
of
India,
in
very
close imitation of the
Portuguese coinage.
There are also some rare coins in this metal
struck in the name of the Dehli
emperor
Shah
Jahan,
made
probably
at Surat.
Another denomination is to be found on a coin of
Zanzibar,
viz.
Jls
real.
On some coins of Dehli and
Bengal kings,
instead of the
denomination the word
t^i&\
the silver
(coin),
is used.
PLACE AND TIME OF MINTAGE.
PLACE AID OF MIffTAGE.
The usual
legend
about the
striking
of a Musalman coin is
[^^] jlijjJl
1 JkJb
ijjts
<LLH
>**o
In the name of God this dinar
(or dirham)
was
struck,
followed
by
the name of the mint
place
and the date. Instead of the word
c^.^
on some ]\Iurabit coins
is (-J+2*
*+\
?
ordered to be struck
;
on some Dehli and
Gujarat
coins,
L-jyaJljlj,
place
of the
striking ;
on other
Gujarat
ones,
ei-vJ^
, struck;
and on a Great Kaan
coin,
(^jt^sl\ J\^s
,
at the
place
of
striking.
On some I^asrid
pieces
^J?
, struck,
and on
some of the Norman
kings
of
Sicily J^c , made,
are used instead
of
c-jys.
The
following phrases
are used with reference to the time of the
striking
:
In the
days
of the state or
empire,
djj
J >M
<J>
- ^^
fV.V
In the
days
of the
king.
uJl^i *W
In the
days
of the
empire
of the Lord Sultan.
In the time of.
At the date.
;fej|
J
_
Under the
empire
of the Lord Sultan.
In the time of.
In the time of the Imam. ,*Ui3\
By
order.
^1 ^c.
nder the
governorship. ijL
o
"
By authority
of the Amir.
j+*$\
&
j*\
U^
The mint name had the
preposition
L-?
, in,
attached to it on
the older
coins,
but not often on the later ones
;
for
instance,
k-il^
in the time of the
early
Ehalifs and k*jU in that of the
Mongols
of Persia. The article
Jl
, the,
is
prefixed
to some
names and not to
others,
and a few mint names are sometimes
126 31USAL1IAX NUMISMATICS.
written with and sometimes without
it,
and that too even at about
the same date.
Before or after the mint name there is often a word or two
meaning place, city, port,
etc
,
l*
:\*\s
~ SjJj
~jjcj,
or
expressive
of
quality,
title,
or
condition,
as <
>,Lw&Jt
the
blessed,
<jwJJL*
i
-^
holy,
ifjuJusil the
new;
or
both,
such as dJjaJLsr* 4jLJJt~ the
guarded city,
<L*--J2 JjJj the
good city,
u->L^
\^
the blessed
port.
These are called the titles of mint
towns,
and a list of
them follows that of the
mints, showing
the
places
to which the
title is
given
in each case.
The List of Mint Towns has been
compiled
from the one in
Soret's
"
Xumismatique
ITusalrnane,"
with the addition of such
other
places
as have been found in numismatic
writings
since that
book was
published.
For the-
purpose
of
greater accuracy
as to
the
geographical position
of the towns such
general descriptions
as "in Irak
Arabi,"
in
Khurasan,"
not
being satisfactory
the
latitude and
longitude
are
given
when
they
have been ascertained.
Some names have not been
located,
although they
are mentioned
in Yakut's
'
Mu
jam
al-Buldan";
in such cases a few words of
description by
that author are
quoted.
A few more
yet
remain
uncertain : some of them
probably
have
disappeared
or sunk into
insignificance ;
others
may
have been new names
given
to
places
on their
capture by
a Musalman
king,
but since
forgotten ;
and
others are most
likely misreadings.
"When the mint name has
been noticed
by only
one writer his name is
added,
in
brackets,
as
the
authority
for
including
it in the list
;
all the other mint names
have been
given by
more than one writer. The class of coin
upon
which the mint name is found follows the
geographical description,
and then the title or titles of the
town,
which are
given
as
prefix
or suffix
according
to whether
they precede
or follow the name.
The
spelling
of the names is
not,
as will be
seen,
always
the same
;
Arzerum is an instance of this :
**^
\\j\
-
**)jj\
-
/*/
ijl
-
(V/^
'
Misreadings may
account for this
sometimes,
but there are mis-
spellings
and variations in
spelling
some of the names on the coins.
LIST OF MINT TOWS. 127
LIST OF MINT TOW1S.
Abhar.
In
Azarbaijan.
36S'K;
4920'E.
Sallarid
(Markof).
Abrashahi;. Old name for Msabur.
Umayyad;
Abbasid. Prefix dwj A/ .
Abarkuh, InFarsistan. 3110'IN
T
.;
53
C
I5'E.
Mongols
of Persia : Timurid
;
Stalls of
Persia.
al-Abadan min al-Ahwaz. ?.
Buwayhid.
Abu. In
Eajputana,
India. 24 35
;
N.
;
72-45' E. Behli
Eings (Eoclgers).
Abuan. In
Egypt,
near Damietta ? Abbasid
(Soret).
Prefix
<?1? -u .
Abusaidiyab.
?.
Mongols
of Persia.
(Some-
times written without the initial 1
.)
Abushahr.
Bushire^
in Farsistan. 29
;
E".
;
*r
50 52' E. Shahs of Persia. Prefix
;
j^j .
Abiwarci In Khurasan. 3756'N.
;
5915'E.
uS
Mongols
of Persia.
Etawah. In K'W. Provinces of India.
Xj\2\
.
26 47' K
;
79 3
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Utrar.
Farab,
in Turkistan. 44 35' IT.
;
\j\J
67 20' E.
Mongols
of Persia
; Chagatai.
Prefix jJj . jJj .ajj s* .
Attuk. In
Panjab,
India. 33 53' N.
;
72 16
r
E.
Dehli
Emperors ;
Durrani.
Attuk Benares. The same. Dehli
Emperors
(Eodgers).
Ajayur. Bakror,
in
Oudh,
India. Dehli
Emperor.
128 MUSALSTAX
Ajmir,
In
Eajputana,
India. 26 27' ]N
T
.
;
74
C
43'E. Dehli
Emperors.
Prefixes^-JsJl^o.
>;\tjt
;,.
,?fj
to \jsi I .j*~^Mv*s$ m j JOw$w.A<*i .
Ujjain.
In
Malwah,
India. 23
C
10' X.
;
75 47'E.
Dehli
Kings
and
Emperors,
and local.
Prefix
,Jjb\j\J.
Achah.
Acheen,
in Sumatra 5
G
10'K;
9535'E.
Local Sultan
; English.
Prefixes
,a;j
.
^j
.x .
Ahsanabad.
Gulburgah,
in the
Deecan,
India.
17 18' IS
T
.
;
76 54
;
E, Dehli
Emperors ;
Bahmani. Prefix
CLJ-^
Ahmadabad, In
Gujarat,
India. *23
C
1
;
K.
;
72 38
7
E. Dehli
Emperors ;
Gujarat Eings.
Prefixes
Ahmadpur.
In
Bahawalptir
State,
India.
29 8'
K".;
7118'E. Durrani. Local
Eaja.
Ahmadshahi. Kandahar.
Durrani;
Barakzai.
Prefix d LN
wJ;-il.
Ahmadnagar.
In
Gujarat,
India. 2338
/
2\.
;
72 54' E.
Gujarat Kings.
Prefix
jJ
^^
Ahmadnagar.
In the
Deecan,
India. 195
;
^T.
;
74 55' E. Dehli
Emperors ;
local
Bajas.
Ahmadnagar
Farukhahad.
Earukhabad,
in ,.
H.W.ProTinces,
India. 27
C
23
/
N.;
7936'E,
Dehli
Emperors.
Akhtarnagar
Oudh. Oudh. Dehli
Emperors.
Akhsikat.
Capital
of
Earghana.
41 36
;
F.
;
7l20'E.
Abbasid(Tiesenhausen); Samanid;
Turkistan
(Markof).
Ikhshin. In Earsistan
(Yakut). Mongols
of
Persia.
LIST OP JflXT TOWNS, 129
Akhsi. In Turkistan. 40
C
55']N
T
.
;
7l22'E.
Shaybanid (Markof).
Akhlat.
Ebelat,
in Armenia.
38 52' N.
;
42 10' E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Akhur?
Cliagatai (Oliver).
Adrinali,
Adrianople,
in
Turkey.
4127
;
K;
264Q'E. Othnianli.
Udaipnr.
In
Eajputana,
India. 24 3 7'K
;
7349
/
E. Denli
Emperors.
Prefix jWjucs^.
Azarbaijan.
A Province of Persia.
Uniayyad;
Abbasid;
Tabirid.
Arran. A Province in Armenia.
Uniayyad
(Markof) ;
Abbasid
; Mongols
of Persia.
Prefix
<L Jw* .
Arbuk. In Knuzistan. 3 1 1 6' K
;
49 3' E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Arbil. InTurkistan. 36 10' K
;
44 O'E.
Abbasid; Buktiginid; Buwaybid; Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair.
Arrajan.
In Farsistan. 3042
/
N.;
5026'E.
Abbasid
;
Saffarid
;
Buwayhid ;
Tahirid
;
Mongols
of Persia.
Arjisli.
In Armenia.
390'K;
43 13
;
E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Ardabil. In
Azarbaijan.
38 9
;
1ST.
;
48 19' E.
Abbasid
;
Sajid
;
Mongols
of Persia
;
Chagatai; Atabeg; Jalair;
Shahs of Persia.
Prefix
Jj^Sljlj.
al-Ardun. The Jordan district of
Syria.
Umayyad
(Eodgers).
Ardashir Khiirrah.
Eirozabad,
in Parsistan.
28 42
;
N.
;
52 48' E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid.
Urdu. A
camp. Shaybanid;
Shahs of Persia
;
Dehli
Emperors.
130 JIUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Urdu dar rah-i-Dakhan.
Camp
on tlie road to ,.
J &\ , ,j
r
W -^ >
/
the Dekhan. Dehli
Emperors.
Urdu Zafar
Q,arin.
Camp
linked to
victory.
^j
Jj J&
Dehli
Emperor
Akbar.
Arzarum. Erziroum. in Armenia. 39 57' X.
;
_ * ,
j
,^
.
*
J
' J
!
'^'
p
y
41
C
20' E.
Saljuks
; Mongols
of Persia
;
*^J
-
^
c
ii
Othmanli.
Arzakan. IE
Earsistan,
on the
sea-coast,
as
c
I think
(Yakut), llongols
of Persia
(Sauraire).
Arzan. In Armenia. 38" 10' X.
;
41 18
;
E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Arzanjan.
In Armenia. 39 38'X.
;
39 5-i'E.
u
Saljnks ; Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Danish-
mandid
;
Karaman
;
Timurid. Prefix ijJ^.
Arsaband. In
Turkistan,
two farsakhs from
Marv
(Yakut). Mongols
of Persia.
Ard-al-Hayr
or
Khayr.
Karbala,
in Irak
^sj\
Arabi. 3238
;
Is
T
.;
4433'E. Abbasid.
Arz-i-Aqdas.
Meshhed,
in Persia. Shahs of
\JM&>\
Persia.
-
Arkat.
Arcot,
in Karnatic India. 1 2 5 5' JT.
;
c
79 24' E. Dehli
Emperor ;
E.I
Company ;
local ^awab.
Arakan. On coast of Barman. 20 42' N.
;
9324
/
E.
Bengal Kings.
Urmiah.
Urmi,
in Persia. 3730
/
X.: 45 19'E.
^,1
-
7
L5
^
Abbasid; Mongols
of Persia.
Arminiyah.
Province of Armenia.
Umayyad ;
Abbasid
;
Sajid
;
Mongols
of Persia.
Ariwan.
Eriwan,
in Armenia. 40 8
7
JT.
;
^
,
.
U"jj\
44 25
X
E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Othmanli.
Urush,
for
i.'
. Timurid.
(?)
^wj
,1
LIST OP MINT TOWNS.
131
Inimi. In Farsistan. Stalls of
Persia;
Kara
Eaiyunlid ( Fraelin) ; Mongols
of Persia
(Eartholomei).
Arwand. Mount
Elvand,
near Hamadan.
34 40'
ST.;
4S21'E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Shahs of Persia.
Azaq.
Azof,
in Eussia. 47 8' K
;
39 10' E.
G-olden
Horde;
Othmanli. Prefixes z> .
Azammur. InMorocco. 33 18'
K;
8 13'
"W.
Marinid.
Azmir.
Smyrna,
in Anatolia. 3827'^T.
;
2712'E. Othmanli.
Asbaijab.
Asfijab Sairam,
in Tnrkistan. c
4142
/
K;
8150'E.
Chagatai ;
Tnrldstan.
Astara. In
Azarbaijan,
on the
Caspian.
38 30
;
N.
;
48 50' E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Sawalief) ;
Jalair
;
Chagatai.
Astarabad. In Mazandaran. 36 50' K
;
jbl.L-l .
53 45
7
E.
Ziyarid;
Great
Kaans; Mongols
of
Persia;
Sarbadarid
; Timurid;
Shahs
of Persia. Prefixes <Lo J^
Usrushana.
Uratnbe,
in Turkistan.
68 58
;
E. Turkistan
;
local Khan.
Isfarayin.
In Biorasan. 37 3' N.
;
57 4' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Shaybanid.
Asia.
Saffi,
in Morocco.
3218'F.;
S^O'W. J
Pilili Sharifs.
Prefix
^
(Tychs.en),
J^u
(Marcel).
Asfir. ?.
Dehli
Emperor
(Tychsen).
al-Iskandariyah. Alexandria,
Egypt.
31 12'IT.
;
,
2952'E.
Fatimid; Zangid;
Ayyubid;
Mamlnk;
Othmanli,
132 31CSAL3IAN KU3XISMAXXCS.
IJskub or Skub. In Macedonia. 41-0'X.
;
2i
c
19'E, Othmanli.
Islamabad.
Chittagong,
India. 22-21'X.
;
9 1
c
52' E.
(Mathura, according
to
Rodgers. }
Delili
Emperors.
Istambol.
Stamboul, Constantinople.
Othmanli.
Ismir,
IQTJ*S*J\.
Smyrna.
Othmanli.
Uswariyah.
Near Isfahan
(Yakut). Mongols
of Persia
(Maikof).
Asir.
Asirgarh,
in Central
Provinces,
India.
2128
/
^T.
;
7620
;
E. Dehli
Emperor.
Ishbiliyah.
Seville,
in
Spain.
37- 22
;
X.
;
5 59' W. Abbadid
;
Murabit
;
3IuwahMd
;
Hudid.
Istikhan. Bukhara. Turkistan
(Fraehn).
Istakhar.
Persepolis,
in Farsistan. 30 FX.
;
52
C
57'E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Isbahan or Isfahan. In Irak
Ajami,
Persia.
32 42' IS
T
.
;
51 43' E. Abbasid
;
Tahiiid
;
Buwayhid
; Kakwayhid ;
Saljuks ; Mongols
of
Persia
;
Kara
Knyunlid
;
Timurid
; Chagatai
;
Shahs of Persia. Prefixes jx* .
^ikLJ^b
.
Suffix
Jj^\
.
Atarabalus.
Tripoli,
in
Syria.
34 24' N.
;
35 51' E.
Umayyad (Larois) ;
Fatimicl
(Markof).
Izzabad. ?. Dehli
Emperor (Tychsen).
Azimnagar.
?. Dehli
Emperor.
Agharnathah?
for
lilJ^i
. Granada. Murabit.
Aghmat.
In Morocco. 31 4' K.
;
80
/n
\Y.
Mnrabit.
Afrikiyah.
Tunis. 36 48
;
N.
;
10 10' E.
Umayyad; Abbasid; Aghlabid.
LIST OF 3IINT TOWNS. 133
Afiyun.
Afioum,
in AnatoKa.
38 48' 2f.
;
^-..M
30 20' E.
Saljuk (Pietrazewski).
Aksara,
Akshahr.
Ak-Sarai,
in Karamania.
.] ^\
38
c
23'y.;
33
C
49'E.
Saljuk (Soret);
Mongols
.
of Persia
(Fraehn)
;
Karaman.
*-*S* "X**"
Aksa. In Circassia. 43 30' ST.
;
46 18' E.
"Uncertain Khan
(Fraehn).
Aksn. In Turkistan. 41 10' K
;
80 40' E.
Chinese.
Akbarabad.
Agra,
IS
1
".^
1
".
Provinces,
India.
Dehli
Emperors.
Prefixes
- te\st\
J&
Akbarpur.
In
Ondh,
India. 26 25' ]tf.
;
82 34' E. DeHi
Emperors.
Akbarnagar. Eajniahal,
in
Bengal.
25 2' X.
;
87 52' E. Behli
Emperors.
Akbarnagar
Ondh.
aJjl^&^^U
al-Akir. ?.
Jalair; Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
al-Akir, al-Agir.
A fortress of Caucasus.
43 4' K
;
44 10' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Golden Horde.
Aksara. ?. Imam of Sana.
Akuniah. ?. Timurid
(Bodgers).
Agrah.
In N.TV.
Provinces,
India. 2710
/
SJ".;
78 5' E.
Kings
and
Emperors
of Dehli.
Prefixes . *
Almeria. In
Spam. 3650'K;
232'"W".
Spanish Umayyad ;
Mnrabit.
Almalakah or al-Malakah.
Knlja. 4358']Sr.;
81 15' E.
Chagatai.
Almorah. In JS
T
."W.
ProTinces,
India.
2935']Sr.;
79 41' E. DehH
Kings j
local
Eajah.
134 MUSALMA2? NUMISMATICS.
Alinjali.
Province to west of
Isfahan,
Persia.
<
Jalair. Prefix 4*!jl .
Alwar. ID.
Rajpntana,
India. 27 34' X.
;
76" 38' E. Delili
Eings ;
local
Rajah.
Ulns
Bnlghar. Bulghar.
Khan of Kazan.
jUb
Amasiah. In
Slras,
Asia Minor. 40
:
09' X.
;
<
35
;
48' E.
Mongols
o! Persia
;
Ottonanli.
Imtiyazgarh.
Adoni,
in
Deecan,
India.
aj^j
15 37'
B".;
77
s
19' E. Dehii
Emperor
;
local Kavab.
Amid.
Diarbakij
in Armenia. 37 56' K.
;
40 8' E. Abbasid
; Buwayhid ;
Marwanid
;
Urtnkid; Ayynbid;
Othmanli. Prefix ijj^.
Amdurman. In Sudan. 15
D
40'2(.;
32
C
34
;
E.
^
Local rulers.
Amritsar. In the
Punjab,
India. 31
c
37' "N.
;
7455'E. Sikh.
Amnl. In Mazandaran. 36 30' N.
;
52
C
25' E.
Samanid
;
Ziyarid
;
Tabaristan
; Chagatai ;
Mongols
of Persia
;
Timnrid
;
Shahs of
Persia. Prefix j*x* .
Amirkot.
Umarkot,
in Sind. 25
C
21'K;
69 46
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
al-Anbar. Near
Baghdad.
33 38' 1ST.
;
4343'E.
Umayyad (Eraehn)
;
Buwayhid (Tychsen).
Anbar. In furkistan. 36 5'
K;
64 30' E.
Bnwayhid ;
Marwanid.
Anabnlia.
Iniboli,
in Asia Minor. 4155
/
N.;
33 50' E. Othmanli
( Wellenheim)
.
Andajan. Andokan,
in Transoxiana. 4050
/
N.
;
7225'E.
Shaybanid;
Timnrid; Chagatai.
Andarabak
Indarab,
in Turkistan. 3559
/
K.;
69 39
;
E. Abbasid
(Bodgers) ;
AbuDaudid
;
Samanid;
Ghaznawid.
LIST OF MIA
T
T TOWNS. 135
Indrapur.
Indore,
also
*Bhartpur,
in Central
India. Dehli
Emperor
;
local
Eaj
ah.
ai-Andalus.
Cordova,
in
Spain.
37 52' 3T.
;
j^J
Jj'Jl
4 50' "W.
Spanish Umayyad
;
Hamudid
;
Idrisid
;
Abbadid.
Indore. In Central India. 2242'2L
;
74 54' E.
^
jj I
Local
Eaj
ah.
Andijaraa. J^s?l>
in. Elhurasan. Samanid
(Markof).
al-Andikaru.
Antequera,
in
Spain.
373
/
E".
;
4
C
31' "W.
Spanish Umayyad (Stickel)
.
Antakiyah.
Antioch,
in
Syria.
36 11
'
K
;
L ikj I
36
C
7'E.
Abbasid; Tulunid; Saljuk.
Anknriyah.
An
gorah,
in Anatolia. 39 56
;
]Si".
;
Xj&j\
. &>&]
32
C
45' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Othmanli.
Anandghar. Probably Anandpur,
in Pan
jab.
#.^JoJl - y*L&J\
3115'K;
7634
/
E. Sikh.
Annlah.
Aoula,
in 'N.'W.
Provinces,
India.
dy\
28 16'
H.;
7912'E. Dehli
Emperors;
Durrani
(Eodgers).
Ani.
Oni,
in Armenia. 4248
/
]>T.j
43 1 5'E. J|
Jalair
; ITongols
of Persia.
Aujan.
In
Azarbaijan. 3750']SL;
4640
;
E.
J^-^\
Mongols
of Persia.
Aujan,
also
(^s>-\
. In Malwah. Dehli
Emperors.
Aukri.
Ochrida,
in Eoumelia. 410
/
K;
2045
r
E. Othmanli.
Ondh. In India. 26 48' K
;
82 14' E. Dehli
Emperor ;
local
Kings.
Prefixes .
(
Aurcha. In
Bandalkhand,
India. 25 21
;
1ST.
;
7842
/
E. Local
Eajah.
136 MUSALXAX NUMISMATICS.
-^ .
Ousk In Turkistan. 4045']N
T
.
;
723o'E.
Timurid; Chagatai.
Oukak. On the
Yolga?
between
Bulghar
and
Serai. Golden Horde
(Eraehn)
;
Astrakhan
(Markof).
Ounik. In
Armeniaj
now Javan Kalah.
40 8' K
;
42 25' E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Ahar. In
Azarbaijan.
38 28' ]N
T
.
;
47 0' E.
King
of Ahar
;
Kara
Kuyunlid (Soret).
al-Ahwaz. InKhuzistan. 319
;
N.;
4S44'E.
Abbasid
; Buwayhid ;
Saljuk.
See also
j\^\jL^\
m
jj&$\ j*i
. \\*&1\
^j^j
.
Ayasulugh. Ephesus.
37 55' K
;
27 22' E.
Othmanli; Aydin
Amir. Prefix ijJ^.
lij.
In
Earsistan,.
afterwards Shabankara.
Timurid
(Rodgers).
Urdu.
Serai;
also
probablr
Karakorama.
^,
7 r *.
>
_>
47" 15' X.
;
102 20' E. Golden Horde
;
Turkistan. Prefix
Ja**tt
.
Urdu Bazar. Serai.
Hongols
of
Persia;
Golden Horde
;
Astrakhan.
Urdu al-Jadidah. !Xew
Urdu,
Serai. Golden
Horde.
? Urdu Khanah. Timurid.
Urdu
Humayun. Imperial Camp.
Othmanii.
Aurangabad.
In the
Deccan,
India.
1954'K;
7522
;
E. BeHi
Emperors.
Prefix ^u^s^
jLj .
Aurangnagar.
BeHi
Emperor ("White
Eing).
JsJLAj
Uzkand. In Turkistan. 40
3
28' X.
;
73 12
;
E. .
Jj).M
.
Aiij
Turkistan. Prefixes ifjL . jL , Suffix
LIST OF MINT TOWNS. 137
lidaz.
Malamir,
in Khuzistan. 3 Pol'
2?".;
r^
Cl_
49 45' E.
Buwayhid
; Mongols
o! Persia.
Eriwan,
also
J"*^
. In Armenia. 40
C
8' ]N
T
.
;
^.jj
4425'E.
Shahs of Persia. Prefix
x~*j*s?".
Ailia,
with
,.,-laJJ
. Jerusalem. 01 46' ]S
T
.
;
JuW . LL!
7
W"
" " " "
3516'E.
Umayyad;
Idrisid
; Ayyubid.
Eiichpur.
In
Berar,
India. 21 10' K
;
77 30' E. Behli
Emperors.
Iran. Persia.
Shahs of Persia.
Ilak. In Turkistan. 39 0' K
;
64 12' E.
jL\
.
Ilaks of Turkistan
(llarkof).
al-Bab.
Darbend,
on the
Caspian
Sea. 42
5'$".;
48 1 5' E.
Umayyad.
Prefix <L> J^ .
Bajara.
In
Mesopotamia.
36
42'$".;
39i2'E.
ITongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Bajnis. ^^o^-lj ^J^
. Abbasid.
Bar. ]N
T
ear
Nisabur,
in Khurasan.
3635'K;
58 4rE.
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Prefix
Earan. K"ear Harv
(Yakut). Mongols
of
^U
Persia
;
Jalair
;
Kara
Kuyunlid.
Barjin.
In Khurasan. 33 8' K
;
59 49' E.
Golden Horde.
Bari.
Barin,
in
Syria.
32 1 7' K
;
34 59' E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Bariz. Paris. Filili Sharif
Mulay
Hasan.
Bazar.
Probably ^Ub. Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
(Bartholomei).
Baziffc. Near Isfahan
(Yakut
and
Sehindler).
Mongols
of Persia
(Sehindler).
Baghchih
Sarai. In the Crimea. 44 44' K
;
.
^\^
tjs*\>
33 53' E. Krim Khans. \
138 MUSAL3IAX
Baku. In the Caucasus. 40 21' X.
;
49 50' E. .
*/b
.
dj^b ./b
Golden Horde
; Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
4ui b
Chagatai ;
Kara
Kuyunlid (Fraehn).
Balapur.
In South India.
20-40'X.;
76
C
'49'E.
^-b
Local
(Tufnell).
Balkan. ]N
T
ear llerv
*
Golden Horde
(Soret).
J&\s
Bamian. In
Afghanistan.
34-49'S".;
67
S
2S
;
E.
Samanid
(Tiesenhausen)
;
Abu
Daud;
Khwarizm.
Banad,
Banak. E"ear
Eayy (Yakut).
Jalair
(llarkof).
Baward. Abiward
(Yakut). Mongols
of
Persia
(ITarkof).
Baibirt, In Armenia. 40 16'X.
;
40 10'E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Batan. Bhutan
District,
in Northern India.
27
3
X.
;
90 E. Local
(Eodgers).
Bajayah. Bougiah,
in
Algeria.
86
C
45'X.
;
54'E.
Muwahhicl;
Hafsid
;
Harinid.
Prefis ^j J^t .
Bahrayn.
Island in Persian Gulf. 25 E".
;
50 E. Abbasid.
Bukhara. In Tuxkistan. 39 48' K
;
64 34
r
E.
\j\ss?
Abbasid
;
Tahirid
;
Saljuk
; Shaybanid
;
Janid; Hangit.
Prefixes .
i^UJl
^
:
dIJ\
<L? d, . jJu . ^
:
jJj . Ljb-i .
Budaun. In KW.
Provinces,
India. 28
G
2'j$L;
^Jo
79 92' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Badakhshan. In
Afghanistan.
37 9' K
;
7033'E.
Samanid; Chagatai;
Timurid
;
Idrisid
;
Babar
(Eodgers).
Prefix jJj .
Badaa. In Arabia. 25 16' K
;
50 40
X
E.
Abbasid
;
Idrisid
; Aghlabid ;
Muwahhid
;
Jalair.
LIST OF 3SHNT TOWN'S.
Bidlis.
BitKs,
in Armenia.
3823'K;
426'E.
Amirs of Bidlis
; Chagatai ;
Abbasid ?
Badhaghis.
In Khurasan. 35 K
;
62 E.
Abbasid.
Brij Indarpur. Bhartpur.
Dehli
Emperors
(Eodgers).
Bardasir. Old name for Earman.
Saljuk.
Bardaah. In Armenia. 4220
/
K
;
46 10' E.
ITongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Abbasid
;
Sajid
;
Saffarid
(Tornberg).
Barkan. On east bank of the
Jinim,
near
Astrabad and
Jurjan (Yakut).
Uncertain
(Soret).
Barkaid. In
Mesopotamia.
36 44' K
;
4152
/
E. Local Amir.
Barkah.
Baraka,
in ST. Africa. 15 35'N.
;
3730
;
E. Abbasid.
Barujird.
In Irak
Ajami.
33 50' 3ST.
;
4855
/
E.
Shahs of Persia.
Baroch.
Broach,
in
Gujarat,
India. 2143
/
jST.
;
73 2' E. Local.
Baroda. In
Gujarat.
22 1 T K
;
73 1 6' E.
Local Gaikwar.
Brusa. In Anatolia. 40 10' K
;
29 0' E.
Othmanli.
Burhanpur.
In
Kandesh,
India. 21 1 8
;
K
;
J
7616
;
E. Dehli
Emperors ;
local
Eajah.
Prefixes
j^jJ
I
jlj
.
^^Is
^A!J .
Barili.
Bareilly,
in N.W.
Provinces,
India.
28 22' F.
;
29 26' E. Dehli
Emperors ;
Durrani. Prefixes -JaS . jb UW
(Eodgers)
;
dbli*!
(kelson Wright).
Bazmkobad, Barmisad,
Barmkobad. ?.
Umayyad.
140
3TUSAL3IAX XOIISMAXICS,
Bust, In
Afghanistan.
31
:
20'X.
;
64'2'E.
Tahirid;
Saffarid. Prefix JA*.
Bistam. In Khurasan. 34- 20' X.
;
47~ 6' E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Markof).
al-Basrah. In Irak Arabi.
30-26'X;
47
C
56
/
E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid :
Buwayhid ; Saljuk ;
Marwanid
;
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Shahs of Persia. Prefix jL!* J .
i
Bnsri.
Bozra,
in
Syria.
32
C
21'X.;
36
C
31'E.
TJmayyad,
Bataliyus. Badajoz,
In
Spain.
38
C
53' X.
;
6 56
;
AV.
King
of
Badajoz.
Balabekk.
Baalbac,
in
Syria.
34
s
3
;
X.
;
36
C
11
;
E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Baghdad.
In
Mesopotamia.
33 22' X.
;
44
C
26' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Kara
Ejiynnlid ; Chagatai ;
Mamlnk : Oth-
inanli
;
Slialis of Persia. Prefix JuJUJ .
Bekbek. ?.
Mongols
of Persia. i ^.' So
Bagalkot.
In the
Deccan,
India. 16 I l
x
X.
;
75 44' E. Local.
Baljan.
In Khuzistan, between Basrah and
i^W^
Abbadan
(Yakut). Mongols
of Persia
(Schindler).
Baikh. In Khurasan. 36
C
47'X.
;
67
C
2S'E.
^
Umayyad;
Abbasid;
Samanid
; Ghaznawid;
Abu Daud
;
Saljuk
;
Shaybanid
;
Janid
;
Barakzai. Prefix <ijj Ju .
Balkh al-Baida. In
Daghastan (Fraehn).
LiJl
^
Umayyad (Fraehn).
Balid. In
Mesopotamia,
near Mosil. 3625'X.
;
jJj
42 50
7
E.
Abbasid;
Golden
Horde;
Ukaylid.
Baliim.
Palermo,
in
Sicily.
S8
C
7
;
X
;
1322
/
E. ^Jj
Aghlabid
of
Sicily.
LIST OP HI^T TOWNS.
141
Buighar.
In
Eussia,
on the
Tolga.
54 59' IN .
;
490'E. Great Kaans
;
Golden
Horde;
Khan of Kazan. Prefix
<j**\
Bulghar
Garrison. Golden
Horde
(Markoi).
Bulghrad. Belgrade,
in Servia. 44 48' 1$.
;
20 28' E. Othmanli
Balansiah.
Yalencia,
in
Spain.
39 28'ST.
;
020'W.
Amirid;
Toledo
Kings;
Murabit.
Prefix jJu*.
Balukan,
or
Talukan,
for
^USU?.
KKwarizm.
Bali. In Java. 6 1'S.
;
IH^T'E.
English
Malay.
Prefix
Bamm. In Kirman. 29 10
;
K
;
58 13' E.
Bwayhid; Saljuk (Ejrehl).
Banares. In KW.
Provinces,
India.
2518'K.;
83 3
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Prefix jb 1 dA^.
Binakat. Same as Shahrukhia. 40 46' 1ST.
;
69C'E. Turkistan.
Bantan.
Bantam,
in Java 6 12
7
S.
;
106 10'E.
Malay ;
local.
BanjarMasin.
InBorneo.
332'S.;
11438
;
E.
Local Sultan
(Millies).
Banjar,
for^.*saj
.
Bandar.
Probably
Bandar Abbas or Bushira.
Mongols
of Persia
(Schindler).
Bandarabin. In 2ST. "W.
Proyinces,
India.
27 23' K
;
77 44' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Bandar Shahi. ?. Dehli
Emperors.
Bandar Abbas. In Laristan. 27 10' EL
;
5618'E. Shahs of Persia.
Bindah. In Sind: Dehli
Emperors.
Bundi. In
Eajpntana,
India.
2527'K;
7540'E. Local
Eajah.
142
IfUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
Bink or Bik Bazar. Unknown town in Trans-
oxiana
(Markof).
Golden Horde
(Fraehn)
;
Astrakhan Elan
(Harkof).
Bankapur.
In
Bengal.
22
3
20'X.;
8825'E.
Dehli
Emperor (White King).
Binketh. Chief toTrn of Shash
(Yakut),
i.e.
Taskand. Samanid
; Chagatai.
Prefix jJj .
Bangala. Bengal.
Dehli
Emperor
Akbar
(Thomas).
Bangalur.
In
llysore,
India. 12
C
57']^".
;
77
3
36' E. Sultan of
Mysore.
Bannnr, In Patiala
State,
Panjab,
India.
30
C
48^
T
.;
7642
;
E. Dehli
Xings(Eodgers).
al-Buwazij.
BuTraibab,
in
Mesopotamia.
36 25' ^
T
.
;
38 12' E.
Buktiginid (Heir).
Budhana. In X.W.
Provinces,
India. 2916
/
]S
T
.;
77 31' E. Behli
Kings (Yost).
Burhandiyah.
?.
Bengal Kings (Eodgers).
Buzkan.
Buzjan,
four days from Msabur
and six from Herat
(Yakut).
35 12' K
;
60 38' E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Bnshahr,
for Abushahr.
Mongols
of Persia
(Markof).
Bntah or Buzah. ]^ear Merv ? Abbasid
(MoeHer).
Bulis. ?.
(Tiesenhausen.)
Bunt.
Alpuenta,
in
Spain.
39 52' F.
;
1 3' "W".
Bini E/azin.
Bahadurpattan.
Dehli
Emperors.
Bahar. In Hamadan. 35 0' K
;
48 25' E.
Golden Horde.
Bhanpur. Bhanpnra,
in Central
Provinces,
India. 2430
/
K;
7547'E. Dehli
Kings
(Thomas).
LIST OF MINT TOWNS.
143
Bahawalpur.
In
Panjab,
India. 29 24' 1ST.
;
71 47' E. Dehli
Emperor (Eodgers)
;
local
Bajah.
Prefix
JLH^ta.
Bahbihan. InKhuzistan,
3040'K;
5014'E.
Kings
of Persia.
Bhartpur.
In
Bajputana,
India. 2713'N.
;
7732'E. BeHi
Emperors;
local
Eajah.
Bihkubadh al-Asfal. In the Saki i
Purat,
near
JU1
Baghdad (Yakut). Uniayyad.
Bhakhar. In Sind.
3137'K;
71 5' E.
Shahs of Persia
;
Dehli
Emperors ;
Durrani.
BhopaL
In Centrallndia.
2315'jST.;
7725'E.
Local
Begam.
Bhuj.
In
Hutch,
Western India. 23 15'
K;
6948
/
E. Also written ^j
T^
. Local Eao.
Bhilsah. In
Bhopal
State. 23
31'K;
7750
/
E.
Dehli
Emperors.
al-Biyar.
In Kumis
territory,
two
days
from
Bistam
(Yakut).
36 13' N.
;
55 37
;
E.
^QW
Biyarjumand.
Samanid
;
local
copper.
al-Biyan.
On
estuary
of
Tigris.
30 21' K
;
48 12' E.
Umayyad (Codrington).
Biyasa. Baeza,
in Andalusia. 38
;
K
;
335'W.
Spanish Umayyad.
Biana. In
Eajputana,
India. 2657
;
K;
.<Ulj.!jLj
7720
r
E. Dehli
King.
BaitJahrin. InPalestine.
3136'K.;
3453
/
E.
Abhasid
(Tiesenhausen).
Bijapur.
In
Deccan,
India. 16 49' N.
;
^
7546'E. Dehli
Emperors.
Prenx.y^^b.
Bairut. In
Syria.
33 54
;
K
;
35 29' E.
CJ,
-j .
/>
Abbasid.
1-44 3IUS1L3L1X XO1XSMATXCS,
Brnxlh. Xear Basinna, which Is near al-Arnvaz
(Yakut). Buwayhicl
;
Mongols
of Persia.
Baysha.
Bish,
in Yemen. 19
:
58
;
X.
;
4o
s
30'E.
Abbaslcl
;
Governor of Yemen
(Markof).
Bairat.
Probably
Vairatu. in
Rajputana.
India.
27=42'y.
;
76
:
2:3'E. Dehli
Emperors.
Bikanir. In
Eajpntana,
India. 28"
;
X.
;
73"22'E. Local
Eajah.
Bilakan. In Armenia,
llongois
of Persia.
Bilu. In Baluchistan. Local Khan
(Eodgers).
? for ^L: .
Biylak
In Baluchistan. 26
C
1 (T X.
;
66 23' E.
Local Jam.
Binazir. Hola
Honnur,
in
llysorc.
14
C
0'I!\. :
7542'E. Sultan of Msore.
Pali. In
Rajputana,
India. 25
C
48' X.
;
Jlj
73 25' E.
Jodhpur Rajah.
Panipat
InIST.W.
Provinces,
India. 29
C
23'X.;
uuo Jb
77 2' E. Dehli
Emperors (Badgers).
Prefix
^^
(Eodgers),
<Ua5
(Taylor).
Pattan.
Saringapatam,
in
Mysore,
India.
^
12 25' 1". : 76 45' E. Sultan of
Mysore.
Pattan Deo.
Dwarka,
in
Kathiawacl,
India.
^
22 15' K
;
69 1
;
E. Dehli
Emperors
(Badgers).
Patnah. In
Bengal.
25 37'
N.;
85 12'"E. teu
Dehli
Emperors.
Prefixes .
Pashawar. On British frontier of
Afghanistan.
. u
340
/
K;
7138
/
E.
Ehwarizm; Sikh;
Shahs of Persia
;
Durrani
;
Dehli
Emperors ;
Barakzai. Prefix Ifll .
LIST OF MINT OWNS. 145
Palarm. Palermo. 38' 7' N.
;
13 22' E.
Xorman
Kings
of
Sicily.
Panahabad.
Shnshi,
in Kurdistan. 39
C
40' 3T.
;
47 32' E. Khan of
Karabagh (Markof) ;
uncertain Persian
(Fraehn).
Panjnagar.
'?. Dehli
Emperors (Bodgers).
Panjhir.
In
Afghanistan.
35 30'
ST.;
6935'E.
Saffarid
;
Samanid
;
Daudid.
Poulo
Panang.
Prince of Wales
Island,
Penang. 518'N.;
100 25' E.
English
Malay.
Punah.
Poona,
in
Deccan,
India. 1 8 3 1
'
N.
;
73 53' E. Local Paishwah. Prefix AX .
Tajarjara.
?
Tajarra,
in East Africa. In
Algeria
? Idrisid
(Lavoix).
Tashkand. InTurkistan. 4121'K
;
684l'E.
Shaybanid
;
Tashkand Khans
; Chagatai.
Talddamt. In
Algeria.
35 28' K
;
1 0' E.
Murabit
;
Abel al-Kadir.
Tandah. In
Oudh,
India.
2633'jST.;
8242'E.
Dehli
Emperors ; Bengal Kings.
Tanah
Malayu. Malay Country. English
local.
Tabriz. In
Azarbaijan.
38 3' ST.
;
46 20' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Golden Horde
;
Timurid
; Chagatai ;
Kuyunlid ;
Othmanli
;
Shahs of Persia, Prefixes -
Tattah. In
Sind,
India. 24 44' K.
;
68 O'E.
Dehli
Emperors ;
Durrani. Prefix
jlfsn
Jo .
Tadghah.
In Morocco. 3244'N.
;
547
/
'W.
Idrisid;
Abbasid
(Markof).
10
Taghlakpur. Tirhut,
district in
Bengal.
Dehli
Kings.
Prefix *Jj\
. Suffix
c^-A/
^
.
Tiflis. In
Georgia. 4141'3L;
44 59' E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid;
Great
Kaans; Mongols
of Persia
;
Othmanli
;
Shahs of Persia.
Prefix LJ J^ -
j^-i
Takrit. In
Mesopotamia. 3433'X.;
4333'E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Sauvaire).
Talak Samawi. Teluk
Samay,
in Achin.
510'K;
9750'E. Achin.
146 MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Tarjan.
In Armenia. 39- 42
;
X.
;
4(P 30' E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Tranganu.
In Malacca. 5 5' 2f.
;
102 30' E.
Jliy
.
jjl
Local. Prefix
^yC?
.
Tirmidli. In Bukhara. 38" 17 X.
;
67
G
38' E.
Abbasid
;
Samanid
; Chagatai ;
Timurid.
Prefix
JU--'.
^JJw* .
Tarumin. Sumatra.
O'f
;
100~30'E. Local
English.
Prefix
o-xJ.
Tarira. In Hadramaut. 18--41' X.
;
49
3
22'E.
Local Chief.
Tustar.
Shustar,
in Khuzistan.
Mongols
of
Persia
(Markof).
Tustar min al-Ahxvaz. Canton of Alnraz.
Abbasid;
Buwayhid.
TasTri.
Tesowy,
near Lake TJrmi. 38
s
18' X.
;
45 23' E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Fraehn).
Tatv^an.
Tetouan,
in Morocco. 35 30' X.
;
5 29' TV. Filili Sharifs.
TutilaL
Tudelah,
in
Spain.
42 7' 3f.
;
1 39' "W.
Spanish Umayyad.
Taizz. In Yemen. 13
3
30'^T.
;
4410
r
E.
jau
Ayyubid ;
Easulicl
;
Imam of Sana. Prefix
LIST OF MINT TOWNS. 147
Till Lams.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair.
Tilimsan.
Tlemsan,
in
Algeria.
35 0' N.
;
1 1 6' W. Murabit
;
Muwahhid
;
Marinid
;
Ziyanid;
Othmanli. Prefix <fcoX/.
Talang. Telanga,
district in S.E, India. Dchli
Kings.
Prefix i^Ln
.
