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SonTek/YSI 9940 Summers Ridge Road, San Diego, CA 92121-3091 USA Telephone (858) 546-8327 Fax (858) 546-8150 E-mail: inquiry@sontek.com Internet: http://www.sontek.com

inquiry@sontek.com  Internet: http://www.sontek.com Argonaut-SL System Manual Firmware Version 12.0 Copyright

Argonaut-SL System Manual Firmware Version 12.0

SonTek/YSI

RECORD OF CHANGES

 

Effective

Description

15

AUG 2005

Initial release; CPU firmware version 11.0

01

FEB 2006

Updated for CPU firmware version 11.3

01

NOV 2006

Updated for CPU firmware version 11.6 and ViewArgonaut version 3.43

01

MAY 2007

Updated for CPU firmware version 11.8 and ViewArgonaut version 3.50

01

APR 2009

Updated for CPU firmware version 12.0 and ViewArgonaut version 3.70

SonTek/YSI

SonTek/YSI Manufacturer’s Name: Manufacturer’s Address: Declaration of Conformity SonTek/YSI Inc 9940 Summers Ridge

Manufacturer’s Name:

Manufacturer’s Address:

Declaration of Conformity

SonTek/YSI Inc 9940 Summers Ridge Road San Diego, CA 92121-3091 U.S.A.

SonTek/YSI declares that the product(s):

Equipment Type:

Water Velocity Measurement Device

Model:

Argonaut Series

Product Name:

Argonaut XR 3.0 MHz, 1.5 MHz, 750 kHz, and 500 kHz; Argonaut SL 3 MHz, 1.5 MHz, and 500 kHz; Argonaut SW 3 MHz; Argonaut DVL 3 MHz, 1.5 MHz, and 500 kHz; Argonaut MD 3 MHz and 1.5 MHz.

Conforms to the following European Union Council Directives and Standards as of 5/21/04:

EMC DIRECTIVE 89/336/EEC:

-EN 61326 (1997), A1 (1998), A2 (2001), Class “A” -EN 61000-3-2 (2000) -EN 61000-3-3 (1995) -IEC 61000-4-2 (1995), A1 (1998), A2 (2000) -IEC 61000-4-3 (2002), A1 (2002) -IEC 61000-4-4 (1995), A1 (2000), A2 (2001) -IEC 61000-4-5 (1995), A1 (2001) -IEC 61000-4-6 (1996), A1 (2000) -IEC 61000-4-11 (2001)

A1 (2001) -IEC 61000-4-6 (1996), A1 (2000) -IEC 61000-4-11 (2001) Argonaut-SL System Manual (April 1, 2009)

SonTek/YSI

SonTek/YSI

Release Notice

This is the April 1, 2009 release of the Argonaut-SL System Manual. During the creation of this manual, the following were the latest available versions of firmware/software. As such, if you are using different firmware/software versions, not all aspects of this manual may apply.

Argonaut firmware version 12.0

ViewArgonaut software version 3.70

Trademarks

The terms SonTek, ADP, ADV, Argonaut, FlowTracker, and RiverSurveyor are registered trade- marks of YSI Inc. All rights are reserved. All other brand names are trademarks of their respec- tive holders.

Warranty, Terms, and Conditions

The system you have purchased is covered under a one year limited warranty that extends to all parts and labor for any malfunction due to workmanship or errors in the manufacturing process. The warranty does not cover shortcomings that are due to the design, nor does it cover any form of incidental damage as a result of errors in the measurements.

If your system is not functioning properly, first try to identify the source of the problem. If addi- tional support is required, we encourage you to contact us immediately, and we will work to re- solve the problem as quickly as possible.

If the system needs to be returned to the factory, please contact SonTek/YSI to obtain a Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA) number. We reserve the right to refuse receipt of shipments without RMAs. We require the system to be shipped back in the original shipping container us- ing the original packing material with all delivery costs covered by the customer (including all taxes and duties). If the system is returned without appropriate packing, the customer will be re- quired to cover the cost of a new packaging crate and material.

SonTek/YSI

SonTek/YSI

About This Manual

Thank you for your interest in using a SonTek Argonaut Side-Looking (SL) system. This Argo- naut-SL System Manual describes how to install and configure the Argonaut-SL system and its associated software. It includes instructions and guidelines for the most common applications for which this system is used.

Scope and Audience

Even if you have used other SonTek acoustic Doppler products, we recommend that you spend some time reading this manual to learn about the special features of this system.

This manual is more ―application-oriented‖ in that it tries to explain how to use the Argonaut-SL system for specific, real-world applications. If you intend to use the instrument for other applica- tions (e.g., in lab experiments, etc.), or if you need detailed information about the instrument it- self, please contact us.

How to Use This Manual

This manual was especially designed for on-line viewing through a computer. Even though you may now be reading a paper copy of this manual, an ―electronic‖ copy of this manual was pro- vided to you on the distribution disk (Argonaut-SL.pdf).

The use of this ―PDF‖ file requires you to have the Adobe ® Acrobat Reader ® software installed on your computer. This software is freely available from Adobe at http://www.adobe.com.

This Argonaut-SL.pdf file is also used as a Help file within the ViewArgonaut software program. If you install ViewArgonaut on your computer using the default installation instructions (§1.3), the Argonaut-SL.pdf file will be in the folder C:\Program Files\SonTek\Manuals and a shortcut to the manual will be created (Start|Programs|SonTek Software|Argonaut-SL Manual).

The PDF version of this manual makes it easy for you to navigate within the document. Several hyperlinks (in blue) let you quickly go to referenced sections, figures, tables, and glossary defini- tions. Additionally, you can use the built-in search features of Acrobat to find specific words and phrases. With the PDF copy, you can also print out high-quality copies of the manual to paper (for your organization’s personal use only and not for resale or redistribution).

You do not need to read this manual in sequential order. We do suggest you read Section 1 (Getting Started / Read Me First!) if you are a new user or if you have just received a new sys- tem. Glance through the Table of Contents and pick out those topics that interest you.

Reader Feedback

Your feedback about the Argonaut-SL system and this manual will help us to improve our prod- ucts. Please let us know what improvements we can make by contacting us via telephone, fax, or e-mail (see next page for Contact Information).

SonTek/YSI

Contact Information

Any questions, concerns, or suggestions can be directed to SonTek by telephone, fax, or email. Business hours are 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Pacific Standard Time, Monday through Friday.

Phone : (858) 546-8327

Fax

Email : inquiry@sontek.com (General information)

: (858) 546-8150

sales@sontek.com (Sales information)

support@sontek.com (Support information)

Web

See our web site for information concerning new products and software/firmware upgrades.

SonTek/YSI

Table of Contents

About This Manual

vii

Table of Contents

ix

Section 1.

Getting Started / Read Me First!

1

1.1. Start Here!

1

1.2. Unpack the System

1

1.3. Install the Software

4

1.4. Interconnect the System

4

1.5. Run Some Simple Tests

5

1.6. Learn the Details

9

Section 2.

An Introduction to the Argonaut-SL System

11

2.1. What is an Argonaut-SL?

11

2.2. Where can an Argonaut-SL be used?

12

2.3. Why use an Argonaut-SL?

12

Section 3.

Argonaut-SL System, Features, and Considerations

15

3.1. Argonaut-SL System

15

3.2. Argonaut-SL Frequently Asked Questions

17

3.2.1. What does the ―SL‖ mean?

17

3.2.2. What is the SL's intended application?

17

3.2.3. How does the SL compare with other SonTek Argonaut products?

18

3.2.4. What is the SL actually measuring?

18

3.2.5. Where in the channel is the SL measuring the water velocity?

19

3.2.6. Can the SL profile the currents?

19

3.2.7. Can the SL measure reversing flow?

19

3.2.8. How does water clarity relate to SL water velocity measurements?

19

3.2.9. Should I use an Argonaut-SL or an Argonaut-SW for my application?

19

3.2.10. Can the SL record data internally?

20

3.2.11. Does the SL have an internal battery?

20

3.2.12. Can I run the SL using a topside battery and solar panel?

20

3.2.13. What communication protocols are supported?

20

3.2.14. Can the SL be used with the Modbus data collection network?

20

3.2.15. Can I output analog data such as a 4-20 mA current loop?

20

3.2.16. How long can the power/communications cable be?

20

3.2.17. How do I mount the SL?

20

Section 4. Argonaut-SL Applications

21

4.1. Real-Time Flow Monitoring and Sample Installations

21

4.2. Multi-cell Velocity Profile and Flow Modeling

22

4.3. Analog Outputs Integration with Data Acquisition and Control Systems

24

4.4. Modbus Interface Module: Modbus Data Acquisition Networks

24

Section 5.

Preparing the Argonaut-SL for Deployment

25

SonTek/YSI

5.1.

Selecting an Installation Site

25

5.1.1. Beam Considerations

 

25

5.1.2. Installation Location and Water Depth

27

5.1.3. Flow Considerations

27

5.1.4. Cable Protection

27

5.2.

System Installation

28

5.2.1. Argonaut-SL Mounting: SL500 Low-Profile Housing

28

5.2.2. Argonaut-SL Mounting: SL1500 Low-Profile Housing

29

5.2.3. Argonaut-SL Mounting: SL3000 Low-Profile Housing

30

5.2.4. Argonaut-SL Mounting: 1500 and 3000-kHz Original Canister Housings

31

5.2.5. 1500 and 3000-kHz External Battery Housing Mounting Information

33

5.2.6. Sample SL Installations

 

35

5.3.

System Interconnection

40

5.3.1. RS-232 / RS-422 Serial Communications

 

43

5.3.2. RS-422 Serial Communication

43

5.3.3. Power Supply

44

5.4.

Selecting Operating Parameters

44

5.4.1. Primary Operating Parameters

 

45

5.4.2. Multi-cell Profiling Parameters

48

5.4.3. Internal Flow Parameters

49

5.4.4. Wave Spectra Parameters

52

5.4.5. Analog Output Parameters

53

5.5.

Autonomous Deployment Considerations

53

5.5.1. Data Storage

 

53

5.5.2. Power Requirements

56

5.6.

