Course Teacher:
Dr. Md. Mokhlesur Rahman
Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
DUET
Soil Dynamics:
Soil Dynamics is the branch of soil mechanics which deals with the engineering properties and
behavior of soil under dynamic stress, including the analysis of the stability of earth supported and earth
retaining structures. The study of Soil dynamics include the machine foundations, impact loadings, dynamic
soil properties, slope stability, bearing capacity, settlement, vibratory compaction, pile driving analysis and
field testing, ground anchor systems, seismic design parameters, liquefaction, sheet pile walls and laboratory
testing.
Nature/sources of types of dynamic loading:
Dynamic loads on foundation and soil structure may act due to
Earthquake
Bomb blast
Operation of reciprocating and rotary machines and hammers
Construction operation such as pile driving
Quarrying
Fast moving traffic including landing aircraft
Wind
Loading due to wave action of water
Etc
The nature of each of these loads is quite different from the nature of the loads in the other cases.
Earthquakes constitute the single most important source of dynamic loads on structures and
foundation.
Every earth quake is associated with a certain amount of energy released at its source and can be
assigned a magnitude (m) which is just a number.
Table gives an idea of the energy associated with a particular magnitude
M (Richter) 5.0 6.0 6.33 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.6
E (10
20
ergs) 0.08 2.5 8.00 14.1 80 446 2500 20000
Earthquake:
The vibration of earth that accompanies an earthquake is one of the most terrifying natural
phenomena known. From geological point of view, earthquakes provide the evidences of the instability of the
earths crust and a logical starting point for any examination of the dynamics of the earth.
Most earthquakes take place along faults in the upper 25 miles of the earth's surface when one side
rapidly moves relative to the other side of the fault.
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Resonance: When the frequency of the exciting force is equal to one of the natural frequencies of the system,
the amplitudes of motion become excessively large. This condition is known as resonance.
Damping: The resistance to motion which develops due to friction and other causes is known as damping.
Viscous damping is a type of damping in which the damping force is proportional to the velocity.
It is expressed as,
F = c
dz
dt
Where,
c = Jomping co  cicic
dz
dt
= Iclocity
Degree of freedom (n): The number of independent coordinates required to describe the motion of a system is
called a degree of freedom. A system may in general have several degrees of freedom; such a system is called a
multi degree freedom system.
k
(a) (b)
1
k
2
k
3
z
2
z
3
z
1
m
1
m
2
m
3
k
1
k
2
x
n = 2
n =3
n = 1
(d) (c)
Figure  1: System with different degree of freedom (a) One degree of freedom n=1;
(b) Two degree of freedom n=2; (c) Three degree of freedom n=3;
(d) Infinite degree of freedom n=.
Principal modes of vibrations: A system with more than one degree of freedom vibrates in complex modes.
However, if each point in the system follows a definite pattern of common natural frequency, the mode is
systematic and orderly and is known as the principal mode of vibration.
A system with n degrees of freedom has a principal modes and n natural frequencies.
Normal mode of vibrations: When the amplitude of some point of the system vibrating in one of the principal
modes is mode equal to unity, the motion is then called the normal mode of vibration.
n =
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Resonance: When the frequency of the exciting force is equal to one of the natural frequencies of the system,
the amplitudes of motion become excessively large. This condition is known as resonance. It is important to
avoid or control or minimize this situation. In this condition a large magnitude of force and amplitude of
motion can be generated which is destructive to the structure.
Minimization or Control of resonance:
It is important; therefore, to avoid or minimize these situations by either avoiding the equalization of
the forcing and natural frequencies by use of appropriate damping mechanism that will reduce the size of the
otherwise increased effects at resonance. Various damping mechanism are available, either inherent in the
vibrating system or especially designed into the system. Reference will be later to specific mechanisms, but for
the moment it is sufficient that damping loads to the dissipation of energy per cycle of motion and usually
leads to a reduction or decay in amplitude of the motion.
Methods of avoid resonance:
Isolate resonant component
Change exciting frequency using springs, pads, pneumatic, suspending components
Use Vibration absorption
Increase system damping
Reduce forcing amplitude
Avoid forcing a system at a natural frequency
Undamped free vibration of a spring mass system:
Mass
Static
Condition
Mass
(a) (b)
z = 0
Mass
(c)
z
Mass
(d)
z z
z = max
Mass
(e)
z
z = max
z
Double
Amplitude
Mass
kz + kz
stat
mg=W
(e)
k k k k k
+z
z
z
stat
Figure  2: Spring Mass System
a) Unstretched Spring
b) Equilibrium Position
c) Mass in Oscillating Position
d) Mass in maximum Downward Position
e) Mass in upward position
f) Free body diagram of mass corresponding to (c)
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n
=
2n
_
m
k
Frequency, =
1
1
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
kg
mg
=
1
2n
_
g
mg
k
=
1
2n
_
kg
z
stct
n
t
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Example:  1
A mass supported by a spring has a static deflection of 0.5 mm, Determine its natural frequency of
vibration.
Solution:
Given,
g = 981u mmsec
2
z
stat
= u.S mm
=
1
2n
_
g
z
stct
=
1
2n
_
9810
0.5
= 22.S2 Ez (Ans)
Example:  2
Find the fundamental frequency of vibration of a vertical cantilever as shown in figure (5) that
supports a mass m which is large relative to total mass of the cantilever. Data  mass, m = 1uuu kg, length, L=
2u m, Flexural rigidity, EI = 12S1u
2
Nm
2
.
Figure  5: Vertical Cantilever supporting mass
Solution:
Distribution mass of cantilever can be ignored. The lateral stiffness, k of the cantilever at the level of m is,
k =
3EI
L
3
Now, frequency,
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
3LI
mL
3
=
1
2n
_
312510
3
100020
3
= 1.1 Ez (Ans)
W=1000Kg
EI=12510
2
Nm
2
L=20m
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Example:  3
Determine the spring constant for the system of springs shown in figure
k k
c
x x
k
k
(a)
(b)
1 2
1
2
1 2
a b
Figure  6: Equivalent Spring Constant
Solution:
Let us consider that a unit load is applied at c.
It is shared at a and b in the ratio of
x
2
x
1
+x
2
and of
x
1
x
1
+x
2
respectively.
The deflection of points a and b are of
x
2
x
1
+x
2
1
k
1
and
x
1
x
1
+x
2
1
k
2
respectively.
Therefore, deflection of point c is.
x
1
x
1
+x
2
1
k
2
+ [
x
2
x
1
+x
2
1
k
1

x
1
x
1
+x
2
1
k
2
x
2
x
1
+x
2
=
1
(x
1
+x
2
)
2
[
x
1
2
k
2
+
x
1
x
2
k
2
+
x
2
2
k
1

x
1
x
2
k
2
=
1
(x
1
+x
2
)
2
[
x
1
2
k
2
+
x
2
2
k
1
Hence, the resulting equivalent spring constant at c is, k
cq
= _
(x
1
+x
2
)
2
x
1
2
k
2
+
x
2
2
k
1
_
If x
1
= x
2
= x and k
1
= k
2
= k, then k
cq
= 2k
On the application of a unit load in figure b the total deflection is,
1
k
2
+
1
k
1
=
k
1
+k
2
k
1
k
2
Hence, equivalent spring constant,
k
cq
=
k
1
k
2
k
1
+k
2
If k
1
= k
2
= k, then k
cq
=
k
2
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Example:  4
Write the equation of motion for the systems shown in figure (7) and determine the natural frequencies.
k k
o
x x
k
3
1 2
m
A B
Figure  7: Equivalent Spring Constant
Solution:
On application of unit load at c for spring k
1
and k
2
the deflection
=
1
(x+x)
2
[
x
2
k
1
+
x
2
k
2
=
x
2
(2x)
2
[
1
k
1
+
1
k
2
=
1
4
[
k
2
+k
1
k
1
k
2
Hence, equivalent spring constant for k
1
and k
2
,
k'
cq
=
4k
1
k
2
k
1
+k
2
Total deflection is
1
ki
cq
+
1
k
3
=
k
2
+k
1
4k
1
k
2
+
1
k
3
=
k
3
(k
1
+k
2
)+4k
1
k
2
4k
1
k
2
k
3
Hence, the equivalent spring constant,
k
cq
=
4k
1
k
2
k
3
k
3
(k
1
+k
2
)+4k
1
k
2
We have,
z =
dz
dt
=
n
Acos(
n
t) 
n
Bsin(
n
t)
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Where,
n
= _
k
cq
m
=
4k
1
k
2
k
3
mk
3
(k
1
+k
2
)+4k
1
k
2
A & B = Arbitrary constant
Example:  5
We will consider the motion of the piston of a reciprocating machine on a soil foundation. The soil
displacement of the position from the extreme position is
S = l + r rcos0  lcos0
Also, lsin = rsin0
r
?
f
rcos?
lcosf
l+r
s
Figure  8: Motion of a Piston of a reciprocating machine
Find the equation of velocity and acceleration.
Solution:
cos = (1  sin
2
)
1
2
= j1  [
I
sin
2
0[
1
2
jsin = [
I
sin0[
If we expand, the right hand side, by the binomial theorem we get,
cos = 1 
1
2
[
2
sin
2
0 
1
8
[
4
sin
4
0 
1
16
[
6
sin
6
0 ..
or, 1  cos =
1
2
[
2
sin
2
0 +
1
8
[
4
sin
4
0 +
1
16
[
6
sin
6
0 ..
Substituting cos in the expression for S, we get,
S = r(1 cos0) + l(1  cos)
= r _1  cos0 +
1
2
[
I
sin
2
0 +
1
8
[
3
sin
4
0 +
1
16
[
5
sin
6
0 . . _
rcos0 lcos
0
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I
(1 cos20) +
1
32
[
3
[
3
2
 2cos20 +
1
2
cos40 . . _
If
I
is very small, [
2
and higher powers can be neglected.
S = r _1  cos0 +
lr
4l
(1 cos20)_
Putting 0 = t that S is a function of cos(t) and cos(2nt) where n = 1, 2, 3 .
S = r _1  cos(t) +
lr
4l
(1  cos(2t))_
Velocity,
S
=
Js
Jt
= rjsin(t) +
r
2l
{sin(2t)][
Acceleration,
S =
J
2
s
Jt
2
= r
2
jcos(t) +
r
l
cos(2t)[
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= c
c
= 2km = 2m_
k
m
= 2
n
m
or,
c
m
= 2
n
where,
n
2
=
k
m
mx
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1
t
+ Bc
2
t
.....(6)
Where A & B are constants to be determined from the initial conditions at x(u) and x (u). r
1
, r
2
are the roots of
the auxiliary equation,
r
1,2
= 
n
 _
2
1]
The three cases,
D = 1.0 for Critically Damped Condition
D>=1.0, Over Damped Condition
D<1.0, Under Damped Condition
Figure  10: Free Vibration of a spring mass Dashpot system (a) Over Damped case, (b) Critically Damped Case,
(c) UnderDamped case.
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If, D = 1, r
1
= r
2
= 
n
The x = (A +Bt)c
o
n
t
if roots are equal.
By the initial condition i.e. x(u) = A
x
and x (u) = 0, we get the value of A & B. x = A
x
c
ot
gives a
periodic motion or nonoscillatory motion i.e. D=1 or D>1 are case of over Damped condition.
For damping, the motion or velocity comes rapidly to zero.
If D=1, the system is under damped, i.e. gives oscillatory motion.
Then
r
1
= 
n
 _
2
 1]
r
2
= 
n
 