Tukat. In
Shras,
Asia Minor. 40 20' N.
;
363S
;
E.
Mongols
of
Persia;
Othmanli.
Tunis. In North Africa. 36 46' N.
;
10 5'E.
Muwanhid
;
Hafsid : Othmanli.
Tunk.
Tonk,
in
Eajputana,
India.
2610'N.;
7556'E. Local
Rajah.
Tunkit Ilak. Province of Ilak
-
Bukhara. -
jlJ
39 0' ]ST.
;
64 12
7
E. Samanid
;
Turkistan.
jib
Tui,
for
ufj^
Shahs of Persia.
Tirah.
Tyria,
in Anatolia. 38 4' 1ST.
;
27 42' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Othraanli
(LJ^-H
) 5
Shahs
of Persia.
al-Taimarah. Near Isfahan.
Umayyad.
Thabat. In Yemen. ?. Rasulid.
Jahak. Near
Tus,
in Khurasan
( Yakut). Saljuk.
Jajarm.
In Khurasan. 36 51' 38".
;
56 29
;
E.
Mongols
of Persia.
1
Jalandar. In the
Panjah,
India. 31 20' K
;
^
jj U-
75 87' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Java. EJ.
Company;
Netherlands. Title t\p-
Jarbath.
Jerbah,
near Tunis. 33 45
f
IS.
;
ci^
^
10 30
;
E.
Umayyad
(Lavoix),
148 ML'SALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Jurjaii.
In Tabaristan.
37
:
12' X.
;
54
:
52
;
E.
Abbiijid;
Mongols
of
Persia;
Samanid
(Marlvof); Buwayhid,
(Fraelm);
Tahirid
(Xornberg).
Prefix
j J^ .
Jarzuwan, Jarirwan,
or Harir\ran
(Ptodgers);
-
Gazarwan
(Eaverty).
In
Afghanistan.
35
r
40'X.; 6512'E. Ivawarizm Shalis.
al-Jazair.
Algiers.
36
C
58' X. :
2'
:
57' E.
Hafsid;
Othmanli.
al-Jazirah. In
Mesopotamia.
37 I5
;
1ST.
;
42-14'E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid;
Marwanid;
Hamdanid
; Zangicl ; Mongols
of Persia
;
Kara
KnynnlicL.
Prefix
jj
(
*x* .
Jazirali Prins ab ^
r
ailes. Prince of Wales
Island
orPouloPcnang.
5" IS
7
]S
T
.
;
100
C
25'E.
Englisb.
local.
Jazirali Silulu or
Silung'. Ceylon.
Netherlands
E.I.
Company.
al-Jisr.
Probably
Jisr
Manbij,
in
Syria.
34 4
;
X.
;
35 38' E.
Uniayyad (Rogers).
Jafarabad.
Probably
Yeramin,
near Teheran.
35 1 5' ]S
T
.
;
51 42' E. Shahs of Persia.
Julad. In
Daghistan
?
GoldenHorde(Fraehn).
Jalalabad. In
Afghanistan.
34 24' ]S
T
.
;
70 24' E. Dehli
Emperor,
with
prefix
*Jjil . Also counter-strike on E.L Com-
pany's
coins.
Jalalpur.
In. the
Panjab.
29 31' 1S
T
.
;
71 22
7
E.
Dehli
Emperors
(Yost).
Jalaun. In Is ."W.
Proyinces,
India. 26 9
;
jS
T
.
;
7922'E. Local
Eajah.
Jalu.
Army
Mint. Or Jelo District in Kur-
distan. S725']S
T
.;
440'E. Shahs of
Persia.
Juzjan.
District near
Balkh,
in Khurasan.
36 JNT.
;
65 E. Ghaznawkl
; Ziyarid.
Jaunpur.
In KW.
Provinces,
India.
2544']Sr.;
82 44' E. Dehli
Emperors ; Kings
of
Jaunpur.
Prefixes
eL^d>-
L^ _ d'J^ri. _
Jhalawar. In
Eajputana,
India. 24 20' IS.
;
7650'E. Local
Eajah.
Jahanabad. In
Bengal.
25 13' N.
;
85 2' E.
Dehli
Emperors.
Jahanpanah.
Dehli. Dehli
Kings.
LIST OF 3II3TT TOWNS. 149
Jalimabad. ?. Dehli
Emperors.
jLlj J,:>-
Julair. ?. Delili
Emperors (Eoclgers).
Jummun. In Kashmir. 32
44'^.;
7449'E.
Dehli
Emperors (Eoclgers).
Local Governor.
Prefixes
..,U81
,b ...JiS.
\,^ > y>
Jinaba.
Genaba,
in Farsistan. 29
3
31'N.;
50 35' E. Saffarid
;
Buwayhid.
Junabadh.
Grmabad,
in Khurasan. 3420'N.
;
jj\i:>-
5833
/
E. Sarbadarid.
Jannatabad.
Lakhnauti,
in
Bengal.
24 55'jST.
;
88 8' E.
Bengal Kings.
Juncli Sabur. In Khnzistan. o 7 18' 1ST.
;
j
4885'E.
Urnayyacl;
Abbasid.
Janzah.
Probably
for ^rsa.i .
Umayyad ;
Shaddadid
(Markof).
Jodhpur.
In
Eajputana,
India. 26 19' 2T.
;
73 8' E. Dehli
Kings ;
Delili
Emperors
(Eodgers);
local
Eajah.
Prefixes
-jy&
\
^
. Suffix
Chatarkot. InKW.
Provinces,
India. 2518'^
r
.;
80 54' E. Dehli
Emperors (Burn).
Chitganu. Chittagong. 2221'K;
9152'E.
Bengal Kings.
Prefix
&*j.
.
Chinapattan.
Madras. Dehli
Emperors.
1-50 MUSAL3XAN XCTISMATIC,*.
Jhansi. In Central India. 25
:
25'K;
78
C
3S'E.
Dehli
Emperors.
Janansirabad. In X. "\V. Provinces,
India.
<-'
28
s
24'
X.;
7S
:
S' E. Dehli
Emperors
(Hoernle).
Jahangxrpur. Jangipur,
in
Bengal.
24
C
24'X.
;
88 6'E. Delili
Emperor.
Jahangirnagar.
Dacca, in
Bengal.
23' 43' K. :
90 26' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Jhang.
In the
Panjab,
India. 31 16' X.
;
72 21' E. SiJdi
(Rodgers).
Jhusi. Xear Allahabad, X.W. Provinces. India.
.-^.
25 26' K
;
81 58' E. Dehli
Kings.
Jayy.
Old Isfahan.
Uniayyad
;
Abbasid.
Prefix i^j-Vf .
Jiyan.
Jaen,
in
Spain.
37
C
50'^.;
C 49' TT.
Spanish Uniayyad
;
lluwahhicl
;
2^asricl.
Jaipur.
In
Eajputana,
India. 26 56' E".
;
75 55' E. Dehli
Emperors ;
local
Rajah.
Prefixes
^^
.
**4^
-
uJ^^
a- .
Jiruft. In Zirman. 28 9' E".
;
57 40
;
E.
Buwayhid.
Jaisalmir.
InRajputana.
2654'K
;
7054'E.
Local
Rajah.
Chanicha.
Cianitza,
in Servia. 42 56' jST.
;
20 2
y
E. OthmanlL
Chawalsfcan. ?. Dehli
King (Hoernle).
Prefix
LIST OF MINT TOWNS. 151
Chunar. In ~N~.W.
Provinces,
India, 25
C
7' $".
;
82 55' E. Dehli
Kings;
Dehli
Emperors.
Chanpanir.
In
Gujarat,
India. 22 31' ST.
;
73 36' E. Dehli
Emperor ;
Gujarat Kings.
Prefixes
^UjJK^
.
J* j&
-
*&
Chhachrauli. In the
Panjab,
India. 30 1 5' Ef.
;
77 25' E. Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
Chushi,
or Chusha. Shahabad
(Yost)
;
Dehli
Kings.
Chitur.
In
Eajputana,
India. 24 52' K
;
74 41' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Haji
Turkhan. Astrakhan. 46 25' K
;
48 5' E.
Golden
Horde;
Astrakhan Khans. Prefix
Hafizabad. In the
Panjab,
India. 32 2' 1ST.
;
73 46' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Habulta.
Jabulta,
near
Baghdad.
34 47
;
1ST.
;
43 37
7
E. Abbasid
(Lavoix).
Hajr.
In Yemen. 24 7' K
;
51 14' E.
Abbasid.
Harran.
Charroe,
in
Mesopotamia.
36 52' ~N.
;
39 r E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid
;
Ayyubid ;
Buktiginid.
al-Hirmin al-Sharifin. The two
Holy
Cities
Mecca and Medinah. Othmanli.
Hazan. Salt
Country.
?.
Mongols
of
Persia
(Soret).
al-Hasan or al-Khush.
Probably Khush,
in
Syria. Umayyad- (Eogers).
Hasanabad or Husainabad.
Probably
Gaur in
Bengal
Dehli
Emperors; Bengal Kings.
Prefix ^j^. .
152 3IUSAL3IAN NUMISMATICS.
Hissar. In Turkistan. 38
C
25'N.;
68 45' E.
Tlmuiid
; Shaybanid.
Hissar. In X.TT.
Provinces,
India. 29 9'X.
;
75
C
50' E. Dehli
Kings ;
Dehli
Emperors
;
local
E.ajah,
Suffix $; -J .
Hissar Shadman.
Hissar,
in Turkistan. Timurid.
^U
JU
jLa
Hisn. Kaifa. Urtukid
; Mongols
of Persia.
Hisn EhifEah. Hisr
Kaghi.
Hisn
Kaifa,
in
Turkistan. 37
40'X.;
41
C
20
/
E.
Trtnldd;
Mongols
of Persia.
al-Hadhr.
Atra,
in
Mesopotamia.
35 30
;
JS".
;
42 50' E.
Ak-Ivuyunlid (Soret).
Halab.
Aleppo,
in
Syria.
36 11' X.
;
37 9' E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid
;
Hamdanid
; Zangid ;
Ayynbid ;
Eatimid
;
Mirdasid
;
Mamluk
;
Jalair
;
Othmanli. Prefix ^o IS- .
Hulwan. In Irak Arabi. 34 48' ]S
T
.
;
45 36' E.
Abbasid.
al-Hillah. In
Mesopotamia.
32 25
;
K
;
^LsSi
44 30' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair.
Hamat. In
Syria.
34 16
;
X.;
35 40' E. iU>.
Ayyubicl ;
Mamlnk. Suffix LS* sr^l .
Hamad.
Perhaps
for
O
^A>-
;
or
^A^- ,
a
province
in Asia Minor. Jalair
(Markof).
Hims.
Emesa,
in
Syria.
34 25'
K;
36 46' E.
Umayyad; Hamdanid; Eatimid; Tulunid;
Jalair.
Hauran. In
Syria.
36 7' JS
T
.
;
36 40' E.
Othmanli
(Soret).
Hautah. In
NajdL
22 33' BT.
;
45 22' E.
Local
(Eodgers).
Huwayza.
In Khuzistan.
3117'K;
48 1'E.
Timurid.
LIST OF MIxNT TOWNS. 153
Haiclarabad. In
theDeccan,
India. 17 22' IT.
;
j
,
*
75 32' E. Dehli
Emperors ;
local ]\
T
izani.
Prefixes jLj
*JLL^J
. jUsll .b.
Kharpur.
?. Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
Khalakabad.
Chandagal,
near
Mysore.
12
C
21'2T.;
7645'E.
Mysore
Sultan.
Khanpur.
In
Bahawalpur State,
India.
2S35'N.
;
7041'E. Local
Eajah.
Khanjah. Elizabethpol.
40 45
;
N.
;
46 1 4' E.
Othmanli.
Khanah Eikab.
Army
Mint. Shahs of Persia.
Zhabushan. Modern
Knchan,
in EHmrasan.
37 2-5'
N.;
58 22'E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Markof).
Khutlan,
al-Khnttul. In
Transoxiana,
about
37 46' ]S
T
.
;
68 40' E. Timurid
(Fraehn)
;
Samanid.
Khuttan. In Turkistan. 37 7' K.
;
7755'E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Sanlcy)
;
local Khan.
suffix Lj-y .
IQuijastuh Baniyad. Aurangabad.
Dehli
Emperors.
Zhujindah.
In Turkistan. 41 6' 1ST.
;
68 2' E.
Chagatai ;
Turkistan.
Khartbirt. Diarbakr or Amid. 37 56' IT.
;
40 8' E.
Chagatai ; Mongols
of Persia.
Khurfah. In
ITajd,
Arabia. ?. Local Khan.
Prefix i
:
Alj.
Khazanah. The
Treasury. Eengal Kings.
Khusrushadh Hurmnz. A district in the culti-
Tated
part
of Irak
(Yakut). Umayyad.
154 MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Khilat
Akhlat,
in Armenia.
38
3
52'K;
42
:
10' E. Marwanid
; Mongols
of Persia.
al
-
Khalifan
al-Aliyah.
Constantinople.
Otnmanll.
Khulm. In Khurasan. 36
:
58' N.
;
67 8'E.
Timurid.
Ehalifatabad.
Baglmrhat,
in
Bengal.
22 40' X.
;
89 49' E.
Bengal Kings (Blochmann).
Khwarizm. EMva. 41 55' X.
;
60 5' E.
Golden Horde
; Cnagatai ;
Timurid
;
local
Khans. Prefixes *
Xhur. A
village
near
Balk3i(Yakut).
Timurid.
Klmrshid Suwad.
Probably
Bliarwar,
in the
Deccan,
India. 1527
/
S".;
75 3' E.
Mysore
Sultan.
Khu?h. ?.
Mongols
of Persia.
Khukand. In
Tartary.
4032
/
]S
T
,
;
7058
/
E.
Local Khans. Prefixes <uiljuu^
j\
-
^<U!
^1
J .
Epithet
L^JJ .
Khima. In
Azarbaijan.
38
21'S".;
4400
;
E.
Abbasid.
Khui. In
Azarbaijan.
38 33
;
ft.
;
45 5' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Golden Horde
;
Jalair
;
Shahs of Persia
;
Durrani
(Leggett).
Prefix
Khairpur.
In
Sind,
India.
2731'jST.;
6S48'E.
Dehli
Emperors
(Eodgers).
Khizan. In Armenia. SS ^']^.
;
42 5' E.
Othmanli.
Khayuk.
Khiva. Local
Khans;
Timurid
d/^
(Soret).
LIST OF MINT TOWNS.
Dara. In
Mesopotamia.
37'" S'K".
;
41
C
1'E.
Abbasid
(Stickel).
Bar al-Tassuwir.
Joudhpur.
Behli
Emperors
j\
(Eodgers).
Barah. In
Mesopotamia.
35
28']^.;
3952'E.
Saljuk (Lane Poole).
Baghastan.
Province in Armenia. 42 $".
;
^
48 K Shahs of Persia.
Bamighan.
In Khurasan.
3612'K;
5438'E.
Mongols
of Persia
; Chagatai ;
Timuricl
;
Shahs of Persia. Prefix <wj JL* .
Bamla,
near
Saharanpur,
K"W.
Provinces,
India. Behli
Emperor (Eodgers).
Baniat. In
Syria,
between
Aleppo
and
Kafartab
(Yakut).
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Baniat.
Benia,
in
Spain,
38 52' K
;
04' W.
Kings
of Benia
;
Muwahhid. Prefix <LJ J^ .
Bawar. In
Afghanistan.
33
15'^.;
65 5' E.
Shahs of Persia
(Markof).
Bahar. ? for
^Uj.
Behli
Kings (Eodgers).
Babusiyah.
In Transoxiana. 394S'j$T.
;
6550
/
E. Golden
Horde;
Turkistan.
Babil. Ardabil.
389'N.;
4S19'E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Barabjird.
Barab,
in Earsistan. 28 42' K
;
t^srlj
J
54 9' E.
Umayyad.
Birband. In
Baghistan.
42 S'K
;
4810'E.
Golden Horde
;
local Khan.
Barwadh. A fort in
Azarbaijan (Yakut).
Shahs of Persia.
Bizful. In Khuzistan. 32 8' K
;
48 22' E.
Shahs of Persia
(Eraehn).
Bistawa. In Earsistan
(Yakut). Umayyad.
156 3IUSALMAN X
Dakuka.
Tank,
in
Mesopotamia.
35S']N
T
.;
44" 28' E, Abbasicl
; Buktiginid (Soret).
Dilshadabad. ?. Dehli
Emperors.
al-Dalikan
,
or
Dolijan.
2s ear Isfahan
(Yakut).
About 33
C
20' X.
;
51- 10' E.
(Le Strange)
;
Abbasid
(Fraehn).
Damawind. In Khurasan. 3539
/
X.
;
52 9' E.
Timurid
;
Shahs of Persia.
Damask. Damascus,
33 34' K
;
36 20' E.
IJniayyad
: Abbasicl
;
Saljuk
;
Tulunid
;
Ikhshidid
;
Fatimid
;
Zangid ;
Ayyubid
; "
3Iamlnk;
Othmanli. Suffix &*: .^
Au
\ .
Bunaysir.
In
^Mesopotamia.
3 7
2'$".;
4P18'E.
Marwanid;
Urtukid.
Dawrak. In Khuzistan. 3051']N
T
.
;
4855'E.
Shahs of Persia
;
Timurid.
Dawkar. ?.
Saljuk (B.tt. Cat.).
Dogam, Dogaon. ProbablyDogon,
near
j^anpara,
In
Bahraich,
Oudh. Dehli
Emperors.
Pre-
fixes
iils)\j!j
.
,*!LS!j\j
.
AwJljta.
Daulatabad.
Deogir,
in the
Decean,
India.
19 57' IS
T
.
;
7o
c
18' E. Dehli
Kings ;
Dehli
Emperors.
Prefix iliL^sf* .
Daha. In Java. Local
English.
Dhar. In Central India. 23 36' K
;
75 24' E.
Dehli
Kings.
Aj&J
j
,
the Pass of Dhar.
Dharwar. In south of
Deccan,
India.
1527'K;
75 3
;
E.
Mysore
Sultan.
Dahistan. In Hazanclaran. 28 32
;
E".
;
5524'E. Great
Kaans;
Shahs of Persia
(Dorn).
Prefix jJj .
LIST OP MINT TOWXS.
157
DM. In y."W.
Provinces,
India. 2839'}s
T
.
;
77 IS'E. Belli
Kings
: Dehli
Emperors ;
Local.
Dholpur. InEajputana.
26
C
42' 3".
;
77
C
54' E.
Local Eana.
Diarbakar.
Amid,
in
^Mesopotamia.
37
C
56'X.
;
40 8' E. Othmanli.
Diyr.
la
Syria.
35 4' X.
;
40
s
18' E. Oth-
manli;
Kara
Kuyunlid.
Dairajat.
Hultan,
in the
Panjab.
Durrani.
Dairah.
Dereh,
in the
Panjab.
34 24' ]S
T
.
;
7259'E. Dehli
Emperors ; Sikh;
Durrani.
Dairahjat. Deraj
at,
in the
Panjab.
322'jN
T
.
;
70 4' E. Durrani.
Dairah fath Khan. In the
Panjab.
31 9'^
T
.
;
70 50' E. Durrani.
al-Dailim. In
Azerbaijan.
S?^
7
^.;
4940'E.
Muhanimad b.
Bnznngumir ;
"Wahsondinide.
Dingarh.
In the
Panjab. 2856'K;
7449'E.
Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
al-Dinawar. In Irak Arabi. 34 36' N.
;
47 36' E.
Buwayhid (Markof).
Diogir. Daulatabad,
intheDeecan. 1957'K
;
7518
/
E.
DehliKings;
dizain of Haidarabad.
Prefixes &*ks - CJ.-.a^ .
^L^\
^
.
Dieval. In
Sind,
India. Dehli
Emperors
(White King).
Prefix
^
.
Darwat. In
Hajaz (Yakut)
;
Easulid L.
(ISTeitzel).
Dafarin. Uncertain. Timurid
(LanePoole).
158
Damar. In Yemen.
H~11'X.;
44 G
;
E.
jUj
Imam of Sana. Prefix
, r
-o .
Eajar.
?
Eajan
or
Arjan.
Golden Horde
(Sorct).
Eajaz.
'?.
Mongols
of Persia
(Lane Poole).
Eajgarh,
In
Eajpntana,
India. 2618'^r.
;
74
C
42' E. Local
Rajah
of Alwar State.
Eahin.
Eayin,
in Eirman. 29 35' ]S
T
.
;
57 32' E.
ITongols
of Persia
(ScMndler).
lladhanpur.
In
Eajputana,
India. 2850
/
X.;
j
7l
:
38'E. Local
Eajah.
Eas al-Avin. In
Mesopotamia.
36^52'X.
;
40- 5' E. Abbasid.
Eask. Inllakram. 2618
;
^
T
.;
6140'E.
Sanianicl
(Frachn).
EasM. In
Khurasan, eight
farsakhs from
Tarmuz
(Yakut).
Sanianicl.
al-Eafikah.
Eakkali,
in
Mesopotamia. 36Q'K;
S920'E.
Abbasid; Tulunid;
Buwa
yhid ;
Hamdanid
(Tornberg).
Eamhnimuz. In Khnzistan. 31 10' K
;
49 50' E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid
;
Bnwayhid ;
Tulunid
;
Shahs of Persia.
Eanajin.
?. Dehli
Emperors (Eoernle).
Ribat al-Fath. In Morocco. 34 0' N.
;
Jiilt
B^^SO'TT. Elili Sharifs.
Eajan.
In Farsistan. ?
i^&-j\
- Golden
Horde
(Markof).
al-Eahabah. In
Mesopotamia.
