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# WAVES

Wave Motion:- It is the phenomenon of transference of a disturbance from one point to the other with the exchange of energy and momentum, but without the transfer of matter.

Qn. Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves.
Transverse waves ` Longitudinal waves 1. The waves are propagated in a direction parallel to the vibration of particles. 2. They are propagated as compressions and rarefactions. 3. They can travel through solids, liquids and gases. 4. They cannot be polarized. 5. Examples: sound waves, waves due to the horizontal motion of slinky etc.

1. The waves are propagated in a direction right angle to the vibration of particles. 2. They are propagated as crests and troughs. 3. They can travel through solids and surface of liquids. 4. They can be polarized. 5. Examples: water waves, waves formed in a stretched string, waves due to the up and down motion of slinky etc.

Characteristics of waves:
i. Wavelength (λ ) It is the distance travelled by a single wave. It is measured as the distance between two consecutive crests or troughs, in the case of transverse waves and the distance between two consecutive compressions or rarefactions in the case of longitudinal waves. Unit: m Frequency (ν ): It is the number of waves traveling per sec. Unit: Hertz Time period (T): It is the time taken by a single wave to travel. Unit: s Phase (θ ): It is the argument of sine or cosine function in the equation that represents a wave. Unit: radians Amplitude (A): It is the maximum displacement of a particle from its mean position. Unit: m Wave velocity (v): It is the distance traveled by waves in unit time. Unit: m/s

ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Relation between velocity, wavelength and frequency
Distance traveled by a single wave Time taken by a wave So, wave velocity (v) v = = = = = Wavelength (λ ) Time period (T) Distance / time λ /T (1/T = ν ) νλ

Speed of waves Transverse Waves in a stretched string v = √ T/µ Where T – tension in the string and µ - the linear density (mass per unit length of the string) Speed of longitudinal waves i. Through solids: v = √Y/ ρ where Y – Young’s modulus and ρ - the density of the medium ii. Though liquids and gases: v = √B/ ρ where B – Bulk modulus and ρ - the density of the medium

Hence. PV = a constant Differentiating we get. ii. the speed of sound in air is inversely proportional to its density. So the speed of sound is independent of pressure changes (refer eqn. Pressure: When pressure increases. Temperature: Density ρ = M/V Hence eqn. ∆ PV + ∆ VP = 0 ∴ P = -∆ PV/∆ V = Bi v = √P/ ρ -------------(2) Laplace’s correction In equation (2). as given below. PV = a constant γ γ Differentiating we get.e. Humidity: When humidity of atmosphere is high. the speed of sound in air increases with humidity. (refer eqn.3 becomes. 3). we get velocity of sound as 280 m/s. According to Laplace. This discrepancy is removed by Laplace. at constant temperature. ∆ PV + γ V -1 ∆ VP = 0 γ γ -1 ∴ γ P = -∆ PV /∆ V V = -∆ PV/∆ V = Ba v = √ γ P/ ρ -------------(3) Factors affecting velocity of sound in air. v = √Ba/ ρ γ As the process is adiabaic. if we substitute the values of P = 1. iv. .T. i. density also increases. v.3. But the experimental value obtained is nearly 332m/s under these conditions.01 x 105 Pa and ρ = 1. Density: From the eqn.P. So v = √Bi/ ρ --------(1) As the process is isothermal.Speed of sound in air Newton’s formula According to Newton. Wind: The speed sound in air changes according to the direction of wind. the density of air is low. Thus speed of sound increases. Hence.. 3 above). Thus the ratio P/ρ is a constant. iii. the propagation of sound in air is isothermal process.29 kg / m3 at S. v = √ γ PV/ M v = √ γ RT/ M v ∝ √T Thus the speed of sound is directly proportional to the square root of absolute temperature of air. the propagation of sound in air is adiabatic. v ∝ 1/ √ ρ i.

M with the same amplitude and frequency.the initial phase. . if wave travels along the +X direction and y = A sin (ωt + kx + φ ). x . k = 2π / λ .particle displacement. Constructive and destructive interferences between two identical wave pulses are shown below. Standing waves or stationary waves When two progressive waves of equal frequency and amplitude traveling in opposite directions along a straight line are superposed on one another. Characteristics of progressive waves: i. if wave travels along the .H. Each particle in the medium is in S. a standing (stationary) wave is formed. ii.Progressive or Harmonic wave: An unobstructed and un-damped wave proceeding with a given velocity is called a progressive wave.. velocity and acceleration at any instant. Particles separated by an integral multiple of λ have the same displacement. They are unobstructed and un-damped in the medium.the wave number and φ . Energy is transferred from particle to particle. y = y1 + y2 + y3 + ……. A – the amplitude of vibration of particles of the medium. Reflection of waves: When a progressive wave represented by yi = A sin (ωt – kx) is struck on a rigid boundary.the displacement of the wave. ω = 2πν . Where y . iii. Graphical treatment of the formation of standing waves. iv. the resultant displacement of a particle in the medium is the vector sum of individual displacements of the particle due to the different waves. yr = -A sin (ωt + kx ) Principle of superposition of waves It states that when two or more waves overlap each other.X direction. it gets reflected and the reflected wave is given by. Equation: y = A sin (ωt – kx + φ ).the angular frequency of the wave.

