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.Name: Section: Activity 3.6 1. How do metallic and ionic crystals differ?

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Metallic crystals very hard. They have high melting point and boiling point. They have shiny surface. They conduct electricity and heat. Ionic crystals are solids

that contain ionic bond in their structure consist of ionic crystals. In ionic crystals, appositively charged ions are joined together by strong electrostatic forces. They conduct electricity in molten state and in the form of solution.
2. Which noble gas element is isoelectronic with Mg2+?
Aluminium +1 Silicon +2 Phosphorus +3 Sulphur +4 Chlorine +5

3. Write the chemical formula of the compound formed between Fluorine and: a. Calcium b. Potassium c. Strontium CaF2 KF SrF2

4. Show the electronic configuration before and after the bonding of the atoms. Write the chemical formula of the compound found between:

Elements Sodium and Oxygen Magnesium and Oxygen

Chemical Formula Na2O MgO

[Ne] 3s1

E.C. Before 1s2 2s2 2p4 1s2 2s2 2p6, 3s2 1s2 2s2 2p4

E.C. After

Aluminum and Oxygen


1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 1s2 2s2 2p4

5. What particles carry the charge when electricity flows in the following substances? a. Solid Copper b. Molten Copper c. Molten Lead bromide d. Copper (II) sulfate in H2O Free electrons Free electrons Pb2+ and Br- ions Cu2+, SO42- ions

6. Do you expect ionic bonds to form between two metals? Between two nonmetals? Explain. No, because pure ionic bonding cannot exist, all ionic compounds have some degree of covalent bonding. An ionic bond is considered a bond where the ionic character is greater than the covalent character. 7. Identify which bond is nonpolar; polar. a. F=F b. C=F c. C=C polar nonpolar polar

8. Identify which molecules are nonpolar and which are polar. a. H-Br b. Br-Br c. CO d. NH3 (angular) e. CCl4 (tetrahedral) f. BeF2 (linear) g. BCl3 (triangular planar) nonpolar nonpolar polar polar

9. How many atoms of each element are present in each compound?

Molecule NaCl C12H22O11 Fe2O3 CH3COOH HCl Al(NO3)3

Element Sodium Chlorine Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Iron Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Chlorine Aluminum Nitrogen Oxygen 1 1 12 22 11 2 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 9

Number of atoms

10.Complete the table 13.10 by writing the correct chemical formula of the compound from the combination of the positive and negative ions given page 263.

-ion + ion








(NH4) +



Ag +



11.Determine the oxidation number of the underlined element. a. CaH2 b. Al2O3 c. Al(BrO3)3 d. Al(BrO3)3 e. H2SO3 f. H2SO4 g. CO h. CaC2 i. j. (CO3)2(C 2O4)2-2 +3 +3 +5 +4 +6 +2 +4 +3 +1



Year and Section: ACTIVITY 3.7 Types of Chemical Bonds I. Introduction


This unit focuses on chemical bonds of atoms. Atoms become more useful and interesting when they combine to form numerous compounds. They are formed from various kinds and number of atoms and the nature of force that binds them. II. Objectives Identify elements that will most likely form ionic, covalent and metallic bonds

III. Materials: Puzzle Card

IV. Procedures: 1. Study the set of chemical puzzle cards given to each group. 2. Put together the cards that fit, making perfectly to form the desired shape. 3. Take note of the kind of elements that you matched. While playing the game, enter the symbols of the combined elements in the table given below.

V. Observations:

Metal & Nonmetal Combination AlCl3

Nonmetal and nonmetal combinations O2

Metal and Metal Combinations Zn2

BaCl2 Ocu2 KI Guide Questions:

Cl2 H2O I2

K2 Au2 Cu2

What kind of bond are formed between: A. metal and nonmetal combinations? B. nonmetal and nonmetal combinations? C. metal and metal combinations? VI. Generalization: Based from the activity, which element will most likely form ionic, covalent and metallic bonds? Ionic bond - AlCl3 BaCl2 Ocu2 KI Ionic bond Covalent bond Metallic bond

It is formed due to the combination of a metal and non-metal. H 2O I2

Covalent bond - O2 Cl2 -

It is formed due to the combination of a non-metal andanother nonmetal. - Cu2 Au2 K2 Zn2

Metallic bond -

It is formed due to the combination of a metal and another metal.

VII.Application: List some household chemicals and tell how they are bonded together. VIII. NaCl HCl Ionic bond Covalent bond - H2O2 - H2O Covalent bond Covalent bond

Evaluation: Classify the tyoes of chemical bonds, consulting the table of electronegativity and solve for the electronegativity difference between the elements, following the scale below.

