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(Operation Transmission South, IGE Building Marston Road Karachi)

Submitted by:
BS-Electronics Sir Syed University Of Engineering And Technology(SSUET), Karachi. SHEIKH MUHAMMAD OVAIS ABEDIN NIC NO. ( 42201-7361339-5 ) MUHAMMAD ADIL ALI NIC NO. ( SYED TALHA ALI NIC NO. ( 41304-8062807-5 ) ASHAR ALI BABAR NIC NO. ( 42101-1231041-7 ) S/O SHEIKH ZAIN-UL-






Period of internship: June 27, 2011 to August 06, 2011

Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited is one of the most prestigious public sector companies of Pakistan, It operates throughout Pakistan. It is functional in different parts of Karachi. I was offered internship in Operation Transmission South, IGE Building
Marston Road Karachi. The duration of my internship was one and half months, which I have completed successes fully. These days were some of the important days of my life, in which I could achieve a practical knowledge

of my theoretical learning. That was an environment fell equipped with engineering applications I was supposed to get training in six divisions named as International transmission and maintenance (ITMC) SMW-3 (South East Asia Middle East West Europe) SMW-4 (South East Asia Middle East West Europe) New cable and network support ( NC & NS) Multimedia and Broad Band (MM & BB) Optical Fiber System (OFS) These were the six divisions in which I have spent six weeks, with one week at each division.

(International transmission and maintenance) The main task of ITMC is to provide cooperation between local media and international media. It establishes connectivity between the local haul or back haul and the forward haul or international media. This connectivity consists of voice and data. The transmission of voice and data is accomplished by using different techniques. The signals to be transmitted need to be undergone techniques like sampling, quantization, encoding and transmission. To increase the capacity of the transmission media techniques like multiplexing, modulation are also used.


Original signal superimposed on carrier frequency. Signal transmitted at higher frequency in order to increase efficiency. Carrier frequency changes according to original signal. AM,FM etc MULTIPLEXING Different signals are combined together and transmitted along the channel in order to save the bandwidth. (Many into one) FOUR TYPES OF MULTIPLEXING ARE:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Space Division Multiplexing space is divided. Frequency Division Multiplexing frequency is divided. Time Division Multiplexing time is divided. Code Division Multiplexing space, time and frequency is divided.

PCM (PULSE CODE MODULATION) PCM is a modulation technique in which analog signals are converted into digital signals it consists of 3 steps: Sampling An analog signal is divided into 8000 samples Quantization each sample is rounded up or down based on the algorithm. Encoding Finally the sample is encoded.

PROCESS 1 sample information = 8bit 8000 samples processed in 1sec. Therefore 8000sample info = 8*8000 = 64000 bits = 64kb/sec. 30 voice calls are transmitted together. 30*8000 = 240000 samples 30*64kbps = 1920kbps

1frame = 32bits, therefore 32*64 = 2048kb/sec = 2Mb/sec= E1

PRESYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY PDH is obsolete in todays world due to drawbacks. Following are the disadvantages of PDH: No NMS (Network Management System). No interaction between man and machine. No software control. No standard defined internationally. Vendor bounded.(different vendors could not communicate with each other). Bit interleaving. (bitwise transmission) No add drop directly. Point to point.

SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY(SDH) SDH is the upgraded version of PDH, fulfilling the drawbacks of PDH. Characteristics of SDH are: NMS. Software control. Multi vendor. Add drop directly. Byte interleaving.(Byte wise transmission) Point to point and multipoint. International standard.

SWM-3 connects 35 countries to Pakistan by means of optical fiber.

STM-64 is 1 i.e. 55 nanometer. IPLC (LEASE CUSTOMER): Uses their own bus a single telephone line dedicated to themselves. PFE (Power Feeding Equipment): Power cable travels along the optical fiber cable to provide power to regenerators and repeaters in the sea. DCN (DATA Communications Network): consists of routers which define the wavelength ( .)Mumbai is connected to fiber pair1 ( )4=and Fujairah is connected to ( .)6=Router recognizes which cable is of Mumbai and which is of Fujairah.

Cable from DCN connects to SLTE (Submarine Line Terminating Equipment). Each country has its own SLTE.

