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Write a note on the functions of management.

[10] Functions of management Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling. According to Henry Fayol, To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword POSDCORB where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Coordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and ODONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing Controlling. For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others. 1. Planning It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of predetermined goals. According to KOONTZ, Planning is deciding in advance what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc. 2. Organizing It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnels. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves: Identification of activities. Classification of grouping of activities. Assignment of duties. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships. 3. Staffing It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in

size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & ODonell, Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure. Staffing involves: Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place). Recruitment, selection & placement. Training & development. Remuneration. Performance appraisal. Promotions & transfer. 4. Directing It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating subordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements: Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers. Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose. Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction. Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding. 5. Controlling It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation. According to Koontz & ODonell Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished. Therefore controlling has following steps: a. Establishment of standard performance. b. Measurement of actual performance. c. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any. d. Corrective action. e. m. Q.2 Discuss any two learning theories in detail. [10]

Learning Theories: The Three Representational Modes All information that is perceived via the senses passes through three processors that encode it as linguistic,nonlinguistic, or affective representations (Marzano, 1998). This is how we learn. For example, if you go to a football game for the first time you encode information linguistically such as rules; retain mental images nonlinguistically, such as mental images of the players positioning themselves and then getting set (pose); and finally, you have various sensations that are encoded affectively, such as the excitement during a touchdown. Each representation can be thought of as a record that is encoded and then filed away. The Linguistic Mode In the educational and training world, knowledge is most commonly presented linguistically (the study of language), so perhaps this mode receives the most attention from a learning standpoint (Chomsky, 1988). The linguistic mode includes verbal communication, reading, watching (e.g. learn the rule of chess through observation), etc. Discussions and theories around the linguistic mode can get quite complex so I am keeping this fairly simple. Basically, the linguistic processor encodes our experiences as abstract propositions. Propositions are thought to perform a number of other functions in addition to being the primary bearers of truth and falsity and the things expressed by collections of declarative sentences in virtue of which all members of the collection say the same thing. Propositions represent the things we doubt and know. They are the bearers of modal properties, such as being necessary and possible. Some of them are the things that ought to be true. These propositions are organized into two networks: 1. The declarative network contains information about specific events and the information generalized from them. These are the what of human knowledge. 2. The procedural network contains information about how to perform specific mental or physical processes. Often thought of as IF and THEN statements. These two networks are the main channels for interacting with each other (communication). Communication is the main functions of language. Language symbols are used to represent things in the world. Indeed, we can even represent things that do not even exist. Communication does not imply a language, for example using hand signals. But a language does imply communication, that is, when we use language, we normally use it to communicate. Definitions The forming of language is done by syntax putting sounds together to form words, and the words, in turn, form sentences. For example, English words require at least one vowel sound. However, in Czechoslovakia there are words that are all consonants with no vowels. These sounds we put together are morphemes the smallest units of language that have meaning. A word is morpheme, as is a prefix or suffix, also the s we add onto the end of a word is a morpheme. Semantics is the study of meaning. With semantic knowledge we can often understand what people mean when they say things that are syntactically unusual or even incorrect. In transformational grammar, the meaning of a sentence is its deep structure, and that meaning is transformed into the surface structure, which is the actual sentence itself. The deep structure of language is the meaning, and the surface structure is the means by which that meaning is expressed. The rules that translate the meaning into the deep structure are the phrase rules, and the rules that translate the deep structure into the surface structure are the transformational rules. The Nonlinguistic Mode

This includes mental pictures, smell, kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, and taste. At first, we might believe that they are entirely different structures, however these representations are quite similar to each other in that these nonlinguistic sensations function in a similar fashion in permanent memory (Richardson, 1983). That is, although we sense things differently, such as smell and touch, they are stored in mental representations that are quite similar. They also lose a lot of their robustness once the experience is over and transferred to memory. For example, picturing the smell of a rose from memory is not as vivid as actually smelling a real rose. Although we can realistically study linguistics, taste, hearing, etc.; mental images are another matter. . . how do you study a picture in someones mind? Hence, there are several models for the nonlinguistic mode in the psychology world. However, there are a few things we know for certain: o Mental images can be generated from two sources the eyes (e.g., the after image of a light bulb) and from permanent memory (picturing a tiger that has squares instead of dots). o Mental images are an essential aspect of nonlinguistic thought and play an important part in creativity. o Due to the fragmented and constructed nature of mental images, they are not always accurate pictures of whole thought as compared to prepositionally-based linguistic information. However, they can have a powerful effect on our thoughts due to their intensive and vivid nature, e.g. the power of storytelling, the images we create in our mind when reading a powerful novel, metaphors, imagination, creativity, etc. The Affective Mode This is our feeling, emotions, and mood (Stuss & Benson, 1983): o Feeling is ones internal physiological state at any given point in time. o Emotion is the coming together of feelings and thoughts (prepositionally-based linguistic data) that are associated with the feeling. o Mood is the long-term emotion or the most representative emotion over a period of time. The affective mode can be thought of as a continuum of feelings, emotions, and ultimately moods. The end points of the continuum are pleasure and pain and we normally strive to stay on the pleasure end of it. The limbic system (pituitary gland, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus, etc.) is the physiological system that ties the affective mode together. Since the limbic affects virtually every part of our brain, it also has a very powerful affect on learning.

3. Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon