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A Preliminary Study on Aerosol Emissions in Phnom Penh Capital: Emissions and Reduction Options

Kong Sopheak* Department of Environmental Science Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia *Corresponding author: kong.sopheak54@gmail.com Abstract: The research highlights the first aerosol emissions inventory for Phnom Penh Capital (PPC) for the base year 2010, comprising four objectives: (i) to develop aerosol emissions inventory database, (ii) to determine aerosol emissions contribution by sources, (iii) to estimate spatial emissions variation, (iv) to propose aerosol emissions reduction options. Main anthropogenic sources were scoped in this research, including fuel consumption in vehicle, domestic cooking, and solid waste open burning. Top-down approaches was used to produce annual emission. Rapid assessment approach was employed to fulfill the shortage of secondary data. Aerosol emission was quantified by using UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Emission Inventory Database in 2010 by consider low, medium, and high estimation. The result shows that annual aerosol emissions for PPC in 2010 were BC (868.31 tons) OC (2,916.33 tons) CO (130,781.73 tons) SO2 (3,361.75 tons) PM2.5 (4,114.77 tons) and NO2 (54.79tons), which 89% was from vehicle source, and the rest 9% and 2% were from domestic cooking and solid waste burning, respectively. Spatial emission variation, the highest aerosol emissions were emitted from Chamkarmon, and the lowest was from Prampir Makakra. BD and CNG options could not reduce aerosol pollutants in the period 2010 to 2025. However, BS option has potentially reduced CO 75.32% in 2025. Vehicle will be remaining the primary source of air pollution though other sources will be included. To reduce the emission in PPC, bus system installation option is the best option for reducing air pollution in PPC future. Keyword: Air Pollution, Aerosol, Emission Inventory, Black Carbon, and Phnom Penh 1. Introduction Aerosol is known as a particulate matter production of incomplete combustion from fossil fuels and biomass combustion, which have strong positive and negative climate forcing and adverse air quality effects and have directly and indirectly effect on human health and environment (USAID, 2010). Currently, Aerosol emission inventory data are available only either on global or regional scale with large uncertainty, coarse spatial resolution and very limited information on temporal variation (Bond et al., 2004). This does present big obstacle to a proper assessment of aerosol emission reduction scenarios and hence to development of emission reduction strategies, especially in urban areas of Cambodia. Air pollution has been called as a cool killer, which annually killed 1800 people in Cambodia (WHO, 2004). Therefore, air quality monitoring and management is significant to reduce these impacts. Emission Inventory is cheapest for air quality management which was used to identify the emissions contribution by sources for effectively air quality management (Amann, 2001).
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2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Emission Estimation The avaiability of activity data, which mainly from vehicle and domestic cooking source, was employed to construct EI by using a combination of top-down and rapid assessment approach. However, rapid assessment approach was use to obtain to fulfill the shortage activity data from solid waste burning while the amount of solid waste burning cound not be found. Notably, emission estimation for each pollutants from each sources were calculated in UNEP ABC Emission Inventory Database in 2010 with the general EI equation as described in the following equation (UNEP, 2010): Where, For fuel type j and sector m, Ej,m ,m is emission (kg yr-1), FCj,m is activity rate (i.e. fuel consumption in Tonne yr-1) and EFj,m is emission factors (kg tonne-1 of activity data) 2.1.1 Vehicle Source The number of register vehicle was directly gathered from Ministry of Public Work and Transportaion. The number of register vehicle in PPC in 2010 was 938,970 vehicle, by which classified Motorcycle (78.14%), Passenger Car (18.30%), Light-duty Vehicle (1.42%), and Heave-duty Vehicle (2.14%) (MPWT, 2011). Rapid assessment approach was used to identified the type of fuel used by vehicle classes. The result show that gasoline was used in motorcycle while diesel was use in light duty and heavey duty vehicle. Meanwhile, both types of these fuels were used in passenger cars by which 70% are gasoline and the rest 30% are diesel. Total emissions are calculated by combining activity data for each vehicle category with appropriate emission factors. These emission factors vary according to input data (driving situations, climatic condition, and so on). Different emission factors, number of vehicles and kilometer per vehicle need to be provided for each vehicle class and category (Table 1). The relation is expressed in the following equation. eq. (1) i,j,k Pollutant type i of vehicle class j and road type k (urban, rural) Emi,j,k Emission of pollutant type i in (g), produced in the reference year by vehicle class j driven on road type k Nj Number of vehicles class j in circulation in the reference year Mj,k Annual kilometer per vehicle (km/vehicle) driven on road type k by vehicle class j ei,j,k Average fleet representative baseline emission factor in (g/km) for pollutant i, relevant for vehicle class j, operated on road type k

2.1.2 Domestic Cooking Source The percentage of types of household fuel consumption were obtain from National Institute of Statistic, Ministry of Planing. The main fuel used for daily cooking in PPC are firewood, charcoal, and LPG. It was found that 18.01% of firewood, 23.11% of charcoal, and %56.45 of LPG (NIS, 2008) have been consumed by household in the city with the total fuel consumption 0.41 Kg/person/day, 0.235 Kg/person/day, and 0.05 Kg/person/day, respectively (Suy et al., 2010). The propose emission estimation method can be calculated on which based fuel consumption and fuel type. Total emissions for each specie and type of fuels are calculated with the emission factore (in Table 1) based on the following equation: j,m Emj,m FCm EFj,m ep. (2)

Specie type j anf fuel type m Emission from specie type j and fuel type m Fuel consumption of fuel type m (kg/year) Emission factors specific to specie type j and fuel type m

