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THE VALUES OF AMERICAN DREAM AS REFLECTED IN GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHURS A FATHER PRAYER (A BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY)

A Thesis

Presented to the Board Examiners in Partial Fulfillments of the Requirements for the Masters Degree in American Studies Program

By Itsna Syahadatud Dinurriyah 08/274895/PMU/5413

AMERICAN STUDIES GRADUATE PROGRAM GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA 2010

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ADMISSION SHEET

Herewith I state that the opinion, statement, and analysis that appear in this thesis are truly my original work. This thesis is written with the help of many suggestions from other people. Every statement from the references written in this thesis is treated as a quotation which also includes the name of the author and any works identity needed. If there is a claim that the analysis in this thesis is precisely the same as the analysis of another work, I would be fully responsible for clarification.

Yogyakarta, Indonesia,

( Itsna Syahadatud Dinurriyah )

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I dedicate this thesis to

My Little Heroin,

T H A LA

cepatlah besar matahariku menangis yang keras jangalah ragu hantamlah sombongnya dunia, buah hatiku doa kami di nadimu

(Galang Rambu Anarki- Iwan Fals)

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Read in the name of thy Lord who creates.

(Al-Alaq: 1)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to praise to the, Almighty, Allah SWT. All my gratitude to be His for the strength and guidance He gave to me. Without His help, mercy and blessing, I will not be able to finish this writing and cannot gain my wishes.

I would like to express my special thanks to Prof. Dr. C. Soebakdi Soemanto, my thesis supervisor, who provides enormous guidance and support during the process of writing this thesis. I also say thank to Mrs. Nur Saktiningrum, SS., M.Hum who gave me enlightenment about the idea of American Dream, and Drs. Bernadus Hidayat, MA who encouraged me to be more critical. My acknowledgement is also for all lecturers in American Studies, Graduate Program Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta.

I give my deepest gratitude for my beloved husband, Sofyan Fajar, for being a great company. I thank him for his understanding, patience, and praying and also the discussion we had in the process of the writing. His support is really meaningful to me.

My special thanks are for my parents, Mamak and Abi, for being the wonderful parents for their children with their outstanding support and praying. For my parents in law, Bapak and Ebok, I thank them for the support and understanding they gave to me, to us.

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For Fifi and Dwi, I thank them for the help. For Adik Masrur, I thank him for his understanding. Then, for my brothers and sisters in law- Andi and Endang, Rizal and Rini- thanks for the joyful! For my beautiful aunty, Lek Fiah, thanks for everything.

Another thanks are for my friends in American Studies 2008, especially the Satanic Angels: Mbak Dewi, Corry, Elok and Zulfi. For Dini, I thank her for reminding me to slow down. I also want to thank to my friends in Asrama Fitria, especially Kiki and Hana for the crazy time we spent together in lonely Saturday nights.

The last but not least is my special thanks for my daughter, Thalabat Arrahmatal Adhimah for her understanding in her parents choice. I am really proud of her!

Finally, I realize that my writing is not perfect. So, any critique and suggestion will be appreciated then I can make a better writing and enrich my knowledge. Thank you.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Approval Sheet ....i

Declaration..ii

Dedication page.. ...iii

Proverb ...iv

Acknowledgement .v

Abstract ..x

Intisari xi

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION.1

A. Background of the Study..1 B. Scope of Study.8 C. Statement of the Problem.9 D. Objective of the Study.9 E. Significance of the Study...10 F. Literary Review..10 G. Theoretical Framework..11 H. Method of Research...17 I. Presentation18

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CHAPTER II

AMERICAN

DREAM:

THE

HISTORY AND

ITS

MEANING

FOR

AMERICAN SOCIETY 19

A. The Idea of American Dream.20 B. The Significance of American Dream....24 C. The Values of American Dream.27

CHAPTER III

GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR: HIS LIFE, ACHIEVEMENT AND DREAM.35

A. The Family Background.36 B. His Military Career41 C. After Retirement.59

CHAPTER IV: AMERICAN DREAM IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF A FATHER PRAYER.. 63

A. The Form of the Prayer .66 a. Thank...68 b. Love70 c. Praise...72 d. Appreciation....73 e. Hang Out.74

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B. The Idea in the Prayer76 1. Heroism81 2. Dream...83 3. Achievement84 4. Intellectuality..86 5. Wisdom and Optimism.....87 C. The Values of American Dream in the Prayer...89 a. Perseverance.90 b. Industry91 c. Frugality...92 d. Sobriety93 e. Punctuality...94 f. Reliability.95 g. Thoroughness...96 h. Initiative...96 D. The Critical Values of American Dream in A Father Prayer 97

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION.. 107

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..110

APPENDIX: A Father Prayer by General Douglas MacArthur .118

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ABSTRACT

American Dream is an ideal concept which has been maintained by American society since the eighteenth century. This concept was taken from the Declaration of Independence that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. This concept stresses on the liberty of American people that they could reach anything as they will without differentiated by any kinds of family and economical background. As long as they are eager to work hard, they may change their condition from the common man into the superior one. This concept finally becomes the character traits of American society which emphasize on perseverance, industry, frugality, sobriety, punctuality, reliability, thoroughness, and initiative. General Douglas MacArthur is a general who had infected by the doctrine of American Dream unintentionally. He was born in a prominent family, his father was a general too, that taught about the struggle of life; that God would give anything they will if they worked hard. This teaching is the formula of characterization of American Dream. As a son of destiny, MacArthur applied all his parents teaching so that he made some controversy while he himself could not control it. Those experiences made this famous general rethink about the concept he got. In his early of tragic retirement, he wrote a prayer for his son. This prayer wishes that his son will be better than him without being like him. At a glance, A Fathers Prayer is just an ordinary prayer normally made by a father for his only son. But actually this prayer is sedimentation of MacArthurs emotion which reflects to his thought: a critical thought of the balance of life in the values of American Dream which is established embraced by American society.

Key words: American Dream, prayer, a son of destiny

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INTISARI

American Dream adalah konsep ideal yang dipertahankan oleh masyarakat Amerika sejak abad ke delapan belas. Konsep yang diawali oleh the Declaration of Independence bahwa setiap manusia diciptakan sama dan memiliki hak-hak dari Tuhan yang padanya sudah melekat sejak lahir yaitu hak hidup, hak bebas, dan hak untuk memperoleh kebahagiaan. Konsep ini menekankan bahwa setiap orang Amerika berhak menjadi apapun yang mereka harapkan; mereka tidak dibedakan oleh latar belakang apapun. Sepanjang mereka mau bekerja keras maka mereka bisa berubah dari orang biasa mejadi orang yang luar biasa. Konsep ini akhirnya menjadi karakter hidup orang Amerika yang menekankan pada kerja keras, usaha yang terus-menerus, hemat, serius, tepat waktu, bertanggung jawab, menyelesaikan tugas dengan baik (detail), dan penuh inisiatif. Jenderal Douglas MacArthur adalah salah satu jenderal yang terkena doktrin American Dream tanpa sengaja. Ia lahir dari sebuah keluarga terpandang, bapaknya juga seorang jenderal, yang mengajarkan bahwa hidup harus diperjuangkan dan Tuhan akan memberi apapun yang kita impikan asal kita mau bekerja keras. Ajaran yang ia peroleh dari kedua orang tuanya ini adalah pembentukan karakter orang Amerika tentang American Dream. Sebagai anak yang ditakdirkan, MacArthur menjalani semua ajaran orang tuanya sehingga ia sering membuat kontrofersi tanpa ia mampu mengendalikannya. Kejadian demi kejadian inilah yang membuat Jenderal perang ini berpikir ulang tentang konsep ajaran yang ia dapatkan. Di awal masa pensiunnya yang tragis, ia membuat sebuah doa untuk anaknya yang mengharapkan anaknya akan lebih baik dari dia tanpa harus menjadi seperti pendahulunya. Sekilas A Fathers Prayer ini hanyalah doa biasa yang wajar dibuat oleh seorang ayah untuk anak satu-satunya. Tapi sebenarnya doa ini adalah endapan emosi MacArthur yang tercermin dalam pemikirannya; pemikiran yang mengkritisi kurangnya keseimbangan hidup yang terkandung dalam nilai-nilai American Dream yang dianut oleh masyarakat Amerika.

Kata kunci: impian Amerika, doa, anak yang ditakdirkan

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY When Japan attacked, he led us back to victory When Korea exploded, we turned to him again To this day there are those who think he was a dangerous demagogue And others who say he was one of the greatest men who ever lived. There is a little doubt, however, That he affected the lives of millions all over the world Many of whom do not even know his name.

That is what appears for the first time in movie of MacARTHUR produced by Universal Company in 2003. That introduction really describes who General Douglas MacArthur was, and how people think about him. General Douglas Macarthur was best known as an American General and Medal of Honor recipient, who was Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the South West Pacific area during World War II. His role was very important in the Pacific War. When only few people interested to learn about eastern country, he was the pioneer in military discipline that went through it (Gardiner: 6). For him it was important to understand not only the area in which a soldier on duty but also to understand the social culture there (Frank: 13).

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As a white man from a big country, MacArthur never looked down the colored people (Gardiner: 2). He always treated Asian people as honorable as the white ones. So, when Japan had been defeated, he never came to the palace to condemn the Emperor (1). He just waited until the Emperor himself came to apologize; and the surrender of Japan happened on the Missouri Ship in Tokyo Bay (Long:2). Macarthur was famous therefore some people know him very well but for some other people, they even do not understand why this person became very phenomenal. They do not understand why Universal Company produced his documentary film or why William Manchester wrote his biography. Hopefully this research will help them to understand why this man became very phenomenal to be documented. As a famous General, people know he did his duty in full integrity through military field. He did a lot either for his country or the world especially in World War II. But only few people know his religious life. He was an Episcopalian who read Bible regularly but did not like going to the Church. He thought he was the most religious one besides Pope (Manchester: 15). So, he understood the Bible in the way he was, without any help of priest. As a controversial man, he also had a lot of conflict either with his superiors or his assistants. One of them was Dwight W. Eisenhower. MacArthur took him to the Philippines as his right-hand man. Eisenhower spent nine years with him, and found that he did not like the General. Later in the war he joked to

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his staff, I would not exchange one George Marshall for even fifty MacArthurs. Then he corrected himself and said, Hell! What am I saying? What would I do with even one MacArthur! (Irving:10). It shows that this General was not well liked by some people, including his assistant, but he was worth enough to be preserved. He was good as an army officer but he had uncommon attitude socially, then some people obeyed his order because of fear. He was born in military family. His father was a famous general, too. Since his childhood, he was common with anything about military. He even said that he had learned to ride and shoot even before he could read or write (Frank: 4). MacArthur was an intelligent and outstanding student. He was not only good in academic but also in sport. He got his name since he had spent four years in West Point. Since established in 1802, West Point had three best students; one of them was Douglas MacArthur. He got 98.14 percent of all scores given (Manchester: 61). Unfortunately, it is very difficult to find other names of the best students since William Manchester does not mention them in his complete work of MacArthurs biography. The story of his heroism in the battle is not strange anymore. His division got some victory in the war where he assigned. He was a calm General that still able to think clearly in hard condition. But just few people know that he was a lovable figure for his family. Some parts of MacArthur movie shows it. Having a son in his late fifties changed MacArthurs view about war. But he kept the values of war in his prayer for his son. Most people are familiar with the war aspect of

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his life, but may not know that he was also a loving father who had deeply held his religious convictions. MacArthur was the only son by condition. He was the last son in his family. Both of his brothers died because of disease (Manchester: 39). Then, his parents believed that he was the son of destiny who would continue his parents dream in the future. His father and mother indoctrinated him to be a great one; and Macarthur never protested being shaped like that (56-58). Influenced by his feeling to his parents and the life experience he had, MacArthur tried to change the condition to his son. He never made his son to be a son of destiny for him because he believed every human has their own destiny; and God had planned for it. He loved his son in the different way his parents treated him. His love to his son showed in his prayer that is very famous, A Father Prayer. In America, this prayer becomes one of the icons in Fathers Day celebration. The prayer written by MacArthur is full of message. It is so clear that this father wanted his son to be better in the future. It is different with the way his parents did to him which required him to be the best in his life, he wrote the prayer in the way he accepted his son in the way he is. Through his experience as an army, MacArthur tried to tell his son about life and how he faced obstacles in it. As human who could not change someone elses life, he asked to God to build his son like in his prayer. Remembering the hope of better life in the future, it is the idea of the American Dream. The history proved that European moved to America for better life, in this case they faced a lot of difficulties through the wilderness in the

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virgin land. It needed long time to change America from a wild country into the big one, which indicates the success, like right now. The immigrants had to work hard to achieve it. Later on, working hard becomes the character ethic of Americans to get their success. It shows that they appreciate individualism in getting their dream. Actually, the idea of American dream was taken from Thomas Jeffersons idea in The Declaration of Independence. The writing that he declared in July 4th, 1776 stated, We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness (1). As the unalienable Rights, the meaning of life for American people means they are free (liberty) in pursuit of happiness. Free in choosing kind of life they want and free in defining the happiness for their life. But commonly American society refers American Dream as a dream to get achievement or success. James Truslow Adams underlined that American dream was dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability or achievement. The economic motive was unquestionably powerful often dominant, in the minds of those who took part in the great migration, but mixed with this was also frequently present the hope of a better and a freer life, a life in which a man might think as he would and develop as he willed (Adams: 31). He also stated that American Dream of a better, richer, and happier life for all citizens of every rank, which is the greatest contribution they have made to the

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thought and welfare of the world. That dream or hope has been presented from the start. Ever since America became an independent nation, each generation has seen an uprising of ordinary Americans to save that dream from the forces which appeared to be overwhelming it (Cullen: 4). Indeed, most immigrants moved to America because of better living in this case economic matter. It was inevitable that they should conceive the American Dream in economic terms, especially since all of them are created equal. It means all of them have the same chance to pursuit happiness. But then, John Quincy Adams gave more power to his idea about American dream. Adams did not represent riches, but he did represent intellectual and moral integrity of the highest type. Intellectual integrity was an unmeaning phrase to him. He did not seek to plunder the rich. What he asked was what he thought America stood for-opportunity, the chance to grow into something bigger and finer, as bigger and finer to him. He did not envisage America as standing for wealth only, and certainly not as standing for culture. Somewhat vaguely he envisaged it as freedom and opportunity for himself and those like him to rise (Adams: 173-174). Meanwhile Jedediah Purdy wrote that American Dream is a picture of immunity from humiliation: a house on a piece of land, a secure job, no one to grovel before, and no one with arbitrary power over you (2003: 273). By those ideas then the later generations of America or even people who learn about America get the point that there is no absolute meaning in interpreting American Dream, the more we examine it the more interpretation we get. It is changeable depends on the era people live. In the early of American

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independence, people just thought American Dream was a dream to be better which everybody had to reach it. But now the idea comes through the way how to get it. It is not enough to be better in the same opportunity without integrity which makes the Americans fuller and richer, fuller because of their experience and richer because of their achievement. American Dream cannot be learned just from reading the text, but we also have to learn it from its values. Basically, value is an ideal accepted by many people. According to Wiener and Eisenberg in their book The American Reader Value, in a simple way, value is the right way to think and behave (1999: xxi). But since values role is to shape and define people identity, so they stated that value is a critical thinking on the various dimensions of the piece of matter and to present the touch point of it. In the past, like stated before, value was very explicit. But later on the value is implicit (1999: xxiii). The changing of value has created the idea of the past value and the present value. It means that value is also not static. Another opinion proposed by James Fadiman in his Book The Proper Study of Man that values remain personal, subjective, elusive and resistant to change (1971: 25). It is related with the belief someone hold. When he thinks personally, then the value he finds becomes very subjective and resistant to change. Even though there is changing in comprehending values but it is not in a short time. It needs cultural support to trigger it. The meaning of and the way people interpret value changes from time to time based on the era when people live. Like the value of virginity in the Puritan era and the Flapper was quite different. But principally, the more general people

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give the meaning on a certain value the more lasting people accept it; value is a matter of human thought and a process of evaluation; it will improve from time to time. No man in the world lives in the same condition for whole his life time because experience gives him much lesson to be examined. From those descriptions, this thesis analyzes MacArthurs prayer, A Father Prayer, in order to get the values of American Dream, especially in the term of recent days point of view. It also analyzes the way how people, in this case Americans, determine the concept of American Dream and how MacArthur determines the values of the concept through his prayer. In the past, the dream was only a matter of material and spiritual one, but later on, dream also covers the idea of humanity and life choice. For getting the objective of the analysis, this research is supported by MacArthur biography, especially from psychological aspect, that formed him being a great and phenomenal man who wanted to create another great one and comes to understanding why he wrote that kind of prayer for his son.