Site Survey and Diagnostic Procedures

58

5.6.1.

Beam Check / Diagnostics Data

61

5.7.

Deployment Examples using ViewArgonaut Software

68

5.7.1. General ViewArgonaut Deployment Procedure:

Standard

68

5.7.2. General ViewArgonaut Deployment Procedure: SDI-12

68

5.7.3. General ViewArgonaut Deployment Procedure:

Modbus

71

5.7.4. ViewArgonaut Deployment Software Overview

73

5.7.5. Creating Template Files (ViewArgonaut)

74

5.7.6. Starting the Deployment Process (ViewArgonaut)

74

5.7.7. Standard Operating Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

79

5.7.8. Multi-cell Profiling Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

81

5.7.9. Advanced Operating Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

82

5.7.10. Internal Flow Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

84

5.7.11. Wave Spectra Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

91

5.7.12. SDI-12 Interface Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

92

5.7.13. External Sensor (YSI or CTD) Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

93

5.7.14. Analog Output Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

 

94

5.7.15. Battery Life and Recorder Capacity (ViewArgonaut)

96

5.7.16. Updating Parameters and Starting a Deployment (ViewArgonaut)

99

5.8.

Deployment Examples using a Direct Command Interface (SonUtils)

101

5.8.1. SonUtils Autonomous Deployment Trapezoid Channel

102

5.8.2. SonUtils Autonomous Deployment Natural (Irregular) Channel

105

5.8.3. SonUtils Autonomous Deployment Trapezoidal Closed Culvert

108

SonTek/YSI

5.8.4.

SonUtils Autonomous Deployment Stage/Area Equation

111

5.8.5.

SonUtils SDI-12 Deployment

114

5.8.6.

SonUtils Real-Time Interface Using RS-232

118

5.8.7.

SonUtils Modbus Interface Module Deployment

118

5.8.8.

SonUtils Wave Spectra Deployment

119

5.8.9.

SonUtils External Sensor (YSI or CTD) Deployment

119

5.8.10.

SonUtils Analog Output Deployment

120

Section 6.

Retrieving and Analyzing Argonaut-SL Data

123

6.1.

How to Download Data

123

6.1.1. Download Data Using ViewArgonaut Deployment

123

6.1.2. Download Data Using SonUtils

123

6.1.3. Download Data Using ViewArgonaut

124

6.2. Recorded Data

125

6.3. Quality Control Data

126

6.3.1. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

126

6.3.2. Signal Strength and Noise Level

127

6.3.3. Standard Error of Velocity

128

6.3.4. Stage Data

129

6.3.5. Temperature, Pressure, and Battery Voltage

129

6.3.6. Cell Begin and Cell End

130

6.3.7. Internal Diagnostic Data

131

6.4. General Guidelines for Data Analysis

132

6.5. Sample Data Files

133

6.5.1.

Sample Data File 1 (SLDemo1.arg) Tidally Influenced River

133

6.5.2.

Sample Data File 2 (SLDemo2.arg) Large Changes in Stage Data

137

6.5.3.

Sample Data File 3 (SLDemo3.arg) Velocity Values Reading Low

140

Section 7.

Argonaut-SL Hardware

143

7.1.

Cables and Connectors

143

7.1.1. Power/Communications Cable

143

7.1.2. Serial Communication Protocol

151

7.1.3. Splitter Cable and Dummy Plug (for Argonaut-SL with Batteries)

151

7.1.4. Communication Baud Rate Setting

152

7.2. Power Supply

152

7.3. Internal Electronics and Wiring Overview

154

7.3.1. Analog Board

156

7.3.2. CPU Board

157

7.3.3. Receiver Board

158

7.4. Temperature Sensor

159

7.5. Pressure Sensor

159

7.5.1.

Changing the Pressure Sensor Offset

160

7.6.

Compass/Tilt Sensor

160

7.6.1. Testing Compass Operation

160

7.6.2. Compass Configuration

161

7.6.3. Compass Calibration

161

7.6.4. Communicating with the Compass

162

7.7.

Real-time Clock Backup Battery

163

SonTek/YSI

7.8. Accessing Electronics

163

7.9. Upgrading the CPU EPROM

164

7.10. Battery Pack Replacement

164

Section 8.

System Maintenance

167

8.1. Regular Diagnostic Procedures

167

8.2. Cleaning the Transducers

167

8.3. Cable Maintenance

168

8.4. O-rings

168

8.5. Condensation in Argonaut Housing

168

8.6. Corrosion Protection for Metal Parts

168

8.7. Protection from Biological Fouling

168

8.8. Protection in High-Temperature Environments

169

Section 9.

System Troubleshooting

171

9.1. Cannot Establish Communications with the Argonaut-SL

171

9.2. Cannot Retrieve Data from the Internal Recorder

172

9.3. Missing Data from an Autonomous Deployment

172

9.4. Cannot Communicate with an SDI-12 Data Logger

172

9.5. Velocity Data Appears Noisy or Unreasonable

173

9.6. Vertical Beam is Unable to the Detect Water Level

174

9.7. Compass/Tilt Sensor Data Unreasonable

174

Appendix A.

Glossary

175

Appendix B.

Argonaut-SL Principles of Operation

179

B-1.

Overview

180

B-2.

The Doppler Shift and Monostatic Current Meters

181

B-3.

Beam Geometry and 2D Velocity Measurements

183

B-4.

Stage Measurement (Vertical Acoustic Beam)

185

B-5.

Flow Calculations

185

B-6.

Argonaut-SL Data

186

B-7.

Quality Control Data

188

B-8.

Flow Data

191

B-9.

Special Considerations

191

B-10. Contact Information

196

Appendix C.

Argonaut Direct Command Interface

197

C-1.

Serial Communication Protocols and Settings

198

C-2.

Modes of Operation

198

C-3.

Special Notice when Changing Power Sources

201

C-4.

Command Syntax

202

C-5.

Direct Command Summary

203

C-6.

Show Commands

207

C-7.

System Commands

211

C-8.

Setup Commands

214

C-9.

Deployment Commands

225

C-10. SDI-12 Interface Commands

227

SonTek/YSI

C-11. Recorder Commands

228

C-12. Sensor Commands

229

C-13. Compass Commands

231

C-14. Run-Time Commands

232

C-15. Internal Flow Commands

235

C-16. Waves Commands

246

C-17. Analog Output Commands

247

Appendix D.

Argonaut Data Outputs

249

D-1.

Argonaut Binary Data File Format

249

D-2.

Argonaut Real-Time RS-232 Serial Data Output

257

Appendix E.

Argonaut-SL/XR Internal SDI-12 Interface

263

E-1.

Introduction

263

E-2.

Instrument Control and SDI-12 Auto Sampling

263

E-3.

Switching Between RS-232 and SDI-12 Operating Modes

264

E-4.

Simulating SDI-12 Commands Using SonUtils

265

E-5.

Connecting the Argonaut to a Data-Logger

267

E-6.

Collecting Data Using SDI-12

268

E-7.

Summary of Argonaut SDI-12 Commands

273

E-8.

SDI-12 Command and Response Protocol

273

Appendix F.

Argonaut Analog Output Option

279

F-1.

Overview of the Argonaut Analog Output Option

279

F-2.

Analog Output Wiring

279

F-3.

Analog Output Deployment Procedure

282

F-4.

Configuring the AO Converter

282

F-5.

Analog Output Commands

284

Appendix G.

Internal Flow Calculations

285

G-1.

Overview of Argonaut Internal Flow Computations

285

G-2.

Velocity Equations

285

G-3.

Channel Geometry

286

G-4.

Total Volume Calculations

287

G-5. Additional Considerations when Using Internal Flow Computations

288

G-6.

References

289

Appendix H.

Argonaut Flow Display

291

H-1.

Hardware, Wiring, and Firmware Changes

291

H-2. Flow Display Operation

291

H-3.

Power Consumption

292

H-4.

Flow Display Limitations

293

Appendix I.

Modbus Interface Module (MIM)

295

I-1.

How the MIM Works

295

I-2.

Argonaut System Requirements

296

I-3.

Programming the Argonaut for Data Collection

296

I-4.

Accessing Argonaut Data on the Modbus Network

297

SonTek/YSI

I-5.

Changing Modbus Address and Communication Settings

299

I-6.

Starting Modbus Data Collection

300

I-7.

Primary Argonaut Parameters: Modbus Register Locations

301

I-8.

Additional Argonaut Parameters: Modbus Register Locations

303

I-9.

MIM Floating Point Number Format

306

Appendix J.

Optional Features and External Sensors

307

J-1.

SonWave Wave Spectra Collection

307

J-2.

YSI Multi-Parameter Probe

308

J-3.

SeaBird MicroCat CTD

309

Index

311

SonTek/YSI

Section 1. Getting Started / Read Me First!

1.1. Start Here!

Thank you for your interest in the SonTek Argonaut Side-Looking (SL) system (Figure 1-1 or Figure 1-2). Although we would like you to read and familiarize yourself with the entire manual before making a measurement, we realize many people just want to play with their new system when they first receive it. As such, we’re going to let you play with the system right now!

This section assumes that you are a new user, or that you have just received a new Argonaut-SL system.

In either case, all we are going to do here is explain how to interconnect and test your Argonaut-SL system to give you confidence that the system is functioning properly.

Afterwards, other sections of the Argonaut-SL System Manual will provide the details you need to know regarding system applications, features, operation, and maintenance.

Note: The Argonaut-SL System Manual was designed for on-line viewing using a computer. A PDF copy of the manual is provided as an integral part of the ViewArgonaut program. For details, read About This Manual at the front of the Argonaut-SL System Manual.

Manual at the front of the Argonaut-SL System Manual . Figure 1-1. Low-Profile Systems: SL500 (left);

Figure 1-1. Low-Profile Systems: SL500 (left); SL1500 (center); SL3000 (right)

1.2. Unpack the System

As obvious as this may sound, you will need to unpack your system after you receive it. During the unpacking process, you should:

Check the shipping container and its contents for obvious damage.

