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# Flexural strength tests of ceramics

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Extremely low ductility of ceramic materials does not allow measuring their mechanical properties by conventional tensile test, which is widely used for metals. Brittle Materials, including ceramics, are tested by Flexure Test (Transverse Beam Test, Bending Test). There are two standard Flexure Test methods:

## 3-point Flexure Test 4-point Flexure Test Flexural strength calculation

3-point Flexure Test In this test a specimen with round, rectangular or flat cross-section is placed on two parallel supporting pins. The loading force is applied in the middle by means loading pin. The supporting and loading pins are mounted in a way, allowing their free rotation about:

axis parallel to the pin axis; axis parallel to the specimen axis.

This configuration provides uniform loading of the specimen and prevents friction between the specimen and the supporting pins.

4-point Flexure Test In this test the loading force is applied by means of two loading pins with a distance between them equal to a half of the distance between the supporting pins.

Flexural strength calculation As a result of the loading, the specimen bends, causing formation of in its convex side and compression stress in the concave side. The cross head speed in flexural test normally varies within the range 0.004-0.4 inch/min (0.1-10 mm/min). Speeds 1 mm/min and 0.1 /min (2.54 mm/min) are mostly used in the tests. The maximum stress and corresponding maximum strain are calculated for every load value. The results are then plotted in the stress-strain diagram. Modulus of Rupture (Flexural Strength) is the stress of the extreme fiber of a specimen at its failure in the Flexure Test. Flexural Strength is calculated by the formula: = 3LF/(2bd) in 3-point test of rectangular specimen = 3Fa/(bd) in 4-point test of rectangular specimen = 16Fa/(D) = 2Fa/(r) in 4-point test of round specimen Where

L specimen length; F total force applied to the specimen by two loading pins; b specimen width; d specimen thickness; r specimen section radius; a - distance between the supporting and loading pins; D section diameter of round specimen.

## Fracture toughness tests of ceramics

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Fracture is a process of breaking a solid into pieces as a result of stress. There are two principal stages of the fracture process:

## Crack formation Crack propagation

There are two fracture mechanisms: ductile fracture and brittle fracture. Ceramic materials have extremely low ductility, therefore they failure by brittle mechanism.

## Brittle fracture Fracture Toughness Flexure Test Indentation Fracture Test

Brittle fracture Brittle fracture is characterized by very low Plastic deformation and low energy absorption prior to breaking. A crack, formed as a result of the brittle fracture, propagates fast and without increase of the stress applied to the material. The brittle crack is perpendicular to the stress direction. There are two possible mechanisms of the brittle fracture: transcrystalline (transgranular, cleavage) or intercrystalline (intergranular). Cleavage cracks pass along crystallographic planes through the grains. Intercrystalline fracture occurs through the grain boundaries, embrittled by segregated impurities, second phase inclusions and other defects. The brittle fractures usually possess bright granular appearance.

Fracture Toughness Fracture Toughness is ability of material to resist fracture when a crack is present.

The general factors, affecting the fracture toughness of a material are: temperature, strain rate, presence of structure defects and presence of stress concentration (notch) on the specimen surface. Stress-intensity Factor (K) is a quantitative parameter of fracture toughness determining a maximum value of stress which may be applied to a specimen containing a crack (notch) of a certain length. Depending on the direction of the specimen loading and the specimen thickness, four types of stress-intensity factors are used: KC, KIC, KIIC, KIIIC. KC stress-intensity factor of a specimen, thickness of which is less than a critical value. KC depends on the specimen thickness. This condition is called plane stress. KIC,KIIC, KIIIC stress-intensity factors, relating to the specimens, thickness of which is above the critical value therefore the values of KIC, KIIC, KIIIC do not depend on the specimen thickness. This condition is called plane strain. KIIC and KIIIC stress-intensity factors relating to the fracture modes in which the loading direction is parallel to the crack plane. These factors are rarely used for metallic materials and are not used for ceramics; KIC plane strain stress-intensity factor relating to the fracture modes in which the loading direction is normal to the crack plane. This factor is widely used for both metallic and ceramic materials. KIC is used for estimation critical stress applied to a specimen with a given crack length: C KIC /(Y( a)) Where KIC stress-intensity factor, measured in MPa*m; C the critical stress applied to the specimen; a the crack length for edge crack or half crack length for internal crack; Y geometry factor. Two test methods are used for measuring fracture toughness parameter (stress-intensity factor) of ceramic materials: Flexure Test and Indentation Fracture Test.

Flexure Test
The test method is similar to that which is used for measuring Flexural Strength, however notched specimens are used.

## Indentation Fracture Test

Vickers Hardness Method is used for this test. Polished surface of a ceramic sample is indented by Vickers Indenter, resulting in formation of four cracks emanating from the indent corners. The cracks length is inversely proportion to the material toughness; therefore KIC may be estimated by measuring the cracks length.

## Hardness test methods

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Hardness is resistance of material to plastic deformation caused by indentation.

Sometimes hardness refers to resistance of material to scratching or abrasion. In some cases relatively quick and simple hardness test may substitute tensile test. Hardness may be measured from a small sample of material without destroying it. There are hardness methods, allowing to measure hardness onsite. Principle of any hardness test method is forcing an indenter into the sample surface followed by measuring dimensions of the indentation (depth or actual surface area of the indentation). Hardness is not fundamental property and its value depends on the combination of yield strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. Benefits of hardness test:

Easy Inexpensive Quick Non-destructive May be applied to the samples of various dimensions and shapes May be performed in-situ

Depending on the loading force value and the indentation dimensions, hardness is defined as a macro- , micro- or nano-hardness. Macro-hardness tests (Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers) are the most widely used methods for rapid routine hardness measurements. The indenting forces in macro-hardness tests are in the range of 50N to 30000N. Micro-hardness tests (micro-Vickers, Knoop) is applicable when hardness of coatings, surface hardness, or hardness of different phases in the multi-phase material is measured. Small diamond pyramid is used as indenter loaded with a small force of 10 to 1000gf. Nano-hardness test uses minor loads of about 1 nano-Newton followed by precise measuring depth of indentation.

Brinell Hardness Test Rockwell Hardness Test Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test Vickers Hardness Test Knoop Hardness Test Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test

## Brinell Hardness Test

In this test a hardened steel ball of 2.5, 5 or 10 mm in diameter is used as indenter. The loading force is in the range of 300N to 30000N (300N for testing lead alloys, 5000N for testing aluminum alloys, 10000N for copper alloys, 30000N for testing steels). The Brinell Hardness Number (HB) is calculated by the formula: HB = 2F/ (3.14D*(D-(D - Di))) Where F- applied load, kg D indenter diameter, mm Di indentation diameter, mm. In order to eliminate an influence of the specimen supporting base, the specimen should be seven times (as minimum) thicker than indentation depth for hard alloys and fifteen times thicker than indentation depth for soft alloys. Rockwell Hardness Test

In the Rockwell test the depth of the indenter penetration into the specimen surface is measured. The indenter may be either a hardened steel ball with diameter 1/16, 1/8 or a spherical diamond cone of 120 angle (Brale). Loading procedure starts from applying a minor load of 10 kgf (3kgf in Rockwell Superficial Test) and then the indicator, measuring the penetration depth, is set to zero. After that the major load (60, 100 or 150 kgf)is applied. The penetration depth is measured after removal of the major load. Hardness is measured in different scales (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K) and in numbers, having no units (in contrast to Brinell and Vickers methods). Aluminum alloys, copper alloys and soft steels are tested with 1/16 diameter steel ball at 100 kgf load (Rockwell hardness scale B).

Harder alloys and hard cast iron are tested with the diamond cone at 150 kgf (Rockwell hardness scale C). An example of Rockwell test result: 53 HRC. It means 53 units, measured in the scale C by the method HR (Hardness Rockwell). Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test Rockwell Superficial Test is applied for thin strips, coatings, carburized surfaces. Reduced loads (15 kgf, 30 kgf, and 30 kgf) as a major load and deduced preload (3kgf) are used in the superficial test. Depending on the indenter, two scales of Rockwell Superficial method may be used: T (1/16 steel ball) or N (diamond cone). 62 R30T means 62 units, measured in the scale 30T (30 kgf, 1/16 steel ball indenter) by the Rockwell Superficial method (R).

Vickers Hardness Test The principle of the Vickers Hardness method is similar to the Brinell method. The Vickers indenter is a 136 degrees square-based diamond pyramid. The impression, produced by the Vickers indenter is clearer, than the impression of Brinell indenter, therefore this method is more accurate. The load, varying from 1kgf to 120 kgf, is usually applied for 30 seconds. The Vickers number (HV) is calculated by the formula:

HV = 1.854*F/ D Where F-applied load, kg D length of the impression diagonal, mm The length of the impression diagonal is measured by means of a microscope, which is usually an integral part of the Vickers Tester.

## Knoop Hardness Test

A diamond pyramid indenter with angles 130 and 17030 is used in this method. The Knoop Hardness Test is applied for testing soft material and thin coating, since the penetration depth is very small (about 1/30 of the impression length). The loading force in the Knoop method are usually in the range of 10 gf to 1000gf (microhardness range). The Knoop number (HK) is calculated by the formula: HK = 14.229*F/L Where F-applied load, kg L long diagonal of the impression, mm Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test The Shore Scleroscope hardness is associated with the elasticity of the material. The appliance consists of a diamond-tipped hammer, falling in a graduated glass tube from a definite height. The tube is divided into 140 equal parts. The height of the first rebound is the hardness index of the material.