2
 1]
Where, r
1
& r
2
are complex and conjugate roots.
For the initial conditions x(u) = A
x
and x (u) = 0, the solution of equation (7) gives,
x =
A
x
c
n
n
Dt
(1
2
)
]sincos
n
(1 
2
)t + cossin
n
(1 
2
)
or, x =
A
x
c
n
n
Dt
(1
2
)
sin]
n
(1 
2
)t +
Where, sin = (1 
2
) onJ cos = and is the phage angle.
The motion is oscillatory with exponentially decaying amplitude, the general nature of which shown in the
following figure (11)
()
(+)
Time
Point of Tangency
Maximum
Figure  11: Damped Free Oscillation
x
A
x
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Since for over damped, the motion is a periodic, the system returns to its original position in the
minimum time, when critically damped.
()
(+)
Time
x
A
x
0
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
D = 0.2
D = 1
D = 2
D = 5
D = 8
Figure  14: Free vibration with various value of D
The envelope curve and the oscillatory curve have a common point where the curve have the same
slope; this point does not correspond to the maximum excursion for the mean position, which occurs when
x = u, the difference is small for small values of the damping ratio, D.
Natural frequency or Undamped natural frequency (m
n
) and Damped frequency (m
nd
) and operating
frequency (m) and their significance:
An elastic system vibrates under the action of forces inherent itself in the system and in the absence of
any externally applied force, the frequency with which vibrates is its natural frequency or undamped natural
frequency (
n
).
k
c
k
System mass, m System mass, m
Figure  15: Spring mass with Dashpot system
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Mathematically,
n
= _
k
m
Where,
k = Stiffness of spiing anu
N = Nass of System
Vibrations that occur under the excitation of externally applied forces are termed forced vibrations.
Forced vibrations occur at the operating frequency () of the exciting force. The operating frequency () is
independent of the natural frequency (
n
) of the system. But when, =
n
, the response of the system is
infinite. The condition is known as resonance. Damped frequency (
nd
) may be defined as
nd
=
n
1 
2
.
Where, D = Damping factor =
ActuaI DampIng
CtcuI umpng
=
C
C
c
Always damped frequency (
nd
) is less than the undamped natural frequency (
n
). However for
small values of D, the influence of D is not great. As an ideal undamped system is nonexistent, damping
always exists and the response is finite. However, when operating frequency () is close to the natural un
damped frequency(
n
), the response is very high. To avoid this condition, the operating frequency should not
be close to the natural frequency. For a safe design, the frequency ratio (
o
o
n
) is normally kept outside the
critical range of 0.40 to 1.50.
Non Oscillatory and critically damped motion, Damped force vibration and their significance:
When D>1, the system is overdamped, the motion of the system is called nonoscillatory or a periodic
motion.
When D=1, the system is critically damped, the motion of the system is called critically damped motion.
When D<1, the system is underdamped, the motion of the system varies sinusoidal is called damped forced
vibration.
Where,
D = Damping factor =
ActuaI DampIng
CtcuI umpng
=
C
C
c
=
C
2o
n
m
=
C
2km
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()
(+)
Time
x
A
x
0
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
D=0.2
D=1
D=2
D=5
D=8
Figure  16: Spring mass with dashpot system and free vibration with various value of D
It is not intended to investigate the algebra of these above cases as they are rarely of interest in
machine foundation problems.
Figure (16) shows the behavior of these cases for the initial conditions x(u) = A
x
and x (u) = u.
In the case of critical damping, the mass, m returns to its equilibrium position in the shortest possible time.
Critical frequency may be defined as the frequency factor [
o
o
n
= 1 is one, i.e. the case where the operating
frequency () of the system is equal to natural frequency(
n
). At this case, the system reaches at resonance
condition where higher or uncontrolled velocity of the system is created. For machine foundation design, the
case is unexpected.
Critical damping may be defined as the damping factor [ =
C
C
c
= 1 is one, where actual damping
and critical damping are equal. At this case, the system returns to its equilibrium position in the shortest
possible time. For machine foundation design, this case is expected.
So the above two situations are opposite to each other.
n
= _
k
m
C
c
= 2km
Logarithmic Decrement and the experimental Determination of Damping:
Logarithmic decrement is a measure of the decay of successive maximum amplitude of viscously
damped vibration and is expressed as
o = log
c
x
m
x
m+1
(1)
In which x
m
and x
m+1
are two successive peak amplitudes, from a displacement verses time trace will
enable the damping constant to be estimated.
=
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()
(+)
Time
X
T
32.5000
50.7454
Figure  17: Amplitude of Viscously Damped vibration
Here m is an arbitrary cycle number.
If x
m
occurs at time t, then from oscillatory damping motion equation, we have
x
m
=
A
x
c
n
n
Dt
(1
2
)
sin]
n
(1 
2
)t + .. (2)
Where,
= ton
1
1
2
At a time interval of one periodic later,
I = t +
2n
o
n
(1
2
)
. (3)
x
m+1
=
A
x
`
c
n
n
Dt 
2nD
_(1D
2
)
/
(1
2
)
sin ]
n
(1 
2
)(t + I) + ... (4)
The values of the sine functions are equal when the time is increased by the period, I, so that the ratio of the
displacements becomes,
x
m
x
m+1
= c
2nD
_(1D
2
)
.(5)
So,
o = log
c
x
m
x
m+1
= log
c
c
2nD
_(1D
2
)
=
2n
(1
2
)
.. (6)
x
m
x
m+1
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For small values of , the equation (6) can be expressed in series form,
o =
2n
(1
2
)
= 2n(1 
2
)

1
2
= 2n[1 +
2
2
+ = 2n
Hence,
o = 2n ..(7)
In practice, when interpreting a vibration trace or record, it is better to find the number of cycles required for
the amplitude to reduce to half its value.
Consider first the ratio of
x
0
x
n
=
2
1
after n cycles,
Now,
x
0
x
n
=
x
0
x
1
,
x
1
x
2
,
x
2
x
3
x
n1
x
n
= (c
6
)
n
= c
6n
From which is found,
o =
1
n
ln
x
0
x
n
..(8)
For the case, when
x
0
x
n
=
2
1
ln
x
0
x
n
= ln2 = u.69S
And, no = 2nn = ln
x
0
x
n
= u.69S
Therefore,
n = u.11 =
0.693
2n
If = u.1 n = 1.1
= u.2 n = u.SS
Depends on materials, for soil If = u.1 ~ u.S.
Determination of Viscous Damping (by Bandwidth Method)
Damping can be determined from either a free vibration or a forced vibration test on a system. In a
freevibration test, the system is displaced from its equilibrium position and a record of the amplitude of
displacement is made. Then we have,
o =
2n
(1
2
)
= 2n(1 
2
)