B. SCOPE OF STUDY In order to avoid boarding discussion in this writing, then it limits the analysis of A Father Prayer related to the biography of MacArthur in the way of American Dream perspective. General Douglas MacArthur always showed how proud he was being someone involved in the military, but A Father Prayer is a different matter. It shows the different side of him; not as an army officer but as a father, even though it is influenced by his background as a soldier. On the other

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hand it also shows how war had formed his character into the one who understand its philosophy. C. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Based on the background of the study and the scope of it above, this thesis will analyze some problems, they are: 1. What is the significance of American Dream? 2. How does General Douglas Macarthurs life as seen in the perspective of American Dream? 3. In what way does the American Dream influence MacArthurs A Father Prayer? D. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The objective of the study of this thesis is to present the analysis of American Dream values through General Douglas MacArthurs A Father Prayer that are formulated in three parts: 1. To understand the history, the idea and the value of American Dream. 2. To reveal MacArthurs life and achievement in the perspective of American Dream. 3. To comprehend the values of American Dream in A Father Prayer.

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E. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Generally in some aspects, this study is expected to be significant in terms of contributing a new horizon for the readers dealing with the values of American Dream in special term and humans achievement in general one. The meaningful contribution, hopefully, is also either for academic purpose or human life. The idea of examined life in A Father Prayer hopefully is able to broaden the readers mind about facing life in difficult situation. Even though this writing emphasizes the values of American Dream found in the prayer which is important for American society but it also expects that the values of it can be meaningful for human life around the world no matter what their countries, their races, their family background and economical status are. The aim to be a wise, gentle and humble man can be applied in any personal background because those values are needed. F. LITERARY REVIEW Since this thesis focuses on analyzing the American Dream, then some books related to this idea are used. The Epic of America by James Truslow Adam, American Dream by Angelo Pellegrini and The Success Ethic, Education and the American Dream by Joseph DeVitis and John Martin Rich take big role in explaining the term. As an ideal, American Dream has been tried to manifest by Americans since their early arrival to this continent up to now. The idea comes through many subjects of life such as work and education. Being wealthy because of their work

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and being outstanding because of their study are something common in American society. What MacArthur had done is one of the examples of life experience to give clear description of the dream, how he built the dream and how he applied it. A Father Prayer which written by Douglas MacArthur for his son was another effect of the dream he wanted to build. The prayer was born to renew the meaning of the dream itself. For he wanted to build his son to be a perfect one through a perfect way, the readers of this thesis, hopefully, are easy to understand what the values in it related to the American Dream. Biographical approach cannot be separated from this analysis. So, the book of William Manchester, American Caesar, is also required to explore this research to give clear historical and social background of the study. This book explains the sequence events of Macarthurs journey either as a son, as a student or as army officer. Dealing with the analysis on the topic, several sources from libraries and internet-web are regarded to be the most relevant to serve as the secondary sources to gain the purposes of this study. The sources are in form of criticism, comment and essays related to the writing and the writers perception as well as theory or concept referred in this study. Besides that, this writing also uses a movie to support the biographical story. G. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK To analyze the values of American Dream in the perspective of A Father Prayer, this thesis uses some theories which support the analysis. The first theory

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used is the theory of American Studies. In his book of American Studies, Tremain MacDowell stated his idea that is called synthesis of knowledge. His famous idea consists of three main parts; they are reconciliation of time, discipline and space (MacDowell: v). In this case, this thesis will use those three reconciliations. His idea about reconciliation of time is that American Studies should embrace past, present and future. He thought that time is continuation; the past was supposed to form the present, the present can predict what will happen in the future and the future exists because of the past. So, each time has its own portion in formulating the condition. In short this idea wants to say that there is no boundary in time because American Studies must cover the history and its existence either in the present or in the past (2). Related to that idea, this thesis uses the past, the present and the future in analyzing Douglas MacArthurs biography which is involved in forming the critical idea of American Dream in his prayer. Studying the history of his childhood to his retirement means understanding his background which formed him. When he was child, his parents tried to form him to the idea of greatness. When he was famous by that greatness, everybody knew his achievement. Then now, people who live in a different era from him still adore him since he was a good American who has inspired many people, including the concept of American Dream. American Dream which is embedded in the prayer also finds its own formula in a different idea. The values of it move from time to time.

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The second reconciliation used in this analysis is the discipline. Like stated in the previous part of this method that American Studies is an interdisciplinary (73), so in analyzing this subject, the thesis will cover some disciplines such as historical, psychological, cultural and philosophical background. The last reconciliation used is the space. In one chapter of his book, MacDowell entitled Region, Nation, World. Slowly but sure, the world becomes very global (82). No separation seemingly between one country to the others since all of them need each other. Indeed the idea of American Dream is for American society, but the influence of it goes through many countries in the world. It is not because other countries apply this dream but because Americans do it in their daily activities through the character traits. American Dream becomes the basic ideal in shaping Americans characterization. The philosophy of this synthesis is to emphasize that American Studies cover the concept of from micro to macro. Since American Dream thinks that all people have same opportunity to be better, finer and fuller, thus, the concept of from small to big is appropriate with this theory. Related to the message in the prayer, the term of from meaningless to meaningful seems more proper. The second theory this thesis uses is critical discourse analysis which is proposed by Norman Fairclough. He is a linguist who has an idea that language has power. He said that social institution contained diverse ideological-discursive formation (IDFs) which is associated with different groups within the institution. There is usually one dominant IDF which is a sort of speech community with its

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own discourse norms but also embedded within and symbolized by the latter its own ideological norm. A characteristic of dominant IDF is the capacity to naturalize ideologies. To denaturalize them is the objective of a discourse analysis which adopts critical goal. The denaturalization should involve how social structure determines properties of discourse and how discourse in turn determines social structures (Fairclough: 27). Critical discourse analysis is viewed as integrating (a) analysis of the text, (b) analysis of the process of text production, consumption and distribution, and (c) sociocultural analysis of the discursive event. Critical discourse analysis also has aspirations to take the part of those who suffer from linguistic-discursive forms of domination and exploitation. The task is to contribute to the development and spread of a critical awareness of language as a factor in domination (Fairclough: 186). Fairclough explained the need of discourse analyses is to map systematic analysis of spoken or written texts onto systematic analyses of social context (187). He regarded textual analysis as subsuming two complementary types of analysis: linguistic analysis and intertextual analysis. Linguistic analysis is to cover not only the traditional levels of analysis within linguistics (such as phonology, grammar up to the level of sentence, vocabulary and semantics) but also analysis of textual organization above the sentence, including intersentential cohesion and various aspect of the structure of texts which have been investigated by discourse analysts and conversation analysts (188). Meanwhile the intertextual analysis crucially mediates the connection between language and social context

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and facilitates more satisfactory bridging of the gap between texts and context (189). By using this theory, therefore this thesis is able to analyze A Father Prayer as the text analysis by using the theory of prayer. Then the analysis of text production, consumption and distribution refers to how General Douglas MacArthur wrote the prayer with the background of life experience he had as a man of destiny. Finally this thesis analyzes A Father Prayer in the perspective of American Dream through the socio-cultural condition which becomes the institutional norm based on the condition of the society at that time. The concept of American Dream is a kind of dominant IDF held by the society. That is why then, by using this theory this writing criticizes the values of American Dream, as a former institutional norm, through A Father Prayer to reconsider the humanity aspect in it. To emphasize this theory, the writing also uses Robert E. Spillers approach in the American Studies movement. In his book of Late Harvest he wrote there are four stages of this movement, they are the growth of American literary scholarship, the early days of American literature and the modern language association, unity and diversity in the study of American culture and American Studies abroad either culture or foreign policy. From four stages of American Studies movement he proposed, this analysis will apply the third one which was marked by the founding of the American Association when the concept of a new discipline in American culture

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or civilization, with borrowing from sociology, psychology and anthropology. He said that the founding was the climax rather than the origin of a widespread movement, mainly in humanistic scholarship, to define and implement the concept of a total and indigenous American culture (221). In this stage also he proposed two principal approaches to the problem of defining and implementing the movement, which he called the synthetic and the holistic. These approaches could appear separately but sometimes in collaboration. Since the synthetic approach obviously based on the observation that American culture is fragmentary, so this research prefers to use the second approach that is holistic. In this approach, Spiller exposed four ways involved, they are the application to American culture, the application in depth psychology and myth to modern literature and art, the application through the history and the last one the application through biographical and psychological study. For the last part Spiller elaborated it in the sentence below. The development of philosophy and practice of literary history and historical criticism, popularly American, which start with the aesthetic examination of the highest form of an individual work of art and attempts to relate it first to its creator by thorough biographical and psychological study and then to the basic culture and the history of the people who produced it in a given time and place. (Spiller: 225)

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By that exposition, so the last way of holistic approach seems more appropriate to this analysis for it really appreciates the literary work from who the creator is and his or her biographical background. This thesis examines A Father Prayer through psychological background of the authors biography. It cannot be separated with General Douglas MacArthur since this prayer is sedimentation of his emotion and thought. This thesis also uses theory of prayer. This theory is a supporting theory to understand the meaning of prayer, the form and the language used in it. This theory is proposed by Andrew Wommack. He stated that prayer is a kind of communication between human and God. It is fellowship, relationship and intimacy with Him. A prayer should consist of thank, love, praise, appreciate and hang out (89). So, by using those elements, this thesis will explore the prayer. H. METHOD OF RESEARCH This research is qualitative research. The data used is not the statistical one. Library research is used in this research. Some related data and sources are taken from the original writing, critical studies, articles, encyclopedia, etc. The descriptive-analytic method is used in analyzing the values of American Dream reflected in A Father Prayer. This research relates it to the biography of the writer, in this case, General Douglas MacArthur to support the critical analysis about the concept of American dream. As addition the video MacArthur is also studied as digital reference, which has released by Universal Company in 2003.

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I. PRESENTATION This paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is introduction contains some fundamental explanations concerning the research. The second chapter deals with the idea of American dream such as the history, the meaning, and the implementation in Americans life. The third chapter presents detailed biography of General Douglas MacArthur; his childhood, his military career as well as his controversy, and his retirement period in where he did contemplation about the experience he had then he formulated it into a prayer. The fourth chapter analyzes the values of American Dream in General Douglas MacArthurs A Father Prayer and criticizes the value of American Dream in it. This is the core of the analysis since it also explores MacArthurs life experience and way of thought in making that prayer to build his sons characteristic in the way of American Dream. Then, the last chapter of this thesis summarizes the research on the previous chapters and provides some concluding remarks. The appendix is the full text of A Father Prayer that serves as the primary data source.

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CHAPTER II AMERICAN DREAM: THE HISTORY AND ITS MEANING FOR AMERICAN SOCIETY

It was not easy to make America like right now. It needed long story and history to understand why this country becomes a big one, in spite of its arrogance and power especially to the third countries. Thus, we as the viewers will exhale while saying; no wonder if America becomes a big country. After long trial of European visit since the 6th century and continued by some explorers including Columbus who was lost in finding Asia (India), in 1585 Walter Raleigh, who took up his brothers patent from Queen Elizabeth to colonized the New World, established the first British colony in North America, on Roanoke Island off the coast of North Carolina. It was later abandoned, and a second effort two years later also proved a failure. It would be 20 years before the British would try again. This time at Jamestown in 1607 the colony would succeed, and North America would enter a new era. (usinfo: 10) Those who arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, surely experienced fears and doubts when they first sighted land in the early morning darkness while retaining visions of returning to England laden with gold and silver. (Kaplan: 1). It was completely wild; they faced the wild nature with thick forest. Their imagination, influenced by those who were successful before, about the land which gave them much hope of welfare turned to mass seeing the reality. But they had passed a very long journey to reach this promised land. It was impossible to return to their Old World since they had nothing there. Their will sailed to this

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new continent was to get better life so they had to stand there. They had to face the wilderness of the nature, the natives and their own who were hungry and hopeless. Then, another group from England came. Thirteen years later a persecuted religious sect which came to be known as the Pilgrims also set sail for this continent. They took this dangerous voyage in the middle of winter to escape from the discrimination imposed on any dissenting sect by the Church of England. Whether their emotional reaction when they came ashore on Plymouth Rock was the same as those who landed at Jamestown is doubtful. The former dreamt of material well-being; the dreams of the latter centered on freedom to practice their own faith. These two dreams would shape the future psyche of this nation. (Kaplan: 1) So, being wealth and feeling free in doing their religious exercises were the first unwritten American Dreams for those early settlements. They did not only look for the material subject but also the spiritual one, and this dream was formed from their experience and their reason reaching this New World. A. The idea of American Dream The idea of the written American Dream was taken from Thomas Jeffersons idea in the Declaration of Independence. The writing, which was revised by the other members of committee of five: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston, was declared in July 4th, 1776 stated, We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that

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they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness. (Wiener and Eisenberg: 1819) The idea, then, formed into the term of American Dream firstly proposed by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America which was published in 1931. Then, American Dream began to take form in the hearts of men in America. For sure the economic motive was unquestionably powerful often dominant, in the minds of those who took part in the great migration, but mixed with this was also frequently present the hope of a better and a freer life, a life in which a man might think as he would and develop as he willed (Adams: 31). The history of the United States, however, shows that the principles of equality and inalienable rights as set forth in the Declaration of independence and the U.S. constitution did not apply to a good portion of the New Worlds inhabitants. For a long time after their promulgation, these founding ideals were not extended to women, African Americans (both during and after slavery), or Native Americans (Bloom: 203). But it is not the point that this thesis want to discuss because by the time this dream becomes broader for all people in America, either for the early immigrants, later immigrants or the newest immigrants. If they think they are Americans, they will have same idea that American Dream means opportunity for them to be success. Basically, there two elementary knowledge of American Dreams, they are the collective and the individual. The collective dream was the enduring hope that

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the nation would progress in accordance with the truths, ends, and purposes. (Pelligrini: 3). The example of it was how FDR tried to overcome the Great Depression in the early of twentieth century. He had a plan by New Deal to recover his economic country. Of course, it took a very long time to make the economic condition of America at that moment better and needed peoples participation in succeeding this program. The success of FDR brought him into four times elected being the president. It was a great history, not only for American history but for FDR personally. While the individual dream is highly personal, it is the right to dream with realistic hope of gaining what one seeks, is the supreme heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, of every American citizen (Pelligini: 4). The example of this dream is what Rockefeller had done. At sixteen years of age he began work as a clerk. At age twenty four he invested three thousand dollars in an oil refineries; and at age forty he owned ninety percent of the nations oil refineries (Pelligrini: 4). No matter whether his foundation is not as good as before, but he was a picture of individual success of American Dream who tried to make it widely international. Believers in the American Dream assume that America is a land of opportunity where, if one is virtuous and works hard, one will achieve wealth and success (Bloom: 203). In simple way, like in Jim Cullens book The American Dream: Short history of an Idea that shaped a Nation, American society will define American Dream as a real success, materially success (2003: 3). Indeed, most early immigrants moved to America because of better living in this case

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economic matter. It was inevitable that they should conceive the American Dream in economic, especially since all of them are created equal. It means all of them have the same chance to pursuit happiness, happy materially. The American Dream is a bicentury-old belief that all Americans have the ability to achieve greatness. For generations many Americans have strived to achieve such a dream. This dream was so alluring that those outside of the U.S. began to yearn for Americas ideals and opportunity and likewise strived (Warren: 1). But success meant not just being wealthy but achieving wealth and advancing beyond one's father in terms of occupation and income (DeVitis and Rich: 1). It means individual achievement is really meaningful in gaining the dream. The dream does not indoctrinate the society to rely on someone. Just do the best what you can do, just make the thing you can produce. Never wait anybodys hands to make your dream come true including your parents. No matter how rich your ancestors are, you cannot reach the dream without your own effort. The wealth you get is not yours, it is your parents property. The gospel of wealth retained the Christian concept of the individual as a moral agent. It emphasized freedom of action in the economic sphere and "rugged individualism." The control of the economy should be in terms of a natural aristocracy to be determined by the competitive struggle of the market, which eliminates the weak and incompetent and chooses those with initiative, vision, judgment, and organizing ability. As a result of these principles, industries became economic autocracies (DeVitis and Rich: 4). This condition drives American society involve in capitalism.