ROUTERS TRIBUTRY COMMON TWMA (Trans Wavelength Multiplex Amplifier)

TWMA(Trans Wavelength Multiplex Amplifier) is used to amplify the signals while transmitting RWDA (Receive Wavelength Differential amplify the signals while receiving. Amplifier)

Data rate in tributaries is STM-64.

FEC encoder (Forward Error Correction): Encodes the data in tributary to enable error correction. Western side is connected by Djibouti at ( )4=and (.)6= 1 =STM-64 = 10gbps. De multiplexing occurs while receiving. STM-64 STM-16 STM-4 E1


STM-4 to STM-64 = Higher Order. E1 to STM-1 = Lower Order.


2 Power Feeding Equipments installed. o 1 for SMW-3.

1 for SMW-4.

Connects Pakistan to 17 different countries. Process same as SMW-3. Marine cables come and Communication Network). connect to DCN (Data

From DCN cables are connected to SLTE. SLTE transfers the cables to ADM.

STM-64 gets de multiplexed to STM-16, STM-4, and STM1.

Then the cables are fed to ODF. o This distributes the connection locally.

We have rectifiers to prevent damage. SMW-4 connects Pakistan to 17 countries. Few examples are: East Malaysia Singapore West SA UAE India Alexandria

WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing):


Different SDH come and connect to WDM. Based on the frequency WDM allots channels to different signals.

Segment grouping of signals (countries are divided into segments) so that a problem occurs it can be rectified easily.

Last station Marseille(France) Installing new project IMWE(Indian Middle East Western Europe)

Multimedia and Broad Band (MM&BB)

. Broadband The word broadband is used for the minimum bandwidth which can support the transmission of multimedia services. Broadband access Broadband access is the high speed connection between the end user and internet through certain kind of network. Broadband Access Technologies XDSL HSDL.High speed digital subscriber

SDSLsymmetric DSL ADSL.Asymmetric DSL VDSLVery high bit rate DSL EDSL..Ethernet DSL ISDL..ISDN DSL UDSL.Ultra high DSL HFC.Hybrid fiber coaxial Home PNA..Home phone line Ethernet Wireless Broadband LMDS..local multipoint Distribution DBSDirect Broad service Microwave Radio GPRS..General packet Radio service Optical access network PLC.Power line cable SDHsynchronous digital hierarchy Frame relay. These are some broadband access technologies, which are used to access internet and other broadband services. DSL Principles SHDSL


It is Single pair high bit rate transmission, Variable data rates





Generally the variable data rate is 192 Kbps..2.312Kbps The range is valid up to a range of 5 Km. VDSL VDSL is very high data rate DSl, one wire pair, variable Data rates, Valid up to 5 Km. The data rate is up to 13mbps to 52Mbps.

ADSL One wire pair, Asymmetric transmission, data rates from 64 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps, covering a distance of 5 Km.

Optical fiber system (OFS)

Optical fiber system consist a network of optical fibers which are used for the transmission of optical signals. Initially all the signals are analog signal which cant be transmitted to long distance because they undergo transmission impairments and path losses. To minimize such problems optical fibers have been designed because in which signals are although analog but they undergo a very low line problems. Usually in transmission of signal at a certain distance repeaters are used which regenerate the signal again; in case of optical fibers these repeaters are installed at a large distance usually 25 km. Because of there light weight optical fibers are very easy to install even under water. Use of Optical fibers has increased the capacity

of data transmission through a media. It is said that the bandwidth of a single optical fiber can be increased to infinity by using modern multiplexing techniques. A single optical fiber can support a data of 10 GB. This is used commonly in long distance transmission. STRUCTURE OF OPTICAL FIBER Optical fiber generally consists of three parts

Core Cladding Jacket

CORE Core is the inner most section and consists of one or more strands, made up of glass or plastic, the core has a diameter of 50 micrometer. CLADDING A glass or plastic coating having optical properties different from those of the core, and has diameter of 125 micrometer. The interface between core and cladding act as a reflector to confine light that would otherwise escape the fiber. JACKET The jacket is composed of plastic and other materials layered to protect against moisture, abrasion, crushing and other environmental dangers. MODES OF TRANSMISSION

