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A. ROOF Defects:
i. ii. iii. iv. Insufficient roof fall (pitch) Wobbly roof covering Damaged gutters Damaged facia and ceiling board

i. ii. iii. iv. Use of inadequately seasoned roof members Poor workmanship Poor supervision Lack of adherence to building codes and standard

i. The insufficient roof fall will increase the loading on the structure, prevent effective disposal of rain water and enhance the speedy collapse of the roof members under self-weight ii. Damaged gutters will promote the seepage of water into the wall and encourage the peeling of roof covering during high winds iii. Damaged facia boards will accelerate the damage of roof covering. Also, the damaged ceiling boards make the building unsightly iv. Wobbly roof covering hinders seamless wind travel and water disposal

i. Increasing the roof pitch will solve the problem stated in i. above; this can only be achieved by replacing the roof members ii. Damaged gutters should be fixed and only experienced and skilled workmen should be used during this process iii. Aluminum facia boards should be used and damaged ceilings should also be replaced while the source of leakage is to be fixed.


i. ii. iii. iv. v. Dampness (wetness) Cracks Efflorescence Wobbly columns (pillars) and beams Water leakage through plumbing work

Causes: a. Dampness
i. Rising of moisture from the ground: the ground on which the building was constructed is made up of stiff clay and thus allow for capillarity. The building materials used for the foundation absorb water by capillary action. Thus, the moisture finds its way to the floors through the sub-structure


Action of rain: unprotected exposed faces of walls. Leaking of roof and the presence of an over-head tank on the structure promote the seepage of water into the structure. Also, the slab carrying the tank serves as a water retaining element


Condensation: the process of condensation takes place when humid air is cooled. This is due to the fact that air can contain less invisible water vapor than warm air. The moisture is deposited on the walls, floors and ceiling


The dampness was also caused by poor workmanship in areas like gutters, joints in roof etc.

b. Cracks
i. ii. iii. iv. v. Poor foundation design Insufficient knowledge of structural design Poor concrete mix design Incorrectly proportioned mortar Poor workmanship

c. Efflorescence
i. ii. Soluble salts in soil and ground water Soluble salts in mortar and concrete mix

d. Wobbly columns
i. ii. iii. iv. Insufficient knowledge of structural design Poor formwork design Poor supervision Poor workmanship

e. Water leakage
i. Defects due to poor maintenance: the neglected maintenance along with weathering and aging leads to water leakages as observed in the male toilets. Flowing water is dynamic and rushes through valves, traps, washers, taps and cocks situated at several places in the building. These things are subject to

constant wear and tear. They therefore require periodical maintenance ii. Defects in construction: the defects at the construction stage include use of defective materials and poor workmanship iii. Defect in design: the defects in planning and design are as a result of the lack of the presence of a qualified engineer iv. Poor supervision: these pipes may have been damaged in the course of vibrating the concrete or during the placement of reinforcements.

i. Wetness: this reduces the strength of the wall fabric and promotes decay and mildew growth. This also creates an unhealthy environment for the occupants. Also, the metals used in the construction of the building are corroded. The electrical fittings are deteriorated and may lead to electrical leakage and consequent danger of short circuiting. The dampness combined with warmth and darkness breeds germs and diseases ii. Cracks reduce the overall strength of the building and expose the building to water penetration from many sources. These cracks also expose the building to insect infestation iii. Efflorescence: this is the process whereby salts are deposited on walls and floors when contaminated moisture dries off. This can cause the disintegration of blocks, tiles, mortar etc. iv. Wobbly columns and beams: this reduces the load bearing capacity of these elements and hence a reduction in the overall strength of the building

Remedy: a. Wetness
i. ii. iii. iv. v. A damp proof course should be provided Mechanical humidifiers should be used Colourless sealants and masonry paints should be used A separate tank stand should be built to carry the over-head tank Drains should be constructed round the structure

b. Cracks
i. ii. Repointing should be considered Areas of sever cracks should be demolished and handled by specialists

c. Efflorescence
i. Efflorescence is removed by rubbing brushes on the damaged surfaces. A solution of one part of HCL (Hydrochloric acid) or H2So4 (Tetraoxosulphate VI acid/ Sulphuric acid) and five parts of clean water is prepared and is applied with the help of brushes on the affected area. The surface is washed clean with water. It should be desirable to prevent efflorescence than to cure it

d. Wobbly Column
i. It is an expensive task to replace such members. However, in subsequent constructions well groomed engineers should be used for supervision ii. The designed formwork should provide for possible shocks and vibration iii. The formwork should be rigid enough so as to retain the shape of the element without appreciable deformation

e. Water leakage
i. Filling of joints: the joints in the drainage system should be filled with rich cement mortar ii. Improper use of toilets: it is necessary to educate the users on the proper use of the toilet system iii. The provision of well designed compacted dense concrete properly cured can solve a number of leakage problems in the building iv. v. Joints in tiles require periodic replacement Door frame joint near toilet: the joint between door frame and flooring of water closet should be made leak proof by applying epoxy mortar or cement slurry vi. Plumbing: the joints in the plumbing of W/C seats and Nahni traps should be filled with rich cement mortar and cured for seven days vii. Separation of sanitary blocks: it is necessary to detach the sanitary block in the planning stage. Such criteria will help keep the building usable even if the sanitary block suffers from leakage. It will also prevent the spreading of dampness to other parts of the building.

C. FLOORS Defects:
i. ii. iii. Deformed beams Cracks Uneven surfaces

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Excessive water-cement ratio Poor workmanship Poor supervision Presence of salt Poorly constructed expansion joints Poor connection between old and new building

i. ii. Makes the structure unsightly Reduction in strength of the element

i. Adherence to design and construction standards


Use of quality materials


Well groomed engineers should be engaged

RECOMMENDATION Thorough geotechnical survey should be carried out to determine the types of soils present on site before structures are erected to provide for efficient foundation design and construction. Since the school is sited in an area with high winds, it is important to design roof structures with steep slopes and the design should be for the worst case scenario. Also, the stability of the roofs already constructed should be checked to prevent collapse and damage. Quality should not be compromised because of cost, as the structures erected should be able to meet the minimum standards specified by the various codes of practice. Structural details, concrete mix design and quality control should be given the highest priority during construction and the engagement of highly qualified construction professionals and artisans should be considered. It is important to note that having a roof tank aids the penetration of water into the building, thus encouraging the deterioration of concrete and roof members. This also aids the continuous wetting of the walls which give rise to efflorescence and the growth of algae. Finally, the school has the capacity to produce its own blocks to standard, as the blocks supplied are of very low quality.