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From the mythical City upon the Hill of the Puritan era through the civil rights revolutions in contemporary times, the American Dream has been propagated, and partially realized, by those who fostered an ethic of service to larger groups, institutions, and communities beyond themselves. It was marked by increasing urbanization, industrialization, immigration, and internationalism. (DeVitis and Rich: 65) B. The Significance of American Dream Despite of two categories of American Dream knowledge, James Cullen believed that there is no one American Dream, instead there are many American Dreams (2003: 7), either for collective or individual one. They have same root and foundation of the idea that all men are created equal, work hard and proper, freedom from want and fear, and freedom of religion and speech, but they have different application in practice. It is just a matter of the era in which the people live. Each era has its own spirit, and it influences the dream. The dream which was built by Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin in romanticism era would be different with the dream in which Barrack Obama wants to apply in this era. In romanticism era, the founding fathers of America wanted to indoctrinate and made the people realized that they had to be and were different with the Old World. America had their own identity; which was why they moved to this promise land. For that one, they faced Revolutionary War with Great Britain. In many cases splendid effort was mad to transmit the English standards of life and thought, but as the struggle with the savages and the

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wilderness continued, it became evident that these standards could not be maintained when energy was continually being diverted and consumed by the incessant toil of wilderness breaking. (Adams: 43) But in this era, Barrack Husein Obama wants to change American view about Black people, that the Black exist in American society and they have role in American progress. Of course, what Obama gets now is one of the results of a long struggle of the Black ancestors since slavery period in America. Martin Luther King, Jr and Malcolm X are known as the Black who fought for racism. Especially Martin Luther King, Jr with his nonviolent civil disobedience spurred the American civil rights movement from 1955 to 1968. He said,Even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be selfevident: that all men are created equal" (Dreams. ppt: 9). Then now, after for centuries the Black struggled for equality, Barrack Obama becomes the President of The United States. As individual dream, of course the manifestation of American Dream in the frontier era would be different with the dream of people in the Great Depression. The frontier went to west to get unknown land, and then later they claimed it, for their better living. They faced the wilderness of the nature for getting the prosper property. While in the Great Depression, people needed to have a job for their

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living. In the economic crisis, American people needed a leader who had good and wise solution to overcome this problem. Then, FDR introduced New Deal, a planned economy. It was production for use rather than for profits. These were the realistic imperatives, the rational, effective ways of achieving a more even distribution of purchasing power, because this power is essential to the maintenance of prosperity and the preservation of economic stability (Pellegrini: 158). No matter how many New Deals FDR offered or how long it worked, but finally the dream of having occupation for the jobless came true. Even though the spirit of the era is different which brings the manifestation is also different, but individual American Dream really shows individualism. Working hard to get the prosperity is the spirit they maintain up to now. They never rely on anyone for the effort gaining the dream. The frontiersmen went to West by their own will. They were free from fear facing the wilderness for their future. They kept on fighting and never gave up for that, even though it distracted the Natives rule. The frontier gave Americans numerous new opportunities to satisfy their American Dreams. People trying to pursue the American Dream often sought wealth, new social status, and new work ethics to help them advance in society ( Lin and Hernandez: 1). Just like them, people of America in the Great Depression also had the same spirit. In FDR era, America recognized social security. This money was to help those who did not have any jobs. But it was not that they needed. They wanted the jobs for earning their life. They felt so embarrassed receiving that money because it meant they begged like beggars. This spirit has been maintained

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until these days, keeping shame collecting social security money. C. The Values of American Dream American Dream is not just a dream for future or for better living but becomes character traits for Americans. All people around the world want to be better and fuller for their future but the way they do is quite different with Americans. Everyone in America will work hard to get achievement, later on to get success. No matter how hard the effort they try and even finally fail, they will keep trying to show their existence. For them that is the process in making the dream comes true because by that they know whether their dream is still a dream or they get the reality. This is the way they show their individualism. The character ethic originated in eighteenth-century America, prevailed in the nineteenth century, and continued in various forms in the twentieth century despite stout competition from other success ethics. It was stressing in ambition, hard work, self-reliance, and self-discipline. It would attract those who sought to advance economically and achieve success in a rapidly growing industrial society (DeVitis and Rich: 11). Being ambitious is not a sin for Americans. It helps them keep their dream and optimism. They maintain the ambition by working hard with self reliance and self-discipline. They believe with their own effort and their ability. The doctrine of American Dream teaches Americans to believe that their effort will bring them from the common citizens into the great ones. The character ethic represented a group of traits and a way of life considered to have significance and moral quality. Key words were associated with the concept of character: citizenship, duty, democracy,

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work, outdoor life, conquest, honor, morals, manners, integrity, and manhood. Desirable character traits included perseverance, industry, frugality, sobriety, punctuality, reliability, thoroughness, and initiative (DeVitis and Rich: 11). Thus, in making the dream comes true is not in the smooth way. Since all men are created equal they believe they have the same chance to pursuit the happiness, by applying those character ethics. They are free in gaining their fuller life; and for that they must pass any obstacles they face. One characteristic Americans have is they never give up even they know they will fail. They keep on trying passing the process because it will show their existence. But unfortunately, James Truslow Adams stated for those who failed meant they were guilty. American Dream has been formulated in terms of certain basic values and character traits. Americans generally believe in achievement, success, and materialism. This combination of values, in conjunction with equal opportunity, ambitiousness, and hard work and the means of attaining it, could be considered the American Dream. Among the core beliefs underlying the ideology is to work hard in order to succeed in competition; those who work hard gain success and are rewarded with fame, power, money, and property; since there is equal opportunity, it is claimed, those who fail are guilty of either insufficient effort or character deficiencies (Adams: 6). The spirit of age nowadays shows that the failure means the experience to

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enrich human life. It is the lesson for people to learn more to get success. Thus, it can be seen that many features of the character ethic were exhibited in this popular work: the importance of humble origins, hard work, self-reliance, learning through experience, and the development of good character traits weighs more heavily than specific business skills. The traits can be learned through social interaction, everyday experiences, and learning on the job. (DeVitis and Rich: 2122) John Quincy Adams had different idea about this. For him the value of American Dream was not the Americanism of the masses. He thought too much in terms of the superior man in the best sense of the adjective rather than of the common man. Adams did not represent riches, but he did represent intellectual and moral integrity of the highest type. What thought that America stood foropportunity, the chance to grow into something bigger and finer, as bigger and finer to him. He did not envisage America as standing for wealth only, and certainly not as standing for culture, somewhat vaguely he envisaged it as freedom and opportunity for himself and those like him to rise. (Adams: 173-174) American Dream is a great dream that tries to shape a common man to be superior one with outstanding effort. You may be from an ordinary family with ordinary economical income, but for your future you must become someone who writes your name in the world. If for that you must get pain, just accept it because there is no gain without pain. The American Dream is liberty and one cannot exist without the other, in this case not as the assistant but as competitor. Humans at

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their core are free to pursue whatever venture they so choose and this is the American Dream. Nothing can stand in the way of this, for barriers are what make the American Dream come alive (Buffington: 2). Like what Eleanor Roosevelt did in manifested the American Dream, she personified it in a life of service and dedication to others, not in keeping up with the Joneses or impressing others with one's power, beauty, or material wealth (DeVitis and Rich: 76). She reconstructed what women could do for making achievement, not by showing beauty and glamorous but showing her task with high integrity, one of them was by giving inspiration and suggestion for her husband to be a good American. She was an ordinary person who accompanied the great President of United States for forty years. President Henry Truman was also a very ordinary person who became an extra ordinary one. He was not smart but he could reach the higher position in his career. David McCullough, who wrote of biography of Truman, said that he was the one who had his faults, both as a president and as a human being but Truman knew who he was. "He's the ordinary fellow who achieves the extraordinary, again and again, all through life. And the reason I think we like [the Truman story] so much is that it's our story. We are the country of seemingly ordinary people who with our freedom and opportunities are going to do something extraordinary. That's the great story. That's the American Dream.

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(McCullough: 30) In this global era, the values of American Dream seem become so global. Americans and humanity in general have come a long way in recent history, and the American concept of an American Dream, the ability to grow and surpass and be free to reach for any goal one may so choose lives in the heart and soul of every individual. There is no reason a certain group or class should not be able to rise up out of hardship to enhance themselves (Buffington: 1). Based on the exposition above, so American Dream is an idea that comes into values to mankind. American Dream is a belief of success myth that everyone who does the best things will get the best result. It does not big matter whether the way they pass the path is so hard but they must work hard ambitiously in order to get the success. Like the theory of Synthesis of Knowledge which consists of three reconciliations: time, discipline, and space, the idea of American Dream had been formed in the different century but the values of it are still in every American. They believe they are able to achieve the success as big as the effort they do in any field they role in society. American Dream is also an idea created by Americans based on their experience and their purpose sailing to this continent, then the spirit of it becomes wider and wider. It brings them to realize that the dream is part of their life as Americans. America has a long and arduous road to travel to realize that the American Dream exists in the life of the nation; but if they fail, there is nothing left but the old eternal round. The alternative is the failure of the common man

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to rise to full stature, the failure of all that the American dream has held of hope and promise for mankind. (Adams: 416) The length journey of American Dream has been tested by any kind of barriers such as slavery and segregation. Just like what Buffington said in his paper that the barriers of it which makes American Dream alive up to now. FO Matthiessens idea about critical achievement also stresses that achievement described as heroic struggle for unity of being, to relate the inner to the outer, the private to the public, the mental and the emotional to the civic and the professional (Gunn:xviii). In getting the achievement someone needs some conflicts, just like barriers, because Matthiessen thought without conflict life lost much of its interest and the person gave all opportunity for significant choice and development (xxi). Integrity is the main point in overcoming the hardness of the struggle. By integrity, he believed, someone will do the best effort. So, American Dream which means achievement and success must pass the test to be the real happiness. Then, life for American people means freedom, free in getting any will they want. This is the alienable right for them to pursue their happiness, materially and immaterially; and everybody has different perspective of the meaning of happiness. They respect each other because they realize that their destiny are different one another. To realize their destiny they also realize that they have to face some obstacles; those which make them work hard to get it. American Dream is a success myth which requires hard working and selfreliance. The result of that is not only materially but also spiritually. The one who

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wants to be categorized as a success person must fulfill the idea of it integratedly. He also must give the contribution of his success not only locally but also globally, like what stated by James Truslow Adams and John Quincy Adams. General Douglas MacArthur is a prominent portrait of American who wants to reach the American Dream. No matter in what country he and his family lived, he did his duty with high integrity. Although sometimes the way he applied the dream was controversial, but the doctrine he got from his parents made him did a big effort to get his success, not only in material one but also in saving and making his country still in a big condition. As individual dream, he was success making his name well-known around the world, tough once he was a tragic hero in a certain circumstance. In the end of his career, finally he reformulated the thought about the dream. He reconsidered the dream formulation through a prayer to his son; in this case, he tried to put humanity aspect in the dream. He believed that do the best thing in gaining the dream does not have to sacrifice the existence of humanity socially by accepting his existence as a whole, strengths and weaknesses. Nobody is perfect, even though he thinks in a perfect way. The next chapter of this thesis will explore the Generals biographical sketch which encouraged him to pursue his American Dream in the way he could do in military field. The effort made him becomes the great one, complete with his achievement and his controversy.

Dinurriyah 35 CHAPTER III GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR: HIS LIFE, ACHIEVEMENT AND DREAM William Manchester said that he was a great thundering paradox of a man (15). Michael Pearlman stated that he was just like Dr. JekyllMr. Hyde syndrome (2). The Australian commander, Thomas Blamey, evaluated that the best and the worst things you hear about MacArthur are both true (Frank: 176); and his colleagues called him as Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Julius Caesar and Napoleon ( Long: 2-3). But talking this General from humanity aspect, it is like treating a coin, having two different sides but both of them are as important as the other. The positive and the negative traits in him are something common which formed him as human being. He was complete as human because talking about human is not like talking white and black; the history before him and the experience he got had shaped him into a man. General Douglas MacArthur was a great General who carved his name in American history since World War I. His name rose in World War II since he became the Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Asia Pacific. He emerged from the 1940s as a national hero in Canberra, Manila, and Tokyo- but not in Washington DC (Manchester: 16). The rumor was FDR sent him away to the battle to evict him from American politics. Everyone agreed that he succeeded in his single-minded pursuit of greatness. But they differed sharply about whether he was great in matters that boded well or ill for the nation and the world (Frank: 1).

Dinurriyah 36 Douglas MacArthur believed that his life was a destiny. His parents formed him to be the one who believed in absolute triumph over all obstacles (Manchester: 37). Indeed, understanding his life is like understanding the journey of human being: start from something plain, get the color and form, and then finally find its own shape. This chapter explores his biography start from the day when he was born, his childhood and his education in his family background. Then it talks about his military career which was full of tension and envy from his seniors until he became a senior himself and made some controversy as well as some achievement as an international hero. Finally we are going to have a look at his old days in which he tried to form his wisdom and next dream, one of them was to his son in a form of prayer. A. THE FAMILY BACKGROUND Douglas MacArthur was born prematurely on January 26, 1880 in Little Rock, Arkansas. He came to be born on army property when his mother was packing for Virginia following in where his husband assigned. He was the last son of General Arthur Macarthur, Jr and Mary Pinkney Hardy (Pinky). His first brother, four years older, was Arthur MacArthur III. He worked in the Navy but not too long because of his suffering from appendices. His second brother, Malcolm MacArthur, died of measles at the age of five (Manchester: 39). Douglas grew up in military area, he said, I learned to ride and shoot even before I could read or write (Frank: 4). When he was a child, his mother often made him up with skirt and long curly hair. It happened until Douglas in the age of eight (Manchester: 57). There is no book talk about why his mother treated him

Dinurriyah 37 like that. It could be because Pinky did not have any daughter. All her children were boys. But the lost of her sons one by one made her realized that her child was a boy. Fortunately, there was nothing wrong happened in Douglas male psychology. Later in his mature age he had lover and even married twice; especially as an army officer, he did his duty in a very man way. Even though he was not the only boy in his family but the death of Malcolm and followed by the death of Arthur made him so close to his mother. Fortunately, his closeness with his mother did not make him into Oedipus complex; it just made him became the son of a mother. The lost of their two sons also strengthened the MacArthurs to rely the destiny on Douglas shoulders; and Douglas never minded about it including continuing his fathers career in Army (Manchester: 58). As a son of destiny, his parents often indoctrinated him into something big. One of his mother habits in his bed time was saying, You must grow up to be a great man like your father or like Robert E. Lee (Manchester: 56). Robert Lee was a famous General in his fathers time. He was his fathers colleague as well as competitor in military career. His parents never told him about the conflict between his father and Lee. His parents taught him to admire the greatness of someone despite of his controversy or conflict with others. Whatever someones controversy if he did something good he had to respect him. In his maturity, this condition also happened to Douglas that he became a great General with full of controversy, but he did his duty in full integrity. As an army son, Douglas often moved from one place to another including in the frontier area. Arthur MacArthur, Jrs knowledge and experience living in

Dinurriyah 38 the frontier were very important to and understanding of his immense influence on his children. Douglas eventually inherited over four thousand books from his father. By this Douglas got a remarkable vocabulary, a mastery of Victorian prose and a love of neo-Augustan rhetoric (Manchester: 37). That heritage taught Douglas how to appreciate the ideals and understood the meaning of duty. As an Army officer, Arthur taught his sons, especially Douglas that for his country he had to sacrifice anything. Arthur himself was not West Point graduate. He, incidentally, became a soldier because of Civil War. At the age of 17 at the outbreak of the war, he had wanted to join up at once. His father, who was an attorney, wrote Lincoln asking that his son be appointed to the US Military Academy, and senator James and Doolittle took young Arthur to the White House. There the president regretfully explained that there were no present openings in the West Point Cadet Corp. The kindness of Lincoln and his fathers influence brought Arthur to be first Lieutenant and adjutant of the regiment he would later lead (Manchester: 29). Then it was understood why Arthur relied his dream on his only son. He failed entering the best academy in the US for being an army. He wanted Douglas to continue what he could not get in his youth. Fortunately his son never let him down. Based on his experience, Arthur also taught Douglas how to get and show his achievement. The keystone of all his achievement, Arthur concluded that the forty minutes when he had climbed the strategic heights overlooking Chattanooga-in defiance of orders. The moral of this condition was sometimes disobeying his superiors to gain the great glory was important (Manchester: 30).