The harder the material, the higher the rebound. The Shore method is widely used for measuring hardness of large machine components like rolls, gears, dies, etc. The Shore scleroscope is not only small and mobile, it also leaves no impressions on the tested surface. Discuss the article and ask questions in our Materials Forum

## Hardness Conversion Table

(submitted by the website administration) HV RA RB RC RD HB HB R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T Diamon 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Shore Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 d Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm Pyramid 92 80 87 97 92 87 1865 92 79 86 96 92 87 1787 91 78 85 96 91 86 1710 91 77 84 96 91 85 1633 90 76 83 96 90 84 1556 90 75 83 95 89 83 1478 89 74 82 95 89 82 1400 89 73 81 95 88 81 1323 88 72 80 95 87 80 1245 87 71 80 94 87 79 1160 87 70 79 94 86 78 1076 101 86 69 78 94 85 77 1004 99 85.6 68 76.9 93.2 84.4 75.4 940 97 85 67 76.1 92.9 83.6 74.2 900 95 84.5 66 75.4 92.5 82.8 73.3 865 92 83.9 65 74.5 92.2 81.9 72 739 832 91 83.4 64 73.8 91.8 81.1 71 722 800 88 82.8 63 73 91.4 80.1 69.9 705 772 87 82.3 62 72.2 91.1 79.3 68.8 688 746 85 81.8 61 71.5 90.7 78.4 67.7 670 720 83 81.2 60 70.7 90.2 77.5 66.6 613 697 81 80.7 59 69.9 89.8 76.6 65.5 599 674 80 80.1 58 69.2 89.3 75.7 64.3 587 653 78 79.6 57 68.5 88.9 74.8 63.2 575 633 76

79

613 75 HV RA RB RC RD HB HB R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T Diamon 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Shore Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 d Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm Pyramid 78.5 120 55 66.9 87.9 73 60.9 546 585 74 78 120 54 66.1 87.4 72 59.8 534 577 72 77.4 119 53 65.4 86.9 71.2 58.6 519 560 71 76.8 119 52 64.6 86.4 70.2 57.4 500 544 69 76.3 118 51 63.8 85.9 69.4 56.1 487 528 68 75.9 117 50 63.1 85.5 68.5 55 475 513 67 75.2 117 49 62.1 85 67.6 53.8 464 498 66 74.7 116 48 61.4 84.5 66.7 52.5 451 484 64 74.1 116 47 60.8 83.9 65.8 51.4 442 471 63 73.6 115 46 60 83.5 64.8 50.3 432 458 62 73.1 115 45 59.2 83 64 49 421 446 60 72.5 114 44 58.5 82.5 63.1 47.8 409 434 58 72 113 43 57.7 82 62.2 46.7 400 423 57 71.5 113 42 56.9 81.5 61.3 45.5 390 412 56 70.9 112 41 56.2 80.9 60.4 44.3 381 402 55 70.4 112 40 55.4 80.4 59.5 43.1 371 392 54 69.9 111 39 54.6 79.9 58.6 41.9 362 382 52 69.4 110 38 53.8 79.4 57.7 40.8 353 372 51 68.9 110 37 53.1 78.8 56.8 39.6 344 363 50 68.4 109 36 52.3 78.3 55.9 38.4 336 354 49 67.9 109 35 51.5 77.7 55 37.2 327 345 48 67.4 108 34 50.8 77.2 54.2 36.1 319 336 47 66.8 108 33 50 76.6 53.3 34.9 311 327 46 HV RA RB RC RD HB HB R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T Diamon 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Shore Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 d Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm Pyramid 66.3 107 32 49.2 76.1 52.1 33.7 301 318 44 65.8 106 31 48.4 75.6 51.3 32.5 294 310 43 65.3 105 30 47.7 75 50.4 31.3 286 302 42 64.7 104 29 47 74.5 49.5 30.1 279 294 41 64.3 104 28 46.1 73.9 48.6 28.9 271 286 40.5 63.8 103 27 45.2 73.3 47.7 27.8 264 279 40 63.3 103 26 44.6 72.8 46.8 26.7 258 272 38 62.8 102 25 43.8 72.2 45.9 25.5 253 266 37.5 62.4 101 24 43.1 71.6 45 24.3 247 260 37 62 100.5 23 42.1 71 44 23.1 243 254 36 61.5 100 22 41.6 70.5 43.2 22 93 82 72 201 237 248 251 61 99 21 40.9 69.9 42.3 20.7 92.5 81.5 71 195 231 243 246 60.5 98.5 20 40.1 69.4 41.5 19.6 92.4 81.2 70.5 192 228 238 243 60 98 20 92.3 81 70 189 226 237 241

56

561

## 59.5 59 58 57.5 57 56.5 56

234 236 230 231 222 226 213 221 208 216 200 211 196 206 HV RA RB RC RD HB HB R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T Diamon 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Shore Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 d Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm Pyramid to Next page of Hardness Conversion Table Discuss the data and ask questions in our Materials Forum

97 96 95 94 93 92 91

19 18 16 14 13 11 10

## Thermal properties of ceramics

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich The following thermal properties of ceramic materials are important in various design considerations:

Thermal conductivity Thermal expansion Heat capacity Thermal shock resistance Maximum service temperature

Thermal Conductivity Thermal Conductivity () is amount of heat passing in unit time through unit surface in a direction normal to this surface when this transfer is driven by unite temperature gradient under steady state conditions. Thermal conductivity may be expressed and calculated from the Fouriers law: Q/ t = *S *T/ x Where Q -heat, passing through the surface S; t - change in time;

- thermal conductivity; S - surface area, normal to the heat transfer direction; T/x-temperature gradient along x direction of the heat transfer. Fouriers law is analogue of the First Ficks law, describing diffusion in steady state. In contrast to Metals Ceramics have low thermal conductivity due to Ionic-Covalent Bonding which does not form free electrons. Compare: of alumina = 47 BTU/(lb*F) (6.3 W/(m*K)). of Al = 1600 BTU/(lb*F) (231 W/(m*K)). to top Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Thermal Expansion (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) is relative increase in length per unite temperature rise: = L/ (LoT) Where -coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE); L length increase; Lo initial length; T temperature rise. Thermal expansion of ceramic materials is generally lower, than that of metals. Compare: CTE of SiC = 2.3 F (4.0 C). CTE of Al = 13 F (23 C). to top Specific Heat Capacity Heat Capacity is amount of heat required to raise material temperature by one unit.

Specific Heat Capacity is amount of heat required to raise temperature of unit mass of material by one unit: c= Q/(mT) Where c -specific heat capacity; Q amount of heat; m material mass; T temperature rise. Specific Heat Capacity of ceramic materials is higher, than that of metals. Compare: c ofalumina = 0.203 BTU/(lb*F) (850 J/(kg*K)). c ofsteel = 0.115 BTU/(lb*F) (481 J/(kg*K)). to top Thermal Shock Resistance Thermal Shock Resistance is an ability of material to withstand sharp changes in temperature. If a ceramic material is rapidly cooled, its surface reaches the temperature of cooling environment and tends to contract (thermal contraction). Since the interior regions of the material are still hot, thermal contraction of the skin surface is impossible. This leads to formation of tensile stress (thermal stress) in the skin. Such thermal stresses may cause cracks and consequent failure. Thermal shock resistance of a material may be estimated in accordance to the formula: Rs = (*F)/(*E) Where Rs thermal shock resistance; - thermal conductivity; F flexural strength -coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE);

E modulus of elasticity. Sensitivity of ceramic materials to thermal shock may be also determined by experimental method (Hasselmann Method). In this method a specimen (flexural test specimen) is heated to a specified temperature and then quenched. The specimen cools rapidly by temperature T (the difference between the specimen temperature before and after cooling). After quenching the flexural strength of the quenched material is measured by standard flexure (bending) test. The test results are plotted on the graph Strength vs. T. When T reaches a certain value the specimen strength falls sharply. This value of T is a parameter indicating thermal shock resistance of the material. Some ceramic materials have very low coefficient of thermal expansion therefore their resistance to thermal shock is very high despite of low ductility (e.g. fused silica): Rs of fused silica / Rs of soda-lime-silica glass = 45 to top Maximum Service Temperature Ceramic materials retain their properties at elevated temperatures due to the strong ioniccovalent bonding. Ceramics working at high temperature are called refractory ceramic materials. Some Borides, carbides and nitrides, having melting temperature above 5500 F (3040 C), are used in high temperature applications up to 3300 F (1800 C) 5430 F (3000 C). Compare: Scaling (oxidation) temperature of refractory stainless steel AISI 310 is 2100 F (1150 C). to top Discuss the article and ask questions in our Materials Forum

## Electrical properties of ceramics

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich The following electrical properties are characteristic for ceramic materials:

Insulating properties Electrical conductivity Dielectric Strength Dielectric Constant Semi-conducting properties Superconducting properties Piezoelectric properties Magnetic properties

Insulating properties In contrast to Metals Ceramics have very low electrical conductivity due to Ionic-Covalent Bonding which does not form free electrons. to top