Verify you have received all expected items. This can be done using the Packing List that accompanied the shipping container. However, interpreting the Packing List is not always obvious (e.g., some listed items like the recorder are inside the sealed housing). It may be simpler for you to compare your original Quotation or Sales Order with the items you received. Standard Argo- naut-SL equipment items are shown in Figure 1-3, Figure 1-4, Figure 1-5, or Figure 1-6 depending on model type.

Contact SonTek regarding damaged or missing items.

We strongly recommend you keep the shipping container and all its packing material in a safe place. If you need to return your system to the factory, the original shipping container and packing material will help ensure its safe return.

and packing material will help ensure its safe return. Figure 1-2. Original Canister-Style SL Argonaut-SL System

Figure 1-2. Original Canister-Style SL

SonTek/YSI

SonTek/YSI Figure 1-3. SL500 with Standard Equipment Figure 1-4. SL1500 with Standard Equipment 2 Argonaut-SL System

Figure 1-3. SL500 with Standard Equipment

SonTek/YSI Figure 1-3. SL500 with Standard Equipment Figure 1-4. SL1500 with Standard Equipment 2 Argonaut-SL System

Figure 1-4. SL1500 with Standard Equipment

SonTek/YSI

SonTek/YSI Figure 1-5. SL3000 with Standard Equipment Figure 1-6. Original Canister Style 1500 or 3000-kHz Argonaut-SL

Figure 1-5. SL3000 with Standard Equipment

SonTek/YSI Figure 1-5. SL3000 with Standard Equipment Figure 1-6. Original Canister Style 1500 or 3000-kHz Argonaut-SL

Figure 1-6. Original Canister Style 1500 or 3000-kHz Argonaut-SL with Standard Equipment

SonTek/YSI

1.3. Install the Software

Argonaut-SL systems typically ship with one CD-ROM disk that contains the applicable soft- ware programs and documents. Although we may not use all the programs during this Getting Started session, we will install all the primary software programs and documentation at this time.

To install the standard Argonaut-SL programs and manual (SonUtils, ViewArgonaut, Argonaut-SL.pdf):

Insert the Argonaut distribution CD into your computer’s CD-ROM drive.

An installation menu should automatically appear after the CD has been inserted. If the installation menu does not appear in a few seconds, click Start | Run and type d:\install.exe where d:\ is the letter of your CD-ROM drive.

Click the installation button for the SonUtils program, and then follow the on-screen instal-

lation instructions.

Repeat the process of clicking the installation button for the remaining programs on the CD

(e.g., ViewArgonaut).

Note: To view the PDF version of the Argonaut-SL System Manual, which is included dur-

ing ViewArgonaut installation, you will need to have a copy of Adobe ® Acrobat Reader ® installed on your computer. If necessary, you can download a free copy of this reader from http://www.adobe.com.

The PDF version of the manual makes it easy for you use the hypertext links and search

features contained within the document to find topics of interest.

1.4.

Interconnect the System

All we are going to do here is interconnect the system enough to test the Argonaut-SL itself. We will do this ―right out of the box‖ so you can quickly gain some experience in how to set up and use the SL. Later, you can refer to the Argonaut-SL System Manual for detailed information on how to interconnect other peripherals that may comprise your system. Refer to Figure 1-3 through Figure 1-6 (depending on model type) for assistance in identifying system components.

Locate the Power/Serial Communications Cable and connect the cable’s keyed, 8-pin, wet-

mateable connector to the SL. Caution: When mating the connector to the SL, push the connector with enough force to overcome the resistance of the wet-mateable pins. Push the connector until its face is flush with the female bulkhead connector. Do not simply tighten the locking sleeve during the mating process; just tightening the sleeve will not ensure proper pin align- ment nor will it supply the required force to ensure a waterproof seal.

Connect the cable’s RS-232 connector to an appropriate COM port on your computer

(usually COM1).

Connect the cable’s power input connector(s) to your power supply. For our testing purpos-

es, try to use the Power Adapter supplied with the system. Caution: If you will be applying power to the SL using a different external power source (e.g., automobile battery, variable power supply, etc), be aware that the SL re- quires a 7 to 15 VDC power supply to operate. Do not exceed the 15 VDC maximum or damage to the electronics will occur. Use ―clean‖ power (e.g., filtered, no spikes).

Run some simple tests; see §1.5.

SonTek/YSI

1.5. Run Some Simple Tests

We now want to run just a few simple tests to give us some confidence that the system is func- tioning ―right out of the box.‖

If you have not already done so, install at least the SonUtils program (§1.3).

Interconnect the system as described in the previous section (§1.4).

Apply power to the SL system.

Start the SonUtils program (Start|Programs|SonTek Software|SonUtils*). *Note: The SonU-

tils program shortcut may contain a release number; for example, SonUtils4.

If necessary, set up the Communications parameters within SonUtils typically COM1, Baud

Rate 9600 mode (Figure 1-7). If you need more information about setting the communica- tions parameters, use Help|SonUtils Help and refer to the section on Communications.

If necessary, set the Input Type to Command mode. Note: At this point, we only want to test

the SL, so we will not test any other communication mode (e.g., SDI-12). For details on SDI- 12 communications, see §5.8.3 and Appendix E of the Argonaut-SL System Manual.

Click Break (or press Alt+B) to send the initialization (i.e., wake-up) command to the SL.

You should see a copyright/initialization message similar to the one shown in Figure 1-7.

message similar to the one shown in Figure 1-7 . Figure 1-7. Establishing Communications using SonUtils

Figure 1-7. Establishing Communications using SonUtils

SonTek/YSI

Note: While we are using SonUtils, if no valid entry is sent to the system for five minutes,

the SL may power itself down to conserve energy. If this happens, just send another Break to the SL to wake it up again. Whether your SL goes to sleep after five minutes depends on the system configuration. Typically, an SL will go to sleep after five minutes.

Let’s record all our commands and the results to a log file in case we need to review any set-

tings or problems. Click File|Open Log File (or press Ctrl+L). Enter a file name and location when prompted.

Click each of the following four controls to get various listings that show how your system

is configured.

Show Conf Lists the SL hardware configuration. Example:

>show conf HARDWARE CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS

---------------------------------

System Type -------------------- SL Sensor serial # ---------------- E1000 Sensor frequency - (kHz) ------- 1500

Number of beams ---------------- 2 Beam Geometry ------------------ 2_BEAMS Vertical Beam ------------------ YES Slant angle - (deg) ------------ 25.0 Orientation -------------------- SIDE Compass installed ------------- NO Recorder installed ------------- YES Temperature sensor ------------- YES

Pressure

PressOffset - (dbar) ---------- -1.450000

PressScale -- (dbar/count) ---- 0.000167 PressScale_2 - (pdbar/count^2) - 23

Ctd

Ext. Press. sensor ------------- NONE

YSI

Waves Option ------------------- NO Internal SDI-12 Option --------- YES Internal Flow Computations ----- YES Analog Output Option ----------- NO Multi-cell Profiling Option ---- YES Housing Type ------------------- LOWPROFILE

sensor ------------- YES

sensor ------------- NO

sensor ------------- NO

Show System Lists current system parameters. Example:

>show system System Parameters

-----------------

CPU Ver ---------- ARG 11.0 BoardRev --------- REV G Date ------------- 2004/12/23 Time ------------- 08:50:23 AutoSleep ------- YES VoltageProtection- YES

OutMode ---------- AUTO OutFormat -------- ENGLISH Recorder --------- ON RecMode ---------- NORMAL

SonTek/YSI

Show Setup Lists current SL setup parameters. Example:

>show setup Setup Parameters

----------------

Temp ----------- 20.00 deg C

Sal ------------ 0.00 ppt TempMode ------- MEASURED Sound Speed ---- 1481.6 m/s AvgInterval ---- 120 s SampleInterval - 900 s CellBegin ------ 2.00 m CellEnd -------- 10.00 m CoordSystem ---- XYZ RevXVelocity --- NO PowerPing ------ YES ProfilingMode -- YES Ncells --------- 10 CellSize ------- 1.00 BlankDistance - 1.00

Show Deploy For systems with internal records, lists current deployment parameters. Example:

>show deploy CURRENT DEPLOYMENT PARAMETERS

-----------------------------

Deployment ------ TEST StartDate ------- 2005/03/01 StartTime ------- 12:00:00 AvgInterval ----- 120 s SampleInterval -- 900 s BurstMode ------- DISABLED BurstInterval --- 1200 s SamplesPerBurst - 1 Comments:

This is a test file.

Now we will run a short deployment to ensure the transmit and receive circuitry is function-

ing. First, we need to enter some parameters to tell the SL how long to ping (i.e., how long to collect and display data). Note that the parameters we are about to enter are not typical parameters; we are only using them to quickly test the system. Enter the following four pa- rameters (press <Enter> after each entry; upper, lower, or mixed case letters can be used).

>AvgInterval 60 OK

>SampleInterval 60 (or “si 60”) OK >OutFormat English (or “of english”; ensures output is not in binary) OK

(or you can use the shortcut of “ai 60”) (SL’s acceptance response)

Type in START and press <Enter>. The system will begin to collect and display data every

ten seconds. You should see a display similar to the following. At this point, the values dis- played are meaningless, especially if your SL is pinging ―in air‖ rather than in water. Note:

To learn which data are displayed in each column, refer to Appendix D of the Argonaut-SL System Manual.

>start Checking Setup Parameters 4194304 free bytes left in recorder. Free space is sufficient for 2.82 days of operation.