34 54' JS".
;
L
4011
;
E.
Abbasid;
Hamdanid.
Easht. In Gilan. 37
20']Sr.;
4950
A
E.
^
Saljuk; Mongols
of
Persia;
Knyunlid;
Shahs
of Persia. Prefix \ \A .
LIST OF MINT TOW^S. 159
Bussid. In Irak Arabi. ?. In Yemen
<\^\
.
<x^
(Yakut)
;
Golden
Horde
; Mongols
of Persia.
llanash. In Khuzistan.
3225
/
jST.;
4S22'E.
J^j
Shahs of Persia.
al-Eakkah.
In
Mesopotamia. 360'K;
Z$j\
3920'E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Eimm. District of the Kurds in Earsistan
;
'
1 .
Shahs of Persia
(Markof).
al-Eama. In Palestine.
31 33' N.
;
35 8'
UJ1
Ayyubid.
al-Eamlah. In Palestine. 31 54' K
;
34 56' E.
IUJ1
Umayyad ;
Abbasid.
llanthambhur. In
Kajputana,
India. 26 2' N.
;
J5&&J
76 30' E. Dehli
Kings.
Eangpur.
In
Bengal.
2544'K
;
89 16
;
E.
j^j^
Local
Eajah.
Eevan. Erivan. Othmanli.
^
t
.
Eotaspnr.
?,
Bengal Kings.
J^AJ^
al-Eoudhbar. In Gilan. 36
55'K;
4925'E.
jV^
Local Prince.
Euha.
Edessi,
in
Mesopotamia.
375
/
N.
;
UjiL
Uj
390'E.
Umayyad; .Ayyubid;
Othmanli.
al-Rayy. InlrakAjami.
36 0' 1ST.
;
5130'E.
&]\
Umayyad;
Abbasid;
Saljuk; Ghaznawid;
Mongols
of Persia.
Eikanz. Town near Merv
(Yakut)
;
Governor
l^
.
of
Sijistan.
Zabid. In Yemen. 14 10
;
K
;
43 20' E.
j^j
:
Easulid;
Yiyadid; King
of Yemen.
Zirinj.
In
Sijistan.
31 33' 1ST.
;
61 38
;
E.
-Aj
Umayyad; Abbasid; Saffarid; Tahirid;
Mongols
of
Persia. Prefix
160 m'SALMAX NUMISMATICS.
ZamindraL. In Scrvia. 44
C
37
X.;
20
:
52
f
E.
Othmunli,
al-Zamwar. Azamur. in Morocco. 33
:
17' 2s".
;
8
:
;}' "W. ITarinicl
(Lavoix).
Zamindawar. In
Afghanistan.
32
:
30' 2s
T
.
;
J
64
:
30' E. Khwarizni.
Zinjan.
In
Khamsah,
Persia. 36
:
45
;
X.;
48
C
2S'E. Shahs of Persia. Prefix aj\**u!l
,L\
>
Zanjihar.
In East Africa. 6
C
0'
S.j
39
C
20'E.
Local Sultan.
Zuilat.
Zuila,
in
Tripoli.
27
C
20' X.
;
1 7
C
30' E.
HL^J
Fatimid.
Zoha. ?. Sharif of Morocco
(Sorct).
Ifcj
al-Zahra. Xcar
Cordova,
in
Spain.
36
C
52' X.
;
L"
5
;/"^
5
C
20'TT.
Spanish TJmayyad.
Prefix jJ^.
Zaydan.
In Farsistan. 28
:
40' 2s".
;
53 10' E.
a
\
Juj
Mongols
of Persia.
Zinat al-Bilad. Ahmadabad. Dehli
Emperors
jLSl
jixj^
(Eodgers).
Sabir Ehonst. In Khuzistan. 32
C
50' K
;
4740'E.
Buwayhid; Kakwayhid.
Sabur. In Farsistan. 29 oQ'ltf.
;
51 55' E.
Umayyad.
Sardis.
Sart,
in Anatolia. 38 26' K".
;
28
C
5' E.
Saljuk.
Sarangpur.
In Malwah. India. 23 3 1
1
IS".
;
76 30' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Sari. In Mazandaran. 36 32' ]S
T
.
;
53 5' E.
Timurid
; Ziyarid ;
Sabadarid
; Mongols
of
Persia
j
Shahs of
Persia;
Khan of Dailixn.
Sakiz.
Scio,
in Grecian
Archipelago.
38 20' K
;
26
;
E. Othmanli.
Sibzawar. In Khurasan: 36 18
7
K;
5746
/
E.
Or in
Afghanistan
: 33 10'
K;
62 ll'E.
Mongols
of
Persia; Timurid;
BuwayMd;
Sabadarid
;
Shahs of Persia. Prefix j J^ .
Satgaon.
In
Bengal.
22 38' N.
;
88 25
r
E.
Dehli
Kings.
Prefixes
cjyd>-
.
^r,
.
Sijistan. Seistan,
in Persia. 31 0' K
;
62 20' E.
Umayyad ;
Abbasid
;
local
Governors; Ghaznawid;
Saffarid.
Sijilniasah.
In
Morocco. 3115'M".
;
I45
/
W.
Spanish Umayyad ;
Murabitid; Muwahhid;
Marinid
;
Moorish
;
Hasani Sharifs. Prefixes
LIST OP MINT TOWNS. 161
Samsun. In
Trebizond,
Asia Minor.
4121'K;
36 25
;
E.
Mongols
of Persia. Prefix j.X* .
Sarniyah.
In Palestine. 3158'JSr.
;
3523'E.
Umayyad.
Sauj
Bulagh.
In
Azarbaijan.
36 54' K
;
cSb ~
45
C
45' E. Shahs of Persia.
Sawah. In Irak
Ajami.
35 0' 2ST.
;
5026'E.
J^
Buwayhid
; Mongols
of Persia
; Chagatai ;
Jalair;
Timurid.
Sibtah. Ceuta. 3555']\
T
.;
518' W.
Hamudid;
Muwahhid
;
Marinicl
;
Moorish. Prefixes
Sidi-ah
Kiysi.
Sanjak,
in Salonika. 40 38'
K;
^J I ^
22 56' E.
Othmanli.
Sarai. On the
Yolga.
51 38' E".
;
46
O'E.
^\
^
Golden
Horde;
White
Horde;
Othmanli.
Prefixes jjj . ^L .
Sarai al-Jadid.
NewSarai,
Tzaref
,
on the
Yolga.
48 39' K
;
43 2' E.
Golden Horde.
Sarai Chouk.
little Sarai.
Sarachik,
on the
-^
J
^
Ural. 46 16'
N.
;
51 25
;
E.
Golden Horde.
11
162 MUSALMAN XUMIS1IATICS.
Sarai al-Mahmsat. Garrisoned
camp.
Golden
Horde.
Sribarnijah.
Srebernltza or Saiberaik
?
in
Bosnia. 44 & X.
;
19 19
f
E. Othmanli.
Sarakhs. In Khurasan. 3838'X.
;
61 13'E.
Umayyad; Saljuk; Mongols
oi Persia
;
Stalls
of Persia.
Sariz.
Seriz,
in Roumelia.
415'2T.;
2335'E.
Othmanli
Surrak. In Irak ArabL 31 8'N.
;
4736'E.
Umayyad.
Sarkan,
for
^^
?
Mongols
of Persia.
Sarrakustali,
Saragossa,
in
Spain.
41 46' 2T.
;
58
;
W. Hudid. Prefix ij J^ .
Sirkan.
Zergan,
in Irak
Ajami.
35 20' E".
;
49 10' E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Surra min raa.
Samarra,
in Irak Arabi.
3411'K;
4349'E.
Abbasid; Buwayhid.
Sarmin. In
Syria.
35 59' N.
;
36 57' E.
Othmanli
(Eraenn).
Sirwan. In
Afghanistan.
34 25' N.
;
62 3' E.
Umayyad (lYaehn).
Saraj,
In
Mesopotamia.
36 46'
N.;
3843
/
E.
Umayyad (Layoix).
Sirunj.
In
Eajputana,
India. 24 6' IS.
;
7742'E. Dehli
Emperors;
local
Eajah.
Sirhind. In ff/W.
Provinces,
India. 30 38'
K;
7629'E. Debli
Emperors ; Durrani;
local
Kajah.
Srinagar.
In Kashmir. 34
5'jST.;
7451'E.
;
Dehli
Emperors
j
Eashmir Sultans. Prefix
.-H; .
>
"*
Srinagar.
InKW.
Provinces,
India.
3013'E".;
78 49' E
Eajahs
of Garhwal.
LIST OF 31INT TOWXS. 163
Sughad,
also A,^ . Samarkand. Turkistan tX**Jl . Jx-c
(Fraeki).
Sighnak.
In
Georgia.
4129'j\
T
.
;
46 0' E.
White Horde. Prefix db .
Sifurkan.
Shibarkan,
in Turkistan. 36 3*5' IT.
; j
65 42' E. Zhwarizm.
"Suk. ?. Mnzaffaricl.
Salamabad.
Mysore,
S. India.
Mysore
Sultan.
Salanik. Salonika. 40 38' 1ST.
;
22 56' E.
Othmanli.
Sultam,
probably
for ^LjUaL* . Shah of
Persia
(Eodgers).
Sultanpnr. Warangol,
in the
Deccan,
India.
1 7 58' 1ST.
;
79 40' E. Dehli
Kings.
Sultaniyah.
In Irak
Ajami.
36 28' N.
;
4842
/
E.
Mongols
of
Persia; Jalair;
Chagatai ;
Inju ;
Timurid
;
Shahs of Persia.
Prefix jL
;
suffix
,
****!! .
~sJ
Salmas. In
Azaibaijan.
SS
^'^".;
4440
/
E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Golden Horde.
Salamiyah.
In
Syria.
356'.
;
3659'E.
Abbasid,
SikaliyaL.. Sicily. Aghlabid.
Skub.
Uskub,
in. Anatolia. 40 54' N.
;
31 25' E. Othmanli.
Sikandarabad. In K!V.
Provinces,
India.
28 27' N.
;
77 44' E. DehU
Emperors
(Hoernle).
Sala.
Salee,
in Morocco. 34 40
;
N.
;
6 45' W. L>
Muwahhid;
Marinid.
'Salangur. Selangor,
in
Malay
Peninsula.
j^cUL
8
19'K;
101 13' E. Local
English.
Prefix
164
ilUSALMlX XOXISMATICS.
Samarkand. In Turkistan. 40- O'X.
;
67 40' E.
Abbasid
;
Tahirid
;
Samanid
;
Great Kaans
;
Turkistan
;
Khwarizm
; Chagatai ;
Timurid
;
Shaybanid ;
Janid. Prefixes i jJj - j A^ .
<2~*is-* <L?>Xi . Suffix iJUlL
v
U>
Samnan.
Scmnoon,
in Khurasan. 35
C
29'K
;
53
D
20' E.
Buwayhid
;
Timurid :
Cliagatai ;
Sliahs of Persia. Prefix j j^.
Samanjan.
Fire
days
from
Andarabah,
and five
from Khulm
(Yakut). Probably Haybak
(Le
Strange).
Timurid
(Markof).
Sumanaf.
Snmanap,
in
Madura,
near Java.
7
C
2'S.
;
11345
/
E.
Stamped
on some
Spanish
coins.
Sunargaon.
In
Bengal.
39 45' X.
;
90
3
3S'E.
DeHi
Eings ; Bengal Kings.
Prefix
uv
^>--
-
Sambhal. In iS
T
. W.
Provinces,
India, 28
C
35' 3S[.
;
78 36
;
E. Dehli
Kings.
Sinjar.
In Diarbakr. 36 19' K
;
41 50' E.
Zangid ; Ukaylid ; Ayyubid ; Mongols
of
Persia.
Sind,
or Sindh. Shans of Persia.
Sanlukah. San
Lucar,
in
Spain.
36 47' W.
;
6 22' W. Murabit.
Snwar. On
Yolga. Yolga Bulghar
Khans.
Siwai
Jaipur,
jyx&r
* I)en^-
Emperors.
Sujat.
In
Jodlipur State,
India. 25 49
;
]ST.
;
7S37'E. Local
Eajah.
Surat. In
Gujarat,
India. 219'K
;
7254
/
E.
Dehli
Emperors ;
local Isfawab
;
East India
Company.
Prefix uxL/*
jJcj
.
Surin. Half-farsakh from Msabur
(Yakut).
Mongols
of Persia.
LIST OF 1EIAT OWNS.
'
165
Sus.
Susa,
in Kfauzistan. 31o5'K
;
4824
/
E.
^J
Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Susn.
In
Achin,
Sumatra.
3 44' K
;
96 50' E. Straits
Coinage.
Suk Ibrahim. Near
Tlemsan,
in
Algeria.
Sulai- *-j&
manid
(Lavoix).
Suk al-Ahwaz.
Ahwaz,
in ELhuzistan.
Umayyad
;
; \*
Abbasid; Buwayhid.
Suk Hurrah. In Khnzistan.
Umayyad (Soret).
Saharanpur.
In N". "W.
Provinces,
India.
29 58' N.
;
77 35
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Prefix
^.Jljb.
SahlEanak.
In Transoxiana. Half-farsakh from
Samarkand
(Yakut).
Abbasid
(Moeller).
Sialkot. In the
Panjab,
India. 323i
/
]tf.;
74 36
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Sitapur.
In
Oudh,
India.
2734'N.;
8042'E.
Behli
Emperors.
Sitpur.
In the
Panjab,
India. 29 10' N.
;
70 50
7
E. Behli
Emperors (Eodgers).
Siraf. In TurMstan.
3037'N.;
51 40' E.
Abbasid
;
Buwayhid ; Mongols
of Persia.
Sirjan.
Saidabad,
in Kirman. 29 20' K
;
55 35
;
E.
Buwayhid ; Mongols
of Persia.
Sis. In
Adana,
Asia Minor.
3721'K;
35 55' E.
Saljuk.
Sistan.
Sijistan.
Shahs of Persia
(Dorn).
Siruz.
Serez,
in Eoumelia. 41 5' K
;
23 35' E.
Umayyad (Eraehn)
;
Othmanli.
Sik. Sumatra. 30' K
;
102 E. Local
'
English.
Prefix
^Jl
.
Siwas.
Sivas,
or
Eoum,
in Asia Minor.
39 40' K
;
37 7' E.
Saljuk
;
Mongols
of
Persia;
Golden
Horde;
Kkrarnan.
166 MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Shabiran. In Erivan. 39
D
53' K
;
44 54' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Golden Horde.
Shapurabad,
Three farsakhs from Marv
(Yakut)
; Chagatai (Eraehn).
Shadiabad.
-
Mandu,
in
Halwah,
India.
22 18'^
T
.
;
75 24' E. ITahrah and
Gujarat
Kings.
Prefixes
J
<U-
CL;-^=-
-
al-Shash.
Tashkend,
in Turkistan. 42 4'
K;
^llfiJI
68 11' E. Abbasid
;
Samanid
; Chagatai.
Prefix jJj
;
suffix
jJ&lt
<bS
c
.
Shatibah.
Jativa,
in
Spain.
39 24' jST.
;
53' W. Hudid.
Shakan.
Perhaps
for
^liK,
or
perhaps
that
in Turkistan. 4027']S
T
.
;
713'E.
Mongols
of Persia.
al-Sham.
Syria.
Golden Horde
(Eodgers).
al-Shamiyah,
for L^sUull
.
Umayyad.
Shahabad. In
Oudh,
India. 27 38
7
N.
79 59' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Prefix
~^J
.
Shahjahanabad.
Dehli. Dehli
Emperor ;
Shah <:
Nadir of Persia
;
Durrani. Prefix 4iLsM
^b
Shah
Eukhiyah.
In Turkistan. 40 46' E".
;
^^
69 0' E. Timurid
(Fraehn).
Shahgarh.
In Central
Provinces,
India. *'4
24 19']S
T
.;
7940'E. Dehli
Kings (Eodgers).
Shabankarah. In Earsistan. 29 10' K".
;
51 5' E.
Mongols
of Persia
; Chagatai ;
Timurid.,
Shibarkhan. In
Afghanistan.
36 35' E".
;
65 42
7
E.
Buwayhid (Leggett). Possibly
misread for
(J&-
<*+*
ShibHiyah. Seville,
in
Spain.
37 26' K
;
60
/
"W. Murabit.
LIST OP MINT TOWNS.
167
SMrki. On the west bank of the
Tigris,
east
of the round
city
of
Baghdad (Yakut).
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Shirish.
Xeres,
in
Spain.
36 41' A
T
.
;
6 9' W.
Murabit.
Sharifabad. In
Bengal.
?. Dehli
Kings.
Sharifah. In Irak
Arabi,
near Easrah
(Yakut).
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Shafurkan.
Shibarghan,
in
Afghanistan.
36 40' N.
;
65 32' E. Khwarizm.
Shikar al-Gah. ?. Dehli
Emperors (Leggett).
Shikarpur.
In Sind. 27 57' tf.
;
68 40' E.
Local.
Shiki.
Shamakhi,
in Trans-Caucasia. Shahs
of Persia.
Sholapur.
In the
Deccan,
India. 17 40' K
;
75 56' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Shamakhi. In Trans-Caucasia. 40 56' "N.
;
47 30' E. Jalair
;
Golden Horde
;
Shirwan-
shahi;
Kara
Kuyunlid;
Shahs of
Persia;
Othmanli. Prenx a^kLJ
\.
\ j .
Shamsh. ?.
Umayyad (Lavoix).
Shamhar. A mountain in Dailimite
country,
a
day's journey
from Sariah
(Yakut).
Barendid
(Markof).
Shustar. In Khuzistan. 31 58' K
;
49 3' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Shahs of Persia.
Shahr al-Jadid al-Maharusah. The new
city
garrisoned.
Golden Horde.
Shahrzur. In Kurdistan. 3515'K
;
4530'E.
Atabeg
(Meier).
Shahr Sabaz. In Turkistan. 39 2
;
K
;
66 52^ E.
Chagatai.
Shirpur.
In
Bengal.
24 40
;
X.
;
89 28' E.
Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
Shirgarh.
In
Bengal.
24 49' X.
;
8346
/
E. -
Also Dehli. Dehli
Kings ;
Dehli
Emperors.
&
Prefixes <&JJ
. <ulJi : suffixes ^ *
Shirwan.
ShaniakMj
in Trans-Caucasia,
llbngols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Shirwanshahi
(Markof) ;
Othmanli.
Sadat. In Yemen. 16 42'
2N".;
4242'E.
Eassid Imams.
al-Saghaniyan.
In Turkistan. 37 30' IT.
;
6740
/
E.
Samanid;
Turkistan.
Saghd.
District between Samarkand and
Bukhara. 40
Kj
66 E.
Chagatai (Tiesen-
hausen).
Safuriyah.
In
Syria.
32 46'
1ST.;
3516'E.
Abbasid
(Lavoix).
168 3IUSA.LMAS XUMIS1IATICS.
Shahr I Xan. Xew
city. Probably
Gaur,
in
Bengal. Bengal Kings.
Prefix
&Sj2
.
Shahristan. In Farsistan. 29 28' 2ST.
;
5;3
C
15'E.
llongols
of Persia. Suffix
^j^j
.
Shahiin lluazam. ?. Golden Horde
(Markof).
*!a*'
Shaik abn Ishak. Unknown
locality.
Mongols
of
Persia;
Timurid
(Markof).
SMraz. In Paiastan. 29
5
30'2s.;
5230'E.
Abbasid
; BuwayMd
; Atabeg ; Salgharid ;
llongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Timurid
;
Mn-
zaffarid
; Chagatai ;
Ak
Enyunlid
;
Shahs
of Persia. Prefixes
LIST OF 3IIXT lOTOS. 169
Sikiliyah. Sicily,
also cLjJLc . Patimid
;
Gorman
Kings.
Prefix <bj,X* .
Sana. In Yemen. 15 10' X.
;
4432'E.
Abbasid; Easulid;
Imams of
Sana;
Othmanli.
al-Sannabra.
?. Chief of Batiha
(Lane Poole).
Sur.
Tyre,
in
Syria.
3316'N.;
3oll'E.
Abbasid
(llarkof)
;
Eatimid
;
Othmanli.
Sofia. In
Bulgaria.
42 44' N.
;
23 15' E.
Othmanli.
al-Suayrah. Mogadur,
in Morocco. 31 30' N.
;
9 45' "W. Eilili Sharifs.
Dharabkhanah rikab.
Army
Hint. Shahs of
Persia.
Dhafar. In Yemen. 17 0' K
;
53 56' E.
Imam of Dhafar.
Tarim. District near Kazvin. 36 40' K
;
48 45' E. Timnrid
(Markof).
'Talakan. In Eadakhshan. 3645'K.
;
6928'E.
Ehwarizm.
Tans,
Tus. In Khurasan. 36 30' N.
;
59 26' E.
Mongols
of
Persia; Jalair; Chagatai;
Timurid
(Markof).
'Tabaristan. ProTince of Persia. 36 14' K
;
5340'E.
Abbasid;
Shahs of Persia.
Prefix uXUH
jlj
.
Tabariyah. Tiberias,
in
Syria. 3247'K;
3539'E.
Umayyad; Abbasid; Ikhshidid;
Fatimid.
'Tarabalus.
Tripoli,
in
Syria.
3424'K
;
35 5rE.
Eatimid; Mamluk;
OthmanH?.
Tarabalus.
Tripoli,
in Africa. 32 48' 1ST.
;
13 23' E,
Hafsid;
Othmanli. Prefix c-i .
170
MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
Taraz.