1
2
= 2n[1 +
2
2
+ = 2n
=
6
2n
=
1
2n
log
c
x
m
x
m+1
. (1)
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=
6
2n
=
1
2nn
log
c
x
0
x
n
. (2)
In a forcedvibration test, the system may be excited with a constant force of excitation and varying
frequencies. Figure (18) shows a resonance curves.
Figure  18: Determination of damping ratio from forced vibration
The amplitude of the motion is
A
x
x
s
=
1
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+[2
n
n
n
2
.... (3)
Putting, frequency ratio,
o
o
n
= 1, We have,
A
x
x
s
=
1
2
(4)
Putting, the frequency ratio r =
A
x
x
s
=
]
]
n
, when the amplitude of motion = u.7u7
1
2
=
A
x
x
s
,
We get,
0.707
2
=
1
(1
2
)
2
+(2)
2
or,
0.707
2
=
1
(1
2
)
2
+(2)
2
or,
1
22
=
1
12
2
+
4
+4
2
2
or, 1 2r
2
+ r
4
+ 4
2
r
2
= 8
2
or, r
4
2r
2
(1 2
2
) + (1 8
2
) = u
or, r
2
1,2
=
1
2
j2(1 2
2
) _4(1 2
2
)
2
 4(1 8
2
)[
=
1
2
2(1 2
2
) _ 4 16
2
+ 16
4
4 +S2
2
]
= (1 2
2
) _ 2J1 +
2
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Now,
r
2
2
 r
1
2
= 41 +
2
= 4 If is very small.
Now,
r
2
2
 r
1
2
=
]
2
2
]
1
2
]
n
2
= [
]
1
+]
2
]
n
[
]
1
]
2
]
n
= 2 [
]
2
+]
1
]
n
. 1 Since, [
]
1
+]
2
]
n
= 2
So, 4 = 2 [
]
2
+]
1
]
n
or, =
1
2
[
]
2
]
1
]
n
This method for determining viscous damping is known as the bandwidth method.
Forced Harmonic Vibration with Viscous Damping
The harmonic force F
0
cost acts on the system which has a spring constant k and a viscous damping
constant c as shown in figure (19). The circular frequency of the force application is , and the amplitude is
constant F
0
.
k
c
rigid mass, m
x
x
Figure  19: Forced Harmonic Vibration with Viscous Damping
The equation of motion is found from the free body and is written as
mx + cx + kx = F
0
cost = RcF
0
c
ot
.(1)
The solution of the equation, Re = Real
mx + cx + kx = u
is, x = Ac
ot
.(2)
Where, A is an arbitrary constant.
F
0
cost
F
0
cost
mx
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page23of102
2
+ .2.[
n
n
n
_
Where,
n
= _
k
m
and =
c
2km
The static deflection is x
s
=
P
0
k
and phase angle is,
= ton
1
_
2[
n
n
n
1[
n
n
n
2
_
The phase angel is the angle, by which the response lags behind the disturbing fore,
x = Rc
x
s
c
i(nt)
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
= Rc
x
s
(cosotq)
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
The amplitude of the motion is
A
x
=
x
s
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
A
x
x
s
= H = Hogniicoiton octor
A
x
x
s
= [
o
o
n
,
= [
o
o
n
,
A
x
x
s
= 1.u or stotic cosc.
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page24of102
Figure  20: Magnification factor and phase angle in forced Vibration
N
a
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
f
a
c
t
o
i
,
H
=
A
x
x
s
Fiequency iatio,
o
o
n
Fiequency iatio,
o
o
n
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page25of102
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
And, = ton
1
_
2[
n
n
n
1[
n
n
n
2
_
or,
A
x
[
F
0
k
=
1
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
Where,
= omping Foctor =
c
2km
n
= Noturol rcqucncy = _
k
m
H = Hogniicotion octor = [
o
o
n
,
For maximum value of magnification factor,
m
[
n
n
n
= u
or,
1
1
2
_
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
_j2]1[
n
n
n
2[
n
n
n
.1+2.2.[
n
n
n
[
_
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
_
2
= u
or, u  4 _1  [
o
o
n
2
_ [
o
o
n
+8
2
[
o
o
n
= u
or, 1  [
o
o
n
2
= 2
2
or,
o
o
n
= 1 2
2
or,
]
m
]
n
= 1 2
2
or,
m
=
n
1  2
2
Where,
= 2n
m
onJ
n
= 2n
n
Now,
_1  [
o
o
n
2
_
2
= {1  (1 2
2
)]
2
= 4
4
And ]2[
o
o
n
2
= 4
2
[
o
o
n
2
= 4
2
(1 2
2
) = 4
2
 8
4
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page27of102
So,
H
mux
=
1
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
=
1
(4
4
+4
2
8
4
)
=
1
{4
2
(1
2
) ]
=
1
21
2
= ()
So,
H
mux
=
1
2
1
2
= ()
or,
n
=
1  2
2
= ()
or,
m
=
n
1 2
2
m
=
n
, for maximum vibration, which is always avoided.
x
s
=
F
0
k
= Static ueflection
Figure  21(a): Plot of Magnification factor vs Frequency ratio in forced Vibration
N
a
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
f
a
c
t
o
i
,
H
=
A
x
x
s
Fiequency iatio,
o
o
n
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page28of102
Figure  21(b): Plot of phase angle vs frequency ratio in forced Vibration
Effect of frequency ratio, r =
o
o
n
for a particular case
When = u,
If, r = u, H = 1
If, r = 1, H =
If r = , H = u
At r = 1, resonance occurs and amplitudes tend to infinity.
The introduction of damping reduces the amplitudes to finite values.
The phase angle is zero if r < 1; the displacement, x is in the phase with the exciting force, F
0
and = 18u
if r > 1.
Fiequency iatio,
o
o
n
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page29of102
2
+ .2.[
n
n
n
_
And, x
s
= [
P
0
k
k
c
rigid mass, m
x
We have,
F
1
= Rc
x
s
(k+ot)
_1[
n
n
n
2
+ .2.[
n
n
n
_
.(2)
And as
c
k
=
c.2.m
2km._
R
m
= 2
c
c
c
m
m
n
or,
c
k
=
c.2.m
2km._
R
m
or,
c
k
= 2
o
o
n
(3)
F
1
=
Rc.
F
0
k
.k [1+.
c
k
.oc
int
_1[
n
n
n
2
+ .2.[
n
n
n
_
or, F
1
=
Rc.P
0
[1+.2.
n
n
n
c
int
_1[
n
n
n
2
+ .2.[
n
n
n
_
(4)
The amplitude of the force transmitted is given by
F
1
= F
0
_
1+[2.
n
n
n
2
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ [2.
n
n
n
2
or,
P
T
P
0
= _
1+[2.
n
n
n
2
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ [2.
n
n
n
2
The ratio
P
T
P
0
is referred to as the transmissibility of the force.
I
P
=
P
T
P
0
= [
o
o
n
,
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page31of102
Figure23: Plot of force transmission and frequency ratio
Now, the ratio I
P
=
P
T
P
0
= 1, when
_1 _
n
]
2
_
2
+ _2.
n
]
2
= 1 +_2.
n
]
2
or, 1  [
o
o
n
2
= _1
or, [
o
o
n
2
= 1 _ 1 = u,2
or,
o
o
n
= u, 2
or,
o
o
n
> 2 tbcn I
P
< 1
If < 1, tbcn I
P
< 1
Some damping is needed when must pass through the resonant condition, where a magnification will occur.
If D is negligible and
o
o
n
> 2, then I
P
< 1.
Some damping is needed when must pass through the resonant condition, where a magnification will occur.
F
o
r
c
e
t
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
,
T
F
=
F
T
F
0
Fiequency iatio,
o
o
n
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page32of102
If D is negligible and
o
o
n
> 2, then
I
P
=
1
[
2
 1
Replacing,
n
2
=
g
x
s
and = 2n, we have
I
P
=
1
(2n)
2
x
s
g
 1
Where x
s
=
o
k
If k is small, the x
s
is large.
m
=
n
1 2
2
= u
1 2
2
= u
=
1
2
= u.7u7
= u
F
0
sin t = u is a static case.
Which means that the maximum response is the static response.
= A
x
c
d
c
d
= 1  u.6
z
b
Where,
z = cptb o ounJotion rom grounJ lc:cl
b
=
o
1
+ o
2
2
= A:crogc o wiJtb onJ longtb o ounJotion
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page33of102
Example:  6
A machine of mass 100 kg is supported directly on springs which have a total stiffness of 2000 KN/m. An
unbalanced rotating mass results in a disturbing force of 200N at a speed of 3000 rpm. Assuming a damping
factor of D = 0.10 determine the amplitude of vibration, the transmissibility, and the force transmitted to the
foundation.
Solution:
The static deflection of the system is
x
s
=
w
k
=
mg
k
=
1uu 9.81
2uuu 1u
3
= u.49 1u
3
m = u.49 mm
The natural frequency of the single degree of freedom system is
n
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
200010
3
100
= 22.S Ez
The ration of forcing to the natural frequency, then becomes
o
o
n
=
]
]
n
=
3000
60
1
22.5
= 2.22
The amplitude of vibration,
A
x
=
x
s
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
=
0.49
(12.22
2
)
2
+(20.102.22)
2
= u.124 mm (Ans. )
The transmissibility,
I
P
=
P
T
P
0
= _
1+[2.
n
n
n
2
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ [2.
n
n
n
2
= _
1+(20.12.22)
2
{12.22
2
]
2
+ (20.12.22)
2
= u.277 (Ans. )
The transmitted force is then
F
1
= I
P
F
0
= u.277 2uu = SS N (Ans. )
Example:  7
A machine of mass 100 kg is supported directly on springs which have a total stiffness of 100 KN/m. An
unbalanced rotating mass results in a disturbing force of 200N at a speed of 3000 rpm. Assuming a damping
factor of D = 0.10 determine the amplitude of vibration, the transmissibility, and the force transmitted to the
foundation.
Solution:
The static deflection of the system is
x
s
=
w
k
=
mg
k
=
1uu 9.81
1uu 1u
3
= 9.8 1u
3
m = 9.81 mm
The natural frequency of the single degree of freedom system is
n
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
10010
3
100
= S.uS Ez
The ration of forcing to the natural frequency, then becomes
o
o
n
=
]
]
n
=
3000
60
1
5.03
= 9.94
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page34of102
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
=
9.81
(19.94
2
)
2
+(20.109.94)
2
= u.1u mm (Ans. )
The transmissibility,
I
P
=
P
T
P
0
= _
1+[2.
n
n
n
2
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ [2.
n
n
n
2
= _
1+(20.19.94)
2
{19.94]
2
+ (20.109.94)
2
= u.u227 (Ans. )
The transmitted force is then
F
1
= I
P
F
0
= u.u227 2uu = 4.SS N (Ans. )
Example :  8
An unknown weight w attached to the end of an unknown spring k has a natural frequency of 95 cpm. If 1 kg
weight is added to w, the natural frequency is lowered t o75 cpm. Determine the weight w and spring
constant K.
Solution:
Let,
m = w kg
m
i
= (w + 1)kg
n
=
1
2n
_
k
m
or, 9S =
1
2n
_
k
m
or,
_
k
m
= 9S 2n
or,
k
m
= (9S 2n)
2
(1)
Again,
n
' =
1
2n
_
k
m'
or, 7S =
1
2n
_
k
m'
or,
_
k
m'
= 7S 2n
or,
k
mi
= (7S 2n)
2
(2)
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page35of102
Equation
(1)
(2)
we get,
mi
m
=
(952n)
2
(752n)
2
= 1.6u
or,
w+1
w
= 1.6u
or, w = 1.67 kg (Ans. )
Again,
k
m
= (9S 2n)
2
or, k =
1.67 (952n)
2
9.811000
= 6u.6S KNm (Ans. )
Exercise  1:
A body 65 kg weighing is suspended from a spring which deflects 1.57 cm under the load. It is subjected to a
damping effect adjusted to a value 0.25 times that required for critical damping. Find the natural frequency of
the undamped and damped vibrations and the latter case; determine the ratio of successive amplitudes. If the
body is subjected to a periodic disturbing force with a maximum value of 25 kg and a frequency equal to 0.75
times the natural undamped frequency, find the amplitude of forced vibration and the phase difference with
respect to the disturbing force.
Solution:
k =
P
0
x
s
=
659.81100
1.57
= 4u61S Nm
Natural frequency of the undamped,
f
n
=
1
2
_
k
m
=
1
2
_
40615
65
= S98 Bz (Ans)
Again,
nd
=
n
(1 B
2
)
oi, 2 f
n
= 2f
n
(1 B
2
)
oi, f
nd
= f
n
(1 B
2
) = S.98 (1 u.2S
2
) = S.8S Bz (Ans)
The ratio of successive amplitudes
x
m
x
m+1
= c
2nD
_(1D
2
)
= c
2n0.2S
_(10.2S
2
)
= S.u6 = S (Ans)
Amplitude
A
x
=
x
s
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
=
15.7
(10.75
2
)
2
+(20.250.75)
2
= 27.2 mm (Ans)
Phase Angle
= ton
1
_
2[
n
n
n
1[
n
n
n
2
_ = ton
1
]
20.25(0.75)
1(0.75)
2
= ton
1
(u.87S) = 4S (Ans)
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page36of102
Tensional Resonant Column Test
The shearing strain on a circular cross section in a tensional resonant column test varies from zero at the
centre to a maximum at the outer edge.
To study the influence of shearing strain amplitude on shear modulus and damping a hollow cylinder
apparatus shown in figure (24) with a configuration.
J
x
Figure  24: Tensional Resonant column test apparatus
The average shearing strain on any horizontal cross section is not greatly different form the maximum or
minimum and shearing strain is uniform along the height of the specimen.
Figure (24) also increased the torque capacity of the device to produce, large shearing strain amplitudes,
([, t))
([, t))
<
1
4
sinc wo:c
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page37of102
For
Clay shearing strain amplitude up to 1%
Sand shearing strain amplitude up to 5% (for 40psi or 276KN/m
2
confining pressure.)
Cyclic triaxial compression tests
Cyclic test permit evolution of modulus, either E or 0 as appropriate for the specific test configuration and
material damping. The field condition to be reproduced in a cyclic loading test is shown conceptually in figure
(25) but because apparatus that could produce these stress conditions did not exist in the early stages of cyclic
soil testing, the cyclic triaxial compression test was developed first.
k
0
o
k
0
o
mux
o
u
o
u
o
0
_
c
dc
2
o
0
_
c
dc
2
o
u