Difference in Electronegativity of Combining Atoms 0 0.5 Covalent

Type of Bond

0.6 1.5 1.6 and above

Polar Covalent Ionic



Electronegati vity Difference 1.83 0.96 0.76 2.13 2.67 0.35 0.35 2.51 1.24 3

Type of Chemical Bond Ionic Polar Covalent Polar Covalent Ionic Ionic Covalent Covalent Ionic Polar Covalent Ionic

1. Aluminum oxide 2. Hydrogen chloride 3. Hydrogen bromide 4. Magnesium oxide 5. Magnesium fluoride 6. 7. 8. 9. Methane Ethyne Sodium oxide Water 10.Lithium fluoride

Al2O3 HCl HBr MgO MgF2 CH4 C2 H 2 Na2O H 2O LiF

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ACTIVITY 3.8 Periodic Table and Chemical Bond


Introduction The periodic table of elements shows us the arrangment of elements according to their properties. One of the factors that contribute to the formation of chemical bond (ionic bond) is ionization energy and electron affinity.

II. Objective: Identify the type of bond between two or three elements based on their location in the periodic table.

III. Material: Periodic table of elements showing the Lewish symbols or Electron Dot Formula

IV. Procedure: 1. Study the Electron Dot Formula of elements in the periodic table below. 2. Analyze what type of chemical bond will be formed between the elements in different families.

V. Observation: Guide Questions 1. Give examples of elements which show: a. Transfer of electrons _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

b. Equal sharing of electrons _________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

c. Unequal sharing of electrons _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

2. Which family most likely forms an ionic bond? _________IA__________________

V. Generalization: _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________

VI. Application Using the Lewis Structural formula or Electron Dot Formula, show the transfer of electrons between atoms. ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

VII.Evaluation: Identify the type of bond that will exist between: 1. Members of IA and VII A 2. Members of IIA and VIA 3. 1 Ba+2 and 2 Br 4. 1 H and 1 Cl

5. 1 Cl and 1 Cl

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ACTIVITY 3.9 Lets Make Models


Materials: Modeling clay (different colors), toothpicks and sticks, a box


Procedure: A. Model of sodium chloride (NaCl) crystal 1. Knead and form small clay balls. Make 23 large balls (about a centimueter in diameter) and 23 small balls (one-fourth of an inch diameter) to fill up a box as shown on the next page. The large balls represent chlorine atoms while the small balls represent sodium atoms. 2. Use sticks to connect the balls. B. Models of oxygen (O2), carbin dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and methane (CH4) molecules. 1. Make five balls of the same size (about an inch in diameter) representing oxygen, two balls (three-fourths of an inch in diameter) for carbon, and six balls (one-fourth of an inch in diameter) for hydrgen. 2. Construct the electron-dot models of the molecules mentioned above. Oxygen in nature is found as a molecule connected by a double bond. Carbon dioxideis found as a linear molecule with two oxygen atoms connexted to carbon by double bonds. Water

is a bent molecule and methane is a tetrahedral molecule. Connect the atoms together with toothpicks.

Question: Which of the models show ionic bonding? Covalent bonding? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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ACTIVITY Bonding Process


Materials: Electrical conductivity apparatus (or an improvised apparatus), salt solution, sugar solution, KI solution, ethyl alcohol solution, distilled water

Caution: Observe proper safety precautions when the conductivity apparatus is turned on. Do not touch the electrodes.



1. Dip the electrodes of the conductivity apparatus in distilled water as shown in Fig. 11.3. Observe what happens to the light bulb when you switch on the apparatus. 2. Dip the electrodes of the conductivity apparatus in the prepared solutions. (See to it that you wash the electrodes in distilled water before transforming them to the next solutions.) Observe what happens to the light bulb when you switch on the apparatus.

Questions: 1. Which solution allowed electricity to pass through? Which solutions did not? ___________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. Which solutions contained ionically bonded solutes? Covalently bonded solutes? ___________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. What kind of bond held the atoms of distilled water (H2O) together? Did it conduct electricity? Why or why not? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4. Is there a relationship between the type of bond present in a compound and the ability of its aqueous solution to conduct electricity? Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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ACTIVITY 3.10 Polar or Nonpolar


Materials: Six plastic cups, water, oil, naphthalene (ground), sugar, HCl, iodine, and salt


Procedure: 1. Half-fill each of the six plastic cups with water. 2. Then add oil, naphthalene, sugar, HCl, iodine, and salt separately in the six plastic cups with water. 3. Observe if the compound dissolves in water. A compound that dissolves in water is polar. A compound that does not dissolve in water is nonpolar.