Electrical conductivity
Electrical conductivity is ability of material to conduct electric current. The electrical conductivities differ by a factor as large as 10121021 between metallic and ceramic materials. Most of ceramic materials are dielectric (materials, having very low electric conductivity, but supporting electrostatic field). Electrical conductivity of ceramics varies with the frequency of field applied and also with temperature. This is due to the fact that charge transport mechanisms are frequency dependent. Further, the activation energy needed for charge migration is achieved through thermal energy and immobile charge career becomes mobile. The activcation energy can be calculated very easily using the Arrheneous relation. It is also possible to understand the type of mechanism responsible for conductivity from a.c conductivity data. to top

Dielectric Strength
One of most important dielectric properties is Dielectric Strength ability of a material to prevent electron conductivity at high voltage. Dielectric strength is determined as value of electric field strength (expressed in v/m) at which electron conductivity breakdown occurs. to top

Dielectric Constant

Other important property of dielectric materials is Dielectric Constant - relative (to vacuum) ability of a material to carry alternating current (dielectric constant of vacuum equals to 1). Capacitance of a capacitor is directly proportional to the dielectric constant of the dielectric material used in the capacitor. Dielectric ceramics are used for manufacturing capacitors, insulators and resistors. to top Semi-conducting properties Ceramics based on ZnO may possess semi-conducting properties when they are appropriately doped. The semi-conducting ceramics are usually prepared by liquid phase sintering with control of grain boundary structure. Semi-conducting ceramics are used for manufacturing varistors (resistors with non-linear current-voltage characteristic, which are used for over-voltage protection) and Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) Resistors. to top Superconducting properties Despite of very low electrical conductivity of most of the ceramic materials, there are ceramics, possessing superconductivity properties (near-to-zero electric resistivity). Lanthanum (yttrium)-barium-copper oxide ceramic may be superconducting at temperature as high as 138 K. This critical temperature is much higher, than superconductivity critical temperature of other superconductors (up to 30 K). The critical temperature is also higher than boiling point of liquid Nitrogen (77.4 K), which is very important for practical application of superconducting ceramics, since liquid nitrogen is relatively low cost material. Such ceramic superconductors are called High Temperature Superconductors (discovered in 1986 by Mueller and Bednorz). to top Piezoelectric properties Piezoelectric effects :

Generating piezoelectric effect: Mechanical stress, applied between two surfaces of a solid dielectric part, generates voltage between the surfaces.

Motor piezoelectric effect: Voltage, applied between two surfaces of a solid dielectric part, results in contracting (expanding) of the part.

Some ceramics (lead zirconate titanate, barium titanrate, bismuth titanate, lead magnesium niobate) possess piezoelectric properties. Piezoelectric ceramics are used for manufacturing various transducers, actuators and sensors like hydrophones, sonar, strain gauges, medical ultrasound equipment. to top Magnetic properties Magnetic Ceramics are prepared by sintering technology from iron oxide and barium/strontium carbonate with small amounts of other metal oxides. Magnetic Ceramics are called Ferrites. There are two types of Magnetic Ceramics (Ferrites):

Isotropic ceramic magnet with equal magnetic properties in all directions; Anisotropic ceramic magnets with magnetic properties in the direction of pressing.

Ferrites combine good magnetic properties (high magnetization) with very low electrical conductivity. Low conductivity of ferrites allows reducing energy loss, caused by eddy currents, induced in the material when it works in high frequency magnetic fields. Therefore the widest field of application of ferrites is high frequency appliances: ferritic antennas, speaker magnets, TV deflection-yoke cores and convergence coil cores, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), audio-visual recording heads. to top

## Physical properties of metals

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Optical properties Metals reflect equally nearly all visible electro-magnetic waves. Therefore the color of the most of the metals is white or silvery-white (except copper and gold).

Metals are lustrous due to the metallic bonding, contributing free electrons to the metal crystal structure and providing an ability of metals to reflect light when polished. Physical state Metals are solid at normal temperatures (except mercury). Metals transform to liquid from solid and to gas from liquid at definite temperatures(melting and boiling points), which are high for most of metals (except mercury, sodium and potassium). Most of metals have relatively high densities (except sodium and potassium with densities lower, than density of water). Electrical properties Metals have high electrical conductivity, provided by free electrons available in the metal crystal structure.

Peltier effect:

When there is an electric current, passing through a junction of two different metals, one of them evolves heat and another absorbs heat.

Thomson effect:

A current is produced in a metal conductor when there is a temperature gradient along its length. The Peltier and Thomson effects are widely used in thermocouples. Thermal properties

Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity () is amount of heat passing in unit time through unit surface in a direction normal to this surface when this transfer is driven by unite temperature gradient under steady state conditions. Thermal conductivity may be expressed and calculated from the Fouriers law: Q/ t = *S *T/ x Where Q -heat, passing through the surface S; t - change in time; - thermal conductivity;

S - surface area, normal to the heat transfer direction; T/x-temperature gradient along x direction of the heat transfer. Fouriers law is analogue of the First Ficks law, describing diffusion in steady state. Metals have high thermal conductivity. Heat is transferred through the metal crystal by free electrons. Compare: of alumina = 47 BTU/(lb*F) (6.3 W/(m*K)). of Al = 1600 BTU/(lb*F) (231 W/(m*K)).

## Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

Thermal Expansion (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) is relative increase in length per unite temperature rise: = L/ (LoT) Where -coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE); L length increase; Lo initial length; T temperature rise. Thermal expansion of metals is generally higher, than that of ceramics. Compare: CTE of SiC = 2.3 F (4.0 C). CTE of Al = 13 F (23 C).

## Specific Heat Capacity

Heat Capacity is amount of heat required to raise material temperature by one unit. Specific Heat Capacity is amount of heat required to raise temperature of unit mass of material by one unit: c= Q/(mT) Where

c -specific heat capacity; Q amount of heat; m material mass; T temperature rise. Specific Heat Capacity of metals is lower, than that of ceramics. Compare: c of alumina = 0.203 BTU/(lb*F) (850 J/(kg*K)). c of steel = 0.115 BTU/(lb*F) (481 J/(kg*K)). Magnetic properties Most of metals are slightly magnetic, but only few of them (iron, nickel, cobalt and their alloys) display pronounced magnetic properties, called ferromagnetism.

Magnetically soft metals metals, which are demagnetized after the magnetic field is removed. Magnetically soft metals are used in electric motors and transformers. Magnetically hard metals metals, retaining their magnetization after the magnetic field is removed.Magnetically hard metals are used for permanent magnets. Magnetostriction effect of changing dimensions of a ferromagnetic metal when its magnetization is changed.

## Tensile test and Stress-Strain Diagram

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Stress-Strain Diagram expresses a relationship between a load applied to a material and the deformation of the material, caused by the load . Stress-Strain Diagram is determined by tensile test.

Tensile tests are conducted in tensile test machines, providing controlled uniformly increasing tension force, applied to the specimen. The specimens ends are gripped and fixed in the machine and its gauge length L0 (a calibrated distance between two marks on the specimen surface) is continuously measured until the rupture. Test specimen may be round or flat in the cross-section. In the round specimens it is accepted, that L0 = 5 * diameter. The specimen deformation (strain) is the ratio of the increase of the specimen gauge length to its original gauge length: = (L L0) / L0 Tensile stress is the ratio of the tensile load F applied to the specimen to its original crosssectional area S0: = F / S0

The initial straight line (0P)of the curve characterizes proportional relationship between the stress and the deformation (strain). The stress value at the point P is called the limit of proportionality: p= FP / S0 This behavior conforms to the Hooks Law: = E*

Where E is a constant, known as Youngs Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity. The value of Youngs Modulus is determined mainly by the nature of the material and is nearly insensitive to the heat treatment and composition. Modulus of elasticity determines stiffness - resistance of a body to elastic deformation caused by an applied force. The line 0E in the Stress-Strain curve indicates the range of elastic deformation removal of the load at any point of this part of the curve results in return of the specimen length to its original value. The elastic behavior is characterized by the elasticity limit (stress value at the point E): el= FE / S0 For the most materials the points P and E coincide and therefore el=p.

A point where the stress causes sudden deformation without any increase in the force is called yield limit (yield stress, yield strength): y= FY / S0

The highest stress (point YU) , occurring before the sudden deformation is called upper yield limit . The lower stress value, causing the sudden deformation (point YL) is called lower yield limit. The commonly used parameter of yield limit is actually lower yield limit. If the load reaches the yield point the specimen undergoes plastic deformation it does not return to its original length after removal of the load.

Hard steels and non-ferrous metals do not have defined yield limit, therefore a stress, corresponding to a definite deformation (0.1% or 0.2%) is commonly used instead of yield limit. This stress is called proof stress or offset yield limit (offset yield strength): 0.2%= F0.2% / S0 The method of obtaining the proof stress is shown in the picture. As the load increase, the specimen continues to undergo plastic deformation and at a certain stress value its cross-section decreases due to necking (point S in the Stress-Strain Diagram). At this point the stress reaches the maximum value, which is called ultimate tensile strength (tensile strength): t= FS / S0

Continuation of the deformation results in breaking the specimen - the point B in the diagram. The actual Stress-Strain curve is obtained by taking into account the true specimen crosssection instead of the original value. Other important characteristic of metals is ductility - ability of a material to deform under tension without rupture. Two ductility parameters may be obtain from the tensile test: Relative elongation - ratio between the increase of the specimen length before its rupture and its original length: = (Lm L0) / L0 Where Lm maximum specimen length. Relative reduction of area - ratio between the decrease of the specimen cross-section area before its rupture and its original cross-section area: = (S0 Smin) / S0 Where Smin minimum specimen cross-section area. Discuss the article and ask questions in our Materials Forum

## Hardness test methods

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Hardness is resistance of material to plastic deformation caused by indentation. Sometimes hardness refers to resistance of material to scratching or abrasion. In some cases relatively quick and simple hardness test may substitute tensile test. Hardness may be measured from a small sample of material without destroying it. There are hardness methods, allowing to measure hardness onsite. Principle of any hardness test method is forcing an indenter into the sample surface followed by measuring dimensions of the indentation (depth or actual surface area of the indentation). Hardness is not fundamental property and its value depends on the combination of yield strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity.