Dinurriyah 39 Later on Douglas really did what his father told him including disobey what President Truman ordered him in Korean War. For him, as a soldier he knew more what happened in the battle field than the President. He did it for his country, while Trumans background was not military then he knew little about priority in the war. Douglas said that his parents, especially his mother, taught not only the simple rudiments, but above all else, a sense of obligation. They were to do what was right no matter what the personal sacrifice might be. Our country was always to come first. Two things we must never do: never lie, never tattle (Frank: 4). So, Douglas got the education of country obligation not only from his father, in whom he got the real picture of being a soldier, but also from his mother who really supported his fathers duty and dream. His mother, Pinky, was an Episcopalian, a belief which believes that merciful God is genuine. He taught Douglas about devotion. Douglas was also an Episcopalian, but he was not a person who liked to go to the church. He preferred sitting down at home reading Bible and analyze it to going to the religious community. He regarded himself as one of the worlds two great defenders of Christendom, the other was the Pope (Manchester: 15). Although when he was child, his mother treated him like a girl, but in his adolescences his mother taught him to disgrace cowardice. She did not allow Douglas to drop his tears accept for his country because men did not cry. She said that tears of fear were forbidden (Manchester: 56). Douglas brought this doctrine until the last of his career in military. In the battle arena everyone knew that Douglas was someone with no fear. He seemed to seek death on battlefields. He

Dinurriyah 40 also did not accept the reason of his assistants who said they were back from the battle because of fear, one of them was Jonathan M. Wainwright (the movie). His favorite hero figures were Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. Both of them were the Presidents of America. They inspired him a lot and in some ways he resembled them. Like them, he was slandered and misunderstood. He shared Lincolns monumental will to win; Lincoln was cool, aloof dictator who ruled America unflinchingly (Manchester: 20). Like Washington, he was joined in the fields by his wife; and like him, he defied enemy sharpshooters ( 21). All his parents teaching, doctrines and hope were so touchy in MacArthurs heart and mind. He kept it as his dream. His knowledge about some heroes and their biographies also influenced him much. He really believed that he was a man of destiny that had to make his parents dreams came true. He was not the only son of Arthur MacArthur, Jr and Pinky Hardy but he had to be the only one because of condition; and he accepted the condition sincerely and proudly. As parents, maybe, Arthur and Pinky were successful shaping their sons mind and soul, but they never thought that Douglas MacArthur had tried to make every single dream that his parents told to him. They never calculated the side effect, in this case the negative one, of it. He became someone who loved performing, enjoyed applause and hunger for honor. He became the one who was very egoistic and sensitive to the critic. What Douglas Macarthur believed in most was Douglas Macarthur (Manchester: 23). He thought that what he got from his parents was enough for his life and he really tried hard to make it. He was a good son for his fathers dream and his mothers teaching. He was a seeker of glory because that

Dinurriyah 41 was what his parents told to him. His father taught him how to get it and his mother supported him to do that by religious touch. The unpredictable sites happened to MacArthur became the controversy that made him famous. Being shaped to be best, he refused any kinds of weaknesses. He could not accept failure, he adored victory. Mostly he was success in making his dream therefore he was adored by his friends and respected by his opponents. In spite of his strange, his collogues still respected him as a great leader. This experience was like a long contemplation for him then in his retirement he formulated it to his son in his prayer. B. HIS MILITARY CAREER When Douglas was ready for military education, his parents sent him to the West Texas Military Academy. MacArthur confessed that studying there was not an easy thing. He got hard time because of pressure from his seniors there. One of the alumnus conveyed that they were resentful of the young MacArthur because his father was a major at that time, scornful of him because he was a day student and jealous of him because he was becoming an outstanding student (Manchester: 58). The young MacArthur had proved that he was appropriate enough to be the next MacArthur generation. He showed to everyone that he could enter the prestigious place not because of his parents reputation but because his own effort. His parents had given him support but he himself who made it into reality. Then, the time was ready for West Point. The preparation was starting in January 1897 when Colonel Arthur MacArthur was transferred to St Paul, Minnesota. The family decided that Douglas should study for a competitive

Dinurriyah 42 examination to be held in May 1898 for a vacancy at West Point in the nomination of a Congressman of Milwaukee. The boy worked hard and came top, and was due to enter West Point in June 1899 (Frank: 5). His father had sailed for the Philippines for a year when Douglas MacArthur was enrolled as a cadet at the Military Academy. His brother, Arthur, was also in the sea joining the Navy. His mother moved with him to West Point and established a home nearby (Long: 6). In the night before the exam of West Point entrance, he could not sleep. His mother gave him a pep talk, Doug, youll win if you dont lose your nerve. You must believe in yourself my son, or no one else will believe in you. Be self confident, self-reliant, and even you dont make it, you will know you have done the best. Now, go to it (Manchester: 60). Slightly, those words were just a kind of support for the young man but actually his mother had taught him the basic things about American Dream. She encouraged his son about the victory and how to reach it, how to rise from the common man into extra ordinary one. She also taught her son that the best effort was very important. It was not the big problem whether Douglas would win or lose; the important thing was getting the big achievement with self-reliance and self-confidence. Indeed, Douglas MacArthur was not an ordinary young man of an ordinary father. Arthur had been a senior in Army when Douglas entered the West Point in 1899. But Douglas MacArthur had been educated like the other ordinary young men in the process of getting their dream. In this special school, rather than shielding him, Douglass status as the son of a senior officer made him the target of especially savage hazing from his seniors. His bearing under this torment impressed his classmates, but it did not make Douglas hate the academy (Frank:

Dinurriyah 43 4). It proved that although he was not a son of ordinary man but he started his career as an ordinary man. The young MacArthur, might be, did not understand the meaning of American Dream in his life but he had applied it in getting his achievement. He might be the son of famous general who joined the Army because of President Lincolns generosity, but he had proved that he was appropriated to be a great one by his own effort. In this military school he became an outstanding student. MacArthur worked hard and purposefully and was top of his class in his first, second and final years. He confessed he was not the smartest in the class, but he did not give up to the condition. In spite of the bullying done by his seniors, he could endure and became the great student there. His standing was 991/3 against the next mans 77.9. He scored 700 points out of a possible 750 (Manchester: 61). He held the highest rank in the corps in his final year, and had played in the baseball team for two seasons. He was the most handsome cadet at West Point. He was sought after by girls not only for his good looks but because his father was General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. (Long: 7-8). After graduating from West Point, he started doing his duty as an army officer, but his first job out of this academy started in April 1908 when he went to the 3rd Engineer Battalion at Fort Leavenworth. As junior captain in the battalion he was given the 'lowest-rated' of its 21 companies. This battalion seemed a place of probation for the soldiers; the one who worked there would get praise when they were good and shame when they were bad. By raising their pride and developing their sense of self-respect, I soon began to convince them that they were the best of the lot, said Douglas MacArthur. Under MacArthur they became

Dinurriyah 44 'champions'. And MacArthur had proved something about himself: he was a capable manager of men (long: 9-10). It was a big achievement for the young soldier and just after that in 1912 his father passed away. He was so sad then he wanted to drop his tears but his mothers words kept him doing that. At least he had showed an achievement to his father, he did not predict that he would make the bigger ones than that later. In September 1913 he was posted to the general staff at Washington, where his mother joined him. This staff then comprised 38 officers, of whom MacArthur was the junior. He had his postgraduate certificate in the Engineer School and his work as an instructor had been in the engineers. Unfortunately he only worked there for a moment, he did not dedicate his knowledge in engineering (Long: 10). Perhaps he remembered and did not want to be like his father that his career was stuck in this division. Then MacArthur, with a spot-promotion to colonel, became the divisions chief of staff in the 42nd (Rainbow). MacArthur switched his branch from engineers to infantry, a move that opened vastly expanded opportunities for advancement in wartime. With MacArthurs appointment to the Rainbow Division, at the age of thirty-seven he bid adieu to a bit players role for the orbit of the powerful (Frank: 6). The Rainbow Division was the second National Guard division (behind the New England-based 26th) and among the first four divisions to reach France in 1917. The commander of the American Expeditionary Force was General John J. Pershing, with whom Macarthur knew and adored this General and later had some problems with him (Long: 16-17). Unlike MacArthur, this General did not

Dinurriyah 45 like him started from seeing his physical appearance, his ambition until his achievement; but this General confessed MacArthurs brightness (30-31). MacArthur did a good job in this division so then the great American journalist William Allen White visited the Rainbow Division during his duty and he declared that MacArthur was so captivating and so magnetic since his staff adored him, his men worshipped him, and he seemed to be entirely without vanity. The interview with White surfaced two threads for MacArthurs subsequent triumphs and failures: besides publishing MacArthurs success in military subject, this journalist also exposed MacArthurs love affairs and his mothers influence in choosing a wife (Frank: 11-12). On April, 1919 MacArthur sailed with his brigade from Brest. After his return from overseas, the chief of staff, Peyton Marsh, selected him to become superintendent of West Point. This appointment proved absolutely critical in MacArthurs career. It guaranteed that MacArthur retained his one-star rank while dozens of other newly minted generals. At thirty-nine, MacArthur became the youngest superintendent (Frank: 12). Under MacArthurs enrollment as Superintendent, West Point got some reformation. By general European standards, discipline at the Academy was extremely strict. The cadets, who entered from 19 to 22 and stay four years, did not allow smoking or having any money in their possession. They had far less liberty than any private school boys. It would not make any good for young men of 24 or 25 to be good citizens or fine soldiers (Long: 6-7). MacArthurs made big fundamental conflict of vision with the academic board of this academy. MacArthurs war experience convinced him that West

Dinurriyah 46 Point had to prepare a different type of officer. Traditionally, West Point applied a very strict discipline to make effective soldiers. MacArthurs reform folio thus encompassed a comprehensive liberalization. He broadened the curriculum to include social sciences and recent military history, provide cadets with more contact with American society, and bestow on them increasing levels of responsibility. Based on his own bitter experience as a victim of vicious hazing, he moved to stamp out such abuse (Frank: 13). What conflict MacArthur made in west Point was not the last one, or maybe it was nothing since he did it for the Academy betterment. The continuous conflicts he made later on with his seniors and colleagues started when he met a beautiful lady named Louise Cromwell Brooks. She was a spoiled, alluring, rich divorcee ten years younger who had two children. Louise proudly trailed a scroll of romantic victories over the likes of Pershing and Britains dashing Admiral Sir David Beatty, but she was floored by the magnetic MacArthur. They married on Valentines Day, 1922 (Frank: 14). This marriage was really painful for Pershing. He felt that this kid defeated him completely. Pershing had confessed that this young man was really good even though he did not like MacArthur since the first time, but Louises choice on MacArthur was so hurtfully. He was lost just because of a woman and by a kid (Frank: 14). A moral that we learned from Pershing-MacArthur relationship was professionalism. Pershing might not like MacArthur but he who often decorated some medals in MacArthurs chest (9). In spite of that fact, it did not mean that there was no intrigue between them.

Dinurriyah 47 Ten days later MacArthurs promotion to major general was announced. He left the Philippines in early 1925 to take command of the IV Corps area whose headquarters were in Atlanta. By the fall he took charge of the more significant III Corps area at Baltimore. Unfortunately the condition of moving around made the marriage crumbled. They were divorced officially in 1929 because of incompatibility. Louise was a very rich woman. She tried to persuade MacArthur to leave the service and become a very rich businessman, but he refused: his life and destiny was the army. MacArthur closed a door on his first marriage and virtually never mentioned it again (Frank: 15). Some rumors mention that Pershing had big role in making this marriage messed. He who had an idea to send MacArthur away and knew what Louise would react with this separation (14). Louise was a woman who never worked hard to get luxury; she would not want to go through suffering just to get her dream like what MacArthur wanted to prove. After long time joining in infantry, MacArthur was offered to be a great engineer by President Herbert Hoover in 1927. MacArthur wisely but politely turned the offer down, recognizing it as a potential cul-de-sac that would foreclose his rise to the coveted job of chief of staff, the post that his father wanted but could not reach (Frank: 17). MacArthur was a close friend of Hoover as the distant and frigid president permitted. They respected each other and adored one another in spite of their weaknesses. Hoover described MacArthur as someone who had rugged individualism like he portrayed in American Individualism.

Dinurriyah 48 He believed that the governments legitimate goal was to permit each individual to attain his highest rise in accordance with his intelligence, character, ability and ambition. The government should also act as a referee to prevent domination by any political or economic faction that would thwart individual opportunity. In return, the individual owed the community a sense of social responsibility, such as caring for the less fortunatebut without corrupting their self-reliance and initiative (Frank: 20).

There was no American Dream term in the paragraph Hoover made, but basically he wanted to say that this great man had applied what American Dream should be manifested. Ambition was not a sin because it supported someone to get their achievement by their own reliance.

The next step of his career, MacArthur placed the position of Chief of Staff, a position he dreamed as his fathers continuation dream. He met Eisenhower who at that time reminded the President about the Veterans. The president may have ignored Eisenhowers study, but Douglas MacArthur noticed it. He was impressed by Eisenhowers ability to compress such a complex issue into a concise summation. On February 20, 1933, MacArthur named him special assistant to the army chief of staff, and for almost seven years Eisenhowers fate was intertwined with that of MacArthurs (Wukovits: 42-43). Even though MacArthur liked Eisenhower very much, but it did not mean that they never had conflict. Their relationship was just like a bowl of salad, lived in one roof but thought in different mind. Eisenhower conveyed that MacArthur

Dinurriyah 49 was a great General who really appreciated any kind of achievement including Eisenhowers achievement; in this case, MacArthur who made his career rose up for the first time. But Eisenhowers nerve could not stand anymore when this General blamed him on Quezons (the President of Philippines in which Macarthur became a field marshal of the Army) question about the extravagance budget for the troops, meanwhile Eisenhower did it under the order of MacArthur. Macarthur just said it was misunderstanding but for Eisenhower this betrayal made him lost his good name in front of the President (47). Eisenhower might feel betrayed but MacArthur might also feel offended with his assistants statement when he accepted President Quezons offer to work for this Asian countrys Army. Why in the hell do you want a banana country giving you a field-marshal-ship? that was what Eisenhower said. An irate MacArthur never forgot what he considered an impudent question (46). MacArthur never looked down to the color people. He thought they were the same just like the white men. Eisenhowers mockery was really painful for him. He torn out MacArthurs idealism about humanity. MacArthur accepted this offer not only because he remembered what his father said that in the future, not Europe but Far east which held the world, but also because he did not want to be retired in a very young age because of Bonus Army incident. It was a tragedy in which the troops spread out the gas of tear to those demanded the bonus after joining the World War I. But as Army Chief of Staff, MacArthur had to accompany a small group of troops to reinforce Washington police in clearing the unruly crowd of thousands of Bonus Marchers from Washington. MacArthur compounded his error by making inflammatory

Dinurriyah 50 remarks to the press. Public detractors quickly emerged; his image was permanently clouded (Frank: xvi). Taking a look from his position in the Army he was not absolutely wrong, but the condition at that time needed someone to be the scapegoat and MacArthur was the right one. It was not only because he who ordered and supervised the eviction but also because he had a lot of opponents in his military arena. And absolutely he did not want to stop his career before he made any big achievement like what his parents wanted him to be. His image became worse also triggered by FDRs statement that there were two most dangerous men in America, one of them was MacArthur (Frank: 25). This was the first conflict between him and FDR, after that he also confronted the New Deal that FDR proposed. He did not agree with the budget President expensed to succeed the New Deal which was used Army budget (Long: 43). When he was in Manila in April 1930, MacArthur had fallen for Isabel Rosario Cooper. She had a Scottish father and Filipina mother; she was a singer and dancer. She was sixteen years old. When MacArthur left Manila to take up his post as chief of staff, he brought Isabel along and installed her in convenient locations in Washington. This affair needed short time because of his mother (Pinky still took big part in Macarthurs life though he had been in his fifties at that time), his career and Isabels destination to be an actress in Hollywood. This big affair almost killed Macarthurs career (Frank: 27). It was the first and the last affair MacArthur had. After that, on the ship out to the Far East, MacArthur met Jean Marie Faircloth of Murfreesboro, Tennessee. She was thirty-seven, never married, attractive, enchanting in

Dinurriyah 51 personality and conversation, and with a regal bearing. When MacArthur took leave in April 1937 to return for his mothers burial at Arlington National Cemetery, he married Jean in a civil ceremony in New York. She bore him a son, Arthur MacArthur IV, in February 1938 (Frank: 36). He was the one and only child MacArthur had when his age was almost sixty. By having this son, Macarthur contemplated again about his life including the meaning of his life. He was the one who seemed look for the battle, but in his life he confessed that he was more proud being a father better than being a general of war. A prayer that he dedicated for his son is very well-known then becomes an icon for Fathers Day in America. Eisenhower might say that Philippine was a banana country but in this country MacArthur earned $18,000 per year plus $15,000 in yearly allowances. This was on top of MacArthurs full pay as a U.S. major general, since he would remain on active duty. He thus became the best-paid soldier in the world (Frank: 33). MacArthur got this offer from the President Quezon because this President knew well about him including what his father did in the past when this young man still in West Point. At first, MacArthur never let Quezon down, but when Japan attacked this country and there were a lot of victims in this battle, finally the General realized that the Philippines troop had been not ready for the war. Meanwhile MacArthur predicted that the attack was too soon, Japan did the attack earlier than his prediction. It caused his relationship with the President getting worsen (Frank: 36).