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Data will be recorded to file TEST001. OK 2005 04 05 03 55 11

0

0

-1 255 255

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1818

 

16

0

71

20

20

34

29

30

0

-1

0

13 0

1

-146

51 191

88

36

32

2

179

-117 249 116

 

35

29

3

-95

-13 204

94

35

29

4

146

-65 235 108

 

34

29

5

-80

-34 183

84

34

29

6

-236

54 162

74

34

29

7

-147

49 178

82

34

29

8

-111

32 255 121

 

34

29

9

-56

-94 161

74

34

29

10

85

-122 255 125

 

34

29

To stop the SL data collection process, click Break (or press Alt+B) to send the initialization

(i.e., wake-up) command to the SL. You should see a copyright/initialization message simi- lar to the one shown in Figure 1-7. Now press <Enter>. Note: The reason we pressed <Enter> is to prevent the SL from resuming the data collection process. This is because, depending on how your system is configured, if you do not send another command to the SL within three minutes of sending the Break, the system will once again start collecting data. This is a safety precaution that helps to resume a deployment in case extraneous signals received by the SL are incorrectly interpreted as a Break (e.g., when a communication cable is being connected/disconnected, or power to the system is lost temporarily).

There are several ―internal‖ sensors that we can check Temperature, Pressure, and Bat-

tery Voltage. Type in SENSOR CONT (for ―sensor continuous‖ test) and press <Enter>. The SonUtils screen will begin to show Temperature (in °C), Pressure (in dBar), and Battery Voltage (in VDC).

>sensor cont Temp = 17.22 Temp = 17.24 Temp = 17.24

Pressure = 0.05 Pressure = 0.05 Pressure = 0.05

Battery = 14.3 Battery = 14.3 Battery = 14.3

When you are ready to stop the sensor check, press <Enter>.

To check the internal recorder, type in DIR and press <Enter>. The SonUtils screen will dis-

play a listing of any files that are currently stored on the recorder (if any), the number of re- corder bytes used, and the number of recorder bytes free.

That’s it! We’ve finished running these simple tests as a quick way to familiarize you with

the system and to ensure the system is functioning. If you are an experienced user, you can begin the process of setting up for a ―real‖ application (see §1.6 for suggestions).

When you have finished your testing, you can now power down and disconnect the SL. To

power down the SL, enter the PowerOff command or remove power from the system.

If you need more information about how to set up and use the system, the next section (§1.6)

gives you some suggestions on what you can do next.

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1.6. Learn the Details

So now what? Well, that really depends on your experience level or on what you would like to do. Most sections of the Argonaut-SL System Manual can be read independently. That is, you do not have to read them in sequential order. Here are a few suggestions:

New Users

Appendix B Argonaut-SL Principles of Operation

Section 2 An Introduction to the Argonaut-SL System

Section 3 Argonaut-SL System, Features, and Considerations

Section 4 Argonaut-SL Applications

Section 5 Preparing the Argonaut-SL for Deployment

Section 6 Retrieving and Analyzing Argonaut-SL Data

Experienced Users / Software Users / Deployment Information

Section 5 Preparing the Argonaut-SL for Deployment

Section 6 Retrieving and Analyzing Argonaut-SL Data

Theory and Details

Appendix B Argonaut-SL Principles of Operation

Appendix G Internal Flow Calculations

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SonTek/YSI

Section 2. An Introduction to the Argonaut-SL System

The following topics are covered in Section 2:

What is an Argonaut-SL?

Where can an Argonaut-SL be used?

Why use an Argonaut-SL?

2.1. What is an Argonaut-SL?

The Argonaut-SL is an acoustic Doppler current meter that looks horizontally across a body of water (e.g., river, channel, harbor) and measures water velocity, stage, and total water flow. The SL is easily installed on a riverbank, bridge abutment, or other vertical structure (Figure 2-1).

The SL measures velocity in a user-programmable cell extending up to 120 m horizontally from the instrument (maximum measurement range varies with frequency). Flow distur- bances caused by the mounting structure can be avoided by positioning the measurement cell beyond the area affected by the structure.

Newer SLs include a vertical acoustic beam for stage measurements (some older SLs did not include a vertical beam). Stage can be combined with velocity and user-supplied channel geometry to compute total flow.

The SL never requires calibration velocity accuracy is not affected by biological growth.

Options for velocity profiling, telemetry, and water quality sensors extend the capability of the SL to a wide variety of applications.

the capability of the SL to a wide variety of applications. Figure 2-1. Typical Argonaut-SL Installation

Figure 2-1. Typical Argonaut-SL Installation

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The Argonaut-SL system combines proven state-of-the-art acoustic Doppler instrumentation with a Windows-based (98/2000/NT/XP) software package. The high degree of accuracy and ease of use that the system provides allows you to confidently measure water current velocities and flow using a single mode of operation.

2.2. Where can an Argonaut-SL be used?

The Argonaut-SL system has been designed to work in a wide variety of water resource applica- tions and locations, including:

River discharge monitoring

Velocity indexing

Irrigation channels

Water supply

Flood alert systems

Pollution monitoring (with optional YSI sonde)

Vessel traffic / ship berthing

Offshore platforms

2.3. Why use an Argonaut-SL?

The Argonaut-SL system and its software package were designed and tested by hydrologists for hydrologists. The system itself provides unparalleled ease of use and accuracy with the sophisti- cation needed to handle some of the most complicated environmental conditions that can be en- countered in the field.

New users will find data collection and analysis a simple task, while advanced users will benefit from the flexible processing and analytical tools that are provided. One of the major benefits of the SL is that long and complicated training courses are not required before you can start collect- ing meaningful data.

Now for a little bit of history about why the water resources community needed an instrument such as the SL.

Acoustic Doppler current meters, and in particular Doppler current profilers, have been estab- lished for many years as one of the best ways to measure water velocity. Advantages of Doppler current meters such as the Argonaut-SL include:

Measurements are made in a remote sampling volume free from flow distortion.

Velocity data are free from drift; the SL never requires calibration.

Doppler technology has no inherent minimum detectable velocity, giving excellent perfor- mance at low flows.

The SL has no moving parts, is immune to biofouling contamination, and can have user- applied anti-fouling paint to prevent growth.

The same robust computational algorithms are used for velocities from 1 cm/s to 6 m/s.

For many years, most Doppler current meters were 3D systems designed to profile looking either up or down. However, to install a system permanently on the bottom of a river, channel, or har- bor is very expensive, and system inspection and maintenance is very difficult. The SL provides the same performance and advantages of the 3D Doppler meters, but allows the system to be in- stalled from a vertical structure within the water column. This is commonly a bridge pier, the vertical side of a channel, or some other structure in the water.

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Mounting the SL from an existing structure allows for easy installation, easy instrument access for inspection and maintenance, and keeps the instrument safe from potential damage by vessel traffic. The remote sampling volume and programmable measurement location of the SL means that the velocity data can be collected some distance away from the instrument, free of any flow interference or effects from structures in the water. Thus, the SL provides high quality, accurate, and robust velocity data from a simple mounting structure.

Many river gauging sites that previously used travel time current meters have been replaced with the SL. While the travel time systems provided good performance, they required costly installa- tion and maintenance procedures including detailed installation surveys and cross-channel cables. The SL provides all the advantages of a travel time system, with the many added benefits of a Doppler system, and a much simpler and less expensive installation procedure.

The SL is also popular as part of a vessel traffic system in harbors and shipping channels. The remote measurement can provide accurate, real-time current data from the shipping channel while the instrument is safely and easily installed on a pier, piling, or channel marker.

SonTek/YSI

SonTek/YSI

Section 3. Argonaut-SL System, Features, and Considerations

The following topics are covered in Section 3:

Argonaut-SL System

Argonaut-SL Frequently Asked Questions

3.1. Argonaut-SL System

All new Argonaut-SL systems come with the following standard features.

Two-beam transducer design for measuring 2D water velocity

Stage measurement (using a vertical acoustic beam)

User-programmable sampling volume size (see Table 3-1)

Multi-cell current profiling (i.e., 10 individual ―sections‖ in addition to the standard inte- grated velocity cell). See §4.2 and §B-6.4.

Integrated pressure sensor (SL500 and SL1500 only)

Internal compass/2-axis tilt sensor (SL500 and SL1500 only)

Real-time flow calculations based on user-supplied channel geometry

RS-232 and SDI-12 communication protocols

4-MB internal recorder capacity (over 50,000 samples)

Temperature sensor on exposed titanium pin for fast response

Polycarbonate mounting plate (SL500 and SL3000; SL1500 has integrated mounting plate)

ViewArgonaut software program (Windows 98/NT/2000/XP/Vista) for instrument setup, da-

ta collection, and post-processing

SonUtils software program (Windows 2000/XP/Vista) for direct communication and system diagnostics

PDA software (SonUtils and deployment modules)

Optional features can include the following.

4-20 mA and 0-5 VDC analog output modules available variables include X velocity,

Y velocity, velocity magnitude, temperature, mean signal strength, stage, flow, and total vo-

lume (Note: only one output variable per output module). See §4.3 and Appendix F.

External battery pack for autonomous operation

RS-422 serial communication for long cable installations up to 1500 m (5000 ft)

Integrated SeaBird CTD

Table 3-1 lists a summary of Argonaut-SL specifications.