## Benefits of hardness test:

Easy Inexpensive Quick Non-destructive May be applied to the samples of various dimensions and shapes May be performed in-situ

Depending on the loading force value and the indentation dimensions, hardness is defined as a macro- , micro- or nano-hardness. Macro-hardness tests (Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers) are the most widely used methods for rapid routine hardness measurements. The indenting forces in macro-hardness tests are in the range of 50N to 30000N. Micro-hardness tests (micro-Vickers, Knoop) is applicable when hardness of coatings, surface hardness, or hardness of different phases in the multi-phase material is measured. Small diamond pyramid is used as indenter loaded with a small force of 10 to 1000gf. Nano-hardness test uses minor loads of about 1 nano-Newton followed by precise measuring depth of indentation.

Brinell Hardness Test Rockwell Hardness Test Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test Vickers Hardness Test Knoop Hardness Test Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test

## Brinell Hardness Test

In this test a hardened steel ball of 2.5, 5 or 10 mm in diameter is used as indenter. The loading force is in the range of 300N to 30000N (300N for testing lead alloys, 5000N for testing aluminum alloys, 10000N for copper alloys, 30000N for testing steels). The Brinell Hardness Number (HB) is calculated by the formula: HB = 2F/ (3.14D*(D-(D - Di))) Where F- applied load, kg D indenter diameter, mm Di indentation diameter, mm. In order to eliminate an influence of the specimen supporting base, the specimen should be seven times (as minimum) thicker than indentation depth for hard alloys and fifteen times thicker than indentation depth for soft alloys. Rockwell Hardness Test

In the Rockwell test the depth of the indenter penetration into the specimen surface is measured. The indenter may be either a hardened steel ball with diameter 1/16, 1/8 or a spherical diamond cone of 120 angle (Brale). Loading procedure starts from applying a minor load of 10 kgf (3kgf in Rockwell Superficial Test) and then the indicator, measuring the penetration depth, is set to zero. After that the major load (60, 100 or 150 kgf)is applied. The penetration depth is measured after removal of the major load. Hardness is measured in different scales (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K) and in numbers, having no units (in contrast to Brinell and Vickers methods). Aluminum alloys, copper alloys and soft steels are tested with 1/16 diameter steel ball at 100 kgf load (Rockwell hardness scale B).

Harder alloys and hard cast iron are tested with the diamond cone at 150 kgf (Rockwell hardness scale C). An example of Rockwell test result: 53 HRC. It means 53 units, measured in the scale C by the method HR (Hardness Rockwell). Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test Rockwell Superficial Test is applied for thin strips, coatings, carburized surfaces. Reduced loads (15 kgf, 30 kgf, and 30 kgf) as a major load and deduced preload (3kgf) are used in the superficial test. Depending on the indenter, two scales of Rockwell Superficial method may be used: T (1/16 steel ball) or N (diamond cone). 62 R30T means 62 units, measured in the scale 30T (30 kgf, 1/16 steel ball indenter) by the Rockwell Superficial method (R).

Vickers Hardness Test The principle of the Vickers Hardness method is similar to the Brinell method. The Vickers indenter is a 136 degrees square-based diamond pyramid. The impression, produced by the Vickers indenter is clearer, than the impression of Brinell indenter, therefore this method is more accurate. The load, varying from 1kgf to 120 kgf, is usually applied for 30 seconds. The Vickers number (HV) is calculated by the formula:

HV = 1.854*F/ D Where F-applied load, kg D length of the impression diagonal, mm The length of the impression diagonal is measured by means of a microscope, which is usually an integral part of the Vickers Tester.

## Knoop Hardness Test

A diamond pyramid indenter with angles 130 and 17030 is used in this method. The Knoop Hardness Test is applied for testing soft material and thin coating, since the penetration depth is very small (about 1/30 of the impression length). The loading force in the Knoop method are usually in the range of 10 gf to 1000gf (microhardness range). The Knoop number (HK) is calculated by the formula: HK = 14.229*F/L Where F-applied load, kg L long diagonal of the impression, mm Shore Scleroscope Hardness Test The Shore Scleroscope hardness is associated with the elasticity of the material. The appliance consists of a diamond-tipped hammer, falling in a graduated glass tube from a definite height. The tube is divided into 140 equal parts. The height of the first rebound is the hardness index of the material.

The harder the material, the higher the rebound. The Shore method is widely used for measuring hardness of large machine components like rolls, gears, dies, etc. The Shore scleroscope is not only small and mobile, it also leaves no impressions on the tested surface. Discuss the article and ask questions in our Materials Forum

## Hardness Conversion Table

(submitted by the website administration) HV RA RB RC RD HB HB R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T Diamon 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Shore Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 d Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm Pyramid 92 80 87 97 92 87 1865 92 79 86 96 92 87 1787 91 78 85 96 91 86 1710 91 77 84 96 91 85 1633 90 76 83 96 90 84 1556 90 75 83 95 89 83 1478 89 74 82 95 89 82 1400 89 73 81 95 88 81 1323 88 72 80 95 87 80 1245 87 71 80 94 87 79 1160 87 70 79 94 86 78 1076 101 86 69 78 94 85 77 1004 99 85.6 68 76.9 93.2 84.4 75.4 940 97 85 67 76.1 92.9 83.6 74.2 900 95 84.5 66 75.4 92.5 82.8 73.3 865 92 83.9 65 74.5 92.2 81.9 72 739 832 91 83.4 64 73.8 91.8 81.1 71 722 800 88 82.8 63 73 91.4 80.1 69.9 705 772 87 82.3 62 72.2 91.1 79.3 68.8 688 746 85 81.8 61 71.5 90.7 78.4 67.7 670 720 83 81.2 60 70.7 90.2 77.5 66.6 613 697 81 80.7 59 69.9 89.8 76.6 65.5 599 674 80 80.1 58 69.2 89.3 75.7 64.3 587 653 78 79.6 57 68.5 88.9 74.8 63.2 575 633 76 79 56 67.7 88.3 73.9 62 561 613 75 RA RB RC RD R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T HB HB HV Shore

Diamon d Pyramid 78.5 120 55 66.9 87.9 73 60.9 546 585 74 78 120 54 66.1 87.4 72 59.8 534 577 72 77.4 119 53 65.4 86.9 71.2 58.6 519 560 71 76.8 119 52 64.6 86.4 70.2 57.4 500 544 69 76.3 118 51 63.8 85.9 69.4 56.1 487 528 68 75.9 117 50 63.1 85.5 68.5 55 475 513 67 75.2 117 49 62.1 85 67.6 53.8 464 498 66 74.7 116 48 61.4 84.5 66.7 52.5 451 484 64 74.1 116 47 60.8 83.9 65.8 51.4 442 471 63 73.6 115 46 60 83.5 64.8 50.3 432 458 62 73.1 115 45 59.2 83 64 49 421 446 60 72.5 114 44 58.5 82.5 63.1 47.8 409 434 58 72 113 43 57.7 82 62.2 46.7 400 423 57 71.5 113 42 56.9 81.5 61.3 45.5 390 412 56 70.9 112 41 56.2 80.9 60.4 44.3 381 402 55 70.4 112 40 55.4 80.4 59.5 43.1 371 392 54 69.9 111 39 54.6 79.9 58.6 41.9 362 382 52 69.4 110 38 53.8 79.4 57.7 40.8 353 372 51 68.9 110 37 53.1 78.8 56.8 39.6 344 363 50 68.4 109 36 52.3 78.3 55.9 38.4 336 354 49 67.9 109 35 51.5 77.7 55 37.2 327 345 48 67.4 108 34 50.8 77.2 54.2 36.1 319 336 47 66.8 108 33 50 76.6 53.3 34.9 311 327 46 HV RA RB RC RD HB HB R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T Diamon 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Shore Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 d Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm Pyramid 66.3 107 32 49.2 76.1 52.1 33.7 301 318 44 65.8 106 31 48.4 75.6 51.3 32.5 294 310 43 65.3 105 30 47.7 75 50.4 31.3 286 302 42 64.7 104 29 47 74.5 49.5 30.1 279 294 41 64.3 104 28 46.1 73.9 48.6 28.9 271 286 40.5 63.8 103 27 45.2 73.3 47.7 27.8 264 279 40 63.3 103 26 44.6 72.8 46.8 26.7 258 272 38 62.8 102 25 43.8 72.2 45.9 25.5 253 266 37.5 62.4 101 24 43.1 71.6 45 24.3 247 260 37 62 100.5 23 42.1 71 44 23.1 243 254 36 61.5 100 22 41.6 70.5 43.2 22 93 82 72 201 237 248 251 61 99 21 40.9 69.9 42.3 20.7 92.5 81.5 71 195 231 243 246 60.5 98.5 20 40.1 69.4 41.5 19.6 92.4 81.2 70.5 192 228 238 243 60 98 20 92.3 81 70 189 226 237 241 59.5 97 19 92 80.5 69 184 222 234 236 59 96 18 91.8 80 68 179 216 230 231 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm

58 57.5 57 56.5 56

222 226 213 221 208 216 200 211 196 206 HV RA RB RC RD HB HB R15N R30N R45N R15T R30T R45T Diamon 60 100 150 100 500 3000 Shore Brale Brale Brale 1/16 1/16 1/16 d Brale 1/16 Brale Brale 10mm 10mm Pyramid

95 94 93 92 91

16 14 13 11 10

## 91.5 91.3 91 90.5 90.8

79 78.5 78 77.5 77

## 210 205 200 195 190

Fracture Toughness
Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Fracture is a process of breaking a solid into pieces as a result of stress. There are two principal stages of the fracture process:

Crack formation

Crack propagation

Ductile fracture Ductile materials undergo observable plastic deformation and absorb significant energy before fracture. A crack, formed as a result of the ductile fracture, propagates slowly and when the stress is increased. Plastic deformation of a multi-phase material causes formation and coalescence of voids on the phase and inclusions boundaries. These voids are responsible for the specific appearance of the ductile fracture surface, consisting of numerous spherical micro-cavities (dimples), initiating formation of the crack. Tensile specimen fractured by the ductile mechanism is characterized by the cap and cone appearance of the fracture. Single-phase alloys and pure metals are more ductile, than metals, containing second phases or inclusions.

Brittle fracture

Brittle fracture is characterized by very low plastic deformation and low energy absorption prior to breaking. A crack, formed as a result of the brittle fracture, propagates fast and without increase of the stress applied to the material. The brittle crack is perpendicular to the stress direction. There are two possible mechanisms of the brittle fracture: transcrystalline (transgranular, cleavage) or intercrystalline (intergranular). Cleavage cracks pass along crystallographic planes through the grains. Intercrystalline fracture occurs through the grain boundaries, embrittled by segregated impurities, second phase inclusions and other defects. The brittle fractures usually possess bright granular appearance.

Toughness

Toughness is ability of material to resist fracture. The general factors, affecting the toughness of a material are: temperature, strain rate, relationship between the strength and ductility of the material and presence of stress concentration (notch) on the specimen surface. Fracture toughness is indicated by the area below the curve on strain-stress diagram (see the figure):

As seen from the diagram toughness of the ductile materials is higher than toughness of brittle materials. Stress-intensity Factor (K) is a quantitative parameter of fracture toughness determining a maximum value of stress which may be applied to a specimen containing a crack (notch) of a certain length. Depending on the direction of the specimen loading and the specimen thickness, four types of stress-intensity factors are used: KC, KIC KIIC KIIIC. KC stress-intensity factor of a specimen, thickness of which is less than a critical value. KC depends on the specimen thickness. This condition is called plane stress.

KIC,KIIC, KIIIC stress-intensity factors, relating to the specimens, thickness of which is above the critical value therefore the values of KIC KIIC KIIIC do not depend on the specimen thickness. This condition is called plane strain. KIIC and KIIIC stress-intensity factors relating to the fracture modes in which the loading direction is parallel to the crack plane. These factors are rarely used for metals and are not used for ceramics; KIC plane strain stress-intensity factor relating to the fracture modes in which the loading direction is normal to the crack plane. This factor is widely used for both metallic and ceramic materials. KIC is used for estimation critical stress applied to a specimen with a given crack length: C KIC /(Y( a)) Where KIC stress-intensity factor, measured in MPa*m; C the critical stress applied to the specimen; a the crack length for edge crack or half crack length for internal crack; Y geometry factor.

Impact test

Impact test is used for measuring toughness of materials and their capacity of resisting shock. In this test the pendulum is swing up to its starting position (height H ) and then it is allowed to strike the notched specimen, fixed in a vice. The pendulum fractures the specimen, spending a part of its energy. After the fracture the pendulum swings up to a height H. The impact toughness of the specimen is calculated by the formula: a = A/ S Where a-impact toughness, A the work, required for breaking the specimen ( A = M*g*H0M*g*H), M - the pendulum mass, S - cross-section area of the specimen at the notch.

One of the most popular impact tests is the Charpy Test, schematically presented in the figure below:

The hammer striking energy in the Charpy test is 220 ft*lbf (300 J).

Fatigue
Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Fatigue is a type of failure of a material, occurring under alternating loads. Most of the failures of machine details are caused by fatigue. Fatigue life is the number of cycling stresses, causing failure of the material. Frequency of these stresses is not important. Fatigue limit is the maximum value of repeatedly applied stress that the material can withstand after an infinite number of cycles (10-20 mln. Cycles in practice).

Fatigue strength at N cycles is the load, producing the material fracture after N cycling applications of the load. Fatigue limit of a material is much lower, than its ultimate tensile strength. Fatigue tests are carried out in the Whler-type machine, schematically shown in the picture. The rotating specimen in form of a cantilever is driven by an electric motor. The specimen is loaded by the force F, applied to the ball bearing, mounted on the end of the specimen.

Since the force direction does not change, the direction of the stress applied to the specimen will be reversed each 180 of the shaft rotation. This scheme provides cycling loading of the specimen, presented in the equivalent scheme. To find the fatigue limit the fatigue test is repeated at different loads.

The tests results are presented in form of S-N curve (stress vs. number of cycles): Fatigue fracture is characterized by presence of two different types of the surface: One part is smooth and discolored with ripple-like marks, indicating slow crack growth from the center of the crack formation. Another part of the surface has coarse crystalline appearance resulted from the final catastrophic crack propagation. The following factors affect fatigue fracture:

Surface factor

Fatigue cracks form and initiate on the specimen surface therefore hardened and smooth surface (without stress concentrations - notch, flaw) will increase the fatigue limit.

Compressive stress

Compressive stresses, produced in the specimen surface by Shot peening, cold work or heat treatment result in considerable increase of fatigue limit.

Micro-structure defects

Non-metallic inclusions and other micro-defects may initiate formation of fatigue cracks.

Environmental factorFatigue in the presence of corrosive environment (Corrosion fatigue) occurs at lower cycling stresses and after lower number of cycles.

Creep
Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Creep is a phenomenon of slow plastic deformation (elongation) of a metal at high temperature under a constant load. The creep mechanism: At low stresses the creep is controlled by the diffusion of atoms through the grain boundaries. At higher stresses the creep strain proceeds due to the dislocations movement. The rate of creep is a function of the material, the applied stress value, the temperature, and the time exposure. Considerable creep deformation, causing damage of machines and structures occur at high temperatures (about a half of the melting point measured in the absolute temperature scale). Therefore this phenomenon is taken into account in design and operation of heat exchangers, steam boilers and pipes, jet engines and other loaded equipment, working at high temperatures. Soft metals (lead, tin) may experience creep at room temperature. A typical creep behavior is presented in the diagram:

The initial strain is not time dependent and it is caused mainly by elastic deformation.

The first stage creep is characterized by relatively fast plastic deformation occurring at decreasing rate. During this stage resistance creep increases causing decrease the deformation rate. The second stage creep occurs at a constant and relatively low deformation rate. This rate is used in the engineering design. The rate of creep at the second stage depends on both the load (stress) and the temperature. The third stage creep is associated with accelerated strain rate caused by decrease of the cross sectional area of the specimen (necking). This stage is finalized by the specimen fracture. At room temperature creep is negligible at any stress below the yield point. The quantity, which is used in precise design of machines and structures working at elevated temperatures, is creep strength. Creep strength is a stress which causes a definite creep strain after a specified period of time at a given temperature. Creep strength of a material is much lower, than its tensile strength. If a large amount of deformation is tolerated rupture strength is used in design. Rupture strength is a stress which causes a fracture of a metal after a specified period of time at a given temperature. Creep strength and rupture strength are determined in stress-rupture tests conducted in [Tensile test and Stress-Strain Diagram|tensile test]] machines equipped with a furnace providing uniform heating of the tested specimens. This machine records amount of strain at every moment after the test has started and until the specimen failure.