Dinurriyah 52 The experience MacArthur got since he lived in this banana country inspired The British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, to propose MacArthur to FDR became the Commander of Allied in Asia Pacific during World War II (Long: 89). They thought that Philippine was the best location for preparing Japanese attack. Finally, after long retirement since the Bonus Army MacArthur worked for his country again officially. One of his colleagues who supported his promotion was George Marshall. He was his friend since in West Point. Marshall thought that this man was appropriate enough to be posted in that position. When MacArthur was in Philippine, Marshall kept contact with him and informed him the newest news from Washington. His good relationship with Marshal got worsen since Colonel George C. Marshall's promotion was held up by MacArthur because of differences between them dating back to the advance on Sedan (Long: 22). Actually it was Marshalls responsibility as a man of charge who came to Sedan first, but MacArthur made him first came to the place to show his concern of the place. It seemed MacArthur sabotaged Marshalls career. MacArthur was hesitant about jumping Marshall over many senior officers. Indeed, MacArthur proposed Marshalls promotion to brigadier general in 1935 and elevation to Chief of Infantry, a major generals slot. But it did not happen and Marshall only gained his first star after MacArthurs tour as chief of staff ended (Frank: 29). By his rising star and rapid position, it was normal that everybody envied him. The failure MacArthur made when Japan attack Philippine through the unready troops pushed FDR as his President ordered him to evacuate to Australia but he refused it. This was the third conflict he made with FDR. His assistant had

Dinurriyah 53 to convince him that Australia was the best place to rearrange the strategy against Japan before he obeyed FDR order. He moved to Australia with his family with whom he lived with for eleven years in foreign country by torpedo boat, aircraft, and train consumed eleven days. Soon after he arrived in Australia he said, I came through and I shall return (Long: 81). It was a very well-known slogan of MacArthur during that war. He kept his promise and successfully fulfilled it less than three years. As a General of war who was very common in the battle, actually MacArthur disagreed with the atomic bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Cousins: 70-71). He conveyed that Japan was almost collapse before the bomb felt. But what FDR signed and continued by Truman had to be done. MacArthur just saw the ruin of the country gloomily. Then, when he was ordered to revitalize this country, he was so happy. It looked hostile that the General from out of Japan who rebuilt this Asian country but actually Macarthur had tried hard to understand the culture of Japanese including how to face the Emperor (Manchester: 512). There was a photo in which Macarthur posed with the Japanese Emperor then many people thought it was the picture of American imperialism. Indeed, MacArthur had reconstructed Japanese governmental system, it was known as Five Great Reforms. These included the emancipation of women, encouragement of union organization, abolition of child labor, education reform, and democratization of economic institutions and immediate and vigorous action on housing, food, and clothing for the population (Frank: 135-136). He himself itemized three key elements: (1) the emperor would be head of state, but the people sovereign and the emperors powers flowing from the constitution; (2)

Dinurriyah 54 Japan would renounce the sovereign right to wage war even for preserving its own security; and (3) abolition of the Japans feudal system (Frank: 137). Those items touched almost every aspect of Japanese life. American occupation gave liberty for Japan to rebuild the country by using American constitution, no troops and monarchy. Up to now, Japan does not have soldiers and the Emperor of Japan just a symbol; he is a head of the state but does not have sovereignty through politics. The governmental system is done by Prime Minister. Macarthur omitted feudal system in Japanese rule; he introduced democracy, like what usually America does to the third country. Like the idea of his country also, MacArthur thought that democracy was the best system applied in Japan. For that he introduced Christianity into Japanese spiritual life because he thought Christianity and democracy were mutually supported (Frank: 147). It was a kind of irony that he pushed Japanese into Christianity for the sake of democracy understanding while he himself, as a model, did not like with the church community. The data showed that he failed doing this mission because the number of Christianity there still remained same since he left Japan (147). Macarthur was a Supreme Commander of Allied Forces, so even though he was an American army but he was an international Commander. Another problem which arose at that time was the Emperor trial after Japan defeated. MacArthur was initially ordered not to do anything to the Emperor without Washingtons approval. Within MacArthurs staff, opinion divided as to whether Hirohito should be tried or whether he would better be exploited to further the goals of the occupation reforms (Frank: 132). Meanwhile Japan was a public enemy in World War II. The history proved that Macarthur never executed the

Dinurriyah 55 Emperor but he arranged the meeting in Tokyo Bay on the Missouri ship to sign some agreement. This meeting was also attended by some deputies from some countries (Long: 2). Japan, finally, had to be surrender. Though it looked so hostile idea for Japan but Japanese government thought it was the best thing better than losing the Emperor or condemned by other countries around the world. American occupation needed six and a half year there. MacArthur was welcome in his own country like a hero. But the situation was not stable. After the World War II, the influence of communism from Soviet and China spread out through the world. It endangered the position of America in the world. It also influenced the condition in Korea so then this country divided into two: South Korea and North Korea. These two countries still endure the condition up to now (Frank: 158). Maybe these are the only ones which have not unified because of ideological background. When the Korean War exploded, as the American hero who understood the condition of Far East, MacArthur again led the command there. Unlike the condition he faced the previous war in which he was there because of the continuous consequence of Japanese attack, the war MacArthur faced in Korea mostly because of the preemptive action of America in facing communism (Frank: 162). At this time the America had been led by Henry Truman who succeeded FDRs position when he passed away accidentally in his office. The Korean War was the last career for MacArthur. In this occasion, again, he disobeyed what President Truman ordered (Pearlman: xiii). Basically there are three major components of conflict between Macarthur and Truman, they are (1) policies, (2) politics and (3) personalities (Pearlman:

Dinurriyah 56 268). Truman did not like MacArthur at the first sight; this man was flamboyant, that was the first point. The General was full of ambition so he often disobeyed the command he got. MacArthur enjoyed being famous and honored (268); the things that Truman also liked. Maybe not only the differences drove them into unseen conflict but also these same personalities. From the policy view, Truman lost his nerve when MacArthur planned to applied his own vision through the Korean War. In his book, Pearlman stated that he was the legendary soldier who took priorities more important than policy guidance from a president (26). Trumans policy on this war was just preemptive action to avoid the total war while MacArthurs idea was for a decisive victory that could collapse the influence of communism there (78). The recall he got from the President saved these two countries unified until now. The different vision between them bore the recall of MacArthur. The best rumor to be talked on their conflict was the politics; it was related to Trumans election. Truman was from Democrat party while his opponents, the Republic, seemed supported Macarthur being the next candidate (Pearlman:108). Even though Macarthur convinced him that he did not want that position but Truman suspected him over and over. It was so normal; first because he who fired MacArthur. This General could be offended to him and planned to oppose him in the election. Everybody thought it was not a wise way to cut the Generals career such that way remembering his merit for his country. Some advisors and politicians suggested Truman to let the General resigned to keep his honor, but Truman said, The son of a bitch isnt going to resign on me! I want him fired! (Manchester: 702).

Dinurriyah 57 Absolutely, it was not an appropriate words expelled by a president, but this president was really angry by MacArthurs disobedience. He felt he was not respected by his man. The second, Truman thought that Macarthur still had big influence in American society as well as in international public. Japanese people clearly stated their support on the photo taken in 1948, We, the Japanese people, hope to see General Macarthur as the President of the United Stated in order to prevent annihilation of humanity and for overcoming the world crisis (Courtesy of Macarthur Memorial). For overcoming this rumor and convincing Trumans heart, before entering the City Hall giving his speech in front of Congressmen MacArthur said, I was just asked if I intend to enter politics. My reply was no. I have no political aspirations whatsoever. I do not intend to run a political office, and I hope that my name never be used in political way. The only one politics I have is contained in a single phrase known well to all of you God bless America! (Manchester: 786) Macarthur was a really statesman. He did what he thought it was his duty. He just thought about priority in the battle field, while the Politicians in Washington just thought about the policy. When the President fired him, even though it was absolutely mockery for a general who worked for the army for fifty two years, he went home and accepted the consequences. MacArthur was a big man. Unlike the President, American people welcomed this great General fully. His coming home was not celebrated in a day because the next day there were still

Dinurriyah 58 many people waving their hands to the car brought the General. Military office treated a half holiday in that situation (Manchester: 784). I am closing my fifty-two years of military service. When I joined the Army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the Plain at West Point, and the hope and the dreams have long since vanished. But I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day, which proclaimed, most proudly, that Old soldiers never die. They just fade away. And like the soldier of the ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away-an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Goodbye. (Manchester: 790-791)

That was his speech in front of the Congressman as a statesman gently. It was so touchy for most member of the Congress. Some of them dropped the tears but not Truman who listened it from far away (Manchester: 792). Being fired might be painful for MacArthur socially and it made Truman satisfied emotionally. But this recall is the turning point for MacArthurs life to be wiser than before. He was hunger for honor and renown so that was why he did a lot of achievement to get it. Yet, in this situation he contemplated to what he had done. So far, he had done the success through the way his parents taught: passed any kind of obstacles to be big and defeated anyone who halted your way. In his contemplation, Macarthur found that humans life was not like the way machine work. The one could be big and defeat anyone who stopped his way but everyone had different destination in reaching their dream. Human being did not have fixed

Dinurriyah 59 formula in facing his life because each phase taught different matter to enrich humans soul. Then, a year after his recall MacArthur left heritage of his contemplation to his son in the form of prayer. Indeed, MacArthur had closed his military career, but like what he said his career did not completely died. He just faded away from that field because in his retirement, but President Kennedy invited him to the White House for his advice. MacArthur closed his career with seven Silver Star, two Distinguished Service Medals, and the most important a Medal of Honor. C. AFTER RETIREMENT After the recall in 1951, Macarthur and his family, including the troops followed him, went home after fourteen years never saw his country (Pearlman: 193). That was the first time he introduced his son, Arthur, about his homeland America. Arthur was born in the Philippine. Just like his father, he was born in the middle of battle arena. It was really hard to predict what was in this kids mind when he arrived in America for the first time and saw many people welcome them glamorously. Did he realize that he was a son of a great man, not only for America but also for the world? But the history proved it did not make him thought to be a soldier, to be famous like his father or his other ancestors. People still try to find him out since no biography book talking about him including William Manchesters complete work. Some information said that he becomes a musician who lives in New York by changing his identity. It seems that he wants to release his life from his big ancestors name. As an American soldier who served the war out of America, Macarthur did not have any house. After his return, MacArthur and family lived in a hotel on the

Dinurriyah 60 admirers payment. He was not a president but the treatment he got just like a president. The hotel leased him $133-a-day suite to him for $450 a month. Oil tycoons chartered an Eastern Airlines Constellation to fly him to Texas (Manchester: 811). It was just some parts of luxury he got. Everyone who adored him competed to give him the best one, including to his wife. But later on they asked to live in an ordinary house, like what they expected when they were in Tokyo. In spite of his retirement, people never forgot his name. The achievement he got was really meaningful for the world history, and President John F. Kennedy appreciated what MacArthur had done. He admired MacArthur and probably understood him better than any other Presidents. MacArthur was Kennedys kind of hero: valiant, a patrician, proud of his machismo and a lover of glory (Manchester: 830). In April 1961, this President had a meeting with the old soldier about his view on the Asian mainland. Kennedy was really glad with MacArthurs advice and vision. Three years after the occasion, Kennedy could not make any conversation with MacArthur anymore. It was the last day for him. MacArthur surrendered on suffering from nausea, constant headache and abdominal complaints. His weight was down to 140 pounds (Manchester: 838). In his funeral, around two thousands and five hundreds men of the corps formed on the plain (Manchester: 840). Maybe not only America was in mourning at that day but also some other countries in where this General had been posted. He was honored by friends and respected by rivals.

Dinurriyah 61 Macarthur was not the best one America had, but his presence had saved America and carved the countrys name in the world history. He was not a perfect man but he tried hard to be a perfect one. In spite of his controversy, he had reason for that; and most of them he did in the name of achievement. Everybody who knew him understood that the General was really sensitive to the critic but it did not mean that he was deaf with any input. MacArthur lived in the world for eighty four years, more than a half of his age he spent it in the army. He was retired when he was seventy one, the age in which many people take a rest and spend the time with their family. This long life and long career were experience that Macarthur got in forming his thought. In his retirement time, he contemplated what had happened in his life. A year after his recall, he wrote the sedimentation of his contemplation in a form of a prayer. He really understood that he was a boy of destiny and he had accepted it sincerely. He had manifested what his parents wanted him to be with no regret. Thus, the cycle happened. He also only had a son, and he had him in a very mature age, fifty eight years old. He should have treated the boy like what his parents did in the past; a son of destiny. But then, in his contemplation he did not do the same thing to his son. He believed that his son was a boy of destiny but he was free in creating and reaching his own destiny. He wanted his son will be much better than he was. He wished his sons achievement was really full of integrity not only because of fame and glory; the things that he wanted to correct in his life. For that, as religious man, he prayed to God in a writing form, a prayer that he dedicated for his son; a prayer which is supported by the spirit of values of

Dinurriyah 62 American Dream but in some aspect it also indirectly criticized the values of the dream.

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CHAPTER IV AMERICAN DREAM IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF A FATHERS PRAYER Prayers like gravel flung at the skys window, hoping to attract the loved ones attention . . .

(R. S. Thomas Y) This poem could be the right description of MacArthurs feeling when he wrote the prayer for his son. He wanted to attract Gods attention as the One he loved by flinging the gravel to sky through the words he created. The prayer that he wrote was dedicated to his son to whom he hoped would be better than he was in the future, like what the basic philosophy of American Dream wants to reach. Then, he faced God and expressed his feeling about his concern. It is not a sudden emotion then he wrote that hope in a form of prayer. Based on his biography, it is a long term of contemplation to create a prayer in spite of his religious life. Even though he was a devoted Episcopalian, MacArthur was a religious man in unconventional way. He read Bible everyday though did not like to go to the Church. Yet, he believed in the mercy of God; going to church did not guarantee to get Gods love. He analyzed Bible in the way he believed and thought he was one of the two greatest religious men besides Pope (Manchester: 15).