c
dc
2
o
u

c
dc
2
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page38of102
o
3
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page39of102
Figure  28: Vertical load, vertical deformation and pore pressure record as a function of the number of cycles of load
The technique results in essentially the same stress conditions as long as the sample is saturated and
tested undrained. If samples are partially saturated or tested with drainage, it is necessary to utilize axial and
lateral stress control to simulate earthquake loading. In the many versions of the cyclic triaxial test, the
configuration of the specimen is standard but the loading and control equipment are variable. Most currently
used apparatus are stress controlled devices in which a cyclic axial load is applied to an undrained specimen.
Vertical load, vertical deformation and pore pressure are recorded as a function of the number of
cycles of load (figure  28). Some of the more common load control systems are the pneumatic, hydraulic,
electro hydraulic and the pneumatic hydraulic.
In addition to liquefaction characteristics of soils, Youngs modulus, E, and damping ratio are often
measured in the cyclic triaxial test (Figure  29) by performing strain controlled tests. These tests are
performed in essentially the same manner as the stress controlled test, however, a servo system is used to
apply cycles of controlled deformation.
v
e
i
t
i
c
a
l
L
o
a
u
v
e
i
t
i
c
a
l
B
e
f
o
i
m
a
t
i
o
n
P
o
i
e
P
i
e
s
s
u
i
e
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page40of102
Figure  29: StressStrain plot of strain controlled test
Youngs modulus E is determined from the ratio of the applied axial stress to axial strain.
For strained strain controlled tests, shear modulus 0 is computed from, 0 =
L
2(1+y)
in which y is Poissons
ratio.
The cyclic triaxial test has limitations among which are:
1. Shearing strain measurements below 1u
2
percent are difficult to achieve.
2. The extension and compression phases of each cycle produce different results, therefore hysteresis
loops are not symmetric in strain controlled tests and samples tend to neck in stress controlled tests.
3. Void ratio redistribution occurs within the specimen during cyclic testing.
4. Stress concentrations occur at the cap and base of the specimen and the major principal stress
changes direction by 90 during test.
VerticalStress,
VerticalStrain
e
+e
Comprcssion
Icnsion
o
+o
=
Encrgy AbsorbcJ
EncrJy ApplicJ
=
1
2n
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page41of102
=
c
As
h
The v is defined as the ratio of horizontal strain to vertical strain at shearing strain amplitudes less or equal
than 0.001 percent.
vh
=
As
h
As
v
0.001%
Figure  30: Strain Stress curve
o
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page42of102
Dynamic soil test
The following tests are applied in laboratory or field for measuring the soil parameters:
Field test Parameter Obtained
Wave propagation test E,G,
Cross bore hole wave propagation
Up hole or down hole wave propagation
Surface wave propagation
Block Vibration test C
u
, D, E, G, C
Cyclic Plate load test C
u
,E, G
Laboratory Test
Cyclic triaxial test E,G,
Wave Propagation test/wave velocity method E,G,
Resonant column test E,G,D
Cyclic Simple shear test
Cyclic Tensional Simple shear test
Xray diffraction analysis/Ultra sonic pulse test
Air pollution method
Water submergence method
Wet compaction method
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page43of102
()
(+)
Time
()
(+)
Time
Double Amplitude
0.001% Strain
Figure  31: Strain and stress have same direction
The stiffness at which 0.001% strain is called young modulus, E
=
c
= u
o
h
o
h
= u
o
h
e
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page44of102
30%
0.42
1
Small Stiffness
Granular Soil
Stiffness is increased with
increased vertical stress.
1
0.50
Unique Relationship
o
r
log e
u
log(v)
log(E)
log(o
)
L
cq
L
mcx
or
u
u
mcx
e or v
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page45of102
1
+
2
2
:
d
=
1

+
2

2
=
1
2
[
]
2
]
1
]
n
Shear modulus 0 = p:
u
2
0 = p:
d
2
Young modulus E = 2p:
u
2
(1 + v) E = 2p:
d
2
(1 + v)
Where,
= Poissons ratio of soil
= mass density of soil
v = velocity of shear wave
Expander Pump
Rubber Enpander
Back Plate
3 component
geophone
Recorder
Wooden
Hammer
Triger
Geophone
Weight
Figure  35: Equipment and instruments of down hole survey
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page48of102
0
sint
Soil Dynamics
CE  6112
Page49of102
Logarithmic decrement,
o =
2n
1
2
In which,
1
,
2
= Two frequencies on the amplitude frequency plot at which the amplitude is equal to
x
m
2
x
m
= Maximum amplitude
nz
= frequency at which amplitude is maximum, i.e. resonant frequency.
Cyclic Plate Load Test
The cyclic field plate load test is similar to the plate bearing test conducted in the field for evaluation of
the allowable bearing capacity of soil for foundation design purposes. The plates used for tests in the field are
usually made of steel and are 25 mm thick and 150 mm to 762 mm in diameter. To conduct a test, a hole is
excavated to the desired depth. The plate is placed at the center of the hole, and load is applied to the plate in
stepsabout onefourth to onefifth of estimated ultimate loadby a jack. Each step load is kept constant until
the settlement becomes negligible. The final settlement is recorded by dial gauges. Then the load is removed
and the plate is allowed to rebound. At the end of the rebounding period, the settlement of the plate is
recorded. Following that, the load on the plate is increases to reach a magnitude of the next proposed stage of
loading. The process of settlement recording is then repeated.
Figure  39: Nature of load settlement diagram for cyclic plate load test
Figure shows the nature of the plot of q versus settlement (S) obtained from a cyclic plate load test.
Note that soil pressure,
q =
IooJs on tbc plotc,
Arco o tbc plotc, A
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C
z
=
P
S
c
= 1.1S
L
(1
2
)A
Kg/cm
2
E =
C
z
(1  y
2
)A
1.1S
0 =
E
2(1 +p)
In which
P = Corresponding load intensity (Kg/cm
2
)
S
c
= Elastic rebound (cm)
A = Contact Area
Magnitude of C
z
can be obtained from the plot of q vs. S
e
from figure
Factors affecting stressdeformation and strength characteristics of cohesive soils under pulsating loads or
Factors affecting the dynamic properties of cohesive soils 
Type of soil and its properties (for example  water content, y
d
and state of disturbance)
Initial static (sustained) stress level
Magnitude of dynamic stress
Number of repetitions of dynamic stress
Frequency of loading
Shape of wave form of loading
One directional or two directional loading
Oscillatory simple shear test and its shortcomings
The simple shear device consists essentially of a simple box, an arrangement for applying a cyclic load
to the soil and an electronic recording system.
The box of Roscoe, which contains a square sample with a side length of 6 cm and a thickness of
about 2 cm, is provided with two fixed side walls and two hinged end walls so that the sample may be
subjected to deformations of the type shown in figure  40.
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x x
Figure  40: Idealized Stress condition for element of soil below ground surface during an earthquake.
A schematic diagram in figure  40 illustrates how the end walls rotate simultaneously at eh ends of the
shearing chamber to deform the soil uniformly.
Shearing Chamber
Plan View
Soil Sample
End Plate Rotation Soil Deformation
Elevation
Figure  41: Schematic diagram illustrating rotation of hinged end plates and soil deformation in oscillatory simple shear
+

