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Questions: 1. Briefly explain the graduated layer of particle board. 2.

Compared between platen press particleboard and extruded particleboard

Answer : 1. The most common type of particle board manufactured in industry is the 3-layered, graduated mat-formed variety. By preparing the core and surface material separately, segregating the coarser materials into the centre and the finest particles on the surface, the manufacturer can create a board that can be sanded to an even, smooth surface, and that has the desired mechanical properties in each layer.

Graduated layer of a particle board.

Homogeneous (single layer)


5-layers Figure 1.0 : Particle size gradations in a particle mat

Photo 1.0 : Variety of particle board Multilayer boards are technically superior for many applications because layering makes it possible to increase the bending strength and stiffness of the boards by altering the relative properties of the face and core without increasing overall board density. Usually, more than one felter is required to build the desired mat thickness; multiple felters allow more uniform mat formation since less material is deposited by an individual felter. Also, multiple felters are required for layered particleboards in which larger particles are used in the core and smaller particles at the surfaces. Graduated - large particles in the core with progressively smaller particles from the core to the surfaces. The surface particles in the layered and graduated mats normally have a higher adhesive content (on a weight basis) than do the larger core particles. The small particles produce a smoother, more continuous surface which is easier to finish than are the rougher surfaces formed by larger particles. Graduated particleboards are similar to layered particleboards since large particles are present in the core and small particles at the surface. However, particle separation based on size is done in the felting operation which eliminates the need for two conveying and blending systems. A minimum of two formers are required, each former depositing half the mat thickness. Particle separation is accomplished by subjecting the falling particle curtain to air or by throwing the particles with a mechanical device.

2. Flatten press particleboard and extruded particleboard is two type of particle board. The flat press particle board resulting the flatten particle,while with extrusion of particle board produces the extruded board. The mat surfaces are rapidly heated to the temperature of the platens as the mat is compressed. The water in the particles at the surface is vaporized and migrates into the cooler portion of the mat, i.e., toward the core. Condensation of this steam releases heat which increases the mat temperature quicker than could be accomplished by conduction through wood. However, the press is compacting the mat to target board thickness before the mat is completely heated. The compressive strength of wood is much lower at elevated temperatures and, since the mat is compressed when only the surface region is heated, compressive failure of the wood within the hot surface region occurs. The mat is compressed to thickness before the core is heated; consequently, there is a vertical density gradient in the thickness direction of hot-platen-pressed particleboard. High density surfaces and low density cores are produced with the average particleboard density falling between these two extremes. The low density core resulting from this vertical density gradient reduces the screw holding strength, shear resistance, and tensile strength of this region. Various vertical density gradients can be obtained for the same average board density by adjusting the rate at which the press is closed. However, long press closing times are to be avoided since the adhesive on the surface particles may harden before adequate interparticle contact is obtained. This condition is commonly referred to as surface precure. This chipboard gets its profile by fabrication with an extrusion press. In contrast to flat press panels where the wooden chips are arranged mainly parallel, the chips of extrusion press manufactured boards are positioned mainly perpendicular to the boards plane. The panels have a low thickness expansion, high compression strength, but a low density. The bending strength is lower than that of flat press panels. The stiffness of the board is achieved by cladding with hardboard, mdf, plywood Extrusion press chip boards are mainly used a core layer for door manufacturing and separating wall. Usually the tubes are oriented horizontally within the door. It means, the breadth of the press matches the height of the door.

Although, forming and pressing are in same step but extruded board has different properties from platen-pressed board.

Fines segregate to the upper

Extruded particle board

Photo 2.1: Flatten Particles boards

Figure 2.2: Particle board mat formation.

Diagram 2.1: Detail of extruded particle board process.

References: 1. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com 2. http://www.musterkiste.com



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