Ters,
In Turkistan. 42
C
38' 1\
T
.
;
70 45' E.
Chagatai ;
Turkistan
(Harkof).
Prefix jdj .
Tribizun. Trebizond. 41
;
K
;
39 46' E.
Othmanli.
Tarsus. In
Syria.
36
C
57' 2s.
;
34 55' E.
Abbasid.
Tnrtnsa.
-Tortosa,
in
Spain.
4050
/
!s
T
.;
030'E.
Kings
of Tortosa and Denia. Prefix Jjj .x* .
Tarifak
Tarifa,
in
Spain.
36
C
I' ~$.
;
5 40' 1V
T
.
Spanish Umayyad.
Taghamak
In Turkistan, 37 45
;
K
;
75
C
2o
;
E. Samanid
(Praehn).
Tuiitala.
Toledo,
In
Spain.
39 54
;
]S
r
.
;
4 0' W.
flkli?
Kings
of Toledo
; Elngs
of
Spain.
TanjaL Tangiers,
in Morocco. 3540
/
K
;
<JsrLL
5
C
47'TV.
Umayyad;
Idrisid
;
Pilili Sharifs.
Tiliiran. In Irak
Ajami.
35 44' JN
T
.
;
51 25' E.
J^
Shahs of
Tersia;
Jalair. Prefixes iikLJJ -
Zafar. In
Yemen,
near
Sana,
or
according
to
some,
Sana itself
(Yakut).
Easulid
(JSTeitzel).
-
Zafarabad. In N.W.
Provinces,
India. 260'N.
;
80 33' E. Behli
Emperors.
Zafarpur.
In the
Panjab,
India. ?. Dehli
Emperors.
Zafarnagar.
Fathabad,
in 'H.'W.
Provinces,
India. 3)
enl\
Emperors.
al-Aal. In
Syria.
31 46' 1ST.
;
3552'E.
JU11
Umayyad (Tiesenhausen).
Alamgirpur. Alumpur,
in the
Deccan,
India.
15 32^.
;
78 11' E. Dehli
Emperors.
LIST OF MIXT TCHYXS. 171
Alarnglrnaglr.
A fort near
Chittagong, Bengal.
Dehli
Emperors.
al-Abbasiyah.
$ear
Baghdad (Yakut).
Abbasid.
^"earKairowan,
j^". Africa
(Yakut). Aghlabid.
Aththar. In Yemen. 17 15' N.
;
42 20' E.
Abbasid.
al-Atibakah,
al-Ikah. Madain. 35 7'
K;
44 38' E.
Umayyad (Lavoix).
Prefix
i^ll.
Aden. In S. Arabia. 12 46' K
;
45 10' E.
Zurayid
; Ayynbid
;
Easnlid
;
Zangid ;
Yemen
King.
al-Irak. Irak or Jabal of Persia. Abbasid. .
Araban. In
Mesopotamia.
3555
/
K
;
4049'E.
Mongols
of Persia.
al-Araishah.
el-Arish,
in Morocco. 35 T JST.
;
630'W. Klili Sharifs.
Izz al-Salam wa al-Kairuwan.
Zayrid
(Soret).
^jj*i&\ j
ALull
j
Usfan. JSTear Mecca. 21 58
r
^.;
3942'E;
TJmayyad.
Askalan.
Ascalon,
in Palestine.
3139'K;
34 83' E.
Umayyad ;
Abbasid
;
Fatimid.
Askar
PanjMr. Army
of
Panjhir.
Samanid
(Markof).
Askar Mukram. In Khuzistan. 31 40' K
;
48 58' E. Abbasid
;
Buwayhid.
Askar min al-Ahwa2:. Ahwaz.
Buwayhid.
Azimabad. Patna. Debli
Emperors.
Prefix
Akar.
Many places
of this name in Meso- JLs
potamia (Yakut). Probably
!ikr
al-Humay-
diyah (Le
Strange).
Jalair
(Markof).
Akka.
Acre,
in
Syria.
32 55' N.
;
35 4' E.
IJmayyad ;
Patimid
;
Othmanli
j
Latin
Kingdom
of Jerusalem.
172 OTSAI^IAX NU3IIS3IATICS.
Ukbara. In
Mesopotamia.
33
:
50'X.;
422G'E.
Ukaylid (Lane Poole).
al-Aliah.
Constantinople.
Othmanli. Prefix
telsriyj.
Abbasicl
(Tiesenliauscn).
Also
probably
Fez. Idrisid
(Lavoix).
Amman. la
Syria.
3158'X.;
36 0' E.
TJmayyad
;
Abbasid
; Buwayhid.
Ain. la Irak Arabi. 30
C
36'X.
;
46 3' E.
Abbasid
(Lane Poole).
GliursHstan. District in
Afghanistan.
34 to
35
C
X.
;
64
C
to 66 E.
Umayyad (Codrington).
Gharnatah. Granada, in
Spain.
37
C
14']^.
;
3 41' V. Idrisid
;
Zayrid
;
3Tasrid
;
Hamudid;
Murabit. Prefixes &&*
.\j^s\.
Ghaznah.
Ghazni,
in
Afghanistan.
3330
/
]Sr.
;
68 15'E.
Ghaznawid;
Zhwarizm
;
Great
Kaaiis
;
Dehli
Kings ;
Barakzai
;
Sind.
Prefixes 3 jL . jjj .
Ghazzah.
Gaza,
in
Syria.
31
C
29']S
T
.;
344l'E.
Fmayyad;
Abbasid.
Ghnr. In
Bengal.
24 55
X
i\
T
.
;
88 8
;
E.
Dehli
Kings.
Ghur. ]\
T
ear Herat. 3425
r
rT.
;
632S'E.
Khwarizm
(3Iarkof).
Ghiaspur.
jSTear
Gaur,
in
Bengal.
Dehli
Kings.
Ghian,
for
^^
.
Tarab.
Otrar,
in Turkistan. 42 37
;
]S".
;
68 10' E.
Chagatai.
Fans.
Ears,
in Persia. 20 K
;
50 E. Or
inKuhistan. 340
/
N.;
58 38'E.
Abbasid;
Safiarid;
Tahirid.
Earuki
ISTagar. Bednore,
in
Mysore.
1348'E".
;
75 6' E.
Mysore
Sultan.
LIST OF MINT TOWXS.
173
Fas.
Fez,
in Morocco. 34 46' X.
;
4 57' W.
^wli-
Umayyad
of
Spain ;
Murabit
;
Muwahhid
;
Marinid
;
Moorish
;
Eilili Sharif
;
Othmanli.
Prefixes &j A^ .
*^^-
.
Fathabad.
Faridpur,
in
Bengal.
23 36' K
;
jUl^d
89 50' E. Dehli
Emperors
; Bengal Kings,
Prefix
^H
j\i
.
Fathpur. Fathpur Sikri,
near
Agra,
India.
j^
27 6' K
;
77 44' E. Dehli
Emperors.
^
Prefix
al-Farab
?
near Isfahan
(Yakut)
;
or
al-Furat,
C-^Lall
on eastern bank of
estuary
of
Euphrates
and
Tigris, facing
Ubulla.
Umayyad; Chagatai.
Farakhabad. In "N. "W.
ProTinces,
India.
2724']S
T
.
;
7940'E. Dehli
Emperors;
Durrani. Also as a suffix to
^.x}j^=wl
.
Farkhab Hissar.
Ghituldrug,
in
Mysore,
India.
14 14
;
IS".
;
76 27' E.
Mysore
Sultan.
Farakhnagar.
j^ear Dehli. 2842
/
K
;
7724'E.
Dehli
Emperors.
Farukhi.
Calicut, Malabar,
India. 11 15' IT.
;
75 50
;
E.
Mysore
vSultan.
Farghanah. Khokand,
in Turkistan. 40 32' E".
;
70 58' E. Abbasid
;
Samanid
;
Khan of
Khokand.
Parlis. In
Malay
Peninsula. 6 30
;
N.
;
100 28' E. Local
Eajah.
Farama.
Pelouse,
in
Egypt.
313'N.
32 82' E. Abbasid
(Lavoix).
Farwan.
Parwan, inAfghanistan.
35 12' If.
;
69 4' E.
Ghaznawid;
Samanid.
Firazan.
Village
near Isfahan
(Yakut).
Mongols
of Persia.
174:
MUSA.L3IAX NUMISMATICS.
Eirah, In
Afghanistan.
3227'X.;
62 S' E.
Abbasid
(Eogers)
;
Samanid
(Eraehn).
Pirim. One
day's
march from
SIriya,
in
Bailimite
Highlands (Yakut).
Abbasid
;
Buwayhid ;
Bavendid
; Mongols
of Persia.
Eisa,
or Besa. la Farsistan. 28 57' 31".
;
5348'E.
Umayyad; Buwayhid ;
(jhaz-
nawid
(Soret).
al-Eustat. Old
Cairo,
in
Egypt. Umayyad.
Patani. In
llalay
Peninsula. 6 20' K
;
10120'E. Local
Eajah.
Eilistin. Palestine.
Umayyad ;
Abbasid
;
Talunid
;
Hamdanid
;
Ikhshidid
;
Eatimid
;
KarmatMan. Also as suffix to LJj\ .
Palambang.
In Sumatra. 2 48' S.
;
104 5' E.
Local
Eajah.
Suffix jJj .
PuntianakdanlEampawah.
In Borneo. 015
/
S.;
109 30' E. Local
Eajah.
Eirim.
Probably
for
*jy
. Abbasid
(Moeller)
;
Mongols
of Persia.
Eiruzabad.
Panduah,
in
Bengal.
23 3' K
;
8818'E.
Bengal Kings.
Prefixes
Xj&s*
.
Firuzpur.
In the
Panjab,
India. 30 55' K
;
74 38' E. Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
Eiruznagar.
?. Behli
Emperors (White King).
Eis Hissab or Hissar.
Gooty,
in
Bellary
District,
S. India.
Mysore
Sultan. .Lars-
Fil. In Khwarizm.
4150'K;
580
;
E.
Umayyad (Blau).
al-Fayum,
In
Egypt. 2925'K;
3052
/
E.
Umayyad ;
Abbasid
(Layoix).
LIST OF MINT TOWNS.
175
Kadis.
Cadiz,
in
Spain.
36 33' E".
;
6 19' W.
King
of Granada
(Longperier).
Kat*s. In Armenia. 4Q37'F.
;
43 10' E.
Othmanli.
Kazan. Sarai?.
Mongols
of Persia
(Bodgers).
Prefix
3
<*j\j\)\>
-
Kashan,
for
J^K
.
Saljuk ; Mongols
of
Persia.
al-Kahirah. Cairo. 30 2' N.
;
31 25' E.
Fatimid
; Zangid ;
Ayyubid
;
Mamluk.
Prefixes or suffixes
<Lo^
js i -
Lj^\
.
Kain. In Khurasan.
3340'lsr.;
5910'E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Koban.
Goban,
at head of Persian Gulf.
^1-3
30 20'3ST.
;
4835'E. Bini Kab.
Kutla Arku. ?. Turkistan
(Fraehn).
j\
al-Kudasiyah.
In
Mesopotamia.
34
;
~E.
44 10' E. Abbasid.
Kadah. In the
Malay
Peninsula. 6 0' 1ST.
;
*ji' . -jJi
100 18' E. Local
Rajah.
Kara Urdu. Unknown town. Turkistan.
jJ,l
L5
KaraGhaj.
In
Azarbaijan. 370']Sr.;
470'E. .
UUy
.
^U
^J
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair. -.Ul
^
Kara
Tagh. Montenegro.
Othmanli Medal. clt 13*
Karatova. InEoumelia. 4217'ISr.
;
2233'E.
Othmanli.
Karkhi. In Turkistan. 37 30' K
;
65 8' E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Karshi. In Turkistan.
3848'N.;
6540'E.
*y
Shaybanid ;
Shahs of Persia.
Kurtubah.
Cordova,
in
Spain.
37 54' 1ST.
;
4
3
54'W.
Abbasid;
Murabit
; King
of
Cordova.
Prefix
176
^SALMAN XUIIISMATICS.
Kark Ir. Tschufut
Kalch,
in the Crimea.
44
:
52
;
X.
;
34 10' E. Krira Khans.
Karkislya. Circesium,
in
Mesopotamia.
35
C
12' 2s .
;
40
:
26' E. Abbasid
(Rogers)
;
Ukaylid ;
Muhammad ibn Safwan
(Lane
Poole).
Karauli. In
Eajputana.
26
:
SO
;
X.;
77 4' E.
J^J-
Local
Eajah.
Krini. Crimea. Golden Horde
;
Othmanli
;
w Ji
Krim Elans. Prefixes i'jdj . <-\JJ .
Suffix Lt* ^ .
-/>
Krim al-Jadid. Xe~w Krim. Golden Horde.
J^
Jcal ^j J
Euiiyah.
Part of
Baghdad. Mongols
of
<L\3
Persia
(Eodgers).
Kazwin. In Irak
Ajami.
36 16' K
;
49 55
;
E.
(
Abbasid
;
Buwayhid
; Mongols
of Persia
;
Muzaffarid
; Chagatai ;
Jalair
;
Timuricl
;
Shahs of Persia. Prefix liLJl
,b.
Knstamuniyah.
In Anatolia. 41 21' IT.
;
<UJ
33 58' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Kustamid
Amir.
Kustantiniyah, Constantinople.
Othmanli.
Suffix
i-^sA
Kusantinah.
Constantine,
in
Algeria.
36 80
;
K
;
6 30' E. Hafsid
(Lavoix) ;
Othmanli.
al-Kasr. The Palace. Idrisid
(Millies).
,*AR!!
Kasr al-Salam.
al-Eakkah,
in
Mesopotamia.
Abbasid.
Kasr
al-Kakhar,
or
al-Kadir,
or al-Pakhir.
Doubtful. Abbasid.
Kutbabad. Old Dehli. Dehli
Kings.
Kilat.
Kelat,
in Baluchistan. 29 0' N.
;
66 30'E. Local.
LIST OF 3IIXT TOWNS. 177
Jvllij
Urdu. ?. Turkistan.
Kalat
Ayub. Calatayud,
in
Spain.
41 25' 2s".
;
1 40' "W.
Kings
of
Calatayud (Lavoix).
Kalat Jabir. In
Syria.
35 55' X.
;
38 20' E.
Ayyubid (Layoix).
Ejinmi. In Irak
Ajami.
34 36' K
;
50 57' E.
*y
. IS
Abbasid
;
Samanid
;
Buwayhid ; Cliagatai ;
Timurid
; Ak-Knyunlicl ;
Tahirid
;
Shahs of
Persia.
Kamarnagar.
Kamul,
in S. India. 1547
/
ov".
;
78 5' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Kanna. TownnearSharhzur. Samanid
(ilarkof).
Kancluz. In
Afghanistan.
36
C
45'K;
6955'E.
Snlaiman Mirza
(Eodgers).
Kandahar. In
Afghanistan.
31 40' 1ST.
;
65 55
;
E. Timurid
;
Dehli
Emperors ;
Shahs of Persia
;
Barakzai. Prefix ^-kL^! \ \.
Kinnisrin. In
Syria.
35 56' ]N
T
.
;
37 0' E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid.
Kanuj.
See
^^
.
yi
Kujaniyah.
In Servia. 4430'N.
;
21
C
22
/
E.
Othmanli
(Moeller).
Kuras.
Coras,
in
Syria.
36 42' ]S
T
.
;
36 56' E.
Umayyad (Soret).
Kus. In
Egypt.
25 43' K
;
32 40' E.
Eatimid. Prefix
j Ju .
Knmis. In Tabaristan. 3540'Is[".
;
5420'E,
Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Kunkah.
Cnenca,
in
Spain.
40 55' K
;
1
C
50'W. Mnrabit. Prefix io^,.
Kuniyah. Iconium,
in Asia Minor. 37 55' 1$.
32 31' E.
-
Saljnk
; Mongols
of Persia
;
Karaman
;
Othmanli
;
Arteinid
(Markof).
Prefix <Uj Ju.
12
178
MUSAL3IAN NUMISMATICS.
al-Kairawan. In
Tunis,
jS\ Africa. 36
O'K;
10iO
;
E.
Fatimid;
Zayrid.
Prefix
*LJ1
Js. ;
-
I
v
Eaisariyah. Cassarea,
in Anatolia. 38 40' }S
T
.
;
35 SO
7
E.
Caesarea,
in
Syria.
32 30' tf.
;
3454'E.
Saljuk
; Mongols
of
Persia;
Golden Horde. Prefix <wj A/ .
Palambang.
In Sumatra.
246'S.;
104 50' E.
Local
Eajah.
Prefix jJj .
Pulopercha,
or
Pulopenelia.
Sumatra. Local
English.
Pirak. In
Malay
Peninsula. 4 30' ^
T
.
;
101 0' E. Local
English.
Prefix <s& .
Kabul. In
Afghanistan. S430'K;
69
C
18'E.
Shahs oi Persia
(Fraehn)
;
Behli
Emperors ;
Durrani;
Barakzai. Prefixes
Kath. Near Khwarizm. 4142'.K
;
6023'E.
Golden Horde
(Fraehn).
Karhi. Unknown.
Mongols
of Persia
(Markof).
Karit. ?.
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret),
'
Kazarnn. In Farsistan. 2934
/
K;
5153'E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Muzaffarid
; Chagatai ;
Inchu.
Kasan. -In Turkistan. 41 10' K
;
71 35' E.
TurHstan
(Markof).
Kashan. In Irak
Ajami.
34
;
1S
T
.
;
51 23
;
E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Muzafarid
;
Timurid
;
Chagatai ; Ak-Ehiyunlid ;
Kara
Kuyunlid ;
Shahs of Persia. Prefixes
LIST OP HIxN'T TOWNS. 179
Kashghar.
In Turkistan.
3924'^.;
76
6' E.
Turkistan;
Atalik
; Chagatai;
local Khans.
Prefix AjaUl
jb
. Suffix uJJJ
.
Kalpi.
In :OT.
Provinces,
India. 26 7'
K;
7948'E. Dehli
Kings;
Dehli
Emperors.
Prefix Ik^- . Suffix jlj 1 AAS*
uJpt
.
Kalinjar.
InN.W.
Provinces,
India. 25 1 O'N.
;
80 32' E. Dehli
Emperors (Leggett).
Kanan. ?. Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
Kandi. In
Bengal.
23 58
;
K
;
88 5' E.
DehH
Emperors (Eodgers).
Prefix
ci^J^b
.
Kabir Shaikh. ?
Kabirah,
a
village
near the
Jilura
(Yakut) ; Mongols
of Persia.
al-Kitawa.
Lektawa,
in Morocco. 3025'N.
;
ijlifll
-
5 30' W. Hasani Sharifs. Prefixes S^>- .
Ivatak.
Cuttaok,
in
theBerars,
India. 20 28'N.
;
85 55' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Kuchawan. In
Jodhpur State,
India. 27 1 2' K
;
e^J^-F
74 48' E. Local
Eajah.
Kachrauli. In
Paniput,
~N. W.
Provinces, J.
.^f
India. Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers),
Kuchbhnjnagar. Bhuj,
in
Kutch,
India.
2315
/
E'.;
6948'E. Local Eao.
Kadhaj.
Portress in
Azarhaijan (Yakut).
Mongols
of Persia.
Kurbuj
al-Dinar. Kear
Ahwaz,
8 farsakhs
towards Basrah
(Yakut).
Ishmailite
(Bartholomei).
.al-Karkh. Part of
Baghdad.
Abbasid
(Lavoix).
L.
Kard Einna Khusrah. Close to Shiraz
(Yakut).
S uuri. Ui
Buwayhid.
Kurdistan.
Province. 37 1ST.
;
44' E. Othmanli.
180
31USALMAX NUMISMATICS.
Eurdasht. In
Azarbaijan.
3S~ 53' N.
;
46"' 8' E.
Shahs of Persia
(Fraehn).
Eurzuwan. Gourzan. in Khurasan. 35
C
2S'X.
;
65
C
11'E. Khwarizin.
Karkin. In Shras. 39 58' X.
;
36- 52' E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Bartholomei).
Eirman.
Capital
of District in Persia
; formerly
Bardasir. 3Q25'K
;
5r 2'E.
Umayyad:
Abbasid
;
Great Eaans
; Atabeg
; Mongols
of Persia
; Muzaffaiid; Chagatai;
Timurid:
Ak-Euyunlid ;
Shahs of Persia. Prefixes
J^.b.jJL.-Iyx,.
j
v
...
Eirmanshahan. In Kurdistan. 31 34
;
X.
;
54 52' E. Shahs of Persia. Prefixes
I!jj^j.SjJj.
Karminah. In Transoxiana. 40- 16' X.
;
65 1 2'E. Turkistan
(Fraehn)
;
Ghaznavrid
(Eraehn).
Eirni. ?. Jalair
(Fraehn)
; Kuyunlid (Eraehn).
Earauli. In
Eajputaoa,
India. 26 30' K
;
77 4' E. Local
Eajak
Eirimabad. ?. Dehli
Emperors (Hoernle).
Eurin.
Perhaps
Earin on the
upper Euphrates,
called also Kalikala and
Theodosiopolis.
Jalair
; Chagatai ; Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
Easakar. Between Kufah and Basrah
(Yakut).
Umayyad (Porter).
Eash. In Transoxiana. 4348']S
T
.;
8215
/
E.
Or in
Afghanistan.
31 55' K
;
62 20
f
E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Fraehn) ; Chagatai ;
Shaybanid ;
Turkistan.
Eisham. In Badakhshan. 3657'JS
T
.;
70 5' E.
Ehwarizm
(Bodgers).