## Chemical Composition Evaluation

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Spectrometry is an analytical technique used in chemistry for quantitative and qualitative analysis of substances by means studying the electromagnetic spectra either absorbing (absorbtion spectroscopy) or radiating (emission spectroscopy) by the substance. Spark or arc spectroscopy is a method of metals and alloys analysis, using an electric spark (or arc) passing through the metal sample, heating its surface and causing emission of light by the excited atoms of the sample. The waves of the emitted light are analyzed by spectroscopic methods. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF, X-Ray Emission) Spectroscopy is an analytical non-destructive spectral method, using irradiation of the sample by intensive x-rays, causing emission of fluorescent x-rays by the sample atoms. The emitted x-rays are detected and analyzed by a spectrometer. The qualitative analysis is based on either wavelength or energies of the emitted x-rays. The quantities of the sample components are determined by intensities of the emitted x-rays. Atomic absorption is a destructive analytical method where a light of a definite wavelength is passed through the atomized sample. The waves transmitted by the sample are analyzed as compared to the waves passed through the sample. Thus the energy, absorbed by the sample is determined. The amount of the absorbed energy is related to the concentration of the certain co

## Metals crystal structure

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich There are two main forms of solid substance, characterizing different atoms arrangement in their microstructures: amorphous and crystalline. Amorphous solid Amorphous solid substance does not possess long-range order of atoms positions. Some liquids when cooled become more and more viscous and then rigid, retaining random atom characteristic distribution. This state is called undercooled liquid or amorphous solid. Common glass, most of Polymers, glues and some of Ceramics are amorphous solids. Some of the Metals may be prepared in amorphous solid form by rapid cooling from molten state. Crystalline solid Crystalline solid substance is characterized by atoms arranged in a regular pattern, extending in all three dimensions. The crystalline structure is described in terms of crystal lattice, which is a lattice with atoms or ions attached to the lattice points. The smallest possible part of crystal lattice, determining the structure, is called primitive unit cell. Examples of typical crystal lattice are presented in the picture:

Metal crystal structure and specific metal properties are determined by metallic bonding force, holding together the atoms of a metal. Each of the atoms of the metal contributes its valence electrons to the crystal lattice, forming an electron cloud or electron gas, surrounding positive metal ions. These free electrons belong to the whole metal crystal. Ability of the valence free electrons to travel throughout the solid explains both the high

electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of metals. Other specific metal features are: luster or shine of their surface (when polished), their malleability (ability to be hammered) and ductility (ability to be drawn). These properties are also associated with the metallic bonding and presence of free electrons in the crystal lattice. The following elements are common metals: aluminum(Al), barium(Ba), beryllium(Be), bismuth(Bi), cadmium(Cd), calcium(Ca), cerium(Ce), cesium(Cs), chromium(Cr), cobalt(Co), copper(Cu), gold(Au), indium(In), iridium(Ir), iron(Fe), lead(Pb), lithium(Li), magnesium(Mg), manganese(Mn), mercury(Hg), molybdenum(Mo), nickel(Ni), osmium(Os), palladium(Pd), platinum(Pt), potassium(K), radium(Ra), rhodium(Rh), silver(Ag), sodium(Na), tantalum(Ta), thallium(Tl), thorium(Th), tin(Sn), titanium(Ti), tungsten(W), uranium(U), vanadium(V), zinc(Zn).

Solid solutions

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Alloy Alloy is a metal, composing of a mixture of elements. Most of alloys are composed of a base metal with small amounts of additives or alloying elements. The typical examples of alloys are steel/cast iron (iron base alloys), bronze/brass (copper base alloys), aluminum alloys, nickel base alloys, magnesium base alloys, titanium alloys. Alloys may be prepared by different technological methods: melting, sintering of a powders mixture, high temperature diffusion of an alloying element into the base metal, plasma and vapor deposition of different elements, electroplating etc. Alloy structure may be a single phase or a multi phase. Phase Phase is a uniform part of an alloy, having a certain chemical composition and structure, and which is separated from other alloy constituents by a phase boundary. An alloy phase may be in form of valence compound (substance formed from two or more elements), with a fixed ratio determining the composition) or in form of solid solution. Solid solution is a phase, where two or more elements are completely soluble in each other. Depending on the ratio of the solvent (matrix) metal atom size and solute element atom size, two types of solid solutions may be formed: substitution or interstitial. Substitution solid solution If the atoms of the solvent metal and solute element are of similar sizes (not more, than 15% difference), they form substitution solid solution, where part of the solvent atoms are substituted by atoms of the alloying element (see the picture below).

Interstitial solid solution If the atoms of the alloying elements are considerably smaller, than the atoms of the matrix metal, interstitial solid solution forms, where the matrix solute atoms are located in the spaces between large solvent atoms (see the picture below).

When the solubility of a solute element in interstitial solution is exceeded, a phase of intermediate compound forms. These compounds (TiN, WC, Fe3C etc.) play important role in strengthening steels and other alloys. Some substitution solid solutions may form ordered phase where ratio between concentration of matrix atoms and concentration of alloying atoms is close to simple numbers like AuCu3 and AuCu. Solid solution formation usually causes increase of electrical resistance and mechanical strength and decrease of plasticity of the alloy.

## Thermal properties of ceramics

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich The following thermal properties of ceramic materials are important in various design considerations:

Thermal conductivity Thermal expansion Heat capacity Thermal shock resistance Maximum service temperature

Thermal Conductivity Thermal Conductivity () is amount of heat passing in unit time through unit surface in a direction normal to this surface when this transfer is driven by unite temperature gradient under steady state conditions.

Thermal conductivity may be expressed and calculated from the Fouriers law: Q/ t = *S *T/ x Where Q -heat, passing through the surface S; t - change in time; - thermal conductivity; S - surface area, normal to the heat transfer direction; T/x-temperature gradient along x direction of the heat transfer. Fouriers law is analogue of the First Ficks law, describing diffusion in steady state. In contrast to Metals Ceramics have low thermal conductivity due to Ionic-Covalent Bonding which does not form free electrons. Compare: of alumina = 47 BTU/(lb*F) (6.3 W/(m*K)). of Al = 1600 BTU/(lb*F) (231 W/(m*K)). to top Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Thermal Expansion (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) is relative increase in length per unite temperature rise: = L/ (LoT) Where -coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE); L length increase; Lo initial length; T temperature rise. Thermal expansion of ceramic materials is generally lower, than that of metals. Compare:

CTE of SiC = 2.3 F (4.0 C). CTE of Al = 13 F (23 C). to top Specific Heat Capacity Heat Capacity is amount of heat required to raise material temperature by one unit. Specific Heat Capacity is amount of heat required to raise temperature of unit mass of material by one unit: c= Q/(mT) Where c -specific heat capacity; Q amount of heat; m material mass; T temperature rise. Specific Heat Capacity of ceramic materials is higher, than that of metals. Compare: c ofalumina = 0.203 BTU/(lb*F) (850 J/(kg*K)). c ofsteel = 0.115 BTU/(lb*F) (481 J/(kg*K)). to top Thermal Shock Resistance Thermal Shock Resistance is an ability of material to withstand sharp changes in temperature. If a ceramic material is rapidly cooled, its surface reaches the temperature of cooling environment and tends to contract (thermal contraction). Since the interior regions of the material are still hot, thermal contraction of the skin surface is impossible. This leads to formation of tensile stress (thermal stress) in the skin. Such thermal stresses may cause cracks and consequent failure. Thermal shock resistance of a material may be estimated in accordance to the formula: Rs = (*F)/(*E)

Where Rs thermal shock resistance; - thermal conductivity; F flexural strength -coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE); E modulus of elasticity. Sensitivity of ceramic materials to thermal shock may be also determined by experimental method (Hasselmann Method). In this method a specimen (flexural test specimen) is heated to a specified temperature and then quenched. The specimen cools rapidly by temperature T (the difference between the specimen temperature before and after cooling). After quenching the flexural strength of the quenched material is measured by standard flexure (bending) test. The test results are plotted on the graph Strength vs. T. When T reaches a certain value the specimen strength falls sharply. This value of T is a parameter indicating thermal shock resistance of the material. Some ceramic materials have very low coefficient of thermal expansion therefore their resistance to thermal shock is very high despite of low ductility (e.g. fused silica): Rs of fused silica / Rs of soda-lime-silica glass = 45 to top Maximum Service Temperature Ceramic materials retain their properties at elevated temperatures due to the strong ioniccovalent bonding. Ceramics working at high temperature are called refractory ceramic materials. Some Borides, carbides and nitrides, having melting temperature above 5500 F (3040 C), are used in high temperature applications up to 3300 F (1800 C) 5430 F (3000 C). Compare: Scaling (oxidation) temperature of refractory stainless steel AISI 310 is 2100 F (1150 C).

## Electrical properties of ceramics

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich The following electrical properties are characteristic for ceramic materials:

Insulating properties Electrical conductivity Dielectric Strength Dielectric Constant Semi-conducting properties Superconducting properties Piezoelectric properties Magnetic properties

Insulating properties

In contrast to Metals Ceramics have very low electrical conductivity due to Ionic-Covalent Bonding which does not form free electrons. to top

Electrical conductivity
Electrical conductivity is ability of material to conduct electric current. The electrical conductivities differ by a factor as large as 10121021 between metallic and ceramic materials. Most of ceramic materials are dielectric (materials, having very low electric conductivity, but supporting electrostatic field). Electrical conductivity of ceramics varies with the frequency of field applied and also with temperature. This is due to the fact that charge transport mechanisms are frequency dependent. Further, the activation energy needed for charge migration is achieved through thermal energy and immobile charge career becomes mobile. The activcation energy can be calculated very easily using the Arrheneous relation. It is also possible to understand the type of mechanism responsible for conductivity from a.c conductivity data. to top

Dielectric Strength
One of most important dielectric properties is Dielectric Strength ability of a material to prevent electron conductivity at high voltage. Dielectric strength is determined as value of electric field strength (expressed in v/m) at which electron conductivity breakdown occurs. to top

Dielectric Constant
Other important property of dielectric materials is Dielectric Constant - relative (to vacuum) ability of a material to carry alternating current (dielectric constant of vacuum equals to 1). Capacitance of a capacitor is directly proportional to the dielectric constant of the dielectric material used in the capacitor. Dielectric ceramics are used for manufacturing capacitors, insulators and resistors. to top Semi-conducting properties Ceramics based on ZnO may possess semi-conducting properties when they are appropriately doped.

