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Format for Research Paper

TITLE

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

LITERATURE REVIEW

CONCLUSION

DISCUSSION

RESULTS

METHODOLOGY

APPENDICES REFERENCE LIST (APA Style) (copies of questionnaires or interview )

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER ABSTRACT Comes after the title. Provides an overview of the study based on information from other sections of the report. Two types (1) Informational - highlights the essential points (purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations about 10% of the report) and (2) Descriptive - (excluding results, conclusion and recommendations around 100 words). It is always written last as it contains elements from the whole report.

INTRODUCTION Provides a background to your report and to attract readers attention. Explains why you are doing the report (outline the purpose; closing the gap between the known (existing knowledge) and the unknown (new knowledge i.e. the result of your study). Explains the boundary to ensure feasibility of the project.

Swales (1990) Move 1 current knowledge (an overview of what has been done) Move 2 reasons for the study (problems?/issues?) Move 3 what you are doing (your contribution to current knowledge) Objectives of the study are mentioned in the last paragraph of introduction.

Examples of language used in the moves: Move 1

The ...has been extensively studied in recent years.


Move 2

So far, investigations have been confined to...

The purpose of this paper is to...

Move 3

LITERATURE REVIEW A critical look at the existing research that is significant to the study. It is important to evaluate the literatures and show the relationships between different works done in the field and how they relate to your study. Keep in mind that the literature review should provide the context for the study by looking at what work has already been done in the particular area you are interested in. Information to look out for includes the accepted facts in the area, the popular opinion, what are the variables, the relevance of your research. (Variable - an entity that can take on different values, i.e. gender, classroom settings, student-teacher ratios, etc.) The literature review defines research problem: finding a gap, asking a question, continuing previous research, counter-claiming (all according to you, the researcher).

Example of part of a Literature Review from a report: (Y. Roll, M.J. Rosenblatt and D. Kadosh, Proceedings of the Ninth ICPR)

Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) are being introduced into the industry and warehousing at an increasing rate. Forecasts indicate that this trend will continue for the foreseeable future. Research in the area of AS/RS has followed several avenues. Early work by Hausman, Schwarz and Graves (year) was concerned with storage assignment and interleaving policies, based on turnover rates of the various items. Elsayed (year)and Elsayed and Stern (year) compared algorithms for handling orders in AR/RS. Additional work by Karasawa et al. (year), Azadivar (year) and Parry et al. (year) deals with the design of an AS/RS and the determination of its throughput by simulation and optimization techniques. Several researchers addressed the problem of the optimal handling unit (pallet or container) size, to be used in material handling and warehousing systems. Steudell (year), Tanchoco and Agee (year), Tanchoco et al. (year) and Grasso and Tanchoco (year) studied various aspects of this subject. The last two references incorporate the size of the pallet, or unit load, in evaluation of the optimal lot sizes for multi-inventory systems with limited storage space. In a report on a specific case, Normandin (year) has demonstrated that using the 'best-size' container can result in considerable savings. A simulation model combining container size and warehouse capacity considerations, in an AS/RS environment, was developed by Kadosh (year). The general results, reflecting the stochastic nature of the flow of goods, are similar to those reported by Rosenblatt and Roll (year). Nevertheless, container size was found to affect strongly overall warehousing costs. In this paper, the researchers present an analytical framework for approximating the optimal size of a warehouse container. The approximation is based on series of generalizations and specific assumptions. However, these are valid for a wide range of real life situations. The underlying assumptions of the model are presented in the following section.

METHODOLOGY Steps that you follow in conducting your study and the materials you used in each step. The materials and procedures. The elements included and the order in which they are presented.

ELEMENTS INCLUDED IN METHODS SECTION Overview of the Experiment Population/Sample Location Restrictions/Limiting Conditions Sampling Technique Procedures* Materials* Variables Statistical Treatment (* always included)

Example: Telephone interviews were conducted. The interviews were conducted for a state agency. A split ballot design was employed .Each quarter of the sample was asked. Three open-end and one closed-end question formats were investigated. Each question format was drawn from previous research and was selected to be illustrative of one approach to asking age. The particular question format ... was randomly determined prior to the interview. All interviews were conducted from a centralized location.

RESULTS This section should include some text, mainly to describe the tables and graphs containing the data. Provide an overview and statement presenting the most important findings Statement commenting on the results may include: o generalizing from the results o explaining possible reasons for the results o comparing the results with what was expected or with results from other studies

Language use to describe the results:

DISCUSSION The main purpose of the discussion is to show that the results lead clearly to the conclusion being drawn. This may include any limitations that might cause problems with any claims being made as well as any possible explanations for these results. clearly shows how the results found lead to the conclusions should include any limitations that might cause problems with any claims being made should include any possible explanations for these results Discussion is the most important part of your report, because here, you show that you understand the experiment beyond the simple level of completing it. Explain. Analyze. Interpret the results of your study. Example : Since none of the samples reacted to the Silver foil test, therefore sulfide, if present at all, does not exceed a concentration of approximately 0.025 g/l. It is therefore unlikely that the water main pipe break was the result of sulfideinduced corrosion.

CONCLUSION Conclusions are shorter sections of academic texts which usually serve two functions: The first is to summarize and bring together the main areas covered in the writing, which might be called "looking back"; and The second is to give a final comment or judgment on this. The final comment may also include making suggestions for improvement and speculating on future directions.

REFERENCE LIST List of works cited.

APPENDICES Copies of questionnaires and interviews.