= u
o
o
o
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Test data from simple shear tests have been analyzed to determine shear parameters, soil moduli and
damping.
Shortcomings
Stress in a triaxial compression test does not adequately simulate the field loading condition.
During the earthquake, the normal stresses on this plane remain constant while cyclic shear stresses
are induced during the period of shaking.
Typical Soil
Element
x x
Base Motion
Rock
Figure  41: Field Condition of soil
Field condition differs:
In the field, there is a cyclic reorientation of the principal stress directions. The major principal stress is
initially vertical and rotates through some angle , to the right and left of its initial position. In a tri
axial compression test, the major principal stress can act only in either the vertical or horizontal
direction.
In the field, the soil element is initially consolidated to k
0
condition.
In the field, deformations are presumed to occur under plane strain condition, while in a triaxial
compression test, the intermediate principal stress is either equal to minor principal stress during axial
compression or equal to major principal stress during lateral compression.
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Bilinear Model:
Figure  42: Stress Strain curve of Soil and Bilinear model
The shearstressstrain relationship may as shown in figure 42.
The soil exhibit nonlinear stressstrain characteristics from the very beginning of the loading cycle. For
purposes of analysis, this behavior may be represented by a bilinear model in figure  42.
The bilinear model is defined by three parameters
Modulus 0
1
until a limiting strain, y
y
Modulus 0
2
beyond strain, y
y
Strain, y
y
When the direction of strain is reversed, behavior is again determined by the modulus 0
1
until a strain change
of 2y
y
has developed and the modulus 0
2
again controls the behavior. This pattern then continuous
throughout the cycle.
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n
= Su  Su% LL = 37  59% PL = 20  27%
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
K
g
/
c
m
)
Stress
1
2
4
3
0
0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24
Strain
Shear failure at 0.02 sec
Time, sec
Figure  44: Time vs stress and strain in an unconfined transient test on Cambridge clay.
From the typical test data presented above, it may be concluded that:
The strength of clays loaded to failure in about 0.02 s is approximately 1.5 to 2.0 times greater than
their 10  min static strength.
Modulus of deformation, defined as the slope of a line drawn from the origin through the point on the
stress  deformation curve and corresponding to a stress of onehalf the strength, was about two times
in the transient test.
These investigations suffer from the following short comings:
The dynamic load was not superimposed on a static load.
At best, the transient loading is adopted in the investigations represents only one cycle of earthquake
loading. Sometimes there may be as many as 100 peaks in an actual earthquake.
Finally, the sands were tested while dry and dense. The effect of dynamic loading on saturated loose
sands may induce large pore pressures resulting in loss of strength and consequent partial or complete
liquefaction of sands.
This aspect of the problem is of great practical importance.
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E
]
onJ 0
s
: Youngs modulus and shear modulus obtained from in situ elastic shear wave velocity :
s
, which
are
E
]
= 2(1 +v)0
]
0
]
= p:
s
2
=
y
t
g
:
s
2
Where,
p = moss Jcnsity o soil or rock
y
t
= unit wcigbt o soil or rock
g = Accclcrotion o gro:ity = 98u cmscc
2
:
c
= Iclocity o Sbcor wo:cs
q
max
0
E
q
1
max
2
q
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Figure  47: Plot of Linear elastic, elastic weak plastic, elasticobvious plastic cyclic loading
E
eq
1
E
sec
0
In the engineering practice of soil dynamics, the in situ relationship between the equivalent shear
modulus, 0
cq
and single amplitude shear strain, y
SA
under cyclic loading conditions is estimated using the
following methodology.
G
eq
G
f
G
max
Figure  49: A method used to estimate the insitu stiffness as a function of strain for dynamic loading
Resonant Column Tests
The Resonant column test for determining modulus and damping characteristics of soil is based on the theory
of compression waves or shear waves propagation in prismatic rods. In a resonant column apparatus the
exciting frequency is adjusted until the specimen experiences resonance. The modulus is computed from the
resonant frequency and the geometric properties of the specimen and driving apparatus. Damping is
determined by turning off the driving power at resonance and recording the decaying vibrations from which a
logarithmic decrement is calculated. Alternative methods of damping measurement include determining
damping from the shape of the resonance curve or determining a resonant factor from driving coil current
measurements. Several versions of the resonant column test are possible using different end conditions to
constrain the specimen. Some common end conditions are shown in figure (50).
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x
J
J
0
x
Rigid mass
Specimen; nonrigid
distributed mass
Driving force
Weightless Spring
Specimen; nonrigid
distributed mass
Fixed Support
Deshpot
Weightless Spring
Rigid mass
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
Driving force
Figure  50: Some common end conditions of resonant column test.
Each configuration requires slightly different driving equipment and methods of data interpretation.
The fixed free apparatus is the simplest configuration in terms of equipment and interpretation as figure (50
a). Figure (50a) the distribution of angular rotation, , along the specimen is a
1
4
sine wave but by adding a
mass with mass polar moment [
0
, at the top of the specimen as in figure (50b)the variation of along the
sample becomes nearly linear. The end effects to obtain uniform strain distribution through the length of the
specimen. The apparatus configuration in figure (50c) can be described as the spring base model. For a
condition where the spring is weak compared to the specimen, the configuration of figure (50c) could be
called free free.
A mode will occur at mid height of the specimen and the rotation distribution would be a
1
2
sine wave.
By adding end masses the rotation distribution can also be made nearly linear. To study the influences of
anisotropic stress conditions on shear modulus and damping. Figure (50d) has fixed base and a top cap that is
partially restrained by a spring and dashpot which in turn reacts against an inertial mass. For k
0
= 1.u tests,
the inertial mass is balanced by a counter weight, but by changing the counter weight, axial load can be
applied to the specimen.
0 0
1
4
sinc wo:c
]
]
0
=
]
]
0
= u.Su
0([t)
0([t)
0([, t) 0([, t)
1
4
sinc wo:c
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Machine foundation
Machine foundations are subjected to the dynamic forces caused by the machine. These dynamic
forces are transmitted to the foundation supporting the machine. These loads may result from various causes
such as vibratory motion of machines, movement of vehicles, impact of hammers, earthquakes, winds, waves,
nuclear blasts, mine explosions, and pile driving.
There are three types of machine foundation
1. Machine which produce a periodic unbalanced force, such as reciprocating engines and compressors.
The speed of such machines is generally less than 600 r.p.m. In these machines, the rotary motion of
the crank is converted into the translatory motion. The unbalanced force varies sinusoidally.
2. Machine which produce impact load, such as forge hammers and punch presses. In these machines,
the dynamic force attains a peak value in a very short time and then dies out gradually. The response
is a pulsating curve. It vanishes before the next pulse. The speed is usually between 60 to 150 blows
per minute.
3. High speed machines, such as turbines and rotary compressors. The speed of such machines is very
high; sometimes, it is even more than 3000 r.p.m.
Types of Machine foundation
4. Block Type: This type of machine foundation consists of a pedestal resting on a footing. The
foundation has a large mass and a small natural frequency.
5. Box Type: The foundation consists of a hollow concrete block. The mass of the foundation is less than
that in the block type and the natural frequency is increased.
6. Wall Type: A wall type of foundation consists of a pair of walls having a top slab. The machine rests
on the top slab.
7. Framed Type. This type of foundation consists of vertical columns having a horizontal frame at their
tops. The machine is supported on the frame.
Pedestal Box
Base Slab
Wall
Top Slab
Columns
Frame
(a) Block Type (b) Box Type
(c) Wall Type (d) Framed Type
Figure  51: Types of Machine Foundation.
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2
, for higher frequencies, where f is frequency in hertz (cycles/scc).
4. Concrete block foundations should be used. However, when the soil is not suitable to support
block foundation, cellular foundation may be used.
5. The size of the block in plan should be larger than the bed plate of the machine. There should
be a minimum allround clearance of 15 mm. The total width of the foundation measured at
right angles in the shaft should be least equal to the distance between the centre of the shaft
and the bottom of the foundation.
6. The eccentricity of the foundation system along XX and YY axes should not exceed 5% of
the length of the corresponding side of the contact area.
7. The combined centre of gravity of' machine end foundation should be as much below the top
of foundation as possible. In no case, it should be above the top of foundation.
8. The depth of foundation should be sufficient in provide the required bearing capacity and to
ensure stability against rotation in the vertical plane.
9. The stresses in the soil below the foundations should not exceed 80% of the allowable stress
under static leads. The base pressure is limited to half the normal allowable pressure (q
na
) in
extreme cases.
10. Where it is not practicable to design a foundation to give satisfactory dynamic response, the
transmitted vibrations may be reduced by providing antivibration mountings either between
the machine and the foundation or between the foundation and the supporting system.
11. The machine should be anchored to the foundation block using a base plate and anchor bolts.
Bolt holes should be backfilled with concrete and the space below the plate should be filled
with 1 : 2 cement mortar.
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12. A number of similar machines can be created on individual pedestals on a common raft. The
analysis for such machines can be made assuming that each foundation acts independently
with an area of foundation equal to that obtained by dividing up the raft into sections
corresponding to separate machines.
Reinforcement and Construction Details:
1. The reinforcement in the concrete block should not be less than 25 kg/m
3
. For machines
requiring special design consideration of foundations, such as machine pumping explosive
gases, the minimum reinforcement is 40 kg/m
3
.
2. Steel reinforcement around all and openings shall be at least equal to 0.5 to 0.75% of the cross
sectional area of the pit or opening.
3. The reinforcement shall run in all the three directions.
4. The minimum reinforcement shall usually consist of 12 mm bars at 200 to 250 mm spacing
excluding both vertically and horizontally near all faces of the foundation block. The ends of
all bats should always be hooked.
5. If the height of the foundation block exceeds one mate, shrinkage reinforcement shall be
placed a suitable spacing in all the three directions.
6. The cover should be a minimum of 75 mm at the bottom and 50 mm on sides and the top.
7. The concrete shall be at least M15 with a characteristic strength of 15 N/mm
2
.
8. The foundation block should be preferably cast in a single, continuous operation. In case of
very thick blocks (exceeding 5 m), construction joints can be provided.
Mass of Foundation
Heavy foundations eliminate excessive vibrations. Manufactures of machines sometimes
recommend the mass of foundation required for the machines. However, the mass recommended are
generally empirical rust based largely on experience.
Vibration isolation and control:
Vibrations may cause harmful effects on the adjoining structures and machines. Besides, these
vibrations cause annoyance to the persons working in the area around the machine. However, if the
frequency ratio is kept outside the critical range of 0.4 and 1.5, and the amplitude is within the
permissible limits, the harmful effects are considerably reduced, especially if the system is damped.
Transmission of vibrations am be controlled and tile detrimental effects considerably reduced
by isolating either the source (active isolation) or by protecting the receiver (Passive isolation). The
following measures are generally adopted.
1. The machine foundation should be located away from the adjoining structures. This is known
as geometric isolation. The amplitude of surface waves (Rwaves) reduces with an increase in
distance. A considerable reduction in the amplitude is achieved by locating the foundation at a
great depth, as the Rwaves also reduce considerably with an increase in depth.
2. Additional masses known as dampers are attached to the foundation of high frequency
machines to make it a multiple degree freedom system and to change the natural frequency. In