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From the language he used in the prayer such antonym and synonym or positive and negative diction, it shows that he did praying regularly, not ritually. He did communication with God intensively and privately. The beauty of language used in the prayer showed that he did praying not as the obligation of a creature to the Creator but the need from human to his God; like what Mother Theresa taught about praying that the more someone prays the more beautiful the language he or she uses (Yancey: 162). Making such kind of a prayer is not only a matter of communication with God but also evaluation to what someone got before. Benson and Wirzba in their book The Phenomenology of Prayer stated that prayer aimed to evaluate in terms of its divine and eternal goal (2). By this personal prayer, MacArthur wanted to give up the centrality of the self since the effect of prayer is changing someones passion so that he or she learns to live and love differently (2). In his prayer, MacArthur showed his love to his son in a different way. He realized that he had hopes to him, but the evaluation of his life journey through his experience as a man of destiny made him to contemplate into eternal goal for his son in the future; and it could be for other people, too. To understand why a person like Douglas MacArthur wrote such kind of prayer needs long comprehension related to his biography either as a son of destiny, a man of destiny or a tragic hero who was fired in the end of his military career . So then, critical discourse analysis will be used in analyzing this prayer. Like what Faircloughs theory stated that in analyzing the text means we start from the text itself, whatever the form (4). Then, the next step is the process

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of text production, consumption and production. In this part, this writing will consider the analysis to the historical, religious and psychological background which made MacArthur wrote that kind of prayer. After that the analysis will go to sociocultural analysis of the discursive event. Talking about it means it cannot apart from the idea of American Dream in which inspired the production of the prayer unintentionally and the condition of American society at that time. American Dream concept as the dominant IDF (ideological-discursive formation) tries to naturalize the idea to the society and it does, but this prayer has different view; it tries to propose different idea about American Dream. It denaturalizes what Americans hold tightly for long times into critical view based on the era. Based on the theory of critical discourse analysis it is a kind of hypogram in which intertextual does much in it (188). Based on the description of the theory above and related to the messages and the values in A Father Prayer, thus, this chapter analyzes the prayer in the way of the values of American Dream and, in turn, criticizes the values through ideas in the prayer. For that purpose, this writing will be divided into four parts, they are the analysis of the prayer form, some ideas of the prayer through the experience in Macarthurs life and the last but not least, the values of American Dream which is embedded in the prayer as well as the new idea of American Dream values found in the prayer.

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A. THE FORM OF THE PRAYER Prayer is a communication with God. It is a two-way dialogue, not monologue. It is fellowship, relationship, and intimacy with Him. When he prays, someone should thank, love, praise, appreciate and hang out with the God
nothing special or dramatic (Wommack: 89); but MacArthur uses those effect, so

special and dramatic. The words he chooses in forming the prayer attracts the one who read it by using synonym and antonym as well as the positive and negative meaning. Like the other ordinary prayers, what he wrote actually does not have any title or fixed title. As a hero, American government in which I cited the prayerthrough MacArthur Memorial, gives a title for this prayer A Father Prayer, while the other sources give it a name A Fathers Prayer (Tomi Wisats Blog), and in A Fathers Day celebration American people prefer to use A Prayer for My Son (A Fathers Day Lesson, ppt: 21-28). It also has different versions in stanza performing. A Father Prayer performs it into six stanzas while the others perform it into five stanzas, in this case they combine the second and the third stanza. The differences could be triggered by the different policy of publishers or different need of the users. Among the others, A Father Prayer has the complete content because the other versions cut or change some points; the differences are Build me a son whose wishbone will not be where his wishbone should be;(2) Becomes Build me a son whose whishes will not take the place of deeds(both)

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A son who will know Thee and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge (2) Becomes A son who know Thee who is the foundation stone of knowledge (A Prayer for my Son)

In the fourth stanza, there is no phrase of One who will learn to laugh, yet never forget how to weep; (both) Whatever the version, it has same function; it is a prayer. May be,

MacArthur never thought and predicted that what he prayed was very phenomenal later on not only for American society but also whole parents, especially fathers, around the world. He just wrote it as a strong feeling after what he experienced before. Like in the previous chapter explains that he was a tragic hero who did a lot for his country and the world especially in the World War II but he got fired in the end of his career. He had been hurt, but by that condition he did contemplation then finally bore this prayer for his son. According to the form, the prayer is like a poem, a religious poem. This prayer is like a literary work which has simple form of stanzas consists of speech, feeling, and motion of thought. It does not have figurative meanings or any other symbols in the speech because it emphasizes into the feeling and the thought of the writer. The speech uses in it is an ordinary diction though has poetic tone. In A Father Prayer, there is no symbolism or connotative idea in the diction MacArthur chooses. All words in it have denotative function. The poetic tone uses in the prayer is to beautify the prayer itself.

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The prayer consists of six stanzas; five stanzas convey his request to God to shape his sons future through his personality, not physical one, and the last stanza emphasizes his asking through the hope as a father. Unlike the usual prayers which give clear meaning in the diction, MacArthur uses implicit meaning in expressing his idea. He does not choice the sentence in which people could guess easily the essence of his communication with God rather than people should think a lot to understand it. This following description and explanation will analyze the way MacArthur prays through the form it should be, according to the theory of prayer proposed by Andrew Wommack. a. Thank
A good prayer, according to Wommack, should show his or her grateful to what God has given to him or her (90). It should be in the first part of the prayer because it shows the humility of ours as His creature and our weakness without His help (91). But MacArthur uses it in different way. MacArthur really uses the prayer as a media of fellowship, relationship, and intimacy with God. He does not mention any thank in his words. Like talking to his fellow, he directly asks what he wants to ask, by using the language of hoping. But unlike asking to friend, there is no word please in it. In the prayer, three times he uses the phrase Build me a son; in the first, the second and the forth stanza.

Build me a son, O Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak, and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid; (1).

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In the first Build, he wants his son to be someone who understands the meaning of bravery and fear and knows how to manifest it. Remembering his experience in his childhood until his older age, he never compromised with the name of fear. He refused the reason of fear from his assistants as cowardice personality (the movie). It could be because his parents taught him like that; no fear for a man (Manchester: 56). That is why he could be calm even in the war situation.

Build me a son whose wishbone will not be where his backbone should be; (2)

The second Build, he wants his son to have a big dream. He realizes that he only has a son. It means, like him in past, his son could be a son of destiny, to whom he might rely all his dreams on him. He may hope much to his sons future but he never directs him into the dream MacArthur creates for him. He wants his son to have his own dream. He hopes his son does not forget the history behind him because it shaped him but it is just the spirit and lesson in which he can continue his life and find something he wants to achieve.

Build me a son whose heart will be clear, whose goal will be high; (4)

The last Build, MacArthur wants God to give his son good morality. He hopes his son knows how to apply the intellectuality through the integrity, moral and wisdom. He hopes his son will use his heart in getting his goal. He does not want his son to be someone, like him in the past, sensitive to the critic and thinks only him who is right and important.

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Basically there is no introduction in his prayer. He greets his Lord to the point. But in the last stanza of his prayer MacArthur says, Then, I, his father, will dare to whisper, have not lived in vain. It is the way how he says thanked to God if He granted his prayer. He does not mention that word explicitly, but he uses other word to say how grateful he is as a father in the future since he asks humbly for the future of his generation. That sentence also shows his consciousness about his weakness. He has asked to God for betterment, and he has given his sons fate in Gods hand. Thus, it is Gods authority for the next.

b. Love Love is a kind of attention in a prayer (98). The one who loves other one will like to mention his or her name many times, but in the prayer MacArthur only mentions the name of God twice, in the first and in the second stanza. In the first he mentions O Lord and in the second he mentioned Thee. Build me a son, O Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak (1)

a son who will know Thee and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge.(2)

This prayer is not a long payer, but from six stanzas he only calls the name of God in the early of his prayer. Theoretically, it does not show the depth of love. Yet, from the language he uses, MacArthur is so sure that God knows it. He does

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not need to mention the name of God many times. As the one who believes in the mercy of God, he knows God loves all his creatures. He uses imperative language in his prayer. In the term of grammar, imperative language means asking someone to do the thing like he orders. Macarthur is just human, but the way he asks to his Creator just like the way he asks to other human. He really treats God with fellowship and intimacy; no shy and no distance. All stanzas in the prayer started by those imperative words, such as: Build me a son . (1 ,2 and 4) Lead him. (3) Add, I pray, enough of sense of humor. (5) From those phrases, grammatically, MacArthur orders God to build his son, to lead him and to add him. It is not good, theoretically, in the language of prayer, but Macarthur uses them as poetic words so the prayer has the soul of unity between him and God; it is beautiful to read. God really understand what inside of humans feeling and thought. As the one who believes in Gods love, he was so sure not to mention the love explicitly. He feels there is no distance between him and Him. He believes God will understand the way he prays; God is not stupid to understand the meaning behind it.

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c. Praise Unlike what Wommack explained about prayer that a man should praise God in order to get His attention (90), MacArthur does not use that word. There is no word indicates a praise to God in MacArthurs prayer, either at the first, in the middle or at the last part of it. He just directly expresses to God about the things he needed for his sons future but in humble words. Even though there is no praise in his prayer, but his words are really attractive for the one who reads it. In every sentence he chooses, he always uses positive and negative term, for example: Build me a son, O Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak, and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid. (1) Lead him, I pray, not in the path of ease and comfort, but under the stress and spur of difficulties and challenge. (3) One who learn to laugh, yet never forget how to weep; one who will reach into the future, yet never forget the past. (4) Although there is no word of praise in his prayer but he offers balance of life in his words; and he knows that only God who can help him to make it. Human can create something concrete, but not the intangible one like moral and personality. Human may do the effort but God who can make it into reality. He wants his son to reach the highest dream in balance manifestation. He exposes the

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balance of personality, intellectuality, time, and spirituality. That is the way Macarthur praises God. He does not use the word of praise explicitly. But by showing his weaknesses that he can change anything without Gods help, he praises God implicitly. The negative and the positive meaning he uses in the prayer show that he is a human; that is humans characteristic having strengths and weaknesses. God creates them as parts of human life. No human in the world who only has one side of life without the balance. d. Appreciation Like the previous aspects of prayer, there is nothing of appreciation in the prayer. MacArthur does not mention the thing he has achieved in life and for that he appreciates God in giving him opportunity to be a great one. But the idea of appreciation he conveys in it comes up from his experience. He talked about fear and bravery in the first stanza, dream and achievement in the second and the forth stanza, up and down in the third stanza, then mistake and truth in the fifth stanza. All of them show the experience he has and he wants to make them up. He was the one who never had fear because it was the doctrine he got from his parents (Manchester: 56, 60). He also the one who had a big dream and it was also because the way his parents taught him by telling how to get great achievement (30). He even the one who made many controversies because of his idea (23), whether the idea is good or not but he was a revolutionary in many things especially in military field.

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By those experiences, he tries to fix the future. He wants to explore some wisdom or even virtue through his experience and notes it in his prayer. He really appreciates what God has given to him in the past as an experience, whatever the experience either good or bad. Both of them are important as a lesson for his son to make it better in the future. Again, he does not use the word of appreciation explicitly, but it is embedded through the diction he chooses. The appreciation he conveyed not because the achievement he got but because the experience he had. e. Hang out In spite of unconventional prayer, which has no aspects of prayer elements previously, this form is a real prayer. This communication is a kind of way in hanging out with God. Although Wommack said that asking and receiving is one purpose of prayer but it is definitely not the purpose of the prayer (89), but MacArthur shares what he feels and hopes and even his dream about his son to God in the way of asking. He states that he prays twice by saying I pray; in the third and the fifth stanza.

Lead him I pray, not in the path of ease and comfort, but under the stress and spur of difficulties and challenge. Here let him learn to stand up in the storm; here let him learn compassion for those who fail.(3)

In the third stanza he prays that his son would have opportunity to examine his life through stress, difficulties and challenge and learn from those who failed. The last part of this hope is a common thing parents tell to their children that they must learn from failure. But for the previous ones, very few of

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parents do that. Most of parents prefer their children live happily without any obstacles and difficulties; but MacArthur makes it in different way. Based on his experience in achieving his destiny, obstacles and difficulties helped him become stronger and tougher. Besides that, by examining life through difficulties, he hopes that his son will be wiser and humbler facing his life whether he is in easy or in hard condition.

And after all these things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously. Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength. (5)

In the fifth stanza he prays that his son would have good outdoor life; knows when he has to be serious and not. He hopes his son would learn something from his social life then he brings it into his inner life and gets wisdom from it. He hopes his son realizes that humility will bring him into the real greatness. He, his son, does not need to look great in front of many people because the greatness will come through his humility. He must strengthen what he has inside before he looks so strong outside. He also has to respect other people if he wants people respect him. The one that MacArthur wants to say is make anything inside good before exposing it outside, because if the outsider thinks we are good unfortunately we are not, it is not the true greatness. Make it great wholly, inside and outside.

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The form of the prayer MacArthur made is really unconventional just like the writer of the prayer who is very controversial. But it is showing him as the one who always had different idea with other people. He has an idea, a new idea from the long journey of life he has. Outsiders only think that he is great, did many things, and got a lot of medals. People never think that MacArthur had to pass through many obstacles to come to the position of virtue, and it makes him has an idea of facing life and getting dream; the dream that Americans should have from their past experience. B. SOME IDEAS IN THE PRAYER THROUGH MACARTHURS EXPERIENCE The writing form of the prayer is just like a poem, but the theory used to analyze is different. Prayer does not need to consider some rules like in a poem but a prayer needs poetic words to enrich and beautify the purpose of the dialogue to God. Prayer needs religious language because it provided common ground for what otherwise might remain faction separated by cultural difference (William and Alexander: 3). MacArthurs prayer, even though it seems so far from the pattern it should be, but basically it uses common ground of religious language although in unconventional way. Chapter III has stated that MacArthur was being the only son by condition. As a son, he was so obedient to his parents. What his father and mother said was like doctrine which he held tightly for whole his life. He was like a continuation of what his father could not achieved. They even seemed create what should

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Douglas do and what should not. And such his parents expected, he accepted as a destiny. Then, being a son or a man of destiny filled his brain. As a student, his friends and his seniors confessed that he was outstanding. He never mentioned his fathers name as a general and never used that position though he was in hard condition because of bullying from his seniors. He just proved it by his achievement in academic and extracurricular. Then everybody in West Point had to confess that the young man was really meaningful. He was worth enough to graduate from the academy. As an army, he was undeniable great. He did many successes in many battle strategies. He was not only a handsome and charming soldier, but also smart army officer. He knew his greatness and mixed it with the doctrine he got from his parents. Then it completed enough to make him become a controversial person. He was so critical, but sensitive to be criticized; a typical of a very genius person. He never realized that he did it. He just followed what he thought it was correct, including criticizing or disobeying his superior. But he was a religious man; that was his mothers doctrine in teaching him getting achievement. As the one who had the character traits of American Dream, Pinky always reminded him about the mercy of God; that God would always love him if he did something good and would help him in any kinds of difficulties (Manchester: 36). Thus, no matter in what place he was, he always did something meaningful in order to get the mercy of God.

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MacArthur was an Episcopalian. Episcopacy, as part of Christianity, is a belief of lawful in its use and primitive in its origin (Farrar: 306). It claims the highest antiquity and the sacred wisdom learned from continuous experience (307). Then, it is no wonder that MacArthur learned much from his experience, either as a son, as a student and as an army officer. He believed that he got the true wisdom from his long journey of life. His contemplation, in the form of prayer, does not mean without considering about the moral, social, and state rule; his concern covers whole things of humanity in which he got from his experience. Indeed, explicitly, MacArthur stated that this prayer was for his son, but the message inside could be for anybody who learns or tries to reach a better life, worldly and spiritually (from someone who made mistakes before). In his biography, MacArthur only thought about the real greatness through the eyes of viewers. He never compromised with weaknesses including fear and fail. But in his prayer, he did something different. He emphasized more to the personality and morality, something in which people cannot see but can feel. MacArthur was not a poet. He was a General who commonly giving speech in front of many people especially his subordinate soldiers. One of his famous speeches is Honor, Duty and Country. MacArthur was a general who had been taught to read a lot of books. Remembering that he inherited about four thousands books from his father, it can be understood that he can mastery of vocabularies, Victorian prose and love neo-Augustan rhetoric (Manchester: 36).

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Victorian time is the age of transition between Romanticism in England and the Modern one. That is why literary works produced in this era gave an idea to change social and intellectual condition (Mundhenk: xvii). This era is viewed as the crisis of religious faith because many people treated Bible as a history book rather than the inspired word of God and questioned religious dogma and replaced religious faith with skepticism (xx). That is the spirit of Age, John Stuart Mills said. It is a belief that no culture ever anywhere faced the same problem and experience (xvii). This idea, which influenced MacArthur so much through the prose, gave an idea to this General to change condition socially and intellectually through his prayer for his son. He tried to shape the different condition by questioning some religious dogma such as the mercy of God. Is it just because he did something great in the eyes of human then he got the mercy of God? Is it so strict like that? It probably supported MacArthurs idea not to go to church because he did not want to listen to any dogma anymore. In his prayer, he also criticized the dogma believed by his society. By reading his fathers books also MacArthur was influenced by NeoAugustan rhetoric. Neo-Augustan or Neo-Classicism is a concept which opposes against modern poetry because modernism bearing traces of romantic and symbolist practice and discourse (Tuma: 720). This concept lives or dies in its variously hopeful, nostalgic, or utopian reliance on a common culture and a common reader (731). Then, it is very reasonable that Macarthur does not use any symbolic diction in his prayer. It is possibly that he assumed the reader of his

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prayer, in this case is his son, is a common reader who lives in a common culture; a culture in which naturalized by unconscious doctrine of American Dream. In spite of that condition, Neo-Classism can be made to serve diverse culture and conflicting ideologies (732). American Dream is not an ideology, but it is ideologized by the social norm in America. It becomes an idea covers American people traits in getting success. Without this idea, it seems Americans forget their history and their destination. As a concept which is being character traits for Americans, American Dream is placed as something big and undeniable that if someone wants to be better in his future he must follow the traits. But in his prayer, Macarthur tries to propose something different. He offers a new idea in giving the meaning of this concept. He was influenced much by Neo-Augustan that this concept bore with the tendencies of attributed to post-modernism (732). As the one who lived in two eras, modern and post-modern, MacArthur had introduced the seed of post-modernism in the early of this era. By the condition supported him, it is no wonder that he analyzed anything including questioning something believed as unchangeable idea or condition. His religion, his habit in reading books, and his experience of life had shaped him into someone who always learned through what he had experienced before. It triggered him to create a beautiful piece of writing. He never intended to publish the prayer because it was very personal, that is why there was no title for it. Yet, his writing is really touchy in the idea and the diction he chose. This reason probably makes this prayer loved by many people then MacArthur Memorial exhibits it.

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Based on the stanza conveyed, there are five ideas of message in the prayer in general, according to MacArthurs experience as a soldier and a man of destiny, they are: 1. Heroism

Build me a son, O Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak, and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid; one who will be proud and unbending in honest defeat, and humble and gentle in victory. (1)

In the first stanza, Macarthur mentions about bravery, fear, respect and gentry. As the one who grew up and involved in military field, he knows best about those words. Face your fear and do not drop you tear as a man; do not be a coward was a doctrine Macarthur got since he was child (Manchester: 56). Since it was the first lesson he got to be a man, then, he tells his son about fear and bravery. But unlike what he learned when he was a boy, in his prayer he reminds his son that being afraid and being brave are very normal as human. God gives those too adjectives as parts of human feeling. Both of them are traits in which human must be sensitive to be. The important thing he has to know is his own condition whether he has to be brave or to be afraid. He has to know whether he is in good or bad situation, in what part he is ready.

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Like described in the last part of the third chapter, MacArthur was a tragic hero. He got victory almost in whole battle he led. He really loved the glory however the way. He was so brave in the war and knew the good war strategy. Bravery was very important in his leadership. In managing the war he even broke the rules his superiors order. He did not want to be a looser. He had to be the winner. But as anthe international hero, he was fired unrespectably by Henry Truman. Then, he had long contemplation for this case. Based on his experience, there is no point being brave when someone is strong. Everybody can do that. The thing that someone must realize is being aware and alert when he is weak, and brave enough to confess his fear. The point is to be honest to self. As a hero, his experience to be honest to self condition is questionable. Sometimes he must deny all realities in front of him. He refuses all fear; as a soldier one must be brave even he knows what he will face in the battle. When he was in New Guinea, once he ordered one of his assistant and said, 'Lloyd, by some act of God, your brigade has been chosen for this job. The eyes of the Western World are upon you and your men. Good luck and don't stop (Long: 109). In this prayer, MacArthur thinks in different way, someone must be honest to be strong enough to know when he is weak and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid. He also talks about the way gentlemen do in the battle. It is not only the victory as the final result but how someone gets his glory. For this case, it is a hard thing for him to confess his rivals victory or feels nothing when he wins. In the biography it is so clear that MacArthur loved performing, enjoyed applause

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and hunger for honor (Pearlman: 268). In this prayer, he realizes that it is not the way gentleman should be. A good gentle hero is honest to himself and respects whoever his rivals. 2. Dream

Build me a son whose wishbone will not be where his backbone should be; a son who will know Thee and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge.(2)

The first sentence of this stanza is so clear giving an idea of generation relationship; it is relationship between MacArthur and his father and relationship between MacArthur and his son. When he was a son, his father treated him as the way his father wanted him to be. Then when he became a father, he tried to change the condition to his son. He does not want to treat his son in the same way his father treated him. He wants his son to understand about his own life.

As a son of destiny, MacArthur realizes that what he has done so far. He has got his greatness and it is a dream of his parents. He understands, as the only one hope, that his parents rely the dream on him to be the next Macarthur; and he does not regret for that. Even though it is a hard thing but he does it happily (Manchester: 58).

In the second stanza MacArthur still emphasizes about the dream to his son as the only one he may hope. But unlike what his parents did to him, he gives his son liberty to reach the dream he wants to get. He hopes his sons dream is not

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a succeeding dream of his parents. He wants his son become himself; he does not need to be like his father or his other ancestors. He must know his own destiny.

God creates human with their own destiny, none of them has exactly same destiny. As the owner of universe, God has arranged what His creature needs in their life. It does not mean that human does not have any choice in their life. They are free choosing kind of life they want to reach. They must work hard to get it. But God gives it in different way for different individual. The one will not be like other one. They have their own fate. For that case, everybody must know God because knowing God means knowing himself.

3. Achievement

Lead him I pray, not in the path of ease and comfort, but under the stress and spur of difficulties and challenge. Here let him learn to stand up in the storm; here let him learn compassion for those who fail. (3)

Macarthur is a real achievement seeker (Frank: 6). Since he was in military school until the end of his career, he had molded his name in the world history. He did the best effort to be the outstanding student under pressure he got from his seniors because of his fathers position (4). He got the highest rank in the academy not because of his parents fame but because he made it by his own (Manchester: 61). In military career, he also did the best one started in the early of his career. He was the ambitious one (Long: 30). No matter how hard he reached it, he did the best effort for that; like what the character ethics of American Dream

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acquires, he is perseverance, industrious and thoroughness. But he did it with selfreliance. He never used his fathers name to make everything smooth. He faced the obstacles and difficulties to show that he was strong and brave enough to face his choice. The lesson he wants to say to his son is self-reliance, never rely on somebody elses shoulder. He must do it by himself. Slightly, the words in this stanza show that Macarthur is a mean father who does not want his son lives happily by asking to God to lead his son in the path of stress, difficulties and challenge; but a diamond would not be jewelry without process. The unexamined life is not worth living, Socrates said, and that is what Macarthur wants his son to be. He wants his son have quality of life. The perfect life is not by having excellent way to get. The higher level someone gets is because he has passed the test. Getting only the good side of life does not make the individual rich with the experience. But facing many kinds of experience will make his life fuller which brings him into virtue. MacArthur also wants his son to be rich and fuller in his life. He may make any great achievement, but reach it in a good way. He wants his son to pass every single step in his life, do not jump up because it does not make him mature in appropriate way. He hopes his son becomes a real diamond because he has passed the process.

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4. Intellectuality

Build me a son whose heart will be clear, whose goal will be high; a son who will master himself before he seeks to master other men; one who will learn to laugh, yet never forget how to weep; one who will reach into the future, yet never forget the past. (4)

MacArthur was a great leader. He was Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the South West Pacific area during World War II. He showed the capability being a leader started from the first time in his military career in the 3rd Engineer Battalion at Fort Leavenworth. This battalion was a kind of training in his probation period and a dump place for those who did not make any achievement. MacArthur did it; he was successful bringing this battalion doing the duty in France. He proved that he was a capable manager of men (Long;9-10). In the prayer, humbly MacArthur stated about leadership. Unlike his experience in which he always being a leader for other people, in the prayer he mentions about self-leading. That is what he wants to say for his next generation that everybody is a leader, at least leader for himself. Someone must understand himself before understanding someone else. It is not good pushing somebody else to understand us and we never try to understand somebody else. It is the point to be a leader, especially if we lead other people. Appreciation is important for those who do good work, and guidance and opportunity are important for those who fail. It is not a mistake or a sin for those who fail. Everybody may have that

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experience, but less of them accept it. It seems that failure is a kind of unforgiveable devil. He does not want his son, like him, to be sensitive with critics. As a leader he must have clear heart to think positively so he knows that the critic can bring to the betterment, to the higher achievement, higher goal. Related to the previous message about obstacles and difficulties, critic is a test to measure our achievement whether it is the great or the common one. MacArthur also tries to teach his generation about social life, that he must mingle with others. A person is a part of society; up and down in life are something common. He may be happy because of success, but there is time in which he must aware when he fail. All of them are the lesson for us to face our future without omitting our history, because we were born from the history. Even though we want to make our own history but we cannot omit the past time we have. History is like guidance for us to make better thing in our life. 5. Wisdom and Optimism And after all these things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously. Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength. (5) MacArthur is a serious one in thinking about his dream. As a son of destiny, he tried hard to fulfill what his parents dream about his future. He had to

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be bigger and greater than his father (Manchester: 56). He would feel failed if he just had same position like what his father had had. My father got it even when he was younger than me, that was what he said when FDR gave him a Medal of Honor (the movie). He was not so proud with that appreciation while other people envied him because of that medal. In the end of his military career he realized that he was great because of the dream (Manchester 790-791). But in the prayer, it is so clear that he does not want his son to do like what he did. He may be serious in reaching his dream but it does not mean he does not have sense of humor so people around him will be so tense and cannot work together properly because they do it under pressure. He realizes that the true greatness is not by showing his authority to other people because they will be afraid in front of him; who knows behind him. The true greatness is the one who is respected in front of and behind him. In spite of his weakness, people will still talk about his kindness. For reaching that condition, someone must be open-minded so he can accept someone elses opinion and appreciate others idea. He does not have to be selfish just to show or get the deceive greatness. The true strength is not by showing his power then people seem so small and powerless. Being wise in strength and weakness will enlarge our horizon in giving meaning of our life.

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C. THE VALUES OF AMERICAN DREAM IN THE PRAYER American Dream, firstly, is unwritten concept which the term proposed for the first time by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America, in 1931. He did not make the concept by his own but based on the idea embraced by the American society from the reason why they did long and hard journey. They believed that this New World was a promise land in where they could have better and freer life than their life before (Kaplan:1). Based on the history, American society needs an identity which differentiates them with the Old World, then the Declaration of Independence strengthened it. They believe that the Creator creates them with certain unalienable Rights that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness (1). Even though there are two kinds of Americans Dreams, individual and collective but to reach the dream (Pelligrini: 3), Americans need the concept of character ethic. The character ethic is stressing in ambition, hard work, selfreliance and self-discipline(DeVitis and Rich: 21-22). It will attract anyone in America in getting their success. Like in previous explanation that the meaning of success, mostly, related to the material one. Most Americans feel success if they feel good economically. This condition cannot be separated with their history of first immigrants who sailed there for better life and it is also supported by the capitalism applied in this country. But, thus, the values drives them into something more abstract, that to reach the dream is not enough just by having big

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house and luxurious car. They need character traits which form their characteristics. These traits will help them to form their mind before the reach the dream. Desirable character traits included perseverance, industry, frugality, sobriety, punctuality, reliability, thoroughness, and initiative (11). To analyze the values of American Dream which is embedded in A Fathers Prayer, this thesis will analyze it through those character traits one by one. a. Perseverance MacArthur does not mention the idea of perseverance explicitly. He always uses unusual diction to make the reader thinks a lot about the message and value he wants to express. But in the prayer, especially in the second stanza, he emphasizes his son to know himself and to know God more then he understands the destiny God designs for him.

Build me a son whose wishbone will not be where his backbone should be; a son who will know Thee and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge. (2)

He may have a dream which must be different from those before him. The next generation must be better than the previous one. If the ancestor had succeeded getting big achievement, the new one must make the other one. The meaning is as big as before but the manifestation does not have to be the same. Self-reliance never relies on somebody elses aid. That is why MacArthur stated

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in the prayer that his son may have his own dream and seeking in his whole life time. Everybody has his or her own fate but it does not mean he or she does not need to seek it. The one who understand himself will know the direction he wants to take. Before he reaches it, he is in the process; and process makes him has a better dream. Everyone wants to make his or her dream comes true, for that purpose they will do continues effort. It is perseverance. b. Industry The third stanza of the prayer, MacArthur asks the process of reaching the dream. MacArthur begs to God in order to give his son stress, difficulties and challenge in his life. It does not mean that MacArthur is the one who against the common ground. He does it because he understands that it is the way to perfect the result of the dream. In reaching the dream, the effort must be done as well as the work. Work hard and try hard to make the best, with God guidance. MacArthur was a glory seeker. He was a general who hunger of renown (Pearlman: 28), but for that he worked hard no matter whose son he was (Frank: 4). He also wants his son to work hard to get his own name not by using his fathers big name. He is free in choosing the dream he wants to make but do it with his own effort. Having self-existence is the point that the prayer wants to say. Everyone has their own identity; but if the identity turns to blur because of someone elses attachment, it is not the way American Dream wants to get. Just pass the test to

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get higher level. If someone wants to get better life, he must pass the path in front of him because difficulty makes the dream still alive. c. Frugality This point is the one which misses in MacArthurs prayer. He does not mention anything about money as well as the other physical terms. He just emphasizes into moral and personality building. One component of American Dream as an idea is to live better and success. Most American people define the meaning of success materially. Having house and car is an ideal success in American society (Cullen: 3). Of course to get them they have to work, and it does not stop in that level because they need the position in his work so then they can have better house and better car. That idea is conventionally unwritten idea about the application of American Dream in the era of capitalism. Through this prayer, MacArthur tries to renovate the idea of American Dream which mostly stress on financial. As the one who involved in the army and opposed the idea of New Deal and became the victim of politics (chapter 3), MacArthur sees the dangerous of capitalism which very possibly brings people into hedonism. This condition will lead people to think about material only and lost their identity as human and creature of God (Wommack: 90). But based on his experience as the army officer who got the highest salary when he was in Philippines under the offer of President Quezon (Frank: 33), he believes that someone who does the best and shows the achievement, money will

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come to him by itself. That is why MacArthur never talks about money because his life is enough proper even in his retirement (Manchester: 811). d. Sobriety Undeniable, MacArthur is a serious person. He is very serious getting achievement not only to make his parents proud of him but also because he himself loves renown (Manchester: 830). For that one, sometimes he forgets that he is not alone. He has some assistants who help him manifest the achievement he wants to create. Fortunately the achievement he make not only for his own need but for his countrys. The thing that is really fortunate because he worked in military field. Can you imagine if he worked in a company? Ninety percent he will do it for his own need. Based on his experience as a tragic hero (Manchester: 784), finally he realizes that being serious in getting achievement is important, but it does not mean sacrifice somebody else. All character traits in American Dream push people to do it seriously. In the prayer, MacArthur asks to God so his son knows when he has to be serious and when he does not have to. And after all these things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously. Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength. (5)

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People may have a very high goal, but reach it with clear heart so he does not make someone else becomes the victim of his ambition. Being ambitious is not a sin in American Dream as long as he does it with self-reliance and selfdiscipline. People may become a leader, but before it he must lead himself so he understands how to humanize other people. e. Punctuality Being punctual is not stated in the prayer. American Dream needs someone who is punctual to get better success because by doing anything on time, it means someone does not waste his or her time. He or she will be very industrious to produce something maximally. For MacArthur, being punctual is a common sense for those who are responsible. This prayer, seemingly, has predicted what will happen in the future that someone does not need to be punctual in doing their work but to be effective. In the past, most working hours were same, but now they were various. Being punctual is very important for a worker, but to be the great someone cannot stop in that level. In the past, especially in Great Depression, having a job was very important (Pelligrini: 158). But later on, people prefer having their own work than work to someone else. He or she must step his or her position up. American Dream, in present and in the future, does not want to produce the worker class only but also the leader and the thinker. Being punctual becomes a little bit absurd since being effective is more appropriate.