LIST OF MIX! TOTTXS. 181
Kashmir.
344']^.;
74
C
58'E. Dehli
Emperors;
Kings
of Kashmir
;
Sikh
;
Durrani. Prefix
Kishangarh.
In
Eajputana,
India. 2635'X.
;
7455'E. Local
Eajah.
Kaffah. In the Crimea. 45 5' tf.
;
35
C
35' E.
Kriin Khans.
Kaffah Jadidah. ]\
T
ew Kaffah. Golden Horde
(Markof).
Kilat. In Turkistan. 3 7 1 5' ]N
T
.
;
59 48' E.
Local Khan.
Kalanur. In the
Panjab,
India. 32 1' !N".
;
75 11' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Kalawanur.
Cannanore,
in
Malabar,
India.
11 51' K
;
75 24' E. Local
(Millies).
Kalburgah.
In the
Deccan,
India. 1 7 1 S' K
;
75 54
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Kulisan,
Kulistan. Sarai. Grolden Horde
;
Mongols
of Persia. Prefix db
;
suffix
^i^wJl
.
Kulistwan,
for
^bwuulS*
.
Mongols
of Persia.
Kalkata. Calcutta. 2236
/
K; 8824'E.
Dehli
Emperors.
Kalantan. In the
Malay
Peninsula. 6 29' K
;
101 52' E. Local
Eajah.
Kalian. In the
Deccan,
India. 1748'Is
T
.
j
7718'E. Local
Eajah.
Kalibar. In
Azarbaijan
?
Mongols
of Persia
(Eraehn). Perhaps
yul
on Mount Sablan.
Azarbaijan (Le Strange).
Kalishahr. ?.
Mongols
of Persia
(Eraehn).
Kalikut.
Calicut,
in
Mysore,
India. 11 15' ,
;
75 49' E.
Mysore
Sultan. Suffix
j
Jcj .
Kiliwan. Small town in Khuzistan
(Yakut).
Mongols
of Persia
(Markof).
182
IITSALIIIX ^
Kumishklianuh. Gumishkhana, la Armenia.
402S'X.
;
:j9
:
44'E. Othmnli.
Kamnazar. ?.
Mongols
of Persia.
Hambayat. Cambay,
IE
Guzarat,
India.
22" 18' 2s.
;
72 40' E. Dehii
Emperors.
Ganjali. ElizabethpoL
in
Georgia.
4Q~35'2sL
;
46 22' E. Great Kaan*
; Mongol?
o! Persia
;
Chagatal ;
Othmanli
;
Shalis of
Persia;
IGaans of
Ganjah.
Kinkiwar. In Hamadan. 34
:
38
/
X.
;
47
C
55'E.
J\^
Abbasid
(Tiesenliausea).
Eangush.-
'?. Asiatic
copper unassigned.
U"5*^
Eucba. In Turkistan. 4136']\
T
.
;
80
C
55
/
E.
U-/
Local Eebel Chief.
Kara.
Xora,
in ~E. "W.
Provinces,
India.
\
^
26 6' 2f.
;
80 24
;
E. Dehli
Emperors ;
E.L
Company.
Kurat al-Muadliam. The
Superb
Town. Mecca?
Abbasid
(Soret).
Kurghaznan.
Gnazni. Gnaznawid,
Euzlu.
Enpatoria,
in the Crimea. 4512'S~.
;
330'E. KrimEhons;
Kotah. In
Rajputana.
2512']N
T
.;
75 54'E.
Local
Eajah.
al-Kufah. In Irak Arabi. 32 3
;
K
;
44 37
;
E.
Umayyad; Abbasid;
Buwayhid
;
Hamdanid.
Kufin. In
Khurasan,
six farsakhs from
Abivard
(Yakut). Shaybanid;
Timurid.
Knkaban. In
Yemen,
near Sana. 1534
/
]N[.
;
4352'E. Easnlid.
Kiz. lN
T
eai Isfahan.
3248'N".;
51 42' E,
Mongols
of Persia.
Emu. ?.
Saljuk (Lane Poole).
LIST OF MINT TOWNS.
183
Eiyfa.
In Arabia. 27= 10' 2T.
;
43 0' E.
Or Hisn Haifa
(see p. 152).
Urtukid.
Ek. In Armenia. 38
2
45' N.
;
41 10' E.
Mongols
o! Persia.
Guslitaspi.
Shirwan,
shore of
Caspian Sea,
about 40
K,
49 E.
Mongols
of
Persia;
Jalair.
Gulistan. Sarai. Golden Horde. Prefix A!J .
Gulistan al-Jadid. New Gulistan. Golden Jo <X<s
\
(j\z
Horde.
Gulistan Sarai. Golden Horde.
Gulkimdali. In the
Deccan,
India. 1722'E".
;
78 26' E. Dehli
Emperors
;
Kutb Shahs.
Gangpur.
In Chutia
Nagpnr,
India. 220'ls
T
.
;
8520'E. Dehli
Emperors.
Gvalior. In Central India. 26 13' K
;
78 12' E. Dehli
Kings ;
Dehli
Emperors.
Prefixes
^13
.
AiSLsJljlj.
Gobindpur. Govindpur,
in
Eengal.
2338
;
E".;
869
/
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Guti.
Gooty;
in S. India. 1 5 6' K
;
77 41' E.
Dehli
Emperors.
Gorakpur.
In X. "W.
Provinces,
India. .
26 44' K
;
8.3 23' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Gokalgarh.
?. Dehli
Emperors (White King).
Gohad. In
Dholpur
State.
2624'K;
7830'E.
Eana of
Dholpur,
Lar. In Laristan. 27 38' Is
r
.
;
54 18'
E,
Muzafarid; Timmid; Chagatai.
Laridah.
Leridah,
in
Spain.
41 34' JST.
;
020'E. Hudid.
184
MUSALMAX XUMISMATICS.
Larandah. Karainan. ;37
3
9'X.
;
33 2' E. JjJ
,3
Karaman
;
OthmanlL
Lanitah. In Morocco. 55 40' 2^.
;
IG50'E. Ik^
Murabit
(Tyehsen).
Lahijan.
In Gilan. ;J7
3
8' X.
;
50 9' E.
^WvJbS
.
a
U*!!
TImmid
;
Kara
Kuyiinlid ;
Shahs of Persia.
Prefix
\j*.\
h.
Lahore. IE the
Panjab,
India. 31 34' X.
;
j^ -j^
74
C
21'E.
Ghaznawid;
Shahs of
Persia;
Dehli
Kings
and
Emperors ;
Durrani
; Sikh;
local. Prefixes A^kLJi
,b
. tel<^\
^
.
-/ J
*jjj.
Lahaj.
l\
T
ear Aden. 13 12' ST.
;
42 04' E.
^
Local Sultan.
Ludd.
Lydda,
In Palestine. 31 57
;
U.
;
^
34 56
f
E.
Umayyad.
Ladakh. In Kashmir. 32 to 35 ^.
;
75 to
J
jj
79 E. Kashmir
Kings ;
local Governor.
Lucknow. In
Oudh,
India. 26 51
7
N.
;
c^3
} ?
v
^
8058'E. Dehli
Kings ;
Dehli
Emperors ;
local
Kings.
Prefix
aJlsJ^b.
Lakhnauti.
Gaur,
in
Bengal.
24 52' N.
;
1$*?*$
88 10' E. Dehli
Kings ; Bengal Kings.
Prefixes
^
.
uJ.^-
.
*Jjil .
Lampong.
In Sumatra.
550'S.;
10525
/
E.
C^A!
Local.
Ludhiana. In the Pan
jab.
30 54' K
;
ajLfcJj!
75 54' E. Dehli
Kings
(Eodgers).
Lurdijan.
Near Isfahan. 3147K
;
510'E.
a
l^j!
-
uV^
Saljuk;
Mnzaffarid.
Luluih. A fort in
Syria.
3720
/
N.;
3420
/
E.
XjJjJ
Saljuk; Mongols
of Persia. Prefixes
^Jv/
.
LIST 01- MIX! TOWXS. 185
Lahri Bandar. In
Sind,
India. 2432'X.
;
,Jcj
^.^1
67 24' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Laitsabad. Astrabad? Sarbidarid. jblui-J
Majir
al-Jadid. In the Caucasus. 44 50' N.
;
Jj Jusll j>-U
4410'E. Golden Horde.
Majun.
On the Persian Gulf ? Timurid
oifT^*
(Fraehn).
Martulah.
Marbella,
in
Spain.
36 34'
N.;
aJj^U
4 52' W. Murabit
(Escudero).
Marklin. In Diarbakr. 37 16' K
;
40 44' E.
^.-^
Abbasid
; Ayyubid ;
Urtukid
; Chagatai ;
Mongols
of Persia
;
Ak-Kuyunlid
;
Othraanli.
Suffix
aU^I.
al-Mas Bazar. ?.
Saljuk (Castiglione).
^*^!S .j\;L .^UJl
Jaipur.
In
Gujarat,
India. 23 21' N.
;
J
JU
73
28' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Malaka.
Malaga,
in
Spain.
36 45' IT.
;
4 29' W. Hudid
;
Idrisid
;
Muwahhid
;
Kings
of Granada. Prefix <Lji<x* .
Malkiriyan.
^"ear
Multan,
in the
Panjab.
Sikh
(Eodgers).
Manurka. Minorca. 40 IN".
;
4E. Muwahhid,
i^,JU
. <LJLjU
Manikpur.
In
Oudh,
India. 25 46
;
K
;
81 26' E. Dehli
Emperors (B.
Burn).
Maughir.
In
Bengal.
25 23' 3".
;
86 31' E.
Dehli
Emperor.
Mah al-Basrah.
Jtlahawind,
in Irak
Ajami.
34 5' 1ST.
;
48 29
;
E. Abbasid
;
Buwayhid.
Mah al-Kufah.
Dinawar,
in Irak
Ajami.
is*i!l
34 33
r
K
;
47 36' E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid
;
Buwayhid;
Tahirid.
Mahi. Near
Marv,
in Khurasan : or Hamadan ?
Umayyad
;
Abbasid.
186
MUSA.L31AX X13IISMATICS.
al-Mubarikah. A
village
In Ehvrarizm
(Yakut).
Umayyad
; Abbasid.
al-3Iubarikiyah.
?.
Mongols
of Persia.
Matgharah. Madrava,
In Morocco ? 35 22' X. :
5 57' "W. Idrisid
(Lavoix).
al-Mutawakaliyali.
In Irak Arabi. 3 4 2 8' X.
;
43
C
50' E. Abbasid
(Markoi)
;
Amir al-
Umara
;
Tamrid
(Sorct).
Prefix ^ujj^ .
Mattarah.
Muttra,
in X.W.
Provinces,
India.
27 30' X. ;
77^ 43
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Majaz.
In Xorthern Africa. 36 40' X.
;
9
C
3S
;
E. Abbasid
(Lavoix).
Machlilipatan. Masnlipatam,
on Coromandel
Coast,
India. !6
C
9' X.
;
81 1 1' E. Behli
Emperors.
Mahal. Maldive Islands. 6
:
ST.
;
73
C
E.
Local Sultan.
Mnhammadabad.
Applied
to
Udaipur.
jU.AAJsr
19
fa>- &2JS*,- .fc^J J I u-l J^ .
-/ _xV
v
J
Muhammadabad.
Applied
to
Champanir.
Gujarat Kings,
i .. <
Muhammadabad.
Applied
to
Kalpi.
Some-
times
alone,
sometimes with. ,
^
.
Muhammadabad. Bidar
?
in the Deccan.
17 53' ^
T
.
;
77 34' E. Bahmani. Also
probably
Firozabad In
Bengal. Bengal
Kings.
Muhammadabad Banares. Benares. Dehli
Emperors.
al-Muhammadiyah.
The name for
u^ll
after.
A.H. 148.
Abbasid; Samanid; Buwayhid;
Tahirid
; Sajid.
Also unidentified mint
town of Hasani Sharifs.
LIST OF MIXT TOWSS.
187
Muhammadnagar. Golkondah,
in tiie Decean.
Dehli
Emperors.
Mahrmidabad. InQilan. 36
C
46
;
IS
T
.;
5215
/
E.
Golden Horde.
Mahrmidabad. In
Bengal.
?.
Bengal Kings.
Mahmudpur.
Lahore. Grhaznawicl.
Mukhshi. ?. Golden Horde.
Mukhsusabad.
Murshidabad,
in.
Bengal.
Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
Madrid. In
Spain.
40 25' ff.
;
3 40' W.
On a coin of
circumstance,
A.H. 1201.
Maclain. In Lower
Mesopotamia.
83 10' K
;
44 40' E. Abbasid.
Madinat al-Taslim. In Irak Arabi ?
Probably
Baghdad.
Abbasid.
Madinat Easul Illah.
lledinat,
in Arabia.
24 35' N.
;
39 55' E. Fatimid.
Ifadinat al-Satailam. ?. Abbasid
(Eogers).
Madinat al-Salam.
Baghdad.
Abbasid
;
Amir
al-Umara
;
Hamdanid
;
Bmvayhid ;
Saljuk.
Jalair,
as
prefix
to J^dAj .
Madinat al-Atikah. Southern suburb of
Bagh-
dad ?
Umayyad.
al-Madinat al-Makhtara. The Chosen Town.
On Abrit Kharib
Canal,
half-way
between
Basrah and Abbadan
(Le Strange).
Chief
of the
Zanj (Casanova).
Madinat Madain. Madain.
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
al-Madhar.
Mazar,
near Balkh, 36 52' K
;
670'E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Muradabad. In K "W.
ProTinces,
India.
28 49' K
;
78 49' E. Dehli
Emperors ;
Durrani.
188
MUSAEMAX NOIISMATICS.
Maraghah, InAzarbaijan.
37-43'X.
;
46
C
2S'E. c^U
Sajid ; Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Ak-
"Kuyunlid ;
Shahs of Persia. Prefix iu ,X*.
iXTarakash. Morocco. 31
s
40' X.
;
7
D
30'W.
<*>]/
Murabit
;
Muwahhicl
;
Marinid
;
Moorisli
;
Hasani and Filili Sharifs, Prefixes .*> -
cOjJw
;
suffix ^..s'* .
Mursiyah.
Murcia,
in
Spain.
37 59' K".
;
^^-^
PIO'TV.
Murabit; MnwaliMd; Kings
of
Mureia. Prefix
MursMdaTbad. In
Bengal. 2411'K;
88 18'E.
^\^J^
Dehli
Emperors ;
East India
Company.
Marghinan.
In Tnrkistan. 40 31'^
T
.;
7i40
;
E.
uW^r*
Turkistan.
Marlaan.
Maharlu,
in Farsistan. 29
C
28
;
K;
j
53 10' E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Schindler).
Maraud. In
Azarbaijan.
3830'K;
4550'E.
&)y*
Timurid
(Markof),
Marv.
MerT,
in Turkistan. 37 30' K
;
^
6210'E.
Umayyad;
Abbasid
; Tahirid;
Saljuk
^Shaybanid
;
Saffarid- Great
Kaans;
Timurid
j
Shahs of Persia.
Marv al
-
Eud.
Menchak,
in Turkistan.
JjJ!
a -^
35 55
;
]S
T
.
;
62 45' E.
Saljuk (Markof).
Marv
Shaliijan.
Marv. Khan of Khiva
^W^l^j
./
(Fraehn).
al-Mariyah. Almeria,
in
Spain.
36 50' $".
;
L^\
232
/
"W.
Murabit;
Nasrid.
Mazandaran. Province in Persia. Shahs of
jjljJJ:L.(j1j<AJU
Persia.
Mazang
Achhara. ?. Sikh
(Eodgers).
al-Muzilah. Mosil ?
Zangid.
LIST OF ML\
T
T
TOWXS.
Missaria.
Messina,
in
Sicily.
38
D
1FN".
;
15 31' E. Norman
Kings
of
Sicily.
Prefix
Mastakar al-Mulk. Azimabad. Dehli
Emperors
(Hoernle).
JSIuskat.
In Oman. 23
C
37' S".
;
58 35' E.
Local Imam.
Mashhad. In Khurasan. 36 29' N.
;
59 30' E.
Timnrid
;
Shaybanid
;
Shahs of Persia
;
Durrani. Suffixes wJj!
\ -
U^
>l*\ .
. ,w-/i-\ - wJ i .
Misr.
Egypt.
Abbasid
;
Tnlunid
;
Ikhshidid
;
Fatimid
; Ayyubid ;
Othmanli. Suffix
<wjj
.s?
9
.
Misr al-Fustat. The old
capital
of
Egypt.
Umayyad.
Masrin. A town in Asia Minor
(Yakut) ;
Earaman
(Markof).
Mustafabad.
Junaghar,
in
Kathiawar,
India.
21 31' N.
;
70 36
;
E.
Gujarat Kings.
Prefix
(Jiff
I
^.
Mustafiabad. In the
Panjab.
30 12' ]S
T
.
;
77 1 2' E. Dehli
Emperors (Yost)
.
al-ltisisah.
Missis,
in
Adana,
Asia Minor.
3655'K;
3537'E.
Abbasid;
Hamdanid.
Muzaffarabad. !N"ear
Panduah,
in
Bengal.
Dehli
Emperors (Eodgers).
-Muzaffargahr.
In
Panjab,
India. 304']S
T
.
;
71 14
;
E. Dehli
Emperors.
Maadin. In Armenia. 38 18' N.
;
39 34' E.
Samanid
;
Saljuk ;
Jalair
;
Artanid. Suffix
^"'
Maadin Ba
janis. Bajanis,
in Armenia.
Abbasid;
Tahirid.
Maadin Babirt.
Baibirt,
in Armenia.
Saljuk.
190 MUSAL1TAN XUMIS1IATICS.
Maadin al-Shash.
al-Shash,
in Khurasan.
Abbasid;
Tahirid
(Fraehn). (
Maadin Luluah.
Luluiah,
in
Syria. Saljuk.
Haarah Ifasiin. In
Syria.
35 37' ]ST.
;
36 48' E.
Umayyacl.
al-Muiayah.
al-Kahirah. Cairo. Eatimid.
al-Muaskar. The
Camp.
?.
Saljuk.
Muazimabad.
Probably Sonargaon,
in
Bengal.
Dehli
Emperors ; Bengal Kings.
Prefixes
Maakar. ?. Samanid
(Moeller).
Maghaz. Magas,
in Gilan. 36
c
37jN\;
5525'E.
lEongols
of Persia
(ITarkof).
al-lEagkrab.
Morocco. Abbasid.
Magabastan
?
Mongols
of Persia.
al-llakalla. In Hadramaut. 14 25' ]N
T
.
;
49 20' E. Local ^akib.
Miknasan,
Mequinaz,
in Morocco. S3 57' IT.
;
5 40' W. MuwaliMd
;
Mill Sharifs.
Prefix
lf&>.
.
Makkali. Mecca. 21 27' K.
;
40 4' E.
Abbasid
;
Eatimid
;
Othmanli.
Malatiyak
In Armenia.
S828'K;
3829'E.
Saljuk.
JVIultan. In the Pan
jab,
India. 30 12' IT.
;
71 30' E. Dehli
Kings ;
Dehli
Emperors ;
Durrani ; Sikh. Prefix
^U3\
^b
.
.Malikanagar.
?. Behli
Emperors (Rodgers).
'Malut. In the
Panjab,
India. 3256
/
K;
73 39' E. Dehli
Kings
(Eodgers).
Mulharnagar. Indore,
in Central India.
Dehli
Emperors.
Local Holkar.
Mumbai Surat.
Bombay.
E.L
Company.
LIST OP HINT TOWNS.
191
Manadhar.
On Dizful
river,
half-way
between
Askar Mukram and Ahwaz
(Le Strange).
Manbaj.
Bambuch,
in
Syria.
36 30' K".
;
380'E,
Umayyad.
Mandurpur. Big,
in
Bhartpur
State,
India.
j&j^Jo*
27 28'
IS".;
7722'E. Local
Rajah.
-Mandu.
Mandogarh,
in Centrallndia. 2221
/
ET.
;
^J^
75 26' E. Dehli
Kings ;
Dehli
Emperors.
al-Mansuriyah.
In Morocco. 33 46' K
;
7 10' TV. Patimid
;
Ayyubid.
Musil. In
ITesopotamia.
36 19' ]ST.
;
43 7
;
E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid
; Buwayhid (Fraehn)
;
Hamdanid
; Ukaylid ; Zangid ; Hongols
of
Persia
;
Jalair
;
Othmanli. Prefix ijJ^ .
Mumanabad. In the
Beccan,
India. 18 42
;
K;
76 24' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Or
Binclraban,
according
to It. Burn.
alOIahjam.
InTaman. 15 12
;
K.
;
42 55' E.
Easulid.
al-3Ialidiyah.
In North Africa. 34 23
;
K
;
630'W.
Abbasid;
Fatimid.
.Maharandurpiir. Bhartpur
? Dehli
Emperors.
Maharpur.
?. Dehli
Emperors (Hoernle).
Mah
Indarpnr. Bhartpur.
Behli
Kings
(Eodgers).
Mahisnr.
Mysore,
in S. India. 12 1 8' K
;
76 41' E. Dehli
Emperors ;
local Sultans.
Mayyafarikin.
In
Mesopotamia.
SSMO'N.
;
40 58' E. Hamdanid
;
Bnwayhid ;
Mar-
wanid;
Ayyubid.
Mirath.
Meernt,
in KTV.
Provinces,
India.
29 0' Jtf.
;
77 48' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Maysan.
In Irak Arabi. 31 20' K
;
47 20' E.
Umayyad.
192
MUSAL3I1X NUMISMATICS.