reciprocating machines, the vibrations are considerably reduced by counterbalancing the
exciting forces by attaching counterweights to the sides of the crank.
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3. Vibrations are considerably reduced by placing absorbers, such as rubber mountings, felts and
corks between the machine and the base.
4. If an auxiliary mass with a spring is attached to the machine foundation, the system becomes a
twodegreefreedom system. The method is especially effective when the system is in
resonance.
5. If the strength of the soil is increased by chemical or cement stabilization, it increases the
natural frequency of the system. The method is useful for machines of low operating
frequency.
6. The natural frequency of the system is modified by making structural changes in foundation,
such as connecting the adjoining foundations, changing the base area or mass of foundation or
use of attached slabs.
7. The propagation of waves can be reduced by providing sheet piles, screens or trenches.
Mathematical problems and Solutions of Machine Foundation
Example:  9
A mass is supported by a spring. The static deflection of the spring due to the mass is 0.04 cm. Find
the natural frequency of vibration.
Solution:
Given,
g = 981 cmsec
2
z
stat
= u.u4 mm
=
1
2n
_
g
z
stct
=
1
2n
_
981
0.04
= 24.94 Ez (Ans)
Example:  10
The weight of a machine foundation is 30 kN and the spring constant, k is 610
3
kN/m. Determine the
normal frequency of vibration and the period of oscillation.
Solution:
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
610
3
30
9.81
= 7.uS cps
I =
1
n
=
1
7.uS
= u.142 scc
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Example:  11
A machine foundation is subjected to a maximum vertical force
0
= 2Suu kg. Given: weight of
machine + foundation = 18000 kg; spring constant k = 7u 1u
3
kgcm; operating frequency of the machine,
= 4u roJions pcr scc. Assuming that the foundation can be idealized as a mass spring system, determine
a) The natural frequency of the system, and
b) The maximum vertical displacement of the foundation.
Solution:
n
=
_
k
m
=
_
7u 1u
3
18uuu
981
= 61.8 roJ. pcr scc
Maximum amplitude
A =
F
0
k
1 [
2
=
2Suu
7u 1u
3
1  [
4u
61.8
2
= u.u6 cm
Example:  12
A machine foundation weighs 60 kN and has a spring constant k = 11000 kN/m. Assuming the damping
coefficient, c, of the system as equal to 200 kNsce/m, determine
a) Whether the system is over damped, under damped or critically damped.
b) The logarithmic decrement.
c) The ratio of two successive amplitude.
d) Damped natural frequency.
Solution:
Critical damping coefficient c
c
is
c
c
= 2km = 2_11uuu [
60
9.81
= S18.76 sccm
Damping factor,
=
c
c
c
=
200
518.76
= u.S86 < 1, So, Under damped condition
Logarithmic decrement,
o =
2n
(1 
2
)
=
2 S.141S9 u.S86
(1  u.S86
2
)
= 2.6S
The ratio of peak amplitude,
z
1
z
2
= c
2n
(1
2
)
= c
2.63
= 1S.87
Damped natural frequency
dn
=
n
1 
2
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
110009.81
60
= 6.7S cps
dn
= 6.7S1  S.86
2
= 6.2S cps
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Example:  13
The weight of machine foundation including the machine is 15 kN. The spring constant of the supporting soil
has been found out to be 11 1u
4
kN. The foundation is subjected to a vertical forced vibration of the type
F(kN) = 4usint, where = 1Su roJscc.
If the damping factor D of the system is 0.2 determine
a) The un damped natural frequency of the foundation.
b) The amplitude of motion
c) The damped natural frequency.
d) Effect of amplitude of motion if damping is ignored.
Solution:
n
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
1110
4
9.81
125
= 14.8 cps
n
= 2n
n
= 2n 14.8 = 9S roJscc
A =
F
0
k
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
=
40
1110
4
_
_1[
1S0
93
2
_
2
+ ]20.2[
1S0
93
2
= u.uuu211 m = u.211 mm
dn
=
n
1 
2
= 14.81 u.2
2
= 14.Su cps
A =
F
0
k
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
=
40
1110
4
_
_1[
1S0
93
2
_
2
+ ]20.0[
1S0
93
2
= u.uuu227 m = u.227 mm
The effect of ignoring the damping is to increase the amplitude of motion by about 8% which is not very
significant in this case.
Example:  14
A square concrete foundation block is to be designed to support a centrifugal pump of weight equal to
10.4 tonnes and operating frequency equal to 12 hertz. The supporting soil consists of dense silty sand
( = 1.8 tm
3
). The specification required the vertical mode of vibration that the resonant and operating
frequencies be separated by a factor of at least 2, and the maximum vibration velocity is 2 mm/sec. the
maximum vertical out of balance force at the operating frequency is estimated to be 15 kN. The results of
cyclic plate load test on the silty sand with a 0.5 m0.5m plate give elastic uniform compression C
u
= S4
1u
4
kNm
3
.
It has been proposed to use a concrete foundation block 3m3m1m. determine whether this proposal
would satisfy the specification requirements.
Solution:
The weight of footing + pump = w = S S 1 24uu +1u4uu = S2uuu kg
Soil Dynamics
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C
u
(or ooting) = C
u
(plotc) _
Acu o] pIutc
Acu o] ]ootng
= S4 1u
4
0.5
3
= 9 1u
4
kNm
3
nz
2
=
C
u
A
m
=
910
4
10
2
9
32000
9.81
= 24.8S 1u
3
nz
= 1S8 roJscc or
nz
=
158
2n
= 2S.2 bcrtz
Ratio of natural and operating frequencies =
25.2
12
= 2.1
The specification is satisfied.
For the amplitude of motion
Operating angular frequency, = (12 2n)
A
z
=
P
0
C
u
Ao
2
m
=
1510
2
910
4
10
2
9 (22n)[
32000
9.81
= 24 1u
6
m = u.u24 mm
The maximum vibration velocity at t = u,
=
dz
dt
= z = A
z
= A
z
= 12 2n u.u24 = 1.81 mmscc
Example:  15
A rectangular concrete foundation of size 16 ft 7 ft 3 ft is to be constructed for a vertical singlecyclic
compressor. The following data are available.
Operating frequency of compressor = 450 rpm, Constant amplitude force of excitation, F
0
= 1u9uu lb. The
coefficient of elastic uniform compression, C
u
= SSu lbin
3
.
Required
a) The natural frequency of the system
b) The vertical amplitude (maximum)
Solution:
Total weight = Wt of foundation block + compressor = 1673150 + 10900 = 61300 lb force
m =
w
g
=
61300
32.2
= 19u4
nz
= _
C
u
A
m
= _
350 12
3
177
1904
= 194 roJscc.
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nz
=
o
nz
2n
=
194
2n
= S1 cps or 186u cpm
Operating angular frequency,
=
450
60
2n = 47.1 roJscc.
A
z
=
P
0
C
u
Ao
2
m
=
10900
35912
3
119 1904(47.1
2
)
= 16.1 1u
5
t = u.uuu21 in
Example:  16
A compressor is supported on a concrete block foundation of size 2.S 2.S m and 1.S m thick which is located
on the surface of a sandy clay soil. The compressor has a total weight of 12u kNand an operating frequency of
10 hertz. The total weight of the oscillating mass in the compressor is 2.5 kN at an eccentricity of 15 cm. The
dominant vibration is vertical. Field tests give a value of 1S4 1u
3
kNm for the spring constant, k
z
.
Determine
a) The damped natural frequency
b) The maximum vertical amplitude at the operating frequency.
Assuming the damping factor = u.S4, and the unit weight of concrete = 24 kNm
3
.
Solution:
Total weight of foundation block + compressor = 2.52.51.524 + 120 = 345 kNforce
m =
w
g
=
345
9.81
= SS.2 kgsec/m
Natural angular frequency
n
= _
k
m
= _
13410
3
35.2
= 61.7 roJscc.
Damped natural frequency,
dn
is
dn
=
n
1 
2
= 61.71 u.S4
2
= S1.9S roJscc.
The vertical amplitude A
z
is
m
c
=
2.5
9.8
= u.2SS kN  sccm.
= 1u 2n = 62.8 roJscc.
o
o
n
=
62.8
61.7
= 1.u18
[
o
o
n
2
= 1.uS6
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A
z
=
m
c
c
m
[
n
n
n
_
_1[
n
n
n
2
_
2
+ ]2.[
n
n
n
2
=
0.22S0.1S
3S.2
(1.036)
{11.036]
2
+ {20.541.018]
2
= u.uuu9S m = u.9S mm
Example:  17
Determine the natural frequency of a machine foundation having a base area 2 m 2 m and a mass of 15
Mg, including the mass of the machine. Taking C
u
= 4 1u
4
kN
m
S
.
Solution:
n
= _
C
u
A
m
= _
410
3
22
1510
3
= 1uS.28 roJscc.
=
o
n
2n
=
103.28
2n
= 16.4S cps (bcrtz)
Example:  18
The natural frequency of a machine foundation is 4 hertz. Determine its magnification at the operating
frequency of 8 hertz. Take damping factor (D) as 0.30.
Solution:
r =
8
4
= 2
N =
1
(1
2
)
2
+4
2
2
=
1
(12
2
)
2
+4(0.3)
2
(2)
2
= u.S1
Example:  19
The exciting force of a machine is 100 kN. Determine the transmitted force if the natural frequency of the
machine foundation is 3.0 Hz. Take D = 0.40 and the operating frequency as 5 Hz.
Solution:
F
1
 = F
0
H1 + (2r)
2
N =
1
(1
2
)
2
+4
2
2
=
1
_
_1[
S
3
2
_
2
+ 4(0.4)
2
[
S
3
2
= u.4S
F
1
 = 1uu u.4S
_
1 +[2 u.4
5
3
2
= 7S kN
Soil Dynamics
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Example:  20
Determine the coefficient of uniform compression if a vibration tests on a block 1 m 1 m 1 m gave a
resonance frequency of 30 Hz in the vertical direction. The mass of the oscillator used was 60 kg.
Solution:
Mass of foundation block
(1 1 1) 24uu = 24uu kg
Total mass = 2400 + 60 = 2460 kg.
n
= _
C
u
A
m
or =
1
2n
_
C
u
A
m
or =
1
2n
_
C
u
(11)
2460
C
u
= 8.74 1u
4
kNm
3
Example:  21
A 2.50 Mg vertical compressor foundation system is operated at 40 Hz. The soil at the site is medium stiff clay
(C
u
= 4 1u
4
kNm
3
). Determine the natural frequency and the magnification factor, assuming m
6
=
u.2 m
]
. The base area is 2.5 m
2
. Take D = 0.
Solution:
Total mass = 2.5 + 0.22.5 = 3.0 Mg. = 310
3
kg.
n
= _
C
u
A
m
=
1
2n
_
C
u
A
m
=
1
2n
_
410
2.5
310
3
= 29.u6 Ez
N =
1
(1
2
)
2
+4
2
2
=
1
_
_1[
40
29.06
2
_
2
+ 4(0)
2
[
40
29.06
2
= 1.12
Soil Dynamics
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Example:  22
In a test block of the size 1. S m 1.u mu.7S m, resonance occurs at a frequency of 20 cycles per
second in the vertical vibration. Determine the coefficient of elastic uniform compression (C
u
) if the
mass of oscillator is 70 kg and the force produced by it at 15 cycles per second is 1000N. Also compute the
maximum amplitude at 15 cycles per second.
Solution:
n
= 2n
n
= 2n 2u = 4un
Mass of oscillator = 70 kg.
Mass of block = 1.S 1.u u.7S 24uu = 27uu kg
Total Mass = 70 + 2700 = 2770 kg
Contact Area = 1.S 1 = 1.S m
2
n
= _
C
u
A
m
or 4un = _
C
u
1.5
2770
or C
u
= 29.16 1u
6
N
m
2
= 29.16 1u
3
kNm
3
Maximum Amplitude
A
mux
=
P
0
mo
n
2
(1
2
)
=
1000
2770 (40n)
2
_1[
1S
20
2
_
= S.2S 1u
5
m = u.uS2S mm
Example:  23
A foundation block of weight 30 kN rests on a soil for which the stiffness may be assumed as 25000 kN/m,
The machine is vibrated vertically by and exciting force S.usin(Sut) kN. find the natural frequency, natural
period, natural circular frequency and the amplitude of vertical displacement. The damping factor is u.Su.
Solution:
The exciting force F
0
sin(t) is S.usin(Sut).
n
= _
k
m
=
_
2500010
3
30
10
3
9.81
= 9u.42 roJscc.
n
=
1
2n
_
k
m
=
1
2n
_
2500010
3
30
10
3
9.81
= 14.S9 cyclcsscc
Soil Dynamics
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I =
1
]
n
=
1
14.39
= u.u69 scconJ
r =
o
o
n
=
30
90.42
= u.SS
N =
1
(1
2
)
2
+4
2
2
=
1
_
_1[
30
90.42
2
_
2
+ 4(0.5)
2
[
30
90.42
2
= 1.uS
Static deflection,
x
s
=
P
0
k
=
3.0100
25000
= u.u12 cm
Amplitude
A = Hx
s
= 1.uS u.u12 = u.u1S cm
Soil Dynamics
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Liquefaction
Quick Sand condition:
A soil under critical hydraulic gradient will be unstable and is sail to be in a quick condition. By this
definition any granular soil may be a quick sand but soil with high permeability i.e. gravels and coarse sands
require large quantities of water to maintain a critical hydraulic gradient. Quick sand conditions are therefore
usually confined to fine grained sands. At a quick condition
o
i
= u = o  u
or, o = u
Where,
o = Iotol strcss
o
i
= Eccti:c Strcss
u = Porc wotcr Prcssurc
Thus, when the pore pressure equals the total pressure on a plane, a quick condition exists and the pore
pressure can only equal the total pressure when b > u, which is a flow condition.
Liquefaction:
When a fine or medium fine, saturated, loose sand deposit is subjected to a sudden shock the mass will
temporarily liquefy. This phenomenon is termed as liquefaction. In the situation just described, four criteria
were given: a particular sand, loose state, saturation and sudden shock.
The shock temporary increases the pro pressure. The total stress is not large when the soil is loose  also, the
structure is somewhat unstable. The grain size is such that the pore pressure can float the grains. The result
is a temporary liquefaction of sand mass until pore drainage occurs. During this time lag the very viscous
sandafter mixture has little shear strength to support any structures on it and, if not confined, may flow
laterally. This phenomenon has been observed to occur in several fairly recent earthquakes. It also sometimes
occurs during pile driving i.e. when the pile has great penetration for several of the hammer blows.
Liquefaction can be readily observed in the laboratory by building a quick sand tank.
Liquefaction analysis based on method by Ishihara (1993).
The cyclic shear stress induced at any point in level ground during an earthquake due to upward
propagation of shear waves in given by as stress ratio,
mux
o
i
=
o
mux
g
r
d
i
Where,
mux
= moximum sbcor strcss inJuccJ on o gi:cn soil clcmcnt ot o Jcptb, z.
o
= y
z
= totol o:crburJcn prcssurc octing on tbc clcmcnt.
o
i
= zy
sut
 z
1
y
w
= cccti:c strcss, wbcrc y
sut
= 2uKN m
3
onJ y
w
= 1uKN m
3
y
d
= 1  u.u1Sz = strcss rcJuction co  cicicnt to ollow or Jcormobility
o tbc soil column, y
d
< 1.
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o
mux
= tbc pcok normolizcJ occclcrotion on tbc grounJ surocc couscJ by
cortbquokc looJing.
g = Acceleration due to gravity,
u
mcx
g
= u.1S or H = 6.u Ricbtcr Scolc
Corelation between the cyclic strength and SPT Nvalue for clean sand.
Maximum resisting shear stress ratio,
:
mcx
c