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f. Reliability Related to the previous point, MacArthur does not mention the character traits of being punctual. In the prayer, he prefers to stress on being responsible. Being punctual is more because there is rule arranges it, but being reliable is more to responsible to ourselves. One of the character ethics in American Dream is self-discipline (DeVitis and Rich: 11). Being discipline is not just a matter about time but also how serious we are in doing and finishing the thing. Being discipline requires ones consciousness and awareness that he or she has responsibility to him or herself. And after all these things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously. Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength. (5) In the first stanza, the prayer has mentioned about self-honesty. Being honest to other person may be a hard thing, but being honest to ourselves is even harder. The one who is reliable will be responsible to the task he has to do. He will not avoid the burden he has and deny the mistake he makes, he will confess it gently. In the fifth stanza, the prayer also mentions about seriousness. A reliable person will be serious with his work. A reliable person never considers whether the task he has to do is big or small one. He or she will do it well. Not only

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serious, a reliable person is also sincere doing it, not because of compliment or reward. g. Thoroughness Related to the previous point, thoroughness needs reliability. If the one is not reliable, he will not do or finish the task he has completely. Though there is no stanza mention about thoroughness, but in whole this prayer hopes that the son will be a person who is responsible and thorough to himself and to other people. The moral that MacArthur hopes in the prayer is so clear that he wants his son to be a complete person; the one who passes the way he should do and the one who knows how to get lesson and wisdom through the experience he has. Thoroughness in the prayer is also the reflection of MacArthurs duty as a father. He is a father who only has a son, so based on his experience he hopes much through the son that he will learns a lot from his fathers truth and mistake. That is why in the end of the stanza, MacArthur stated that as a father he has not lived in vain if all his prayer granted. In the last stanza he wrote, Then, I, his father, will dare to whisper, have not lived in vain. h. Initiative American Dream is a dream in the purpose of being better, finer and fuller (Adams: 173-174). Everybody wants to be like that. However, the thing which makes different with other culture is because American Dream requires self-

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reliance in each individual. The idea of this dream really appreciates the original initiative from a personal mind. American Dream is not plagiarism (Warren :1). That is why capitalism still stands up to now in America because it can maintain the initiative. Like in the prayer, MacArthur hopes his son have his own destiny in the future. He does not need to follow what his ancestors did in the past. He just needs to believe in God so he knows what path he should take.

Build me a son whose wishbone will not be where his backbone should be; a son who will know Thee and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge. (2)

Related to the message proposed in the prayer, in the point in the stanza is achievement. In American Dream, having same point in producing something is not an achievement. Someone is said get his achievement if he creates something different. American Dream requires the initiative to make something new. American society really appreciates new ideas; and they like doing it. The era in which people mocked something different has passed. By the capitalism system applied in this country, this point is so proper. D. THE CRITICAL VALUES OF AMERICAN DREAM IN A FATHERS PRAYER American Dream is an ideal for American people formulated from the reason of their early arrival to this continent and how they stand in this country up

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to now (Kaplan: 1). To indentify American people who are different with European ones, they need to formulate this concept (Adams: 43). Based on their reason coming to this promised land, they hope America will be bigger and bigger, and the people become better and better (Adams: 31). To make it bigger and better, they need the ethic of ambition, hard work, self-reliance and selfdiscipline (DeVitis and Rich: 11). So, being Americans, they must be ambitious, hard working, having self-reliance and having self-discipline. No one in America get better life without working hard. It is supported by the economical system applied there, capitalism. General Douglas MacArthur is an American as well as a part of American history that made this country bigger. In spite of his hunger on honor and renown, in fact he has made the dream come true. He did it because of the doctrine he got from his parents (Manchester: 37). His parents never said that they indoctrinated him with the idea of American Dream since the doctrines became the American character traits. All the teaching they gave to MacArthur was just the way to be a good American, especially a good army. MacArthur wanted to be a good American, and he is one of those criteria according to John Judge (6). For that, he applied all character ethics and traits in the way of American Dream. He did not know about the values of the dream. He just wanted to be the best like his parents hoped (Manchester: 58). He was the one with big ambition to be the best. People knew that he was a son of General Arthur MacArthur Jr., he did not deny it. But the achievement he got not because his parents. He worked hard for that (Long 7-8). He had proved to his father that he was better than him.

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His name is even more famous than his fathers. He had made his parents proud of him. As a soldier, he also had made American Army succeeded bringing the victory, especially in the World War II. In spite of his controversy such as the conflicts with two Presidents of America and a President of Philippines, he had saved his country. America became the winner of the war which it did not intend to join in. For getting the glory he must do the perseverance, industry, frugality, sobriety, punctuality, reliability, thoroughness, and initiative. After a long journey having career in military, finally MacArthur found the mistake of the doctrine unintentionally. It is not completely mistake, but he realized that the doctrine must be revised. Then, he did the revision through the prayer he dedicated for his son. Douglas Macarthur never stated that the values of American Dream embedded in the prayer, but the point in the stanzas of his prayer show it. Indeed, American Dream is something big. Some people say that it is unfinished dream (Bloom: 203). Physically it is unfinished dream because no one stops having dream. After they finish with one dream, soon they will have the other one. So, if most Americans define American Dream as success materially means after having a car, they will dream another car which is more than before. But actually, the unfinished one is also in the concept. Influence by the spirit of the early of immigrant of may be the spirit of frontier, American Dream always associated with something good. The idea is so good, to be success and

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make big achievement. The ethics are also good, being ambitious, hard working, self-reliance and self-discipline. The traits are unquestionable good; to be success someone must do the step of perseverance, industry, frugality, sobriety, punctuality, reliability, thoroughness, and initiative. No one finds the bad point of American Dream. That is why there is no failure in American Dream according to James Truslow Adam, because American Dream will change the common man into the superior one (Adam: 6). The concept of American Dream refuses all things which have negative meanings. The dream promises the better one, so everything must be started from the positive one. To be bigger they must be strong, to be better they must be serious, and to be winner they must be ambitious. The dream rejects weakness, humility, tears, fear and humor because they will loose the ideal. Related to the theory of Critical discourse analysis, American Dream is a kind of dominant ideological-discursive formation (IDF) in American society (Fairclough: 27). It gives the idea for many Americans to get success through the traits it offers in its concept. The idea of it becomes the speech community to strengthen the ideological norms in society. The concept of American Dream naturalizes the ideological norms in American social life through the form of characters traits. It is rooted from the experience of their ancestors. What MacArthur stated in the prayer is quite different. After doing all good things in his life, in his contemplation he realizes that it is not the way human should do. Being weak, humble, sad, afraid and fun does not mean the one

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does not have any dream. MacArthur tries to humanize the values through the normal human characters. The prayer offers a balance of life. There are strong and weak, humble and proud, sad and happy, afraid and brave, and other balances. God creates them as parts of human life. Those will cover one another. None can live only in one side of characters all the time. Life will be more perfect if it has experience in any kind of balance. The one who is strong and brave will be not complete if he never feels weak and afraid. It seems he is not a human. He will be the one who do not care other people and think he is the most important one. Each positive and negative side will make the life more beautiful and meaningful. The text of the prayer tries to denaturalize the capacity of the IDF of the former American Dream concept. It uses critical goals by involving how social structure determines properties of discourse and how discourse in turn determines social structure. The prayer contains some values of American Dream in the way how the social structure determine it. But as critical goal, the prayer also tries to give other determination to the social structure. Though this prayer is a personal one which is made based on the long personal experience, but the values in it can be used in determining the new concept of American Dream. The prayer states that someone must be strong enough to know when he is weak and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid (1). There are no weak and afraid in the former concept of American Dream. To reach the dream they

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must be brave and strong in order to be a superior one. But this prayer has different idea, weakness covers the strength and fear covers the bravery so then they do not make any ridiculous deeds in their lives.

The first stanza of the prayer states, one who will be proud and unbending in honest defeat, and humble and gentle in victory. It means that being the winner does not have to be proud and arrogant. Our opponent will respect us much if we receive the victory humbly and gently. And as long as we do the best for our effort in full integrity, we do not have to be afraid being a looser because winning and losing are something common in human life.

The former background of American Dream always stresses on the history, the reason why the first immigrants moved from the Old World to the New one. The prayer proposes that the one may remember about his past because history is part of his life but it does not mean he must have the same dream like his ancestors. He does not need to succeed someone elses dream especially those who passed away (2nd stanza). This prayer also agrees with the idea of difficulty and challenge in life because they are parts of success process (3rd stanza). It is not a big deal facing obstacle in life, but the one that former American Dream refuses is being failed. Meanwhile, this prayer does not treat failure as embarrassing thing. The one can learn from those who fail. There is no success if there is no failure. As the concept of from common to superior, American Dream emphasizes on how people have to work hard to reach the success. They must

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have higher goal in life and make big achievement. The prayer supports that idea but in the way of sincerity. The one who has higher goal must have clear heart so that he will do his portion appropriately; not because the need the honor, fame or welfare (4th stanza). Those things will follow the one who proves he is capable. It does not matter being a leader or being led; because there is no leader if there is no one to be led. The important thing he must understand his capacity. He must master himself before mastering somebody else (5th stanza). The established American Dream encourages American people to be leaders because it is an indication being success. To be serious is one of the requirements in getting success. But the prayer gives the balance that human life is not run steadily (5th stanza). There is a time in which he has to halt for a while, either to take a rest or to reconsider what he has done so far. Sometimes someone needs a moment to contemplate his journey. Being serious does not mean someone loses his sense of humor because sometimes we can find some wisdom through humor. In the last part of the prayer states, Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength (5). Those words indicate that the meaning of true greatness is not through pride and glory but through humility. The established American Dream teaches American society to be proud of themselves and being the winner in any kinds of competitions. The one does not have to be humble to show his success, but the prayer teaches different matter.

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The humility shows someones quality. The more qualified the one the more humble he is. This prayer is just a personal prayer of Macarthur which he dedicated for his son based on his long contemplation. He revised what he had got in his past. MacArthur did not intend to offer the new idea of American Dream. But the messages in the prayer have criticized the way society determine the values of American Dream. Unlike the former concept of American Dream, the point of this prayer is to give balance in human life. Anyone may have dream; they may make big achievement and get success by working hard ambitiously, but they must realize life covers all side of humanity. It needs up and down, left and right, true and mistake, etc. To perfect humanity someone must pass those paths. Through this prayer also, Macarthur reminds his son that the value of war is not about how to win the battle but how to fight with full integrity because the real war is not in the battle field but how to win self ego. In spite of Episcopalian background, the influence of Victorian and NeoAugustan books and the experience he had, the spirit of this idea could be supported by the era in which this prayer made. This prayer was made by Macarthur in 1952, the era after the World War II which is known as post-modern era. In this era, the spirit is always questioning all established ones. Joyce and Kelly state in their article that post-modernism is indistinguishable from the form of documentary presentation, the conceptual and political appropriation and the

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historical discourses that constructed it (208), but it also must responds to the anti-reductionist logic to think about new version of social of old valuations (209). Then, based on the spirit supports it, there are two things which are questioned by this analysis, the form of the prayer and the values of it. Even the form of text is a kind of poem but it is a prayer; a personal prayer for a personal son but the message inside is questioning all aspects including the meaning of prayer itself. Is a prayer just a personal communication with God? Then why does MacArthur Memoriam write and publish it to public? Can a prayer criticize something? Can a prayer analyze an established formula? In the book of Phenomenology of Prayer Benson and Wirzba had mentioned that the aim of prayer is to evaluate in terms of its divine and eternal goal (2). What MacArthur evaluated is not merely the divine and eternal goal vertically but also the goal evaluation horizontally. The value of the prayer cannot be separated with its prudence. It seems that the prayer is written by someone who dissatisfied with the routines of the present (Harriman: 26). Prudence, which taken from Aristotelian conception, is a kind of theory that tends to address and rephrase, question regarding the relationship between practical and theoretical knowledge, between cultural norms and more general claims to reason and between aesthetic criteria and political interest . One of the virtues of prudence is a mean for theorizing the experience and intelligence of real people (26). This prayer is a personal prayer which is made based on the experience, asks sincerely to God for a better life of the better

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generation, and then finally theorizes something worth for all people because of the content which is full of enlightenment. The spirit of the age in postmodern era is trying to question all established ones to be more critical so then people do not follow the step just because it is the way the ancestors did. They must have reason why they choose the path. They may have different idea about anything, but the important thing they must know the background support them. Post modern era tries to answer the peoples anxiety of anything. They must be sure with the way they choose not because that is the way most people take. Like in the spirit of the prayer, it is questioning whether the formula of American Dream is human enough to humanize the human.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION

American Dream is an established ideal concept for American people since eighteenth century. The spirit of this dream was triggered by the history of the first settlement arrived to this continent for looking the better life economically and spiritually. To be a big America like right now, the Americans still hold and believe this concept tightly. Even though this concept was started by unwritten formula but finally American Dream becomes the character traits for American people. It becomes unseparatable component with American society that is ambitious, hard-working, self-reliance and self discipline.

The value of American Dream is a belief of American success that people will get success if they work hard. The success they achieve is linier as the effort they do. There is no failure in American Dream because it requires people to try and try continuously through the character traits idealize in it.

General Douglas MacArthur was a portrait of American who could personalize the way American Dream work. Even though he was born before the term American Dream was proposed by James Truslow Adams, but the way his parents raised him was the way American Dream should be applied. He had been introduced into something great for his future but had to pass the obstacles before gaining it.

Applying what his parents had taught him made MacArthur had a bright

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career like meteor in the military so some of his colleagues envied him. His father, who was a General too, had made him believed in the destiny that he would be a big man someday. MacArthur had made it into reality. He could pass the obstacles and became an important man not only for America but also for the people around the world. His journey to be big could not be separated from the doctrine in which his parents taught him. Even though MacArthurs never introduced him into the term of American Dream, but they had given the value of it through the story and lesson while he was a child; a dream which change an American from a common man into an extraordinary one. Although MacArthur was a son of a famous General but the steps he passed to reach his success were not easy. Being a successful person considers an obsession for him and both his parents a matter he wanted to prove to his parents, but being fired was not the thing he had predicted. He thought he did something good for his country whereas Truman, the president, thought it was not. The recall was a real turning point for this General. By bringing embarrassment he went home to America. Still in his big name, he was supported by his admirers living in this country. But this big event had given him a huge lesson to evaluate his life and how he applied every single doctrine in his head. Finally he realized that the values which were established in his society needed to be reevaluated. He understood that it was not easy to change peoples thought in a short time, so he tried to transfer his idea to his son in a form of a prayer. As the one who applied all character ethics and character traits in American Dream, MacArthur still found inappropriate things in his life.

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Physically and materially he was success but not socially. He was loved by his assistants and admirers as well as respected by the enemy. Yet, there were those who hated him because of his luck; he was considered lucky because of his family background and his intelligence. In the end of his career, he was fired by President Henry Truman because he did not obey his command. It was really painful for a General who had worked for his country for fifty two years. Even though the history said that MacArthur did it for the priority matter in Korea, but nobody denied that his father also taught him that sometimes disobedience would bring us into the top. Related to this case, American Dream has its own term in reaching the success.

A Father Prayer is a piece of writing produced by MacArthur in order to eliminate the mistake of his next generation in the future. He hopes his son learns from his fathers mistake in the past. Influenced by his religious and intellectual background, he wrote the prayer. He was born in modern era in which people appreciate to logical thinking, and then he also lived in post modern era in which people are anxious with their life. They are questioning to the common or established thing in their life. They are not satisfied with one absolute answer so that they try to find it in different ways.

The prayer is a spontaneous work he made based on what he experienced. Then fortunately this prayer answers what people miss in the values or concept of American Dream. This prayer offers the balance of life. It shows how to humanize human in proportional way; that human has two sides in his life, good and bad.

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Besides the balance of life, MacArthur also proposes the idea of war values in human life through his prayer. The meaning of winning the war is not just defeating our enemy in physical war in the middle of a battle field; the hardest war to face by human is his self ego. A man has to learn how to fight his self ego from the ambition of being unproportional superior. It is the unseen enemy that is the most difficult to be defeated.

Related to the concept of American Dream, it means that people do not only work hard to find something concrete or tangible but they also must fulfill the quality of their life, such as integrity, sincerity and humanity

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Cullen, Jim. The American Dream: Short History of an Idea That Shaped a Nation. Oxford University Press. 2003

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Appendix

A Father Prayer by General Douglas MacArthur (May 1952)

Build me a son, O Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak, and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid; one who will be proud and unbending in honest defeat, and humble and gentle in victory. Build me a son whose wishbone will not be where his backbone should be; a son who will know Thee and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge. Lead him I pray, not in the path of ease and comfort, but under the stress and spur of difficulties and challenge. Here let him learn to stand up in the storm; here let him learn compassion for those who fail. Build me a son whose heart will be clear, whose goal will be high; a son who will master himself before he seeks to master other men; one who will learn to laugh, yet never forget how to weep; one who will reach into the future, yet never forget the past. And after all these things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously. Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength. Then, I, his father, will dare to whisper, have not lived in vain.

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