1. Examples of standing waves..H. There is not transfer of energy between particles.e. . Every particle. Particles at different points vibrate with different amplitudes.M with the same period. Open pipe: The following diagrams represent the formation of standing waves in an open pipe. The points where the amplitude is zero are called nodes and the points where the amplitude is maximum are called antinodes. executes S. the crests and troughs do not travel forward. 2. ν 1 : ν 2 : ν 3 : ………. Closed pipe: The following diagrams represent the formation of standing waves in a closed pipe.= 1: 2: 3……. They are not progressive i. The distance between two consecutive nodes or antinodes is λ /2. ν 1:ν Hence 2 :ν 3 : ………. Stretched string: The different frequencies that are formed in the string are called harmonics. 3. (b). all harmonics are present in the string. The standing waves formed in a stretched string are shown in the following diagrams.Equation for a standing wave y = 2A sin kx. cosωt Characteristics of standing waves (a). except at nodes. The amplitude changes from zero to maximum.. Hence only odd harmonics are present in the closed pipe. (d).= 1: 3: 5……. (f).= 1: 2: 3:……. As ν 1 : ν 2 : ν 3 :…………. The lowest frequency that can be formed in the string is its fundamental frequency and its multiples are called overtones. (e). (c)..

5 / 2(ν 1 . according to the principle of superposition.ν 2). 2 / (ν 1 . BEATS It is the phenomenon of periodic variation in the intensity of the wave resulting from the super position of two waves of slightly different frequencies.ν 2) Intensity is minimum.ν 2)t = 0. As intensity is directly proportional to the square of amplitude (I α R2).ν 2). when R is minimum. cos π (ν 1 . ∴ the time interval between two maxima = 1/ (ν 1 .e. Graphical treatment to show the formation of beats 1s ν 1 = ν 2 = ∆ν = Analytical treatment (Qn.sin π (ν 1+ ν 2)t Thus the resultant amplitude is given by. intensity is max.. ……….. ∴ the time interval between two minima = 1/ (ν 1 . π . π (ν 1 . intensity is min. cos 2π (ν 1 .ν 2)t .ν 2)t /2] y = 2A cos π (ν 1 .e.. i.5/2 π …….ν 2) Thus again.. there is periodic variation of intensity of the wave. at the instants t = 0. Beat frequency [the number of beats per second] (∆ ν ) = (ν 1 .e.ν 2)……….ν 2)t = ± 1. 2π .ν 2)t = 0. So. cos π (ν 1 . Resultant displacement y = y1 + y2 y = A sin2π ν 1t + A sin2π ν 2t = 2A [sin 2π (ν 1+ ν 2)t /2 .. 1/ (ν 1 .ν 2)t ----------------(1) The above equation shows that the amplitude of the resultant wave so formed varies periodically.ν 2) i.ν 2)t = π /2. y1 = A sin2π ν 1t and y2 = A sin2π ν 2t When they overlap each other.……. i.ν 2) This shows that beat frequency is the difference between parent frequencies..e.e.ν 2). i.all the harmonics are present in the closed pipe. π (ν 1 . Show that beat frequency is the difference between the parent frequencies) Consider two waves of the same amplitude and slightly different frequencies ν and ν 2 given by. 3/2 π .. Beat frequency [the number of beats per second] (∆ ν ) = (ν 1 . at the instants t = 1/ 2(ν 1 . Intensity is maximum. i. 1 . So. when R is maximum. R = 2A cos π (ν 1 . 3 / 2(ν 1 .ν 2).

V Source Vl Listener Vs ν ’ ={(V + Vl) / (V – Vs)}ν 6. When source is at rest and listener moves towards the source Sound (V) Vl Source Listener Vs = 0 ν ’ ={(V + Vl) / V}ν 3. ν ’ ={(V – Vl) / (V – Vs)}ν Special cases: 1.DOPPLER EFFECT It is the phenomenon of apparent change in the frequency as heard by a listener. emitting sound of frequency ν and the listener also moving in the same direction with a velocity Vl.. When source moves away from the listener and listener is at rest.e. V Source Listener Vs Vl = 0 ν ’ ={V / (V – Vs)}ν 4. Vs Source V Listener Vl = 0 ν ’ ={V / (V + Vs)}ν 5. When source moves towards the listener and listener is at rest. Let V be the speed of sound. When source and the listener move towards each other. Sound (V) Source Listener Vs Listener Vl Relative velocity of sound with respect to the source = V – Vs The apparent wavelength (λ ’) = (V – Vs) / ν Relative velocity of sound with respect to the listener = V – Vl ∴ The apparent frequency heard by the listener = (V – Vl) / λ ’ i.Vl) / (V + Vs)}ν 7. When source moves away and the listener moves towards the source. whenever there is a relative motion between the source and the listener. Vs Source V Vl Listener ν ’ ={(V + Vl) / (V + Vs)}ν . Vs V Vl Source Listener ν ’ ={(V . When source is at rest and listener moves away from the source Vl Source Listener Vs = 0 ν ’ ={(V – Vl) / V}ν 2. Expression for apparent frequency Consider a source moving with a velocity Vs. When source and the listener move away from each other.