= u.u676N
1
2
+ u.22Slog
10
[
0.35
S0
for 0.04 mm
50
0.60 mm and
:
mcx
c

= u.u676N
1
2
+ u.uS for 0.6 mm
50
1.50 mm and
Where,
50
= mean particle (50% finer) diameter of soil in mm.
N
1
= The noimalizeu SPT Nvalue obtaineu thiough the coiellation factoi foi oveibuiuen
piessuie, C
N
Befineu as N
1
= C
N
N
C
N
=
1.70
c

+0.70
Wheie,
o
i
= The effective overburden pressure = kgf/cm
2
After so determining the induced stress and shear strength of a soil element, the liquefaction potential of a
sand deposit is evaluated in terms of factor of safety, F
1
defined as,
F
1
=
Shcu Stcngth
Induccd Stcss
=
_
mcx,
1
o

]
_
mcx
o

]
If the factor of safety is less than on (F
1
1), the liquefaction is said to take place, otherwise liquefaction does
not occur.
The required Nvalue (N
cq
i.e. uncorrected Nvalues) obtained by
N
cq
=
N
1
C
N
= j14.79S ][
:
mcx
c

F
1
 u.22Slog
10
[
0.35
S0
[
If N
1
N
cq
at a given depth, liquefaction is likely to occur in soil at that depth,
Soil Dynamics
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Depth
(m)
0
=
v
(KPa)
=
v
C
N
d
Induce stress ratio
max
/
v
N
req
F
1
= 1.0 F
1
= 1.25 F
1
= 1.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
SPT (NValue)
Depth (m)
Liquefaction Potentially
of Subsoil at alocation
F >1.0
1
1
max
0
(Induced)
max, 1
0
(resistance)
N
req
N
1
max
0
max, 1
0
,
Figure 52: Plot of N
cq
and N
1
with SPT
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Relationship between structural damage intensity and soil depth in earthquake of 1967.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
N = 3 to 5
N = 5 to 9
N = 10 to 14
N = 14
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l
D
a
m
a
g
e
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
,
%
Depth of Soil, m
N = No of Stories
Figure 53: Plot of Structural Damage Intensity verses Depth of Soil.
For 3 to 5 story buildings damage was many times greater where soil depths ranged from 30 to 50m
than for soil depths over 100m. For 5 to 9 story buildings, the structural damage intensity was slightly higher
for soil depths of 50 to 70 m than for other depths of soil, but buildings over 10 stories high, the structural
damage intensity was several hundred percent higher where soil depths exceed 160m than for soil depths
below 140 m. It would appear that the depth and characteristics of the underlying soil deposits had a
significant effect on the characteristics of ground motion and the resulting building damage, although building
characteristics are also very much involved in determining the damage patterns. The magnitude of the
influence of local soil conditions on the characteristics of earthquake ground motions than thereby on building
damage merits their careful consideration is seismic design. Because this monograph cannot review all aspects
of soil behavior during earthquakes, it will concentrate on the two topics of most general interest:
The influence of soil conditions on the characteristics of earthquake ground motions and
Methods of evaluating the liquefaction potential of soil deposits.
Main Characteristics of the ground motions: Such as
Maximum ground acceleration
Maximum ground velocity
Maximum ground displacement
Duration of significant ground shaking
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Figure 54: Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement relationship with time
Soil Dynamics
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=
1
2n
S
u
or u < I < S scc
0
0.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
0
1
2
4
3
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
Damping Factor
0.01
0.2
0.05
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,
g
Natural Periods
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
f
t
/
s
e
c
Natural Periods
Damping Factor
0.01
0.2
0.05
Figure 55: Acceleration, Velocity and Damping relationship with natural periods
The maximum base shear, I
mux
for a multistory structure subjected t oa given base motion can be estimated
from the equation
I
mux
= w.
S
c
g
Where,
W = The weight of the structure
S
u
= Spectral acceleration corresponding to the natural period of the structure (SDOF)
g = The acceleration of gravity, (SDOF)
Factors affecting Earthquake ground motions:
The characteristics of earthquake ground motion at any site are influenced by a number of factors including:
1. Magnitude of the earthquake
2. Distance of the site from the source of energy release
3. Geologic characteristics of the rocks along the wave transmission path from source to site
4. Source mechanism of the earthquake
5. Wave interference effects related to the direction and speed of fault rupturing
6. Local soil conditions at the site
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0
1
10
50
30
80
100
3 10 30 100 500 1000 1
Distance from zone of Energy Release, Km
P
e
a
k
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
c
m
/
s
e
c
Soil Sites
Rock Sites
M = 6.5 Mean Value
Figure 59: Plot of relationship between Peak Velocity and Energy Release on rock and other soils
Response Spectra:
0
1
2
4
3
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
G
r
o
u
n
d
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Periods, (s)
5% Damping
Normalized Acceleration
Response Spectrum
Figure 61: Effect of soil type on average spectral acceleration at 5% damping.
Figure 62: Normalized spectral shapes for various types of soil and rock.
Soil Dynamics
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o
0
i
k
0
o
0
i
o
0
i
k
0
o
0
i
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S
h
e
a
r
S
t
r
e
s
s
( + )
(  )
Time, s
Figure 63: Cyclic shear stress on a soil element during ground shaking.
3. If the sand is loose, the pore pressure will increase suddenly to a value equal to the applied confining
pressure and the sand will readily begin to undergo large deformations will shear strains, they may
exceed 20 percent or more. If the sand will undergo vertically unlimited deformations without
mobilizing significant resistance to deformation, it can be said to be liquefied.
4. As a consequence of the applied cyclic stress, the structure of the cohesion less soil tends to become
more compact with a resulting transfer of stress to the pore water and a reduction in stress on the soil
grains. As a result, the soil grain structure rebounds to the extent required keeping the volume
constant, and this interplay of volume reduction and soil structure rebound determines the magnitude
of the increase in pore water pressure in the soil. The basic phenomenon is illustrated schematically in
figure 64. The mechanism can be quantified so that the pore pressure increases due to any given
sequence of stress applications can be computed from knowledge of the stressstrain characteristics, the
volume change characteristics of the sand under cyclic strain conditions and the rebound
characteristics of the sand due to stress reduction.
Pressure
V
o
i
d
R
a
t
i
o
A
C
B
e
0
Compression Curve
e = Equivalent volume
vhange of grain structure
due to cyclic strain
applications during
drainage loading
Induced Pore
Pressure
f 0
u
= effective pressure
initial and final stages
f 0 ,
Figure 64: Schematic illustration of mechanism of pore pressure generation during cyclic loading
(b) Shear stress variation determined by response analysis.
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Cyclic mobility:
For dense sand, it may develops a residual pore water pressure, on completion of a full stress cycle,
which is equal to eh confining pressure (a peak cyclic stress to pore pressure ratio of 100%), but when the
cyclic stress is reapplied on the next stress cycle, or if the sand is subjected to monotonic loading, the soil will
tend to dilate, the pore pressure will drop if the sand is undrained, and the soil will ultimately develop enough
resistance to withstand the applied stress.
However, it will have to undergo some degree of deformation to develop the resistance, and as the
cyclic loading continues the amount of deformation required to produce a stable condition may increase.
Ultimately, however, for any cyclic loading condition, there appears to be a cyclic strain level at which the soil
will be able to with stand any number of cycles of given stress without further increase in maximum
deformation. This type of behavior is termed Cyclic mobility and it is considerably less serious than
liquefaction, its significance depending on the magnitude of the limiting strain. However, that once the cyclic
stress applications stops if they have to a zero stress condition, there will be a residual pore water pressure in
the soil equal to the overburden pressure and they will inevitably lead to an upward flow of water in the soil
which could have deleterious consequences for overlying layers.
Factors on which liquefaction will depends:
1. The extent to which the necessary hydraulic gradient can be developed and maintained.
2. Will be determined by the compaction characteristics of the sand.
3. The nature of ground deformations.
4. The permeability of the sand.
5. The boundary drainage conditions
6. The geometry of the particular situation
7. The duration of the induced vibrations
General method of evaluating liquefaction potential
The liquefaction potential of any given soil deposit is determined by a combination
1. Soil properties
2. Environmental factors and
3. Characteristics of the earthquake to which it may subjected
Specific factors which any liquefaction evaluation should desirably take into account include the following:
Soil Properties:
1. Dynamic shear modulus
2. Damping characteristic
3. Unit weight
4. Grain characteristics
5. Relative density
6. Soil structure
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Environmental factors:
1. Method of soil formation
2. Seismic history
3. Geologic history (aging, cementation)
4. Lateral earth pressure coefficient ( k
0
, k
u
, k
p
)
5. Depth of water table
6. Effective confining pressure
Earthquake characteristics:
1. Intensity of ground shaking
2. Duration of ground shaking
Some of these factors cannot be determined directly, but then effects can be included in the evaluation
procedure by performing cyclic loading tests on undisturbed samples or by measuring the liquefaction
characteristics of the soil by mean of some insitu test procedure.
With the recognition of this fact, the basis evaluation procedure involves:
1. A determination of the cyclic shear stress induced by the earthquake ground motions at different
depths in the deposit and conversion of the irregular stress histories to equivalent number or uniform
stress cycles. By means the intensity of ground shaking, the duration of shaking and the variation of
induced shear stresses with depth are taken into account. The determination may be made either by a
ground response analysis involving the unit weight of the soils, the dynamic moduli and the soil
damping characteristics. A plot of the induced equivalent uniform shear stress level as a function of
depth as shown in figure  65.
2. A determination by means of laboratory cyclic loading test on representative undisturbed samples
conducted at different confining pressures, or by correction of these properties with some measurable
insitu characteristics of the cyclic shear stresses. Other cyclic load simple shear tests or cyclic load tri
axial compression tests may be used for this purpose, provided the test results are appropriately
corrected to be representative of field conditions. By this means the soil type, the inplane the seismic
and geologic histories of the deposit of the initial effective stress conditions are approximately taken
into account.
Soil Dynamics
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The stresses required to cause liquefaction can then be plotted as a function of depth as shown in
figure 65.
Figure 65: Zone of liquefaction
3. A composition of the shear stresses included by the earthquake with those required to causes
liquefaction, to determine whether any zone exists within the deposit where liquefaction can be
expected to occur that is, where induced stresses exceed those required to cause liquefaction.
Specified procedure for evaluating stress induced by Earthquake:
The shear stresses developed at any point in a soil deposit during an earthquake appear to be due
primarily to the vertical propagation of shear waves in the deposit. This leads to a simplified procedure for
evaluating the induced shear stress (Seed and Indris, 1971)
If the soil column above a soil element at depth, h behaved as a rigid body, the maximum shear stress
on the soil element would be
(
mux
)
=
yb
g
. o
mux
Where,
o
mux
= The maximum ground surface acceleration, and
y = The unit weight of the soil.
Because the soil column behave as a deformable body, the actual shear stress at depth, h, (
mox
)
d
ad
determined by a ground response analysis will be less than (
mox
)
Soil Dynamics
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, (
mox
)
d
and r
d
in figure (66) the value of r
d
will decrease from the value of 1 at
the ground surface to much lower values at large depth.
Figure 67: Range of shear stress reduction factor r
d
for the deformation nature of soil
(
mux
)
=
yh
g
. o
mux
o
mux
Soil Dynamics
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mux
=
yb
g
. o
mux
. r
d
Where, r
d
are taken from the dashed line in figure  (67), the critical depth for development of
liquefaction, if it is going to occur, will normally be in the depth covered by this relationship.
The actual time history of shear stress at any point in a soil deposit during an earthquake will have an
irregular from such as that shown in figure (68).
S
t
r
e
s
s
()
(+)
Figure 68: Time history of shear stress during earthquake
By appropriate weighting of the individual stress cycles, based on laboratory test date, this determination can
readily be made.
ug
u.6S
mux
ug
u.6S
yh
g
o
mux
. r
d
ug
u.6S
mux
Soil Dynamics
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= Su%
Initial void ratio = c
= u.68
Initial confining pressure, o
= S.u Kgcm
2
Soil failure occurs at 20 cyclic (Normally)
In the early stages of cyclic stress applications, the pore water pressures build up in the sample but there is no
significant deformation.
After a number of applications, the pore pressure suddenly jumps to value equal to the vertical confining
pressure, reducing the effective stress to zero and the same time the sample begins to undergo large cyclic
deformations. This denotes the onset of liquefaction.
The number of stress cycles required to calculate the sample to liquefy depends on the magnitude of the
applied shear stress and the initial vertical effective pressure under which the sample is consolidated.
Typical results of a series of tests on identical samples of sand at a relative density of 50% are shown in figure
(70).
From plots of this type it is readily possible to read off the cyclic shear stress ratio
1
h
o
v

causing liquefaction in
the number of stress cycles representative of the design earthquake.
Soil Dynamics
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When tests are performed on dense samples of sand, the onset of liquefaction or cyclic mobility is not so
abrupt and a critical condition is normally considered to develop when the pore pressure ratio builds up to a
value of 100% and the cyclic shear strain is 5%.
()
(+)
S
h
e
a
r
S
t
r
e
s
s
S
h
e
a
r
S
t
r
a
i
n
P
o
r
e
W
a
t
e
r
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
(a) Pore Water Pressure Response
()
(+)
(b) Applied Cyclic Shear Stress
(c) Shear Strain Response
Figure  69: Record a typical cyclic loading test on loose sandsimple shear conditions.
Number of Cycles to
cause failure (log scale)
P
e
a
k
C
y
c
l
i
c
S
h
e
a
r
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
,
K
g
/
c
m