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Table 3-1. Summary of Argonaut-SL Specifications

Specification

 

Details

Water velocity

Range: ±6 m/s (19.5 ft/s) Resolution: 0.1 cm/s (0.003 ft/s) Accuracy: ±1% of measured velocity, ±0.5 cm/s (0.015 ft/s)

 

Sampling volume size (user programmable)

Low-Profile Housing

 

Original Canister Housing

 

SL500:

1.5 to 120 m (5 to 390 ft) 0.2 to 20 m (0.7 to 65 ft) 0.1 to 5 m (0.3 to 16 ft)

 
 

SL1500:

1500-kHz:

0.5 to 20 m (1.6 to 65 ft) 0.2 to 5 m (0.7 to 16 ft)

SL3000:

3000-kHz:

Stage measurement (vertical beam)

 

1500 kHz 0.15 m (0.5 ft) 1 0.4 m (1.3 ft) 10 m (33 ft) ±0.1%, ±0.3 cm

2

3000 kHz 0.10 m (0.3 ft)

0.25 m (0.8 ft) 2 5 m (16 ft) ±0.1%, ±0.3 cm

1

Min. depth

Max. depth

500 kHz 0.2 m (0.7 ft)

 

Accuracy

18 m (59 ft) ±0.1%, ±0.6 cm

Physical parameters

Low Profile Housing (SL500, SL1500, SL3000) Dimensions:

 

SL500: 33.2 cm (13.1 in) x 17.8 cm (7.0 in) x 12.4 cm (4.9 in) SL1500: 25.4 cm (10.0 in) x 17.0 cm (6.7 in) x 7.95 cm (3.13 in) SL3000: 16.0 cm (6.30 in) x 11.2 cm (4.40 in) x 6.2 cm (2.43 in)

 

Weight:

SL500

SL1500

SL3000

In air:

6.0 kg (13.2 lb)

2.4 kg (5.3 lb) 0.2 kg (0.5 lb) 30 m (100 ft)

 

1.2 kg (2.6 lb) 0.3 kg (0.7 lb) 30 m (100 ft)

 

In water:

Pressure rating:

1.1 kg (2.5 lb) 30 m (100 ft)

Operating temperature: -5°C to 60°C (23°F to 140°F) Storage temperature: -10°C to 70°C (14°F to 158°F)

 

Original Canister Housing (1500-kHz, 3000-kHz) Dimensions:

1500 & 3000 kHz: 15.2 cm (6 in) diameter x 18.0 cm (7.1 in) length

 

Weight:

1500 & 3000 kHz 2.5 kg (5.5 lb)

 

In air:

In water:

Pressure rating:

-0.3 kg (-0.7 lb) 200 m (650 ft)

Operating temperature: -5°C to 40°C (23°F to 104°F) Storage temperature: -10°C to 50°C (14°F to 122°F)

 

Power requirements

Input power: 7-15 VDC Power consumption:

 

500 kHz:

1.0-1.3 W

1500 kHz:

0.7-1.3 W

3000 kHz:

0.7-1.3 W

Temperature sensor

Resolution: ±0.01°C

 

Accuracy: ±0.5°C

Recorder size

4 MB (over 50,000 samples)

 

Pressure sensor (option)

Strain gauge: 0.25% accuracy

 

Communication protocols

RS-232 and SDI-12 standard; RS-422 optional

 

Multi-cell profiling

10 cells (in addition to the single, horizontally-integrated cell)

 

Analog outputs (option)

Available output types (only 1 type can be used per deployment, but 2 modules can be used per system):

4-20 mA

 

0-5 VDC

Available output parameters (1 module per parameter; maximum of 2 modules per system):

X velocity

▪ Average SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)

 

Y velocity

▪ Stage

Velocity magnitude

▪ Flow

Temperature

▪ Volume

Pressure

▪ Cell end location

 

Notes: 1 = Low-profile housing

2 = Original canister housing

SonTek/YSI

3.2. Argonaut-SL Frequently Asked Questions

The following topics are covered in this section.

What does the ―SL‖ mean?

What is the SL's intended application?

How does the SL compare with other SonTek Argonaut products?

What is the SL actually measuring?

Where in the channel is the SL measuring the water velocity?

Can the SL profile the currents?

Can the SL measure reversing flow?

How does water clarity relate to SL water velocity measurements?

Should I use an Argonaut-SL or an Argonaut-SW for my application?

Can the SL record data internally?

Does the SL have an internal battery?

Can I run the SL using a topside battery and solar panel?

What communication protocols are supported?

Can I output analog data such as a 4-20 mA current loop?

How long can the power/communications cable be?

How do I mount the SL?

3.2.1. What does the “SL” mean?

―SL‖ is our acronym for ―Side-Looking‖. This is because the beams of an SL (Figure 3-1) are projected across a channel in a horizontal plane (Figure 3-2). Most of our other acoustic Doppler instruments are designed for use as an upward or downward looking instrument. That is, the acoustic beams in our other systems are projected vertically through the water column.

3.2.2. What is the SL's intended application?

The SL is intended to be side-mounted, looking horizontally into a layer of water (Figure 3-2). This could be in a natural stream/river, canal, or port/harbor. An important consideration in the design of the SL is that it would be a device capable of calculating discharge values (flow rates). That is, in addition to measuring water velocity and stage (with the vertical acoustic beam), it can also calculate and report channel flow. This can be done in several ways by entering the cross-sectional area into the SL, by using theoretical equations for flow calculations, or by enter- ing an empirically derived index-velocity relation (see Appendix G Internal Flow Calculations).

relation (see Appendix G – Internal Flow Calculations). Figure 3-1. Low-Profile Systems: SL500 (left); SL1500

Figure 3-1. Low-Profile Systems: SL500 (left); SL1500 (center); SL3000 (right)

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SonTek/YSI Figure 3-2. Argonaut-SL Beam Pattern 3.2.3. How does the SL compare with other SonTek Argonaut

Figure 3-2. Argonaut-SL Beam Pattern

3.2.3. How does the SL compare with other SonTek Argonaut products?

The Argonaut-SL (Figure 3-1) electronics architecture is very similar to our other Argonaut products. The output data uses the same format as our Argonaut-SW (Shallow Water; Figure 3-3a) and Argonaut-XR (Extended Range; Figure 3-3b). As such, many of the basic commands and settings are the same, and the SL is fully supported by the ViewArgonaut program (examples in §5.7). The SL is designed for side-looking operation (Figure 3-2). The SW is designed for small channels and rivers. The XR is designed for larger rivers, lakes, and coastal applications.

3.2.4. What is the SL actually measuring?

The SL has three acoustic beams (Figure 3-2). When mounted properly on the side of a channel, one beam points straight up (the vertical beam), and the other two point up/down stream at a 25° angle. The upward-looking beam measures the stage, while the two slanted beams measure the water velocity via the Doppler method in two dimensions. The stage and velocity information are used to compute the flow, mean-velocity, and channel area (see Appendix B Argonaut-SL Prin- ciples of Operation for details). The SL is also equipped with an internal sensor that measures water temperature, which is used to compute automatically the speed of sound in the water.

to compute automatically the speed of sound in the water. (a) (b) Figure 3-3. Argonaut-SW Shallow

(a)

compute automatically the speed of sound in the water. (a) (b) Figure 3-3. Argonaut-SW Shallow Water

(b)

Figure 3-3. Argonaut-SW Shallow Water (a) and Argonaut-XR Extended Range (b) Systems

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3.2.5. Where in the channel is the SL measuring the water velocity?

When mounted properly along the axis of the channel (Figure 3-2) with one beam pointed up- stream and one downstream the SL will measure the average velocity from an imaginary ho- rizontal layer over a user-specified range (see Appendix B SL Principles of Operation).

3.2.6. Can the SL profile the currents?

Yes. When the profiling mode feature is enabled, the SL reports up to ten additional water veloc- ity cells. The number, size, and position of these cells (five of which are depicted in Figure 3-2) are user-selectable. These ten profiling cells are in addition to the single dynamic cell mentioned above. For an example data file showing the multi-cell velocity profile, see §6.5.1.

3.2.7. Can the SL measure reversing flow?

Yes. When mounted properly with one beam pointing upstream and the other beam pointed downstream (Figure 3-2), the SL is able to detect when the flow changes directions.

3.2.8. How does water clarity relate to SL water velocity measurements?

Doppler velocity sensors, such as the SL, actually measure the movement of particles in the wa- ter, as opposed to measuring the water movement itself. This carries the assumption that the movement of the particles in the water is representative of the movement of the water itself. This actually turns out to be a very safe assumption (on which we have built our business). So if you have a body of water where no particles are present, the physics are such that Doppler current meters will not work. Thankfully, most natural environments usually have something suspended other than just water molecules (even if it is just tiny air bubbles).

What makes the SonTek Doppler system different from most other manufacturers is the sensi- tivity level. SonTek’s technology is excellent at deciphering reflected acoustic energy from the background noise. As such, even a small amount of particles in the water is usually good enough for most measurements. Keep in mind that SonTek instruments evolved from high-end laborato- ry and oceanographic instrumentation, so we are quite experienced in these environments.

Often times the reflective ―scatterers‖ are either microscopic or even transparent organisms. As such, the visual clarity of the water (either observed or measured optically) typically has no bear- ing on how well a Doppler will work. Low scattering conditions, when present, will typically re- duce the maximum range of the system, but will not cause it to cease operation. If you have any questions about whether the SL will work in your environment, contact SonTek.

3.2.9. Should I use an Argonaut-SL or an Argonaut-SW for my application?

The Argonaut-SL (Figure 3-1) has become increasingly popular in recent years because it is so easy to install and maintain. Shorter cable runs, lower risk of loss/burial, and lower installation costs are some of the reasons SLs are preferred. In general, because they are fix-mounted on the side of a channel, a side-looking device should be installed such that its location is consistently at 30-70% of the maximum stage for optimal flow performance. Here are some instances when our SW system (Figure 3-3a) should be considered in place of an SL.

Large variations in water level If the water level falls near or below the level at which the SL is installed, the SL cannot measure properly. As such, while the SL may work fine in small channels, even down to 0.3 m (1 ft) or so, the SL is better suited for sites that do not typically show large variations in water level. With the bottom-mounted SW, you can gen- erally collect data down to 0.3 m (1 ft), which may be critical in small channels.

SonTek/YSI

Stratified flow The SL measures in a sampling volume that spans through a horizontal layer. For calculating flow, it is assumed that the water velocity in this layer is representa- tive of the channel velocity. This works exceptionally well for sites where an index-velocity will be performed, and the SL can even detect reversing flow. However, since it measures in only one location along the vertical cross-section, theoretical flow calculations may not hold up if the flow is highly stratified. Within the SW, you can use the multi-cell feature to col- lect incremental velocity data for up to ten additional cells.

Complex velocity profile In certain complex flow regimes, the vertically integrated ve- locity measurement of the SW provides more information about the velocity distribution within the channel and can therefore produce a more robust theoretical flow estimate. The SW also works equally well at sites where an index-velocity calibration will be performed. The downside of bottom-mounting is that it can involve a more complex installation, longer cables, and the risk of the unit being covered by debris or buried by silt. In many cases, both the SW and SL are perfectly viable solutions for the same measurement lo- cation. Your decision should then be based on the ease of installation, ongoing maintenance, flow stratification, and how variable the water level is. If you have questions regarding the best instrument to use for your application, contact SonTek.