The transmission of light signals through an optical fiber is accomplished by using different transmission modes like Single mode, graded index Multimode, step index mode. SINGLE MODE In single mode, the light rays travel in a straight line. Some Spacing is kept between the rays to avoid interference. This mode is used for large distance communication GRADED INDEX MULTIMODE This mode of transmission is done by varying the index of refraction of the core. Refractive index is higher at centre whereas it decreases towards the corners. This transmission mode is used for shorter distances. STEP INDEX MULTIMODE Rays at shallow angle are reflected and propagated through along the fiber other rays are absorbed by the surrounding material. With this mode multi paths exist due to which signals undergo dispersion and data cant be accurately achieved.

NEW CABLES AND NETWORK SUPPORT This division of PTCL is associated with the repairing and maintenance of cables and optical fibers. New cables are put by this division by replacing the existing worn out cables. This division usually works outside of the terminal. Different devices are used to repair cable. If somehow a fault occurs in a cable a device named


as megger is used which measures the distance of fault from the terminal. Megger is also used to check the condition of a cable whether it is proper condition or not. The device used to repair cable is OTDR or Optical time domain reflect meter. OPTICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER It is an optoelectronic device used for estimating the fibers length and overall attenuation, including splice and mated connectors losses. It may be used to locate faults, such as breaks and to measure optical return loss. Testing is done for one end only.

STEPS INVOLVED IN REPAIRING AN OPTICAL FIBER An optical fiber is repaired in three steps

Cladding Cleaving Cleaning

Cladding The first step of repairing an optical fiber is cladding, in which the jacket is removed. As an optical fiber consists of many pairs so color coding is used to differentiate between the damaged and sound pairs.

Cleaving Cleaving is the process of cutting the damaged part. Cleaving is a done by an instrument which consists of diamond. As the jacket of optical fiber is very strong, therefore it is necessary to get the job done by some sort of sharp instrument. Cleaning Dust particles are removed through an alcoholic gauss. Then splicing machine is used to join the broken ends.


Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Lower data rates can also be transferred via an electrical interface. The method was developed to replace the Presynchronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting larger amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber without synchronization problems. SONET generic criteria are detailed in Telcordia Technologies Generic Requirements document GR-253CORE. Generic criteria applicable to SONET and other transmission systems (e.g., asynchronous fiber optic systems or digital radio systems) are found in Telcordia GR-499-CORE. SONET and SDH, which are essentially the same, were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications (e.g., DS1, DS3) from a variety of different sources, but they were primarily designed to support real-time, uncompressed, circuitswitched voice encoded in PCMformat. The primary difficulty in doing this prior to SONET/SDH was that the synchronization sources of these various circuits were different. This meant that each circuit was actually operating at a slightly different rate and with different phase. SONET/SDH allowed for the simultaneous

transport of many different circuits of differing origin within a single framing protocol. SONET/SDH is not itself a communications protocol per se, but a transport protocol.


Synchronous networking differs from Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) in that the exact rates that are used to transport the data on SONET/SDH are tightly synchronized across the entire network, using atomic clocks. This synchronization system allows entire inter-country networks to operate synchronously, greatly reducing the amount of buffering required between elements in the network. Both SONET and SDH can be used to encapsulate earlier digital transmission standards, such as the PDH standard, or they can be used to directly support either Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or so-called packet over SONET/SDH (POS) networking. As such, it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications protocols in and of themselves; they are generic, all-purpose transport containers for moving both voice and data. The basic format of a SONET/SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its virtual container (VC), because it is bandwidthflexible.


The basic unit of framing in SDH is a STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module, level 1), which operates at 155.52 megabits per second(Mbit/s). SONET refers to this basic unit as an STS-3c (Synchronous Transport Signal 3, concatenated) or OC-3c, depending on whether the signal is carried electrically (STS) or optically (OC), but its high-level functionality, frame size, and bitrate are the same as STM-1. SONET offers an additional basic unit of transmission, the STS-1 (Synchronous Transport Signal 1) or OC-1, operating at 51.84 Mbit/sexactly one third of an STM-1/STS-3c/OC-3c carrier. This speed is dictated by the bandwidth requirements for PCM-encoded

telephonic voice signals: at this rate, an STS-1/OC-1 circuit can carry the bandwidth equivalent of a standard DS-3 channel, which can carry 672 64-kbit/s voice channels. In SONET, the STS-3c/OC3c signal is composed of three multiplexed STS-1 signals; the STS3C/OC-3c may be carried on an OC-3 signal. Some manufacturers also support the SDH equivalent of the STS-1/OC-1, known as STM0.

