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The Indian MTP Act:

To avoid the misuse of induced abortions, most countries have enacted laws whereby only qualified Gynecologists under conditions laid down and done in clinics/hospitals that have been approved can do abortions. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was enacted by the Indian Parliament in 1971 and came into force from 01 April, 1972. The MTP act was again revised in 1975. The MTP Act lays down the condition under which a pregnancy can be terminated, the persons and the place to perform it. The reasons for which MTP is done, as interpreted from the Indian MTP Act, are: (i) Where a pregnant woman has a serious medical disease and continuation of pregnancy could endanger her life like: Heart diseases. Severe rise in blood pressure. Uncontrolled vomiting during pregnancy Cervical/ breast cancer. Diabetes mellitus with eye complication (retinopathy). Epilepsy. Psychiatric illness.

(ii) Where the continuation of pregnancy could lead to substantial risk to the newborn leading to serious physical / mental handicaps examples like

Chromosomal abnormalities. Rubella (German measles) viral infection to mother in first three months. If previous children have congenital abnormalities. Rh iso-immunisation. link Exposure of the foetus to irradiation.

(iii) Pregnancy resulting of rape. (iv) Conditions where the socio-economic status of the mother (family) hampers the progress of a healthy pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Failure of Contraceptive Device irrespective of the method used (natural methods/ barrier methods/ hormonal methods).

This condition is a unique feature of the Indian Law. All the pregnancies can be terminated using this criterion. Consent: If married--- her own written consent. Husbands consent not required. If unmarried and above 18years ---her own written consent. If below 18 years ---written consent of her guardian. If mentally unstable --- written consent of her guardian. A consent assures the clinician performing the abortion that she: Has been informed of all her options. Has been counseled about the procedure, its risks and how to care for herself after she chosen the abortion of her own free will. TOP

Person or persons who can perform MTP:

Physicians qualified to do MTP are:

i. Any qualified registered medical practitioner who has assisted in 25 MTPs. ii. A house surgeon who has done six months post in Obstetrics and Gynecology. iii. A person who has a diploma /degree in Obstetrics and Gynecology. iv. 3 years of practice in Obstetrics and Gynecology for those doctors registered before the 1971 MTP Act was passed. v. 1 year of practice in Obstetrics and Gynecology for those doctors registered on or after the date of commencement of the Act. vi. Whenever the pregnancy exceeds 12 weeks but is below 20 weeks opinion of two registered medical practitioners is necessary. TOP

Place where MTP can be performed:

Any institutions licensed by the Government to perform MTP. The certificate issued by the Government should be conspicuously displayed at a place easily visible to persons visiting the place. Methods of Induced Abortion: Abortion can be induced by different methods depending on the weeks of

pregnancy completed. Tests to be done: A thorough medical examination including blood pressure and weight An internal examination to confirm the duration of pregnancy. Urine test for confirmation of pregnancy. Routine urine analysis. Routine blood counts including hemoglobin estimation. Blood group and Rh factor. At times, an ultrasound may be required.