3.2.10. Can the SL record data internally?

The SL has a 4-MB internal recorder that can typically store more than 50,000 data samples.

3.2.11. Does the SL have an internal battery?

There is no internal battery in the SL; an optional external battery pack is available. The SL re- quires a 7-15 VDC power supply for operation; it is commonly run from a 12 VDC battery con- nected to a solar panel. For details about power requirements, see §7.2.

3.2.12. Can I run the SL using a topside battery and solar panel?

Yes. The power consumption of the SL is about 0.7-1.5 watt. It can easily run from such a setup.

3.2.13. What communication protocols are supported?

The standard SL supports RS-232 or SDI-12 data output protocols. SL systems can also be set at the factory to use the RS-422 or RS-485 protocols, but not in conjunction with SDI-12.

3.2.14. Can the SL be used with the Modbus data collection network?

Yes, the SL can be used with the external Modbus Interface Module (MIM) for easy integration with existing Modbus data collection networks. See Appendix I for details.

3.2.15. Can I output analog data such as a 4-20 mA current loop?

Yes, the SL can provide analog outputs using either a 4-20 mA current loop or a 0-5 VDC vol- tage loop. To do this, you need to order the appropriate output module(s) from SonTek that ena- ble analog outputs. The limitation is that for every parameter you want to output, an additional module is required. As such, we highly recommend the use of either the RS-232 or SDI-12 out- puts if possible. Table 3-1 lists the available analog output parameters. See §4.3 and Appendix F for more information about analog output operations.

3.2.16. How long can the power/communications cable be?

The rule of thumb normally applied is up to 100 m (300 ft) for standard RS-232 or SDI-12 when using the SonTek-supplied cable. For greater lengths, an SL with RS-422 protocol can be used.

3.2.17. How do I mount the SL?

The SL includes a mounting plate that either attaches to the system or is integral to the system (SL1500) for easy bolting to a variety of structures. See §5.2 for installation information.

SonTek/YSI

Section 4. Argonaut-SL Applications

This section describes some common applications where Argonaut-SL systems are used. Overall, the topics in Section 4 are written as a brief summary for new users of this technology. In many cases, each section listed below could easily be expanded more thoroughly. If you are interested in more extensive explanations, we would suggest that you attend one of our training sessions (held throughout the year). The U.S. Geological Survey also conducts similar training courses specific to their applications. If you are interested in attending a training session, please contact us. The following topics are covered in Section 4.

Section 4.1 Real-Time Flow Monitoring and Sample Installations

Section 4.2 Multi-cell Velocity Profile and Flow Modeling

Section 4.3 Analog Outputs Integration with Data Acquisition and Control Systems

Section 4.4 Modbus Interface Module: Modbus Data Acquisition Networks

4.1. Real-Time Flow Monitoring and Sample Installations

The SL is intended to be side-mounted, looking horizontally into a layer of water. This could be in a natural stream/river, canal, port/harbor, or on an offshore platform. An important considera- tion in the design of the SL was that it would be a device capable of calculating discharge values (flow rates). That is, in addition to measuring water velocity and stage (with the vertical beam), it can also calculate and report the channel flow. This is done by entering the cross-sectional area into the SL, and using either theoretical equations for flow calculations or entering an empirical- ly derived ―index-velocity‖ relation (see Appendix G Internal Flow Calculations).

The SL is typically mounted to the side of a channel, on a bridge abutment, or on a piling in the water (Figure 4-1). General guidelines for system installation are given in §5.1.

- Note that the beams in this figure do not extend all the way across the channel.

- While it is generally a good idea to obtain a relatively large sampling volume, it is not necessary (or even beneficial) to measure the full river width.

- Often a smaller section, chosen based on the flow distribution within the river, can be the best means to provide accurate discharge monitoring.

Stage is measured using the vertical acoustic beam. Water velocity is measured in an inte-

grated cell using two slanted acoustic beams (see Appendix B Principles of Operation).

Stage and velocity are combined with user-supplied information about chan- nel geometry to determine total flow in the channel. For details about the calcu- lation of total flow, see §B-5 and Ap-

pendix G.

While the SL can operate in depths as little as 0.3 m (1 ft), we do not recom- mend using the SL at sites that show large variations in water level.

the SL at sites that show large variations in water level. Figure 4-1. Typical Argonaut-SL Installation

Figure 4-1. Typical Argonaut-SL Installation

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- The challenge with sites that show large variations in water level is that the SL must be installed low enough to operate properly at the lowest common water level. This location may then not provide a good velocity sample at higher water levels.

- At sites with large variations in water level, you may want to consider other options for flow monitoring such as the Argonaut-SW or Argonaut-XR. To learn more about other SonTek flow monitoring sensors, please contact us.

When monitoring within ports and harbors or from offshore platforms, often the velocity is of primary interest (rather than discharge calculations).

In these situations, it may be important that the SL report velocity in Earth (East-North-Up) coordinates rather than Cartesian (XYZ) coordinates relative to the system orientation.

For these applications, the SL can include an internal compass and tilt sensor.

When mounting a system that will be using the internal compass and tilt sensor, it is impor- tant to avoid large metal structures that may affect the ambient magnetic field and bias the data from the internal compass.

4.2. Multi-cell Velocity Profile and Flow Modeling

The Argonaut-SL is equipped with a feature that allows the system to record a multiple-cell ve- locity profile. Refer to Figure 4-2.

With the multi-cell feature, the system can record up to ten additional velocity cells.

The profile is calculated in addition to, and independently from, the single velocity cell.

When the multi-cell profile is enabled, the SL will report up to eleven velocity values one for the standard integrated cell and up to ten cells from the velocity profile.

In the example shown in Figure 4-2, the integrated velocity cell spans most of the center of the channel, while the multi-cell velocity profile has been set up to divide the full channel into ten velocity cells.

Cell End Cell 10 Cell 9 Cell 8 Cell 7 Cell 6 Cell 5 Cell

Cell

End

Cell 10

Cell 9

Cell 8

Cell 7

Cell 6

Cell 5

Cell 4

Cell 3

Cell 2

Cell 1

6 Cell 5 Cell 4 Cell 3 Cell 2 Cell 1 Cell Begin Integrated Velocity Cell
6 Cell 5 Cell 4 Cell 3 Cell 2 Cell 1 Cell Begin Integrated Velocity Cell

Cell

Begin

Integrated

Velocity

Cell

NumCells 10

CellSize

BlankDistance

Figure 4-2. Multi-cell Velocity Profile and Single Integrated Velocity Cell (top view, looking down on SL)

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Typically, the single integrated cell will be located to provide the best index velocity mea- surement for discharge calculations.

The data from the multi-cell velocity profile provides information on the structure of veloci- ty across the channel.

- Multi-cell data includes velocity/speed, direction, signal strength, and standard error in- formation.

- These data are commonly used in applications where flow reversals and other unique flow characteristics are expected. One common location is a tidally influenced river.

- The velocity profile data allows for a level of analysis and interpretation beyond what can be achieved using the single integrated velocity cell.

- For most applications, where flow calculations are the primary goal, the single integrated cell provides sufficient data. That is, flow calculations never use any of the data reported by the multi-cell feature. The multi-cell profile is offered for users interested in more in- depth analysis of the flow conditions.

The example shown here is only one way to use the multi-cell profile. The profile can be set up with a wide variety of parameters depending on the interests of the user.

For more details about the multi-cell velocity profile, see the following sections.

- §B-7.2 Standard Error of Velocity Data

- §5.4.2 Multi-cell Profiling Parameters

- §5.7.8 Multi-cell Profiling Parameters (ViewArgonaut)

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4.3. Analog Outputs Integration with Data Acquisition and Control Systems

The Argonaut-SL offers an optional feature to generate analog output signals proportional to measured parameters.

Two types of analog output signals are available 4-20 mA current loop and 0-5 VDC vol- tage output.

The SL can use only one output type at any given time, but up to two output modules can be connected at one time (allowing you to monitor up to two different variables).

Each analog signal is proportional to the value of one variable measured by the SL. These variables can include flow, total volume, stage, X-velocity, Y-velocity, velocity magnitude, average SNR, pressure, temperature, and cell end location.

For details about how the analog output modules work, see §5.4.5 and Appendix F. For de- tails about how to deploy a system using the analog outputs, see §5.8.10.

The primary purpose of using the analog output signals is to allow easy integration of the SL into existing data acquisition and control systems.

Many such systems have existing inputs for analog signals, and this allows the SL to be used in conjunction with these systems.

Using the analog outputs is, in many ways, a ―dumbing-down‖ of the output of the SL since we are converting high-precision digital values to analog signals (any digital-to-analog-to- digital conversion will cause some loss in accuracy and precision). Additionally, it is not possible to provide analog output signals for all diagnostic data available from the SL.

- When possible, we encourage you to use one of the digital data collection methods sup- ported by the SL. This includes SDI-12 data collection (Appendix E) and Modbus data collection (Appendix I).

When using an SL in an analog output application, we strongly recommend that you enable internal recording of data.

- Recorded data files should be downloaded, reviewed, and archived on a regular basis.

- The internal data provides full access to all diagnostic data and is essential when review- ing system performance.

4.4. Modbus Interface Module: Modbus Data Acquisition Networks

Modbus is a data collection protocol that allows for the integration of digital data from a variety of instruments. This technique provides reliable, high quality digital data using an accepted data collection protocol standard. Using the Modbus Interface Module, the SL can be easily con- nected to a Modbus network to allow full access to all SL data parameters. For more details, see

Appendix I.

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Section 5. Preparing the Argonaut-SL for Deployment

The following topics are covered in Section 5:

Selecting an Installation Site

System Installation

System Interconnection

Selecting Operating Parameters

Autonomous Deployment Considerations

Site Survey and Diagnostic Procedures

Deployment Examples using ViewArgonaut Software

Deployment Examples using a Direct Command Interface (SonUtils)

5.1. Selecting an Installation Site

The most important factor in the accuracy of Argonaut-SL measurements, particularly in relation to flow calculations, is the choice of the measurement site. When installing the SL, it is impor- tant to consider the location and orientation of all three acoustic beams, the depth at which the sensor is installed, the flow conditions in the water, and the integrity of the power and communi- cation cable.