The semi-conducting ceramics are usually prepared by liquid phase sintering with control of grain boundary structure. Semi-conducting ceramics are used for manufacturing varistors (resistors with non-linear current-voltage characteristic, which are used for over-voltage protection) and Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) Resistors. to top Superconducting properties Despite of very low electrical conductivity of most of the ceramic materials, there are ceramics, possessing superconductivity properties (near-to-zero electric resistivity). Lanthanum (yttrium)-barium-copper oxide ceramic may be superconducting at temperature as high as 138 K. This critical temperature is much higher, than superconductivity critical temperature of other superconductors (up to 30 K). The critical temperature is also higher than boiling point of liquid Nitrogen (77.4 K), which is very important for practical application of superconducting ceramics, since liquid nitrogen is relatively low cost material. Such ceramic superconductors are called High Temperature Superconductors (discovered in 1986 by Mueller and Bednorz). to top Piezoelectric properties Piezoelectric effects :

Generating piezoelectric effect: Mechanical stress, applied between two surfaces of a solid dielectric part, generates voltage between the surfaces. Motor piezoelectric effect: Voltage, applied between two surfaces of a solid dielectric part, results in contracting (expanding) of the part.

Some ceramics (lead zirconate titanate, barium titanrate, bismuth titanate, lead magnesium niobate) possess piezoelectric properties. Piezoelectric ceramics are used for manufacturing various transducers, actuators and sensors like hydrophones, sonar, strain gauges, medical ultrasound equipment. to top Magnetic properties Magnetic Ceramics are prepared by sintering technology from iron oxide and barium/strontium carbonate with small amounts of other metal oxides.

Magnetic Ceramics are called Ferrites. There are two types of Magnetic Ceramics (Ferrites):

Isotropic ceramic magnet with equal magnetic properties in all directions; Anisotropic ceramic magnets with magnetic properties in the direction of pressing.

Ferrites combine good magnetic properties (high magnetization) with very low electrical conductivity. Low conductivity of ferrites allows reducing energy loss, caused by eddy currents, induced in the material when it works in high frequency magnetic fields. Therefore the widest field of application of ferrites is high frequency appliances: ferritic antennas, speaker magnets, TV deflection-yoke cores and convergence coil cores, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), audio-visual recording heads.

## Estimations of composite materials properties

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Composite materials may be either isotropic or anisotropic, which is determined by the Structure of composites. Isotropic material is a material, properties of which do not depend on a direction of measuring. Anisotropic material is a material, properties of which along a particular axis or parallel to a particular plane are different from the properties measured along other directions. Rule of Mixtures Rule of Mixtures is a method of approach to approximate estimation of composite material properties, based on an assumption that a composite property is the volume weighed average of the phases (matrix and dispersed phase) properties.

## According to Rule of Mixtures properties of composite materials are estimated as follows:

Density Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Modulus of Elasticity Shear modulus Poisson's ratio Tensile strength

Density
dc = dm*Vm + df*Vf Where dc,dm,df densities of the composite, matrix and dispersed phase respectively; Vm,Vf volume fraction of the matrix and dispersed phase respectively.

## Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) in longitudinal direction (along the fibers)

cl = (m*Em*Vm + f*Ef*Vf)/(m*Vm + Ef*Vf) Where cl, m, f CTE of composite in longitudinal direction, matrix and dispersed phase (fiber) respectively; Em,Ef modulus of elasticity of matrix and dispersed phase (fiber) respectively.

## Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) in transverse direction (perpendicular to the fibers)

ct = (1+m) m *Vm + f* Vf Where m Poissons ratio of matrix. Poissons ratio is the ratio of transverse contraction strain to longitudinal extension strain in the direction of applied force.

Modulus of Elasticity
Long align fibers

## Modulus of Elasticity in transverse direction (Ect)

1/Ect = Vm/Em + Vf/Ef Short fibers Ecl = 0LVf Ef + VmEm L = 1 - 2/L*tanh(L /2) = [8 Gm/(EfDln(2R/D))] where: Ef modulus of elasticity of fiber material; Em modulus of elasticity of matrix material; Gm - shear modulus of matrix material; L length correction factor; L fibers length; D fibers diameter; 2R distance between fibers; 0 - fiber orientation distribution factor. 0 = 0.0 align fibers in transverse direction 0 = 1/5 random orientation in any direction (3D) 0 = 3/8 random orientation in plane (2D) 0 = 1/2 biaxial parallel to the fibers 0 = 1.0 unidirectional parallel to the fibers Shear modulus Gct = Gf Gm/(Vf Gm + VmGf) Where: Gf shear modulus of elasticity of fiber material; Gm shear modulus of elasticity of matrix material; Poisson's ratio 12 = vf f + Vmm Where: f Poissons ratio of fiber material; m Poissons ratio of matrix material;

Tensile Strength

## Tensile strength of long-fiber reinforced composite in longitudinal direction

c = m*Vm + f*Vf Where c, m, f tensile strength of the composite, matrix and dispersed phase (fiber) respectively.

## Tensile strength of short-fiber composite in longitudinal direction

(fiber length is less than critical value Lc) Lc = f*d/c Where d diameter of the fiber; c shear strength of the bond between the matrix and dispersed phase (fiber). c = m*Vm + f*Vf*(1 Lc/2L) Where L length of the fiber

## (fiber length is greater than critical value Lc) c = m*Vm + L* c*Vf/d

Classification of composites
Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Composite material is a material composed of two or more distinct phases (matrix phase and dispersed phase) and having bulk properties significantly different form those of any of the constituents.

Matrix phase

The primary phase, having a continuous character, is called matrix. Matrix is usually more ductile and less hard phase. It holds the dispersed phase and shares a load with it.

## Dispersed (reinforcing) phase

The second phase (or phases) is embedded in the matrix in a discontinuous form. This secondary phase is called dispersed phase. Dispersed phase is usually stronger than the matrix, therefore it is sometimes called reinforcing phase. Many of common materials (metal alloys, doped Ceramics and Polymers mixed with additives) also have a small amount of dispersed phases in their structures, however they are

not considered as composite materials since their properties are similar to those of their base constituents (physical properties of steel are similar to those of pure iron). There are two classification systems of composite materials. One of them is based on the matrix material (metal, ceramic, polymer) and the second is based on the material structure: Classification of composites I (based on matrix material)

## Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)

Metal Matrix Composites are composed of a metallic matrix (aluminum, magnesium, iron, cobalt, copper) and a dispersed ceramic (oxides, carbides) or metallic (lead, tungsten, molybdenum) phase.

## Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)

Ceramic Matrix Composites are composed of a ceramic matrix and embedded fibers of other ceramic material (dispersed phase).

## Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)

Polymer Matrix Composites are composed of a matrix from thermoset (Unsaturated Polyester (UP), Epoxiy (EP)) or thermoplastic (Polycarbonate (PC), Polyvinylchloride, Nylon, Polysterene) and embedded glass, carbon, steel or Kevlar fibers (dispersed phase). Classification of composite materials II (based on reinforcing material structure)

Particulate Composites
Particulate Composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of particles.
1. Composites with random orientation of particles. 2. Composites with preferred orientation of particles. Dispersed phase of these materials consists of two-dimensional flat platelets (flakes), laid parallel to each other.

Fibrous Composites
1. Short-fiber reinforced composites. Short-fiber reinforced composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of discontinuous fibers (length < 100*diameter). 1. Composites with random orientation of fibers. 2. Composites with preferred orientation of fibers.

2. Long-fiber reinforced composites. Long-fiber reinforced composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of continuous fibers. 1. Unidirectional orientation of fibers. 2. Bidirectional orientation of fibers (woven).

Laminate Composites
When a fiber reinforced composite consists of several layers with different fiber orientations, it is called multilayer (angle-ply) composite.

Structure of composites
Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Structure of a composite material determines its properties to a significant extent. Structure factors affecting properties of composites are as follows:

Bonding strength on the interface between the dispersed phase and matrix; Shape of the dispersed phase inclusions (particles, flakes, fibers, laminates); Orientation of the dispersed phase inclusions (random or preferred).

Interfacial bonding

Good bonding (adhesion) between matrix phase and dispersed phase provides transfer of load, applied to the material to the dispersed phase via the interface. Adhesion is necessary for achieving high level of mechanical properties of the composite. There are three forms of interface between the two phases:
1. Direct bonding with no intermediate layer. In this case adhesion (wetting) is provided by either covalent bonding or van der Waals force. 2. Intermediate layer (inter-phase) is in form of solid solution of the matrix and dispersed phases constituents. 3. Intermediate layer is in form of a third bonding phase (adhesive).

Shape and orientation of dispersed phase Importance of these structure parameters is confirmed by the fact, that one of the systems of Classification of composites is based on them.

## Particulate Composites Fibrous Composites Laminate Composites

Particulate Composites
Particulate Composites consist of a matrix reinforced with a dispersed phase in form of particles. Effect of the dispersed particles on the composite properties depends on the particles dimensions. Very small particles (less than 0.25 micron in diameter) finely distributed in the matrix impede movement of dislocations and deformation of the material. Such strengthening effect is similar to the precipitation hardening. In contrast to the precipitation hardening, which disappears at elevated temperatures when the precipitated particles dissolve in the matrix, dispersed phase of particulate composites (ceramic particles) is usually stable at high temperatures, so the strengthening effect is retained. Many of composite materials are designed to work in high temperature applications. Large dispersed phase particles have low strengthening effect but they are capable to share load applied to the material, resulting in increase of stiffness and decrease of ductility. Hard particles dispersed in a softer matrix increase wear and abrasion resistance. Soft dispersed particles in a harder matrix improve machinability (lead particles in steel or copper matrix) and reduce coefficient of friction (tin in aluminum matrix or lead in copper matrix). Composites with high electrical conductivity matrices (copper, silver) and with refractory dispersed phase (tungsten, molybdenum) work in high temperature electrical applications.