Question: Identify which of the compounds is polar and which is nonpolar.

Water polar Oil nonpolar Ground naphthalene nonpolar Sugar polar HCl polar Iodine nonpolar Salt - neither

Name: Year and Section: ACTIVITY 3.11 Chapter Review I. Enriching Your Science Vocabulary Match column A with column B. Write the letters only. A D B E C pull A 5. Empirical formula 1. Chemical bond 2. Ionic bond 3. London dispersion forces 4. Polar Covalent Bond B

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a. The simplest formula of a compound b. The result of electrostatic attraction between ions c. A bond where one atom tends to the shared electrons towards itself d. an attraction between two atoms e. weak bond formed between nonpolar

molecules II. Assesing Your Knowledge A. Which type of substance exhibits the properties listed below? Answer with I for ionic compound, C for covalent compound, and M for metal. I M C M C 1. Brittle 2. Conducts heat 3. Decomposes in heat 4. Malleable 5. Forms electrolyte solutions I C 6. High melting point 7. Soluble in water C 8. Non-conductor of electricity I 9. Soluble in nonpolar solvents M 10. Exhibits luster

B. Answer the following questions briefly on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Why do atoms form chemical bonds?

Atoms form chemical bonds because they are in a state instability seeking stability. Atoms electrons commonly aren't held with great force to the nucleus and, therefore, are easily lost to other atoms in ionic bonding or shared with other atoms in covalent bonding. A combination of atoms will often make them more stable in their environment and less easy to dissassociate. 2. Explain how atoms are held together in ionic, covalent, or metallic bond. Covalent bonding is a common type of bonding, in which the electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms is small or nonexistent. Bonds within most [organic compound]s are described as covalent. Ionic bonding is a type of electrostatic interaction between atoms which have a large electronegativity difference. There is no precise value that distinguishes ionic from covalent bonding, but a difference of electronegativity of over 1.7 is likely to be ionic, and a difference of less than 1.7 is likely to be covalent. Ionic bonding leads to separate positive and negative ions. Ionic charges are commonly between 3e to +3e. Ionic bonding commonly occurs in metal salts such as sodium chloride (table salt). A typical feature of ionic bonds is that the species form into ionic crystals, in which no ion is specifically paired with any single other ion, in a specific directional bond. There are four basic types of bonds that can be formed between two or more (otherwise non-associated) molecules, ions or atoms.Intermolecular forces cause molecules to be attracted or repulsed by each other. Often, these define some of the physical characteristics (such as the melting point) of a substance. 3. How would you compare the three kinds of intermolecular forces of attraction? Support your answer with examples. Otherwise known as quantum-induced instantaneous polarization or instantaneous dipole-induced dipole forces, the London dispersion forceis caused by correlated movements of the electrons in interacting molecules. The electrons, which belong to different molecules, start "feeling" and avoiding each other at the short intermolecular distances, which is frequently described as formation of "instantaneous dipoles" that attract each other. The induced dipole forces appear from the induction (also known as polarization), which is the attractive interaction between a permanent multi- pole on one molecule with an induced (by the former di/multi-pole) multi- pole on another. This interaction is called Debye force after Peter J.W. Debye. The example of an induction-interaction between permanent dipole and induced dipole is HCl and Ar. In this system, Ar experiences a dipole as its electrons are attracted (to H side) or repelled (from Cl side) by HCl. This kind of interaction can be expected between any polar molecule and non-polar/symmetrical molecule. The induction-interaction force is far weaker than dipole-dipole interaction, however stronger than London force. They induce their properties in another atom. Ion-dipole and induced-dipole forces operate much like dipole-dipole and induced-dipole interactions. However, instead of only polar and non-polar

molecules being involved, instead, ion interactions involve ions (as the name suggests). Ion-dipole and ion-induced dipole forces are stronger than dipole interactions because the charge of any ion is much greater than the charge of a dipole movement. Of course, H-bonds (a form of dipole-dipole) are still stronger than ion interactions. An ion-dipole force consists of an ion and a polar molecule interacting. They align so that the positive and negative forces are next to one another, allowing for maximum attraction. An ion-induced dipole force consists of an ion and a non-polar molecule interacting. Like a dipole-induced dipole force, the charge of the ion causes a distortion of the electron cloud on the nonpolar molecule. C. Determine the type of bond represented and write the electron-dot notation of the following compounds. Type of Bond Electron Dot Notation 1. K2O _____________________ _____________________ 2. H2S _____________________ _____________________ 3. CaO _____________________ _____________________ 4. AlCl3 _____________________ _____________________ 5. CH3Cl _____________________ _____________________ PI3 _____________________ _____________________