Beam Considerations

Installation Location and Water Depth

Flow Considerations

Cable Protection

5.1.1. Beam Considerations

The orientation of the Argonaut-SL at the deploy- ment site will have an impact on system perfor- mance (Figure 5-1). Three aspects of system orien- tation are important beam obstructions, direction of flow, system alignment.

— beam obstructions, direction of flow, system alignment. Figure 5-1. Argonaut-SL Beams  The SL has

Figure 5-1. Argonaut-SL Beams

The SL has three acoustic beams.

- The two velocity beams are positioned to look horizontally across the channel. The beams are slanted 25º off the axis of the in- strument; one beam should face the up-

stream flow, while the other should face downstream. See §B-3.1 for a precise description of beam locations.

- The vertical beam points straight up towards the surface. This beam is used to collect stage data for use in computing flow/stage. See §B-4 and §B-5 for more information.

- It is essential that no physical obstructions be near or in the path of any beam.

SonTek/YSI

SonTek/YSI Figure 5-2. Argonaut-SL alignment with respect to flow direction  The SL is normally aligned

Figure 5-2. Argonaut-SL alignment with respect to flow direction

The SL is normally aligned to look directly across the river, with the primary direction of flow parallel to the front of the system (Figure 5-2). Thus the X-axis of the SL will be paral- lel to the primary flow direction (§B-9.2).

- This alignment can generally be done ―by eye‖, as small errors will have negligible im- pact on system performance.

When using the SL as an index velocity device, the index velocity calibration will ac- count for the orientation of the system relative to the flow direction.

If using the SL for theoretical flow calculations, it will be more important to align the X-axis with the axis of the channel for accurate flow calculations.

For information about index and theoretical flow calculations, see §G-2.

- In all cases, it is critical that the mounting orientation be repeatable.

The mounting structure should be constructed so that the SL is returned to the exact position when the sensor is removed for maintenance or inspection.

See §5.2.6 for example mounting structures.

The system should be installed as level as possible.

- When practical it is a good idea to use a small bubble level when installing the system.

- If the system includes a compass/tilt sensor, you can look at data from this sensor to check if the system is level.

- Large tilt angles (>3-5°) can affect both velocity and stage measurements.

When tilted, the velocity beams may hit the surface or bottom, which will potentially interfere with velocity measurements.

The reliability of the vertical beam stage measurement decreases at larger tilt angles.

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5.1.2. Installation Location and Water Depth

The SL is usually installed in the middle of the water column, allowing it to achieve the maxi- mum possible measurement range without interference from the surface or bottom (§B-9.1). However, the choice of installation depth can be more difficult for sites with large variation in water depth. Some guidelines follow.

For installation depth, consider the lowest water level that is commonly seen at the site.

For sites with significant changes in water level, the SL is normally installed somewhat above mid-water depth at the lowest water level.

- This provides good performance at low water levels, while also keeping the system high enough to get reasonable data at higher water levels.

- Example: If water level varies from 3 to 5 meters, the SL might be installed 2 m above the bottom. This places it 1 m below the surface at low water (still allowing a good mea- surement range) and 3 m below the surface at higher water (high enough in the water column to get velocity data away from bottom effects).

When selecting an installation depth, consider the bottom depth across the entire channel. Check for the presence of sand bars or other irregularities in the bottom profile to avoid possible interference with the beams.

If you have questions about the best location to install a system, please contact us.

5.1.3. Flow Considerations

Carefully consider the flow environment at the Argonaut-SL installation site. The site should be chosen to provide uniform flow conditions to improve measurement accuracy.

Keep in mind that site selection is normally the most important factor for the overall accura- cy of a flow monitoring station.

The installation site should be selected so that flow conditions are reasonably constant over the physical area occupied by the beams.

The SL should be as far as possible from any intake or outlet structures. Additionally, the SL should not be placed close to the beginning or end of a culvert or pipe.

The SL should be located in a straight section of channel, away from curves that can cause variations in the flow distribution.

The SL should be located away from any underwater structures or vegetation that can cause turbulence or changes in the flow distribution. In some cases, it will not be practical to avoid all these considerations when selecting a site. As such, it will be more important to review carefully all SL data when analyzing performance.

5.1.4. Cable Protection

Consider how the environment might affect the SL’s power and communications cable.

The cable jacket is made of polyurethane and provides good resistance to abrasion and me- chanical damage. However, in many environments cable damage from abrasion, floating debris, or vandalism is a likely source of system problems. In these cases, additional precau- tions should be taken to prevent damage to the cable. This can include burying the cable and/or enclosing the cable within a mechanical conduit.

Because of the high-quality underwater connector used, damage to the cable will not result in flooding of the system.

The individual conductors are twisted and shielded to provide reduce electrical noise in long cable runs. This provides reliable serial communications in a wide variety of environments.

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5.2. System Installation

This section provides guidelines for installing the SL system. Your application may differ from the examples presented here. There are many effective ways to install the SL, depending on the environment and available materials. If you have installation questions, please contact SonTek.

5.2.1. Argonaut-SL Mounting: SL500 Low-Profile Housing

The SL is normally mounted to an underwater structure with its transducer head perpendicu- lar to the flow of water (Figure 5-2).

The mounting should keep the instrument stable; it should not shift or move with time.

The SL should be mounted as level as possible. That is, the measurement plane formed by the two angled acoustic beams should be parallel to the water surface, ideally within 1-2 de- grees (as verified with a bubble level). This will prevent the horizontal beams from hitting the surface or bottom and causing interference with velocity data. It is also important for the reliability of the vertical beam data.

The SL includes a strain gauge pressure sensor. You should zero the pressure sensor offset at installation so it takes into account the difference in atmospheric pressure between the factory setting and the local deployment site. Refer to ¶7.5.1 for instructions.

A mounting plate is included with the SL to simplify installation.

- Figure 5-3 shows a drawing of the mounting plate and SL500. This drawing includes all mounting holes and dimensions. All dimensions in this drawing are in inches.

- The mounting plate has four holes drilled to match the bolt pattern in the SL’s housing.

- The bolts used to attach the SL to the mounting plate are included in the tool kit.

- The mounting plate also has six holes drilled in a rectangular pattern for easy installation to a user-supplied fixture. Hole diameters are 0.71 cm (0.28 in) for use with ¼-inch bolts.

If preferred, you can also mount the SL without the mounting plate using the SL’s four through-holes (Figure 5-3) and the mounting bolts supplied with the system.

5-3 ) and the mounting bolts supplied with the system. Figure 5-3. Low-Profile SL500 dimensions (in

Figure 5-3. Low-Profile SL500 dimensions (in inches)

SonTek/YSI

5.2.2. Argonaut-SL Mounting: SL1500 Low-Profile Housing

The SL is normally mounted to an underwater structure with its transducer head perpendicu- lar to the flow of water (Figure 5-2).

The mounting should keep the instrument stable; it should not shift or move with time.

The SL should be mounted as level as possible. That is, the measurement plane formed by the two angled acoustic beams should be parallel to the water surface, ideally within 1-2 de- grees (as verified with a bubble level). This will prevent the horizontal beams from hitting the surface or bottom and causing interference with velocity data. It is also important for the reliability of the vertical beam data.

The SL includes a strain gauge pressure sensor. You should zero the pressure sensor offset at installation so it takes into account the difference in atmospheric pressure between the factory setting and the local deployment site. Refer to ¶7.5.1 for instructions.

The SL1500 housing includes integral flanges and mounting holes. Figure 5-4 shows the SL1500 mounting holes and dimensions. All dimensions are in inches.

- Holes are provided to support a variety of mounting arrangements.

- The mounting plate has four holes drilled in a rectangular pattern for easy installation to a user-supplied fixture. Hole diameters are 0.71 cm (0.27 in) for use with ¼-inch bolts.

The housing has several machined slots designed for use with U-bolts for easy mounting to a pipe. The slots accommodate U-bolts for pipes an outer diameter of 2.5-7.6 cm (1-3 in).

- Important: Always use a U-bolt with a support bracket (right) to prevent straining or bending of the SL housing.

(right) to prevent straining or bending of the SL housing. Figure 5-4. Low-Profile SL1500 dimensions (in
(right) to prevent straining or bending of the SL housing. Figure 5-4. Low-Profile SL1500 dimensions (in

Figure 5-4. Low-Profile SL1500 dimensions (in inches)

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5.2.3. Argonaut-SL Mounting: SL3000 Low-Profile Housing

The SL is normally mounted to an underwater structure with its transducer head perpendicu- lar to the flow of water (Figure 5-2).

The mounting should keep the instrument stable; it should not shift or move with time.

The SL should be mounted as level as possible. That is, the measurement plane formed by the two angled acoustic beams should be parallel to the water surface, ideally within 1-2 de- grees (as verified with a bubble level). This will prevent the horizontal beams from hitting the surface or bottom and causing interference with velocity data. It is also important for the reliability of the vertical beam data.

The SL includes a strain gauge pressure sensor. You should zero the pressure sensor offset at installation so it takes into account the difference in atmospheric pressure between the factory setting and the local deployment site. Refer to ¶7.5.1 for instructions.

A mounting plate is included with the SL to simplify installation.

- Figure 5-3 shows a drawing of the mounting plate and SL500. This drawing includes all mounting holes and dimensions. All dimensions in this drawing are in inches.

- The mounting plate has four holes drilled to match the bolt pattern in the SL’s housing.

- The bolts used to attach the SL to the mounting plate are included in the tool kit.

- The mounting plate also has six holes drilled in a rectangular pattern for easy installation to a user-supplied fixture. Hole diameters are 0.71 cm (0.28 in) for use with ¼-inch bolts.

If preferred, you can also mount the SL without the mounting plate using the SL’s four through-holes (Figure 5-3) and the mounting bolts supplied with the system.