-Mailapur.
Madras. DeHi
Emperors (White
,yL,^
King).
Miyurka. Majorca.
40
;
K
;
3
C
E.
Muwahhid; <Ls,^
Kings
of
Majorca.
Prefix teJ** .
Xabha.
Capital
of IS'abha
State,
in the
Panjab, ^lj
. U>lj
India. 30
C
24' K".
;
76 1 2' E. Sikh
;
Local
Eajali.
Nadirabad. Kandahar. Shahs of Persia.
jbl,jlj
Narnul. In
Eajputana,
India. 28 15
;
!iS.
;
(Jy^^
76 20' E. Dehli
Xings ;
Dehli
Emperors.
l^asiri. Teheran. Shahs of Persia. Prefix
r. ?.
Spanish Umayyad (Codeira).
]S
T
agpur.
In Central India. 21 9-' ]S
T
.
;
79 7'E.
Dehli
Emperors (TThite King).
Prefix
]S
T
agur.
In
Jodhpur State,
India. 2711
/
E".
;
73 46' E. Dehli
Emperors.
!N"ahan. In Sirmur
State,
Panjab,
India.
30 34' K
;
7721
;
E. Local
Eajah.
Fajafgahr.
In N". W.
Provinces,
India.
26 1 8' ]S
T
.
;
80 36' E. Dehli
Emperors
(Eodgers).
Fajibabad.
In N. W.
Provinces,
India.
29 36' JS
T
.
;
78 23' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Nakhjman.
In Armenia. 39 15'K
;
4521'E.
Great Kaans
; Mongols
of Persia
;
Ak-
Kuynnlid
;
Jalaii*
;
Shahs of Persia.
jN
T
iikhawi. lathe Caucasus. 41 12' K
;
47 10'E.
Khan of Caucasus.
JN
T
arimkabad. In Irak
Ajami
?
Umayyad
(Soret).
LIST OF MINT TOWXS.
ISTarwar.
In Gwalior
State,
India. 25 39
/
]\
T
.
;
77- 56' E. Dehli
Kings.
Xisa. In Khurasan. -J7
2
'
53' X.
;
58-10' E.
Eliwarizm
(Markof).
luisirabad. Xisabur. Samanicl.
jW-AJ
j
Kisratabacl.
In
Bengal,
in
Ghoraghar
Subhah jbb'^zi
of Akbar. Dehli
Emperors ; Bengal Kings.
Sissibin. In
Mesopotamia.
372'K
;
41 15'E.
*~*aJ
TJmayyad
;
Abbasid
;
Hamdanid
; Ukaylid ;
Marwanid
; Zangid
;
Atabeg
;
Ayyubid.
Prefix
L.^
.
Xaklat.
?.
Mongols
of Persia
(Rodgers).
ui;^
K"agar. Probably Xaggar,
in
Eannn,
Pan
jab.
Jj
33 10' ]S
T
. : 71 5' E. DeHi
Emperors
(Rodgers).
Also for Beclnore. 13 48' JS
T
.
;
75 6' E.
Mysore
Sultan.
ISFiinroZj
for
;
.A-.J . G-reat Kaans. ;
^}
Ifamak. Pind daran
Khan,
in the Pan
jab,
uXJ
India. 3235
/
N.;
73 5' E. Sikh.
Kinarkan. ?. Shahs of Persia
(Eraehn). ^
jj
Xu.
jSTnh,
in the
Panjab,
India. 23 6' X.
;
y
77 2
7
E. Dehli
Eings (Rodgers).
Kurabardah. InServia.
4235'K;
2150
/
E. aJjta
_/ j
Othmanli.
ISTuvar. ISTiiTabardah ? Othmanli. .L}
Nowanagar.
In
Kathiawar,
India.
2226'K;
7016'E. LocalJam.
jSTubanjan,
In Farsistan. 30
C
8'K;
5152
/
E.
U^y
Mongols
of Persia.
Xnkan.
Nurkan,
in Khurasan.
3550'N.;
^15^
58 40
;
E.
Mongols
of Persia
(Soret).
INTul.
Lamtah,
in Morocco. 35 40
;
JS
T
.
;
k*l
Jy
.
J
J
1050'E, Murabit.
13
sh.
Guarda,
in
Portugal.
40
30'K;
T 15' ~W. ]\
T
asrid.
TTasit. In
Mesopotamia.
31 51' K
;
46 7' E.
Umayyad
;
Abbasid
; Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Buvayhid (Soret)
;
Ham-
danid
(Tychsen)
;
Eatimid
(Marsden) ;
Samanid
(Tychsen).
AYatil. Uncertain. Idrisid
(LaToix).
Van. In Armenia. 3835
/
K;
4314'E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Jalair
;
Ak-Kuyunlid ;
Othmanli.
Wabah. In Palestine. 3038'K
;
3530
/
E.
Umayyad (Lavoix).
Ubada. In
Spain.
3756'K
;
322
/
"W
F
.
King
of Tortosa
(Saulcy).
Ujtah, Oudjda,
in
Morocco. 34
Q
43
/
K;
248
/
^T. Idrisid
(Lavoix).
194 MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
Nihawand. In Irak
Ajami.
345
;
IS
T
.
;
48 29'E.
Abbasid, Prefix &j.x .
^"ahtarnagar. TricMnopoiy,
in S. India.
49 10' X.
;
78 44' E.
Mysore
Sultan
(Marsden).
3>ahr Tirah. STear
Ahwaz,
on Kerkna river
(Le Strange). Umayyad;
Abbasid.
Nisa.
Probably
for
,^'uw-J
. Shahs of Persia.
IMsabur. In Khurasan. 36 12' N".
;
58 49
7
E.
Abbasid
;
Ghaznawid
;
Samanid
; Saljuk ;
Tiarurid
;
local Amir
; Mongols
of Persia
;
Shahs of Persia
;
Khwarizm. Prefix &j
(
tX* .
al-^il. In Irak Arabi. 32 3 5' IS
T
.
;
44 42' E.
JJ1
Abbasid
(Karabacek).
Nimruz.
Sijistan.
Shahs of Persia.
JJj***
LIST OF MINT TOWNS. 195
Udaipur.
j%*?\
Local Eana.
j^d^J
Warzighah. Warghah,
in
Algeria.
32 0' K
;
Z~jj
.
bj ^
512'E. Idrisid
(Lavois).
Urmi.
L**j\
. Great
Kaans
(Harkof).
Lf'VJ
Warangul.
In the
Deccan,
India.
175S'K;
J/'jj
7940'E.
Delili
Kings.
"Wazkand.
Jc
;
.1 . Turkistan.
-/^
"Wazakur.
?. Idrisid
(Lavoix).
v y
Yastan. In Armenia. 38 25
;
j\
T
.
;
435
/
E.
Jalair.
Utit. Uncertain. Idrisid
(Lavoix).
al-Watah.
al-Hueta,
in
Spain. 4012'.N.;
2 38' W.
Spanish Umayyad.
Walastajird.
In Irak
Ajami.
34
28'K.;
48 WE.
Mongols
of Persia.
"Walwaliz.
Half-way
"between Khnlm and
Tayikan,
in Turkistan
(Le Strange).
Gha2-
nawid.
Walikh. In Morocco. 340
;
K;
530'W.
Idrisid.
.al-"Wilandi. Holland.
o^.^
^jJu^\
.
Batavia.
Hapur.
In KW.
Provinces,
India. 28 43' N.
;
77 49' E. Dehli
Emperors (Hoemle).
Hamnabad. In Kurdistan. 34 10' K
;
4645
/
E. Ablbasid.
al-Harnniyah.
In
Baghdad
district. 33 40' N.
.;
44 5o
;
E. Abbasid.
al-Hashamiyah.
Near
Kufah,
"between it and
Hillah
(Le Strange).
Abbasid.
Hajaz.
District of Arabia on the north-east
coast of the Eed Sea. Local Othmanli.
196
MFSAOIAX XOtISATieS.
Hirat. In
Afghanistan.
04
c
29
f
^.;
62"8
;
E, C^U -
J^
Umayyacl;
Abbasid
; Ghaznawid;
Saljuk;
Great
Kaans; Shaybanid; Tahiricl; Timurid;
Samanid
;
Soffarid
;
Khwarizm
; Cliagatai
;
Kara
Kuyunlid ;
Shahs of Persia
;
Karts
;
Barakzai. Prefixes fciL^
^b.
L^~!Uj
-
(Sjjjw* . i' jJj .
^-U
i'jJj .
al-Harrar. In East Africa. 9
:
20'N.;
42
D
22'E.
^il
. SJ1
.^\
Local
Kings.
Prefix &j JL* .
Hardwar. In X.T.
Provinces,
India. 29
:
57 E".
;
j^j&
78 12' E. Dehli
Emperors.
Prefix
c-^-o
.
Huzu. Fort on the coast
opposite
to the
jifc
island of Kish
(Yakut).
Beni Ommereh
(Tiesenhausen).
Hamadan.
Haxnazan,
inlrakArabi. 3448'N.
;
^d^-
48 30' E.
Umayyacl
;
Abbasid
;
Buwayhid
;
Saljuk; Mongols
of
Persia; Jalair; Timurid;
Kara
Kuyunlid
;
Shahs of Persia
;
Dulafid.
Prefixes d-J^ JjJj . ^
:
jjj .
Hind. On the Indus. ?. Behli
Kings
XJ&
(Leggett).
al-Husam. Canton in mountains behind
Tabaristan and Bailim
(Yakut), llongols
of Persia
(Fraehn).
Hit. 2s
T
ear
Baghdad.
33 39
;
I\
T
.
;
42 51' E.
Mongols
of Persia.
Yarkand. In TurkLstan.
3825'E".;
77 30'E.
Chinese
;
Turkistan
(Markof).
Yamur. A
village
near Anbar
(Yakut).
Khwarizni.
Yubni.
Yobna,
or
Jabneh,
in Palestine,
8151']S
T
.;
34 45'E.
Umayyad (Lavoix).
LIST OF MI^'X TOWNS. 197
Yajirlaan.
Uncertain. Idrisid
(Lavoix).
Yazd. In Farsistan. 32 3' K
;
54 47' E.
Mongols
of Persia
;
Timurid
; Chagatai ;
Atabeg ; Ak-EIuyunlid ;
Shahs of Persia.
Prefix sjUjJl ilj .
al-Yazidiyah. Shamakhi,
In Trans-Caucasia.
Abbasid
(Lavoix).
Yikishahr.
Yeskisher,
in Anatolia. 3944'JNT.
;
3022
/
E. Othmanli.
Yimash Bazar. ?.
Saljuk
of Bum
(Markof).
j\j\>
al-Yainamah. In Arabia. 24 5' K.
;
4710
/
E.
Abbasid.
al-Yaman.
Yemen,
in S. Arabia. Abbasid.
Yangi
Bazar. Unknown.
Mongols
of Persia
t
(Markof).
Yangi
Shahr.
Shayer,
in Turkistan. 4155'K
;
84 36
;
E. Golden Horde. Suffix
i^^l
198
TITLES OF TOWIS.
Most
Holy
Ground.
j^,
U"^
(J
3
^
The Host 'Noble of Cities. j&l*X,sJ jSLJt
uJ^t
District.
j^Jix;
.
J^^x!
. jbUiix- . jb-lp- A*!-!
Mother of Cities, i-aj t)LJS A\
>
f
Pleasing
Road.
J^A^
L^,
/%U1
Place of
Glory.
}**>j$ j^j^ ~j*. "J^
^
City. ilJfl .
,
xlil .
^ til
City.
j\j\ ,!^\
. l
;
lcsr .
ili^
.
(*j
^j^
-
JCJ^A^
-
<iji
-
4>Wj.^J
-
bil . jbUSix/*
Good
City.
Excellent
City,
j^
The EseeUent
City.
The Fortified
City,
A Port.
The Port of Peace.
Aj-1
|*LJ1
Blessed Port.
Throne Place.
At the' Throne Place.
TITLES OF MINT TOWNS. 199
Pilgrimage.
A Plain.
The ]\
T
ew.
The Great Island. i.ls>.
>
Of
Happy
Protection,
(j
A Fort.
J^;
Presence
(of
the
Eang).
Presence of
Majesty. Jlf,L->
. jib jU>
j!L>-
c^*
The White.
ILU^
Of
Happy
Foundation,
Treasury.
jbLxu^
.
e-^l^-
JjJ^
. djl;^
City. Territory.
c
Blessed
City.
The Seat of Eectitude.
J^l
The Seat of Islam. Jj*J . j - JU -with
The Seat of
Safety.
&j*
The Seat of
Prosperity.
The Formed Place.
The Seat of War.
The Seat of the Khalifat.
^ Li .
200 MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
The Seat of "Weal.
^^ J~SL\ jb
The Seat of the
Empire.
^WJLjU/
ii.jJl
J\
J
The Seat of the
Sovereign.
,^.J\Jbj .^J
,U*
j^Ji jb
The Seat of
Happiness.
^IsTj
sjUJl
J
b
The Seat of Peace. J\Juu .
^J* JLJ^b
The Seat of the Sultanat. jbb^t . U^ - fciaLJ! b
.
^
.
"
The Seat oi Pleasure,
The Seat of
Yictory.
j
The Ahode of the Pious. J j *jL*!i ,
-/" -X
The Seat of Justice,
i^
The Seat of
Learning.
jl
The Seat of
Yictory.
..,-
u
"
The Blessed Place.
p\j\
The Glorious Place.
)&*
Jj't
The Seat of the District,
The
Sculptured
Place.
j*+*fr
The Seat of the
King,
Juj^ . UJ . ob b u'
The Beautiful Place.
j
..Jb
jy>- j^=^!
I
^
b
The Abode of the Faithful,
jb^
.
^UK ^^1^b
The Seat of
Yictory.
jU^i
The Seat of
Yictory.
*\j&
The
Pleasing.
j^
The
Beauty
of Towns. obU*>.\ jLJl vi-x ;
Town of Peace. -w*>- \
TITLES OF 3IIOT TOWS. 201
District.
City,
jl
Great
City.
Jb
City,
the
Asylum
of
Eoyalty
. s Z\
City
of the
Age.
-JLx>-
^Ivj^ ^
Blessed
City.
Eminent
City.
]\
T
oble
City.
^
City
of Great
Light.
Province.
s^\
/,
Tract of Land.
Known as
Udaipur Conquered.
Known as
Champanir.
Known as Behli. b *,+
Known as
Kanouj.
Known as Muhammadabad.
Known as Tirhut.
West.
jjjJjl^L
Choosing
Peace.
Conquest
of. -Jux>-
^
Of
Happy
Foundation, jb
Prosperous.
jUss-
Metropolis
of Islam.
1+****
Town.
Citadel.
Passing.
Fort, i
202
MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
-n j_
^' ^ "^
''
*
M
Port.
sp
\
-^j-O
-
*<tej+z
.
^ci
District,
^axip-
o
.
'
District.
jw.
Throne.
,Uo
.
JjJ
>
i
**
Beautiful. A;J?4^. . .x^K
.
,.^>.
J j C/
Blessed. Jj&lJi
j
Garrisoned
City.
jM .^,Ub
. u-J.^. . i'U^- .
4
'
-
'
iiwJ UA ^1 ^
City.
Prefixed to a
great
number of mint tovrns.
City
of Hen. J^ J
Guarded
City.
JcJ .AJ
Eesting-place
of the Khalifat.
j&9?\
.
jb^l
.
Resting-place
of the
Kingdom.
J\jL*il - <Uu .
The
Shining. ^ ,
A Mine.
J^S
Place of Learned Men.
*j;\^
The Eminent,
^u^l
The
Flourishing.
<Ljlkl-*
c.j-
Captured.
j-J^
Holy.
Country.
Country.
<teJ . L
.yllcy
.
\g*)J
-
ERAS.
The dates on llutammadan coins
are,
as a
rule, given according
to the
Hijra
Era,
but otter eras are also used.
Hijra.
The era dates from the
flight
o! the
Prophet
Muhammad from
Mecca to
Medina,
which took
place
on the 15th
July,
622 A.D.
The first
day
of it
corresponds
with the 16th
July
of that
year.
This era is a
purely
lunar one of 12
lunations,
and to make
it accord as
nearly
as
possible
with the moon's motion a
day
is intercalated at the end of 11 of the
years
in a
cycle
of 30:
thus the mean
length
of the
year
is
354-J--J-
days.
The
following
is a
very simple
rule of thumb
'
by
Dr. James
Burgess
for con-
verting
dates of the
Hijra
to the Christian
(Julian)
: From
Hijra
date deduct 3
per
cent, and add 622 for the date A.D." As each
year
is shorter than a Christian
year
it
begins
earlier in the
season than the
preceding
one. The
following
Table shows the
day
of the month of the Christian
year upon
which each
Hijra year
begins up
to 1325 A.H. It is usual to
give
as the
corresponding
year
that one in which the
greater
part
of the
Hijra year
is
included;
for
instance,
A.H. 700
began
on the 16th
September,
1300,
and ended on the 5th
September,
1301,
that
is, 3-J-
months
in 1300 and 8-J months in 1301. The latter A.D.
year
therefore
is the
corresponding
one, unless,
of
course,
one of the
early
months
of the
Hijra year
is in
question.
Dr. Forbes
gives
this rule for
working
out the
corresponding
date :
"
Express
the Huhammadan
date in
years
and decimals of
years; multiply by
-970225;
to
the
product
add
621*54,
and the sum will be the
precise period
of the Christian Era.
5 '
Another rule is that
given by
Soret :
"Date of
Hijra multiplied by
97,
to the
product
add
621-84,
separating by
a decimal
point
the last two
ciphers
of the
product.'*
2G4
MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
Example:
1st
day
of 700 A.H. 700
X
97
=
67900. 67900 +
621-84
=
1300-84,
that
Is,
1300 and -84 of the
year,
which
corresponds
with the middle of
September.
Commonly
there Is no indication on the coins of the date
being
the Hiira one, but It is occasionally so
stated,
as i's-k . J^stfl*
A i
'
_j
.
/
.
S^^r
5
u^-: -
^\
i.js^ .
,
^jj
LJS-^ . On two coins of
Mongols
of Persia, which bear also the Khanian date, the word <ui3j&
, lunar,
is added to
distinguish
the date in that
way
from the
Khanian,
which was a solar era.
Tipu
Sultan,
of
Maisur,
In the
year
1201
A.H.,
i.e. the fifth
year
of his
reign,
instituted a new era for use In his
kingdom,
dating
from the birth of Muhammad J*ks"*
^jcJ&u/*,
instead of from
the
year
of the
flight.
The
years
were Luni-Solar. The date of
the birth of the
Prophet
Is
generally given
as 570
A.D.,
but it is
not certain whether
Tipu
counted from that time or about a
year
later,
as was held
by
some to be correct. On a coin of the fourth
year
of his
reign
the date is
given
If"
^*<s^
tU^
,
and on one
of the fifth
year
of his
reign
the date is written & 1 f i
,
that
is,
1215 of the new era and in the new
way
of
arranging
the
ciphers
(see p. 7).
The difference of but 14
years
between the dates
according
to the two
eras, although
the
period
between the birth
and the
flight
of the
Prophet
was some 52
years,
is to be accounted
for
by
the Miiludi
years being longer, luni-solar,
than the
Hijra,
lunar,
ones.
Khanian.
The Khanian Era was established
by
Ilkhan Ghazan Mahmud
on 1st
Bajab,
A.H.
701,
but it is not found
upon
coins until the
time of his
nephew,
Abu
Said,
some 33
years later,
and on
the coins of one or two of Abu's successors. The era was a solar
one,
and is written <Ljl^M . There is no
difficulty
in
computing
the
corresponding year
in the
Hijra
and Christian
Eras,
for the
year
1 of Khanian is 701 A,H. and 1301 A.D.
ERAS. 205
Christian,
Bates in the Christian Era are found on coins of Native States
of
India,
E.I.
Company,
and Straits Settlements, also on some
Christian
Syrian
coins in Arabic characters. It is
usually
indicated
z &* or
(jy+z
only,
but on one of the
Syrian
it is
put
as siU*4Jl tXlrsrUSI <&*i
,
rear of the Incarnation of the Messiah.
C
IlaM,
The Tarikh Ilahi was established
by
the
Emperor
Akbar in
the 30th
year
of his
reign (A.H. 992),
and
began
with his
reign
on 5th Eabi
al-Sani,
A.E.
963,
or 19th
February,
1556 A.D.
The months and
clays
are
Solar,
without
any
intercalations.
The names of the months and
days
are the same as the old
Persian ones. The months have from 29 to 30
days
;
there are
no
weeks,
but each
day
of the month is
distinguished by
a
different name.
The era was used
by Akbar, Jahangir,
and Shah
Jahan,
often
together
with the
Hijra
date. It is written on the coins
^\.
Samvat
The Samvat or Era of
Yikramaditya began
at B.C. 57. It is
luni-solar with intercalation. To convert Samvat into Christian
years
it is
necessary only
to subtract 57 from the elate. The
era is used on coins of some of the Native States of
India,
generally,
when the
legend
is in the Arabic
character,
with the
Hijra
date also. It is written
'^^^^
.
The
Spanish,
The
Spanish,
called also the Era of the
Caesars,
is reckoned
from 1st
January,
B.C.
38, being
the
year following
the
conquest
of
Spain by Augustus.
It is found on a
bilingual
coin of
Alphonse
VIII of
Spain,
and there called
206
MUSALITA^ NUMISMATICS.