When dispersed phase of these materials consists of two-dimensional flat platelets (flakes) which are laid parallel to each other, material exhibits anisotropy (dependence of the properties on the axis or plane along which they were measured). In the case of flakes oriented parallel to a particular plane, material demonstrates equal properties in all directions parallel to the plane and different properties in the direction normal to the plane.

Fibrous Composites
Dispersed phase in form of fibers (Fibrous Composites) improves strength, stiffness and Fracture Toughness of the material, impeding crack growth in the directions normal to the fiber. Effect of the strength increase becomes much more significant when the fibers are arranged in a particular direction (preferred orientation) and a stress is applied along the same direction. The strengthening effect is higher in long-fiber (continuous-fiber) reinforced composites than in short-fiber (discontinuous-fiber) reinforced composites. Short-fiber reinforced composites, consisting of a matrix reinforced with a dispersed phase in form discontinuous fibers (length < 100*diameter), has a limited ability to share load. Load, applied to a long-fiber reinforced composite, is carried mostly by the dispersed phase fibers. Matrix in such materials serves only as a binder of the fibers keeping them in a desired shape and protecting them from mechanical or chemical damages.

Laminate Composites
Laminate composites consist of layers with different anisotropic orientations or of a matrix reinforced with a dispersed phase in form of sheets. When a fiber reinforced composite consists of several layers with different fiber orientations, it is called multilayer (angle-ply) composite. Laminate composites provide increased mechanical strength in two directions and only in one direction, perpendicular to the preferred orientations of the fibers or sheet, mechanical properties of the material are low.

Classification of composites
Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Composite material is a material composed of two or more distinct phases (matrix phase and dispersed phase) and having bulk properties significantly different form those of any of the constituents.

Matrix phase

The primary phase, having a continuous character, is called matrix. Matrix is usually more ductile and less hard phase. It holds the dispersed phase and shares a load with it.

## Dispersed (reinforcing) phase

The second phase (or phases) is embedded in the matrix in a discontinuous form. This secondary phase is called dispersed phase. Dispersed phase is usually stronger than the matrix, therefore it is sometimes called reinforcing phase. Many of common materials (metal alloys, doped Ceramics and Polymers mixed with additives) also have a small amount of dispersed phases in their structures, however they are not considered as composite materials since their properties are similar to those of their base constituents (physical properties of steel are similar to those of pure iron). There are two classification systems of composite materials. One of them is based on the matrix material (metal, ceramic, polymer) and the second is based on the material structure: Classification of composites I (based on matrix material)

## Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)

Metal Matrix Composites are composed of a metallic matrix (aluminum, magnesium, iron, cobalt, copper) and a dispersed ceramic (oxides, carbides) or metallic (lead, tungsten, molybdenum) phase.

## Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)

Ceramic Matrix Composites are composed of a ceramic matrix and embedded fibers of other ceramic material (dispersed phase).

## Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)

Polymer Matrix Composites are composed of a matrix from thermoset (Unsaturated Polyester (UP), Epoxiy (EP)) or thermoplastic (Polycarbonate (PC), Polyvinylchloride, Nylon, Polysterene) and embedded glass, carbon, steel or Kevlar fibers (dispersed phase). Classification of composite materials II (based on reinforcing material structure)

Particulate Composites
Particulate Composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of particles.

1. Composites with random orientation of particles. 2. Composites with preferred orientation of particles. Dispersed phase of these materials consists of two-dimensional flat platelets (flakes), laid parallel to each other.

Fibrous Composites
1. Short-fiber reinforced composites. Short-fiber reinforced composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of discontinuous fibers (length < 100*diameter). 1. Composites with random orientation of fibers. 2. Composites with preferred orientation of fibers. 2. Long-fiber reinforced composites. Long-fiber reinforced composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of continuous fibers. 1. Unidirectional orientation of fibers. 2. Bidirectional orientation of fibers (woven).

Laminate Composites
When a fiber reinforced composite consists of several layers with different fiber orientations, it is called multilayer (angle-ply) composite.

## Hardness tests of ceramics

Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Hardness is resistance of material to Plastic deformation caused by indentation. Sometimes hardness refers to resistance of material to scratching or abrasion. In some cases relatively quick and simple hardness test may substitute tensile test. Hardness may be measured from a small sample of material without destroying it. There are hardness methods, allowing to measure hardness onsite. Principle of any hardness test method is forcing an indenter into the sample surface followed by measuring dimensions of the indentation (depth or actual surface area of the indentation). Hardness is not fundamental property and its value depends on the combination of yield strength, tensile test and modulus of elasticity. Hardness of ceramics is determined by their chemical compositions and microstructure characteristics: porosity, grain size, grain-boundary phases.

Depending on the loading force value and the indentation dimensions, hardness is defined as a macro- , micro- or nano-hardness. Macro-hardness tests (Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers) are the most widely used methods for rapid routine hardness measurements. The indenting forces in macro-hardness tests are in the range of 50N to 30000N. Micro-hardness test (micro-Vickers, Knoop) is applicable when hardness of coatings, surface hardness, or hardness of different phases in the multi-phase material is measured. Small diamond pyramid is used as indenter loaded with a small force of 10 to 1000gf. Nano-hardness test uses minor loads of about 1 nano-Newton followed by precise measuring depth of indentation. Hardness of ceramic materials is usually tested by Vickers or Knoop Methods, using diamond indenters.

## Brinell Hardness Test

In this test a hardened steel (or tungsten carbide for extremely hard materials) ball of 2.5, 5 or 10 mm in diameter is used as indenter. The loading force is in the range of 300N to 30000N (higher loading forces from the range are used for harder materials).

The Brinell Hardness Number (HB) is calculated by the formula: HB = F/ (D/2*(D-(D - Di)1/2)) Where F - applied load, kg D indenter diameter, mm Di indentation diameter, mm. In order to eliminate an influence of the specimen supporting base, the specimen should be seven times (as minimum) thicker than indentation depth for hard alloys and fifteen times thicker than indentation depth for soft alloys.

Rockwell Hardness Test In the Rockwell test the depth of the indenter penetration into the specimen surface is measured. The indenter may be either a hardened steel ball with diameter 1/16, 1/8 or a spherical diamond cone of 120 angle (Brale). Loading procedure starts from applying a minor load of 10 kgf (3kgf in Rockwell Superficial Test) and then the indicator, measuring the penetration depth, is set to zero. After that the major load (60, 100 or 150 kgf)is applied. The penetration depth is measured after removal of the major load. Hardness is measured in different scales (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K) and in numbers, having no units (in contrast to Brinell and Vickers methods). Aluminum alloys, copper alloys and soft steels are tested with 1/16 diameter steel ball at 100 kgf load (Rockwell hardness scale B). Harder alloys and hard cast iron are tested with the diamond cone at 150 kgf (Rockwell hardness scale C). An example of Rockwell test result: 53 HRC. It means 53 units, measured in the scale C by the method HR (Hardness Rockwell). Rockwell Superficial Test is applied for thin strips, coatings, carburized surfaces.

Reduced loads (15 kgf, 30 kgf, and 30 kgf) as a major load and deduced preload (3kgf) are used in the superficial test. Depending on the indenter, two scales of Rockwell Superficial method may be used: T (1/16 steel ball) or N (diamond cone). 62 R30Tmeans 62 units, measured in the scale 30T (30 kgf, 1/16 steel ball indenter) by the Rockwell Superficial method (R).

Vickers Hardness Test The principle of the Vickers Hardness method is similar to the Brinell method. The Vickers indenter is a 136 degrees square-based diamond pyramid. The impression, produced by the Vickers indenter is clearer, than the impression of Brinell indenter, therefore this method is more accurate. The load, varying from 1kgf to 120 kgf, is usually applied for 30 seconds. The Vickers number (HV) is calculated by the formula: HV = 1.854*F/ D Where F -applied load, kg D length of the impression diagonal, mm The length of the impression diagonal is measured by means of a microscope, which is usually an integral part of the Vickers Tester. Knoop Hardness Test

A diamond pyramid indenter with angles 130 and 17030 is used in this method. The Knoop Hardness Test is applied for testing soft material and thin coating, since the penetration depth is very small (about 1/30 of the impression length). The loading force in the Knoop method are usually in the range of 10 gf to 1000gf (microhardness range). The Knoop number (HK) is calculated by the formula: HK = 14.229*F/ D Where F -applied load, kg D length of the impression, mm Shore Scleroscope The Shore Scleroscope hardness is associated with the elasticity of the material. The appliance consists of a diamond-tipped hammer, falling in a graduated glass tube from a definite height. The tube is divided into 140 equal parts. The height of the first rebound is the hardness index of the material. The harder the material, the higher the rebound. The Shore method is widely used for measuring hardness of large machine components like rolls, gears, dies, etc. The Shore scleroscope is not only small and mobile, it also leaves no impressions on the tested surface.