5-3 ) and the mounting bolts supplied with the system. Figure 5-5. Low-Profile SL3000 dimensions (in

Figure 5-5. Low-Profile SL3000 dimensions (in inches)

SonTek/YSI

5.2.4. Argonaut-SL Mounting: 1500 and 3000-kHz Original Canister Housings

The SL is normally mounted to an underwater structure with its transducer head perpendicu- lar to the flow of water (Figure 5-2).

The mounting should keep the instrument stable; it should not shift or move with time.

The SL should be mounted as level as possible. That is, the measurement plane formed by the two angled acoustic beams should be parallel to the water surface, ideally within 1-2 de- grees (as verified with a bubble level). This will prevent the horizontal beams from hitting the surface or bottom and causing interference with velocity data. It is also important for the reliability of the vertical beam data.

The SL includes a strain gauge pressure sensor. You should zero the pressure sensor offset at installation so it takes into account the difference in atmospheric pressure between the factory setting and the local deployment site. Refer to ¶7.5.1 for instructions.

A mounting plate is included with the 1500 and 3000-kHz SL to simplify installation.

- Figure 5-6 shows a drawing of the mounting plate and SL500. This drawing includes all mounting holes and dimensions. All dimensions in this drawing are in inches.

- The mounting plate has four holes that match the bolt pattern in the SL housing. The holes are counter-bored so the mounting bolts do not protrude when the SL is attached.

- The bolts used to attach the SL to the mounting plate are included in the tool kit.

- The mounting plate also has four holes drilled in a square pattern for easy installation to a user-supplied fixture. Hole diameters are 0.71 cm (0.28 in) for use with ¼-inch bolts.

diameters are 0.71 cm (0.28 in) for use with ¼-inch bolts. Figure 5-6. 1500 and 3000-kHz

Figure 5-6. 1500 and 3000-kHz Argonaut-SL (original canister models) mounting plate dimensions (in inches)

SonTek/YSI

The bottom of the SL canister housing has four mounting holes (Figure 5-7). The holes have threaded inserts for ¼‖-20 bolts.

CAUTION

The mounting holes have a limited thread engagement; no more than ½-inch should be engaged. Exceeding this limit can damage the inserts.

Figure 5-7 also shows the location of the acoustic beams and the SL’s X-axis relative to the mounting bolt pattern. The underwater connector enters the housing at the bottom of the figure, with the vertical beam looking up.

the bottom of the figure, with the vertical beam looking up. Figure 5-7. Argonaut-SL Mounting (original

Figure 5-7. Argonaut-SL Mounting (original canister models)

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5.2.5. 1500 and 3000-kHz External Battery Housing Mounting Information

For autonomous operation, the 1500 and 3000-kHz Argonaut-SL can be equipped with an external battery housing. The housing is connected to the SL via a splitter cable (§7.1.3).

The battery housing holds one battery pack consisting of 24 D-cell alkaline batteries. See §5.5.2 for details on estimating battery life.

Figure 5-8 shows a typical installation of an SL with an external battery housing. The battery housing connector is recessed in the end cap and is accessed from the side. SL systems with the external battery housing include the housing, one alkaline battery pack, the splitter ca- ble, a dummy plug, and a mounting plate to hold the SL and battery housing (this is normal- ly attached to a user-supplied deployment frame).

is normal- ly attached to a user-supplied deployment frame). Figure 5-8. Argonaut-SL with External Battery Housing
is normal- ly attached to a user-supplied deployment frame). Figure 5-8. Argonaut-SL with External Battery Housing
is normal- ly attached to a user-supplied deployment frame). Figure 5-8. Argonaut-SL with External Battery Housing

Figure 5-8. Argonaut-SL with External Battery Housing

A mounting plate is included that will secure both the SL and the battery pack.

- A drawing of the mounting plate is shown in Figure 5-9.

- All dimensions in this drawing are given in inches.

- This plate is designed for use with several different system types, and as such has holes for different mounting arrangements.

and as such has holes for different mounting arrangements. Figure 5-9. Mounting plate dimensions for external

Figure 5-9. Mounting plate dimensions for external battery housing and 1500 or 3000-kHz Argonaut-SL

SonTek/YSI

The battery housing has three threaded inserts on the bottom of the housing for easy instal- lation. Figure 5-10 shows the bolt pattern on the bottom of the battery housing.

- The threaded inserts use ¼‖-20 bolts; no more than ½‖ of thread should be engaged to avoid damage to the housing.

- The system includes bolts that are the correct length for use with the SL battery housing mounting plate.

To reduce magnetic interference from the batteries in systems that have a compass/tilt sen- sor installed, the battery housing should be no closer than 12 cm (5 in) from the SL. The mounting plate included with the SL places the housing at this distance. When using batte- ries near the SL, you should perform a compass calibration before each deployment; the ca- libration should be done each time the battery pack is changed. See §7.6.3 for details on compass calibration.

Bolt pattern radius = 6.16 cm / 2.42 in 120 deg 120 deg 120 deg
Bolt pattern radius =
6.16 cm / 2.42 in
120 deg
120 deg
120 deg
Figure 5-10. Argonaut-SL Battery Housing Bolt Pattern

SonTek/YSI

5.2.6. Sample SL Installations

This section includes pictures and general descriptions of several SL installations. The examples shown here show both the original canister design (for our 1500 and 3000-kHz SL systems) and for our newer low-profile housings (SL500, SL1500, SL3000). These examples apply equally well to either design.

As described in §5.1, some of the critical elements of any SL are as follows.

The SL should be rigidly mounted and should not move while collecting data.

The SL should be mounted level, with the velocity beams parallel to the water surface and the vertical beam perpendicular to the water surface.

The SL mounting depth should be carefully chosen based on the variation in water depth that is expected at the site (§5.1.2).

Ideally, the SL installation will allow easy retrieval of the sensor for inspection and main- tenance, and will ensure that the sensor is returned to the exact position and orientation.

The SL mounting should take into consideration the location of each acoustic beam with re- spect to the surface, bottom, and any obstacles in the water (§5.1.1).

SL Mounting Example #1

This 1500-kHz SL (Figure 5-11) is installed in large, unlined irrigation channel.

The mount uses a modular mounting system that is available from SonTek.

- The mounting frame comes in modular 1.2-m (4-ft) sections that can be connected to- gether for use in any size channel.

- The mounting angle can be adjusted to level the system for a wide range of bank slopes.

- The SL slides on the mounting frame, allowing easy recovery of the system for inspec- tion, and then easy return to the same mounting location and orientation.

For more information about this mounting system, please contact SonTek/YSI.

about this mounting system, please contact SonTek/YSI. Figure 5-11. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #1 Argonaut-SL

Figure 5-11. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #1

SonTek/YSI

SL Mounting Example #2

This 1500-kHz SL (Figure 5-12) is installed in a rectangular, concrete line irrigation channel.

It is mounted to a simple metal frame.

- The frame is hinged at the upper end.

- Though it cannot be seen in the photo, the frame is also bolted to the wall a short distance below the top to keep the mounting secure.

The lower mounting bolts can be easily removed and the system raised out of the water for inspection and maintenance.

The cable is enclosed in a conduit for protection.

 The cable is enclosed in a conduit for protection. Figure 5-12. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #2

Figure 5-12. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #2

SonTek/YSI

SL Mounting Example #3

This SL500 (Figure 5-13) is mounted from a bridge piling in a large shipping channel.

The SL is secured to a round pipe that passes through several sleeves secured to the piling.

By first loosening the bolts on the sleeves, the SL can easily be raised for inspection and maintenance.

Marks on the mounting pipe allow the SL to be returned to the same depth and orientation after inspection.

returned to the same depth and orientation after inspection. Figure 5-13. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #3 Argonaut-SL

Figure 5-13. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #3

SonTek/YSI

SL Mounting Example #4

This SL500 (Figure 5-14) is mounted to the side of a large river, where the edge is a near- vertical wall at a location where the river flows through a city.

The mounting frame is built from a commercially available, modular construction material.

The mounting platform is built to allow the SL to be installed level, even if the main mount- ing frame (going into the water) is installed with some amount of tilt.

For inspection and maintenance, the mounting frame can be raised and lowered by sliding it along the vertical mounting frame.

The exact mounting depth is precisely marked to ensure the SL is set at the same depth each time.

marked to ensure the SL is set at the same depth each time. Figure 5-14. Argonaut-SL

Figure 5-14. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #4

SonTek/YSI

SL Mounting Example #5

This 1500-kHz SL (Figure 5-15) is installed from the side of a small, natural stream.

The mounting board is hinged at one end (not shown in the picture), allowing the entire frame to be lifted out of the water for inspection and maintenance.

be lifted out of the water for inspection and maintenance. Figure 5-15. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #5

Figure 5-15. Argonaut-SL Mounting Example #5

SonTek/YSI

5.3. System Interconnection

Figure 5-16 shows the 500-kHz Argonaut-SL with all standard equipment, and Figure 5-19 shows the 1500/3000-kHz Argonaut-SL with all standard equipment.

The SL housing itself contains all system electronics, including the internal recorder.

A polycarbonate mounting plate is included, along with screws to secure the SL to the mounting plate. The mounting plate has four holes for 6-mm (0.25‖) bolts to mount the sys- tem as needed (§5.2).

The SL power and serial communication cable (standard length 10 m) mates to the system using an 8-pin, wet-mateable, underwater connector.

- This connector can be mated wet. If necessary, the connector can be mated underwater, but we do not generally recom- mend doing this.

- Both connectors must be clean of dirt and debris before mating.

- Connect the underwater connector to the system before applying power.

- Secure the locking sleeve to prevent accidental disconnecting of the system.

Caution: When mating the connector to the SL, push the connector with enough force to overcome the resistance of the wet-mateable pins. Push the connector until its face is flush with the female bulkhead connector. Do not simply tighten the locking sleeve dur- ing the mating process; just tightening the sleeve will not ensure proper pin alignment nor will it supply the required force to ensure a waterproof seal.