causing liquefaction under multidimensional shearing
conditions in the field is related to the cyclic stress ratio causing liquefaction of a triaxial test sample in the
laboratory by the expression (Seed, 1979).
_
h
o
i
]
]cId
= C
_
o
dc
2o
0
]
]cId
o
dc
= c:iotoric
o
0
= Cell pressure
Where values of C
are approximately.
C
= _
u.S7 or k
0
= u.4u
u.9 to 1 or k
0
= 1.u
Effects of sample disturbance on cyclic loading test data:
The cyclic loading characteristics of a natural sand deposit are strongly influenced by
1. Relative density of the deposit
2. Soil structure or grain arrangement
3. Cementation at grain contacts, which increases with the age of the deposit.
Soil Dynamics
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Example:  24
Find the cyclic stress ratio developed by earthquake at depth of soil 20 ft below from existing ground level if
water table 4 ft below the ground and peak ground acceleration= 0.16g i.e. o
mux
u.16g. Given y
sut
=
11S pc, y
d
= u.9S pc,
h = 20' h = 16'
w
Solution:
Let, y
w
= 62.S pc
Total overburden pressure = o
0
2u 11S = by
sut
= 2Suu pc
Effective pressure
o
i
b y
sut
+ b
w
(y
sut
 y
w
)
= 4 11S + 16 (11S 62.S) = 1Suu ps
Cyclic stress ratio developed by earthquake,
_
h
o
i
]
d
u.6S
o
mux
g
o
0
o
0
i
r
d
= u.6S u.1S
2Suu
1Suu
u.9S = u.17
Case study  2
Number of Cycles of liquefaction
C
y
c
l
i
c
S
h
e
a
r
S
t
r
e
s
s
R
a
t
i
o
,
0.32
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.6
2 20 100
A
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.8
10 50
15
Tube Sample
0.5
B
Block Sample
o
d
c
2
o
3
y
d
= 1uS pc
y
d
= 1uS pc
Soil Dynamics
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u
o
0
i
_
d
u.6S
o
mux
g
o
0
o
0
i
y
d
= u.6S u.2S
24uu
18uu
u.9S = u.2u
For, M = 7.5 causes approximately is equivalent stress cycles.
From the data on curve (A) in figurethe cyclic stress ratio, causing liquefaction in 15 cycles is
[
:
c
c
0

]
u.S7 [
c
dc
2c
3
]
= C
[
c
dc
2c
3
]tuxuI
C
= u.S7 or k
0
= u.4u
= u.S7 u.S2 = u.18 < u.2u
It appears that the sand could liquefy in the design earthquake.
For the test results by curve (B), the cyclic stress ratio required to cause liquefaction of the sand in 15 cycles is
found to be,
[
:
c
c
0

]
= C
[
c
dc
2c
3
]
= u.S7 u.S = u.28 > u.2u
Not to be liquefied the sand.
And the factor of safety against liquefaction is
F. S =
_
c
o
0

_
]
_
c
o
0

_
d
=
0.28
0.20
= 1.4u
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Questions
Soil Dynamics
1. What is soil uynamics.
2. What aie the natuiesouices of uynamics loauing.
S. At what Richtei Scales, the eaithquake is veiy ciitical anu.
4. What aie situation when footing uuiing eaithquake settle.
S. What aie the pioblems in soil & stiuctuie foi uynamics loauing.
6. Befine peiiouic motion anu natuial fiequency.
7. What is iesonance.
8. What is uumping.
9. What aie the piincipal of vibiation.
1u. Bow will you minimize the iesonance foi uynamic analysis.
11. Sketch the uiffeient positions foi unuampeu fiee vibiation of a spiing mass system.
12. Befine by figuie foi foice tiansmitteu to founuation by spiing anu uampei system anu mention its
initial equations.
1S. Befine spiing constant.
14. A mass suppoiteu by a spiing has a static ueflection of u.S mm. ueteimine its natuial fiequency of
vibiation.
1S. Wiite uown the staiting equation foi uampeu anu unuampeu fiee vibiations expiession.
16. Befine the uamping conuition by uamping iatio.
17. Biaw the sinusoiual cuives (Amplituue veises time) foi uampeu anu unuampeu fiee vibiations.
18. Wiite uown the name foi the following soil uynamics teim
z,
n
, C, z , C
c
, B, z , K, A
x
, F
u
, 0,
nu
, sin0, f
n
19. Wiite uown the expiessions foi following teims
2u. Befine the following teims
a. Bamping factoi
b. Ciitical fiequency
c. Ciitical uamping
21. With initial anu final expiession uefine logaiithmic ueciement foi uamping.
22. Wiite uown the ielations foi 0 anu s with B.
2S. What aie ianging values of B, (Poissons iation) useu foi soil.
24. Wiite uown Richtei Scale (N) values with iespective eneigy (E) values useu foi intensity of
eaithquake.
2S. Wiite uown the ielations between
a.
A
x
X
s
anu
o
o
n
b. B anu f foi banuwiuth methou
c. i anu B
u. B anu x
26. Befine haimonic foice with spiing anu uash pot system.
27. Befine magnituue factoi anu wiite uown a ielation foi it with fiequency iatio anu uamping factoi.
28. Biaw a giaph foi magnituue veises fiequency iatio at uiffeient uamping values.
29. Wiite uown the significances against the figuies uiawn in question no 28
Su. Biaw the giaph phase angle veises fiequency iatio at uiffeient uamping values.
S1. Wiite uown the 4 significances against the figuies uiawn in ques no 29
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S2. What aie the effect of magnification factoi, fiequency iatio anu uamping factoi when iesonance
occuiieu. Sketch piopei giaph.
SS. What aie effects of B on N anu
o
o
n
with vaiiation of 0.
S4. Befine tiansmission of foice to founuation by the spiing anu uampei system.
SS. Befine tiansmissibility foice anu uiaw the giaph foi tiansmissibility foice against fiequency iatio at
uiffeient uamping.
S6. What aie values of fiequency iatio when tiansmissibility foice is one in magnituue.
S7. Piactice the Examples.
S8. Befine natuial fiequency anu foiceu fiequency.
Bynamic Soil Piopeities
1. Wiite uown the name of majoi uynamics soil piopeities paiameteis with piopei symbols.
2. Befine isotiopic soil anu homogenous soil. Piactically is soil always isotiopic. Why.
S. Befine sheai mouulus anu Poissons iatio of soils.
4. What aie fielu tests foi soil uynamic paiametei.
S. What aie laboiatoiy test foi soil uynamics paiametei.
6. Wiite uown name anu symbol foi soil uynamics paiameteis that you will finu by test.
7. Biaw the figuie foi cioss boie hole wave piopagation methou.
8. What aie foui souices useu foi cioss boie holes wave piopagation methou foi uynamic soil
piopeities.
9. What the calculations aie foi cioss boie holes wave piopagation methou.
1u. Biaw a figuie foi up hole anu uown holes wave piopagation methou.
11. Biaw a schematic uiagiam foi uownhole wave piopagation methou suivey.
12. Bow will you calculate foi uown hole wave piopagation methou foi uynamics soil pippeities.
1S. What aie the calculations useu foi up boie holes methou.
14. Biaw the Rwave anu uefine it.
1S. What uo you mean by lissajous figuie foi uynamics soil piopeities measuiement. Biaw lissajous
figuie foi uynamics soil piopeities measuiement.
16. Bow will you calculate soil paiameteis fiom suiface wave piopagation methou.
17. Biaw the figuie foi block iesonance test.
18. Bow will you calculate the soil paiameteis fiom foiceu veitical vibiation test.
19. Biaw the giaph foi cyclic plate loau test.
2u. Bow will you calculate the soil paiameteis fiom cyclic plate loau test.
21. What aie the factois affecting the uynamic piopeities of cohesive soils.
22. Biaw anu uefine the bilineai mouel anu its limitation foi oscillatoiy simple sheai test.
2S. Biaw the figuies foi penuulum loauing appaiatus.
24. What aie shoit comings foi uynamic soil piopeities measuiement.
2S. What aie the uiffeiences between uynamic anu static soil piopeities test.
26. With giaph uefine seveial types of stiffness useu foi soil.
27. Biaw a giaph foi lineai elastic to obvious plastic behavioi of soil foi uiffeient uynamic loauing.
28. Befine iesonant column test foi soil.
29. Biaw the schematically figuie at uiffeient anu conuitions foi iesonant column test.
Su. Befine toisional iesonant column test foi soil.
S1. Biaw the figuies foi toisional iesonant column test foi soil.
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S2. Befine cyclic tiiaxial compiession tests foi soil with figuie.
SS. Biaw the mohiciicle at uiffeient conuition foi cyclic tiiaxial compiession test.
S4. Show that veitical loau, veitical uefoimation anu poie piessuie aie as a function of the numbei of
cycles of loau.
SS. What aie uynamics paiameteis founu fiom cyclic tiiaxial tests.
S6. Biaw the loop foi compiession anu tension uuiing cyclic tiiaxial tests anu mention the finuings of soil
paiameteis fiom figuie.
S7. Why is the aveiage sheai stiess 6S% of maximum sheai stiess.
Nachine Founuation
1. Nention the chaiacteiistics of thiee type of machine accoiuing to vibiation theoiy.
2. Nention the name of thiee type of machine founuation with sketch.
S. What aie the measuies geneially auopteu foi vibiation isolation anu contiol of machine founuation.
4. What aie the specifications geneially auopteu foi ieinfoicement anu constiuction uetails of machine
founuation.
S. What aie the uesign ciiteiia foi founuation of iecipiocating machine.
Liquefaction
1. Define the parameters for liquefaction; mention the equation of stress ratio.
2. With the limitation of fine particle size express the maximum resisting shear stress ratio equations.
3. Define the normalized SPT N  value.
4. Define factor of safety against liquefaction.
S. State the phenomenon `quick sanu conuition.
6. What is liquefaction potential.
7. Draw the graph structural damage intensity verses depth of soil for various numbers of stories.
8. What are the two tropics of most general interest concentrating liquefaction?
9. What are main characteristics of the ground motions? Draw their graphs for liquefaction.
10. Draw the graphs for maximum acceleration and velocity verses natural periods for various damping
factors.
11. When anu why liquefaction occuiieu.
12. What aie the simple guiuelines of uesign spectia of eaithquake uuiing liquefaction.
13. What are the equations for maximum base shear for multistory structure?
14. What are factors affecting earthquake ground motions for liquefaction?
15. Draw the relations between maximum acceleration verses maximum acceleration on rock for various
types of soil.
16. Draw the graph
SpcctuI ucccIcuton
Muxmum gound ucccIcuton
verses period for various types of soil (5% damping).
17. How will you select of ground motion for design earthquake.
18. Write down the important five factors affecting design earthquake motion.
19. What are two aspects for specification of design spectra?
20. What are the simple guidelines of design spectra of earthquake during liquefaction?
21. What are specifications of design acceleration foi liquefaction?
22. Write down the three causes of soil liquefaction.
23. By the graph show the schematic illustration of mechanism of pore pressure generation during cyclic
loading during earthquake for liquefaction.
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