In packet-oriented data transmission, such as Ethernet, a packet frame usually consists of a header and a payload. The header is transmitted first, followed by the payload (and possibly a trailer, such as a CRC). In synchronous optical networking, this is modified slightly. The header is termed the overhead, and instead of being transmitted before the payload, is interleaved with it during transmission. Part of the overhead is transmitted, then part of the payload, then the next part of the overhead, then the next part of the payload, until the entire frame has been transmitted.

SDH frame

An STM-1 frame. The first nine columns contain the overhead and the pointers. For the sake of simplicity, the frame is shown as a rectangular structure of 270 columns and nine rows but the protocol does not transmit the bytes in this order.

For the sake of simplicity, the frame is shown as a rectangular structure of 270 columns and nine rows. The first three rows and nine columns contain regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and the last five rows and nine columns contain multiplex section overhead (MSOH). The fourth row from the top contains pointers. The STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module, level 1) frame is the basic transmission format for SDHthe first level of the synchronous digital hierarchy. The STM-1 frame is transmitted in exactly 125 s, therefore, there are 8,000 frames per second on a 155.52 Mbit/s OC-3 fiber-optic circuit.[nb 1] The STM-1 frame consists of overhead and pointers plus information payload. The first nine columns of each frame make up the Section Overhead and Administrative Unit Pointers, and the last 261 columns make up the Information Payload. The pointers (H1, H2, H3 bytes) identify administrative units (AU) within the information payload. Thus, an OC-3 circuit can carry 150.336 Mbit/s of payload, after accounting for the overhead. Carried within the information payload, which has its own frame structure of nine rows and 261 columns, are administrative units identified by pointers. Also within the administrative unit are one or more virtual containers (VCs). VCs contain path overhead and VC payload. The first column is for path overhead; it is followed by the payload container, which can itself carry other containers. Administrative units can have any phase alignment within the STM frame, and this alignment is indicated by the pointer in row four.

The section overhead (SOH) of a STM-1 signal is divided into two parts: the regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and the multiplex section overhead (MSOH). The overheads contain information from the transmission system itself, which is used for a wide range of management functions, such as monitoring transmission quality, detecting failures, managing alarms, data communication channels, service channels, etc. The STM frame is continuous and is transmitted in a serial fashion: byte-by-byte, row-by-row. Transport overhead The transport overhead is used for signaling and measuring transmissionerror rates, and is composed as follows: Section overhead Called RSOH (regenerator section overhead) in SDH terminology: 27 octets containing information about the frame structure required by the terminal equipment. Line overhead Called MSOH (multiplex section overhead) in SDH: 45 octets containing information about error correction and Automatic Protection Switching messages (e.g., alarms and maintenance messages) as may be required within the network. AU Pointer Points to the location of the J1 byte in the payload (the first byte in the virtual container). Path virtual envelope Data transmitted from end to end is referred to as path data. It is composed of two components: Payload overhead (POH) Nine octets used for end-to-end signaling and error measurement. Payload User data (774 bytes for STM-0/STS-1, or 2,340 octets for STM-1/STS-3c) CONTENTS

Introduction 02 ITMC 02 Modulation 02 Types of Multiplexing .02 Synchronous Digital hierarchy. 04 SMW3 ..05 SMW4 ..06 WDM ..07 Multimedia and Broadband 07 Broadband Access Technologies. ..07


DSL Principles ..08 Optical Fiber Systems.. 09 Structures of fiber. ..10 optical

Modes of transmission ..10 New cables and Network Support.11 OTDR ..11 Steps of repairing Cable 12 SDH and SONET REVIEW .13 Difference of SDH from PDH 14 Basic unit of transmission
14 Framing .. . 15

SDH frame.. 15 - 17