CYCLE YEARS,
Sultan
Tipu,
of
llysore,
in the first or second
year
of Ms
reign, adopted,
in addition to the
Hijra
dates,
the Hindu
cycle
of
sixty years,
each
distinguished by
a
particular name,
which
was in use in his dominions and known as the Tamil
Brihaspate
Cycle.
But instead of the
original
names of the
respective years,
he
gave
them new ones made
up
of letters which
by
the
Abjad
system
would denote the number of the
year
in the
cycle.
The
second
year
of
Tipu's reign,
A.D.
1783-84,
was the 38th of the
current
cycle,
which
began
in A.D. 1747. That
year
he named
J;l
(1
+
7 +
30),
the next
year JLSJ- (3
+
30 +
6),
and the
next
j!j
(4
+
30 +
6),
and these three names
preceded by
the word
JL year
are found
upon
coins of the Sultan of the
2nd, 3rd,
and 4th
years
of his
reign,
and dated I !
Q
i
A
,
1
M ^
,
If**
Hijra respectively.
"When,
however,
in the 5th
year
of his
reign
Tipu
altered his era from the
Hijra
to the Muludi
(see p. 204),
and
replaced
the
Abjad system by
the Abtas
(see p. 116),
he
gave
other names to the
years
which would indicate the number
of the
year
in the
cycle according
to the latter
system,
and these
we find on his coins from his fifth
regnal year,
such as li
(40
+
1),
IjL
(30
+ 1 +
10+1),
etc.
The names ju^l and Ju/K.=*.l were
given arbitrarily,
in both
systems,
to the first and second
years,
because no words
sufficiently
short could be
assigned
to them to
express
one
'
and two.'
CYCLE YEARS. 20?
208
^USALMIX XUMISIIATICS.
BATES.
Ordinarily
the date of
striking
of the coin is
preceded by
thc-
word 4i!
year,
sometimes *U~j in the
year,
but there are some-
variations from this. Some Samanid coins have <La**. of the
year,
some Dehli and others i-s^ i^-s
,
Turkistan --^
^-s^ ^
o~*
year
in the
Hijra
of the
Prophet, Bhopal
,
C
-;AJ
i^c-s*
tf-i-s
year
of the
holy Hijra.
The word
^Ls, year,
is used instead of *tx;
on some
Spanish
and African coins. "When the Christian date is
given
the form is
^5*^-^ cL^,
when the Samvat
^^^^
.
On some coins the
phrase
fc~sj*$~>
^ ,
in the months of the
year,
is used
;
on some others the name of the month of issue
is
stated,
-2-i
<Ji
in the
month,
followed
by
the name of the month
of the
Hijra year.
"When the Ilahi
year
is
given
on the coins
of Akbar and his successors the month of the old Persian calendar
is
employed
with the Persian word *U
month,
as
^jLI
iU
,d\,
Ilahi month A~ban.
Yery rarely
the
day
of the month is added
by
a
cipher,
or in words as in the
following legend
on a coin of
a Governor of
Bengal,
!L~tjS>$\ ^jl\
^^ ^JL*!t *^J^\
<J>
iU^s
$ ^j^
?
on the date the twentieth of the month Eabi al-
Akhir of the
year
six hundred and
twenty ;
and on one of
Tipu
Sultan,
Li
JL c5?W
/*^~>j
^e third of
(month)
Bahari of the
(cycle) year
Sha.
Names of the Months.
HIJRA. OLD PERSIAN'.
2.
jLs
2.
3.
JjJl
j_-.^
3.
4.
[or
^yW^^l ^j
4.
5.
Jpl
^4}U>-
5.
6.
[or
^\~\
j&3\
^^^-
6.
7.
ur
7.
BATES.
209
HUBA. OLD PERSIAN.
10.
11.
12.
9.
10.
11.
Tipu
Sultan,
on
giving
to the
cycle years
new
names,
which
should denote the numerical order in which
they
stand in the
cycle (see p.
206),
treated the months of which the
year
consists
in a similar
way,
but instead of the whole name
being
taken to
express
the number in
Abjad
the initial letter
only
was made
to do so.
Afterwards,
with the
change
from the
Abjad
to the
Abtas,
it was
again necessary
to alter the names to suit the latter
system. Only
one or two of the months have been noted as
being
on
Tipu's coins,
but more
may
be
found,
and therefore
the names are here
given.
Names of the Twelve Months in
Abjad
and Abtas.
Abjad.
Abtai
Abjad. 1
Abtas.
8
:
Abjad.
i Abtas.
10
11
12
The numbers of the llth and 12th month are made
by using
the first two letters of the
name,
and in the
Abjad
the letters
\
(1)
and c->
(2)
are on the
right
of the letter
^
(10),
as is
usual in
writing
in
ciphers
the numbers ! i and I f
,
whilst in the
Abtas the units \ and t-j are on the left of the decimal
j
,
that
is,
in the order in which the
ciphers
were
placed,
1 1 and f I
,
in
Tipu
Sultan's
system (see p. 7).
14
210 MUSALMAX XUMIS1IATIC3.
REGIAL YEARS,
The
year
of tlie
reign
of the ruler is also
usually
noted on
the coins of the
Moghul emperors
of
Dehli, Afghanistan,
Native
States of
India, Otlirnanli,
and some other series of modern
times,
"but not on the old Arabic.
It
is,
as a
rule,
on the other face of the coin to that on which
the date
is,
and in
ciphers, except
for the first
year,
which is
often written ^=>-l .
(jw*l>-
,
accession or
enthronement,
is the
word used to
express regnal year,
with or without !L~s before it.
The
phrase
^JL*
c^-^.^
^^>-
^>
'
m the
Y
ear oi
"
^is
reign
of
tranquil prosperity, adopted
for
Aurangzih,
has been
a favourite one ever since in the East.
The
regnal year
is of the same
length
as the
Hijra
lunar
one,
and
consequently, beginning
each
year
on the enthronement
anniversary,
does not
change
its number on the same
day
as the
latter
does, unless,
of
course,
the enthronement was on 1st of
lluharram,
and so
apparent discrepancies occur;
for
instance,
Jahangir
was
proclaimed Emperor
in
Jumacla, 1014;
one
half,
therefore,
of his issue of the
regnal year
1 was in 1014 and
one half in 1015. But there are
many
real
discrepancies owing
to carelessness of the mint masters or die
engravers.
In the
time of
Jahangir
and Shah
Jahan,
when the solar
year
of Akbar's
Ilahi Era was
being again replaced by
the
Hijra,
there was some
confusion,
and mistakes were made. The E.I.
Company
in
1793,
in
trying
to establish a standard
currency,
ordered that all the
rupees
coined for
Bengal
should for the future bear the
impression
of the
rupee
of the 19th
year
of Shah Alam's
reign; thus,
the
1 \ L^i was retained on the obverse of the Sicca or 19 San
rupee
of
Murshidabad,
whatever the
Hijra year might
be on the
reverse,
REGNAL YEARS. 211
until 1835. In a similar
way
i~"! te~a was
put
on the E.I.C.
Farukhabad and Surat coins of the Shah Alam
pattern, irrespective
of the date of
issue,
from 1805 to 1835.
On some coins of Indian Native
States,
of the
pattern
of the
Shah Alam
rupee,
is a
(j*>-
J
ear
cipher
which is not that of
the Dehli
Emperor,
but that of the
Eajah
of the
State,
although
his name is not
given upon
the
piece.
On the Othmanli
coinage
since the
beginning
of the
reign
of Abel
al-Haraid,
A.H.
-1187, only
the date of the
year
of the
Sultan's accession is
given throughout
the
reign,
with a
cipher,
usually
above the area of the
reverse, indicating
the
regnal year.
It is
necessary,
therefore,
to add the number of the
regnal year
to the date in order to arrive at the
year
in which
any piece
was
struck; e.g.,
all the coins of Mahmud II bear the
Hijra
date
1223,
although
he
reigned
32
years,
and some of them were struck as
iate as
1254,
as is shown
by
their
bearing
the
regnal year
32.
typo
03 0) b
H
or
H
01
H
flCOC060505oOtf)NtO
01
H
fl
fl H 01
H
M
h
H
h
H
h
5
1
5
1
iS
r
'
r
'
ti i
X A
rfrtrt^^^tfflflRftbhbflfl
htf)0)OHflCOfliOtONQ0050HflflOO
iQ'OiO^tOcOtOtOCDtOtOtOtOhhbhb
tOtOtOtO(0(0(0(OtOtOtOtOtOOtOtOtO(0
NGOO)OM(Nfl1iiO<0NCOCI)OHflcOfl
flHOOONOONbiOflflflflflbHO
fl
H
CO H
fl
H
01
H
fl
H
fl
H
CO
,
i li
fel)
'
bflfl^hddod(i<l<!<l^bb
OOHflCOfl'OtOhOOQOHClOOfliOtO
flflflflflflflflflflfl'O'OiOiOiOiOiO
(D(OtOtOtOtOtOtOtOtOtOtOtO<0(OtOtOtO
0)OHfl{OfliOtON00050HflWflOtO
H 01 01 fl fl 01 fl 01 fl 01
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO
fl.
(0lOflCOflCOrtHOC505QO
H fl
H 01
H
fl fl H
k k fl d rt
b b b b b
k h k o,
ft
h >!
U LJ ui
^
i U U
T iJ :J J
J W *?1
fl Fl fl
^
^ N fl
fl fl
00 fl
01 H
fl
H
h h h b
OiCOfllOtOh00050HflCOfliO(ONCOO)
01 01 01 fl 01 01 01 01
CO CO 00 00 CO CO CO CO CO
CO
tOcOtO(OtOtOtOtO(OtOtOtOtOtO(OtOtO(0
H
fl CO fl
NOOO)OH01WfliOtOboO
HHHHHHHHH
HIJRA AXD CHRISTIAN TEARS. 213
214
3IUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
HIJEA AND CHBISTIAN
TEARS. 215
3IUSAL3IAX NUMISMATICS.
0) H 01 00
^ 10 (0 N CO 0) H 01 CO ^ (0
MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
222 MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
HIJIU AND CHRISTIAN YEARS. 223
05 00 00 s|
OQO
tO H Oi i
CO 10
HHMHMHMHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
0) CO Q CO CO W CO 05 05 W CO 03 CO 00 CO 05 CO CO CO CO CO W
(0(D00(0(DOQCQOQ5((]0(#a)0005a)t)5$GOvl
(0 03 ^ C)
Ci ^ OMO
M
(0 GO 05 M Q 01 ^ Q 10
H
Q Q
ffl a ffl
^ % fej
B b
H
K)
H
!0
H
(0 10 CO
H
to
H
10 H
10
H
05 if* Oi 0) H
*i
^0 <0
H H
10 (0 10 il* 0) M 00
N
)
(0
flooowooooooooooojooojoooooooooooocoooaioooo
tOtOlOtOIOHHHMMHHHHHQQOOOOO
M
05 M Q
Oi
(I* CO 10 CO M D Oi ^ J5 Iv
d
B
H 10
H H
s| 00 Ot 00
M
15
H 10
tl ti
10
H
|0
H
10 H
10
H 05 0)
M M M
10
L
if, [I* ^ i(* (I* ff* CO
CO -Cl CO CO CO CO CO W CO tO 10 10 10 10
0)
0i ((* 00 10
H CO "4 0) Oi d* CO 10
H
CO H
Q Ci
ij* i)i W W 05
W CO CO Ci CO CO W 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
H tO 05 "1 0) Ci (I*
10
M
05 s] Q Ci ^ CO 10
H
flpOin&jlJjJtJ
lilillill!!'
H
tO
H
10
H
tO
M 10
10 tO tO
tk k
Oi
(?)
*J
S
00 CD
CO
M
10
H
tO
H
10
H
to 10 CO W v't 0' 0)
EIJBA AND CHRISTIAN YEARS.
225
226
HUSA.LMAN
NUMISMATICS.
HIJRA AND CHRISTIAN YEARS. 227
A.H. A.I).
-|.^
A.I1.
'
A.D.
'
-fc J^
''
A.II.
!
A.D.
1
1045;
1635
1046
'
1636
1047;
1637
1048 1638
1049 1639
1050: 1640
1051
;
1641
1052: 1642
1053^ 1643
1054J
1644
i
1055
J
1645
'
Jn. 17-: 1067
Jn. 5
i
1068
:
My.26-:i069
:Hy.l5H
1070
:
My.
4';
1071
Ap.
23
:1072
;Ap.
12 :
:
:
1073
JAp.
1
j j
1074
1 I
;
!
Mr. 22
i
1075
1656 ! 0. 20 I 1089!
1657
0.
9..
1090
i
1658
;
S. 29^
1091
;
I
Mr. 10 1076
1056 1646
1057! 1647
!
1058 1648
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1649
1650
1650
1651
1652
1653
IF.
27
|1077
i
1
1
!F.
17
j
1078
i !
IF.
6
j|
1079
Ja. 27
|
1080
!
j
Ja. 15 !J 1081
j]
Ja.
4JJ1082
i
j i
JD.
25
1
1083
i ;
ID.
14 I
j
1084
|D. 2JJ1085
1086
1087
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
S. 18
;
1092!
S.
6.;
1093
|
Ag.27;
;
1094
Ag.
16 1095:
Ag.
5
;
:
1096;
Jy.
25
:
1097
|
Jy.
14
Jv. 4
11 1065
I
1654
|
1066
I
1655
!
0. 31
10981
Jn. 23 i! 1100
Jn. 11
Jn. 1
My.21 |
My.lOJ
Ap.29
Ap.
18
1674
Ap.
7
1675
1676
1088;
1677
Mr. 28
Mr. 16
Mr. 6
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
Ja. 21
i
: Ja. 10
ID.
31
ID.
20
ID. 8
JK
28
*. ,7
K 7
0, 26
0. 15
0.- 5
S. 24
S. 12
S. 2
Ag.22
Ag.12
Jy.
31
Jy.
20
Jy.
10
JiJLJKA AJNJD UHllIttTlA^
230 MUSALMAX NUMISMATICS.
A II.
;
A.I).
= 5
5 A.H. I A.D. ! J
^5
I! A.H.
i
A.D.
i
Jlf
;
!
if'^
5 ; . !
!
^
S
:!
;
i
^
=
1177 1763
; Jy. 12;
1199
1178 1764
'
Jy.
1
;
;
1200
1179
:
1765 Jn.
20;
:
1201
1180,
1766 Jn. 9
:
i 1202
1181 1767 i
My.30 :
1203
1182s
1768 'Mv.lS
1204
1183|
1769
I
1184
!
1770
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
My.
18
My.
7
Ap.27
Ap.
16
Ap.
4
Mr. 2 5
Mr. 14
Mr. 4
E. 21
1777 I
E. 9
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1784
;
K 14:1 1221 1806
.
Mr.21
1785
;
N.
4J:
1222. 1807
. Mr. 1 1
1786
j
0. 24M 1223
^
1808 :
F. 28
1787
I
0.
13::
1224
;
1809
,
F. 16
1810 F. 6
1811
!
Ja. 26
i
1812 Ja. 16
I
1813
|
Ja. 4
1788 I
0.
2;;
1225
:
1789 !
S. 21
i-
1226;
1790
1791
S. 10!! 1227
1192! 1778
j
Ja. 30
; i
j
1193
s
1779 I Ja. 19! 1215 1800
!
;
!
1194; 1780
:
Ja. 8 1216 1801
! I
1
!
1195- 1780 B. 28
j
1217 1802
1196! 1781 D. 17 1218 1803
j
1197!
1782 B. 7 1219 1804
1198! 1783 K 26
:
1220 1 1805
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
Ag.31h
1228
Ag.l9l|1229
; i
Ag.
ol!
1230
Jy.
29
i
Jy.
18
j
Jy.
7
Jn. 26
Jn. 15
Jn. 5
My.25
My.
14
1231
1232
i
1814
B. 24
D. 14
1815
!
B. 3
!
1816
:
K 21
1233!
1817
|
1234|
1818
1235,
1819
11
0. 31
0. 20
1236
1237
1238
My.
4N 1239
Ap.23
Ap.12
Ap.
1
1240
1241
1820
j
0. 9
1821 ! S. 28
1822 i S. 18
1823
1824
1825
11242!
1826
Ag.26
Ag.
16
Ag.
5
HIJBA AND CHRISTIAN TEARS. 231
MUSALMAN NUMISMATICS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
233
BXBLI0GBAPHY.
The
following
books and
papers
will be found useful in
studying
several classes of Musalman coins :
All classes,
(Copper).
All classes of
Arabic,
MAESDEX,
W. :
"
Suniismata Orientalia Illus-
trata."
London,
1863.
TJmayyad
andAbbasid
Khalifs.
NN",
J. :
il
Besehreibungderbekanntesten
Kufermiinzen,"
Band iii.
Prag,
1863.
LAXE
POOLE,
S. :
"
Catalogue
of Oriental Coins
in the British Museum." 10 vols.
London,
1879-90.
PKAEEN,
Ch. :
i
Becensio ETumorum Muham-
medanonim."
Petropoli,
1826.
LANE
POOLE,
S. :
"
Catalogue
of Arabic Coins in
the Khedivial
Library,
Cairo."
London,
1897.
LANE
POOLE, S.,
"
Easti Arabic!
"
: J^um.
Chron.,
1885-86-87 and -1892.
SAULCY, F.,
u
Sur
quelques points
de la JSTumis-
naatique
Arabe": Journ.
Asiatique,
ser.
in,
tomes
vii, viii, x, si,
xiii
;
ser.
IY,
tome vi.
TIESENHAUSEN,
AY. :
"
Monnaies des Khalifes
Orientaux." St. Peter
sbourg,
1873.
LATOIX,
H. :
"
Catalogue
des Monnaies Musul-
manes de la
Bibliotheque Rationale,"
tome i.
Paris,
1887.
ROGERS
BET,
E.
T,, Catalogue
of his Collection
of Mohammedan Coins: ^um.
Chron.,
1885.
234 MUSAL31AX XUMISMATICS.
Spanish
G-AILLAUD,
J". :
"
Description
des
Uiaayyad Espagnoles composant
le Cabinet de Bon
and other Jose Garcia de la Torre.''
Jfiadrid,
1852.
Dynasties.
COEDBP.A
Y
ZAIDIX,
P. :
f
Tratado de Xuniis-
matica
Arabigo-Espanola."
Madrid,
1879.
LAYOIX,
H. :
4t
Catalogue
des Monnaies Musul-
manes de la
Bibliotheque
Rationale,"
tome ii.
Paris,
1891.
Norman
King's
SPIXELLI,
D. :
"
Monete Cuiiche battuta da
of
Sicily, Principi LongoLarcli
Xormanni e Srevi nel
Regno
delle due Sicilie."
Wajioli,
1844..
Horth. Africa
LAVOIX,
H. :
'
Catalogue
de la
Bibliotlieque
and
Spain.
Rationale,"
tome ii.
MAECEL,
J. J. :
"
Tableau
general
des Monnaies
ayant
cours en
Algerie." Paris,
1844.
Egypt
and
Syria. LATOIX,
H. :
u
Catalogue
des Monnaies Musul-
manes de la
Bibliotneque
Rationale,"
tome iii.
Park's,
1894.
ROGERS
BET,
E.
T.,
"
Coins of the Tuluni
Dynasty'
7
: Internet. jSTumis.
Orient.,
Tol. i.
London,
1877.
Oh.azn.awid,
THOMAS, E.,
"
Coins of the
Kings
of Ghazni" :
London, 1848;
and JOUITL.
R.A.S.,
TO!S. xii
and xvii.
Turkuman. GHALIB
EDHEM,
J. :
"
Catalogue
des Monnaies
Turcomanes,
Beni
Ortek,
Beni
Zengui,
Prou
Atabegyeh,
et Meliks
Eyoubites
de
Meiyafariken." Constantinople,
1894.
Saljuk.
GHALIB
EBHEIT,
J. :
"
Essai de
^umismatique
Seldjoukide."
Constantinople,
1892.
Baaislimandid.
CASANOVA, P.,
"
jSTumismatique
des Danish
-
mendites" : E,evue
Numismatique,
1895
and 1896.
rtukid. LANE
POOLE, S.,
"
Coins of the Urtuki Turku-
mans'
7
: Internat E"umis
Orient.,
vol.
i,
1875.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 235
KakwayMd,
TOENBEEG,
C.
J.,
"
Un Birhem Kakweihicl
inedit
"
: Ecv.
Beige Xum.,
ser.
m,
tome ii.
LAXE
POOLE,
S.
? "Unpublished
Coins of the
Kakweyhis"
: Num.
Chron.,
1875.
Ukaylid.
Kir,
H.
C.,
"Notes on the
History
of the
Banu
Okayl"
: Journ.
H.A.S.,
vol.
xviil,
1886.
Basulid.
NETZEL, H.,
"
Munzen de Rasuliden
"
: Zeitschriffc
fiir
Xumismatik,
Band xviii.
PEEDEA.UX,
"\V.
E.,
"
Coins of the Benee Rasul
Dynasty
"
: Journ. Bomb. As.
Soc.,
vol. syi.
Mongols
ofPersia,
DEOUDT, E.,
"
Is otice sur les Monnaies
Xongoles"
:
Journ.
Asiatique,
1896.
Jalair.
MAEKOF,
A. :
"
Katalog Djelairesch
Monete.
5>
St.
Petersburg,
1897.
Chagatai.
OLJTER,
E.
E.,
"
Coins of the
ChagataiMughals
5>
:
Journ.
Beng. A.S.,
1891.
OLIVER,
E.
E.,
"The
Chagatai Hughals"
:
Journ.
E.A.S.,
1891.
Othmanli. GHALIB
EDHEH:,
J. :
"NumismatiqueOttornane."
Constantinople,
1307
(1890).
LAKE
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