2.1.3 Solid Waste Burning Source Due to the data on solid waste burning in PPC was not available in any study, input activity data for emission estimation on solid waste burning was obtain from Department of Environment in PPC and by rapid assessment. It was found that solid waste generated 451,513.76 ton/year, recycled 20761.2 ton/year (DoEPP, 2010). Only 50% of solid waste leaves after with the collection efficiency 80% (Glawe, 2005) was burn in this study. This assumption is based on rapid assessment on 10 families in urban area and 20 families in suburban area with whom they answered nothing of solid waste was burn in urban area with enough solid waste collection services, unlike 50% of solid waste was burned in sub-urban area because some amount of solid waste was thrown around house and free land. Therefore, total emissions are calculated by taking the annual solid waste generation minus solid waste recycling and collection, and then multiply with emission factors (in Table 1) as the following equation. eq. (3) ESWBi WG WRi CF OF EFi Emission of pollutant type i, produced from solid waste burning in ton/year Solid waste generation per year in (ton/year) Solid waste recycling per year in (ton/year) Solid waste collection effeciency Other factor Emission factor for pollutant type i

Table 1: Emission Factor for each pollutant by sources Emission Factor Type of fuel (Vehicle) Pollutants Low BC 0.54 OC 0.3 CO 4.96 Diesel SO2 0.3 PM2.5 1.3 NO2 0.17 BC 0.005 OC 0.021 CO 9.8 Gasoline SO2 0.01 PM2.5 0.059 NO2 0.14 Type of fuel (Domestic Cooking) (g/Kg) BC OC CO SO2 PM2.5 BC OC CO SO2 PM2.5 BC OC CO SO2 PM2.5 BC OC CO SO2 0.3 0.17 19 0.008 2 1 1.3 35 0.3 3.9 0.01 0.03 3.72 0.33 0.26 5.5 5.5 42 0.5

Best Estimate 2 0.47 5.2 1 2.2 0.17 0.025 0.04 30 0.28 0.07 0.14

High 2.6 1 5.5 1.8 3.3 0.17 0.05 0.4 46 0.56 0.59 0.14

Firewood

Charcoal

LPG

0.85 4.75 77.5 0.008 5 1 1.3 198 0.49 5.7 0.2 0.03 3.72 0.33 0.26 5.5 5.5 42 0.5

2 7.8 136 0.008 8.2 1 1.3 275 0.69 7.5 0.2 0.05 3.72 0.33 0.33 5.5 5.5 42 0.5

Source of Solid Waste Burning (Kg/tonne)

Solid Waste Burning Source: UNEP, 2010

2.2 Spatial Emission Variation Spatial emission variations for vehicle, domestic cooking, and solid waste burning sources were estimated by using the above respectively equation (1), (2), and (3) with districts level activities data in (Table.1) in ABC Emission Inventory Database in 2010. Table 1: Activities data for Spatial Emission Variation by sources Vehicle Domestic Cooking Spatial Total Fuel Districts Population Distribution Consumption Factor (Kg/year) Chamkar Mon 182004 0.121188554* 30.74250642** Dang Kao 257724 0.171607211* 43.53245931** Doun Penh 126550 0.084264145* 21.37570706** Mean Chey 327801 0.21826844* 55.36924653** 7 Makakra 91895 0.061188887* 15.52209087** Ruessei Kaev 196684 0.130963328* 33.22212222** Sen Sokh 147967 0.098524795* 24.99327733** Tuol Kouk 171200 0.11399464* 28.91759027** Phnom Penh 1501825 1* 253.675** Source: (*) UNEP, 2010; (**) NIS, 2008; (***) DoEPP, 2010. 2.3 Emission Reduction Options Vehicle Source was priority to propose aerosol emission reduction options due to its highest emission contribution (Kok, 2007). Emission Reduction Options can be categorized into two main categories: non-technological options and technological options. Non-technological options may include vehicle kilometer transportation with traffic congestion reductions and increase societal awareness in air quality management. Technological option is to deploy low emissions technology and to improve bus system facilities (USEPA, 2005). The emission reduction options were shown in the (Table 2). Table 2: Emission Reduction Options for Vehicle Source Reduction Options No change means the same as BAU option Assumption BAUa BDb CNGc BSd Population Growth No No 20% 25% 30% will use buses for the respective rate change change year 2015, 2020 and 2025 2,83% Emission Same as No No Same as base year Factor base change change year VKT Same as No No VKT of motorcycle and car will decrease to base change change 15Km/day when VKT of bus increase year 60km/day

Solid Waste Burning Solid Waste (ton/year) 0.00*** 7581.05*** 0.00*** 6285.01*** 0.00*** 5463.83*** 3117.25*** 0.00*** 22447.14***

Motorcycle

Increase No 10% change

No change

Increase Only 14% diesel engines will use BD Light Duty Increase All All Increase 17%, 12%, and 11% for the respective Vehicle 12% will year in 2015, 2020, and 2025 compared to use BD BAU Heavy Increase All All No Change Duty 7% will Vehicle use BD a Note: ( ) Business As Usual, (b) Bio Diesel, (c) Compress Natural Gas, (d) Bus System 3. Results and Discussion 3.1 Emission Inventory

Passenger Cars

Motorcycle reduces 20% 25% 30% in the respective year according to population use buses Only Cars reduce 20% 25% 30% for the respective minibus year according to population use buses

Emission Inventory for PPC in 2010 show that the total aerosol emission in annually for BC, OC, CO, SO2, and NO2 with the medium estimate were 868.31tons, 2,916.33 tons, 130,781.73 tons, 3,361.33 tons, and 54.79 tons, respectively. Vehicle was the primary source of aerosol emissions, which contribute about 89% and followed by 9% from domestic cooking, and 2% from solid waste burning (Figure 1). Notably, CO was higher emitted from motorcycles because mostly imported motorcycle were second hand vehicle, which have low engine combustion efficiency and produced high emissions if compared with the new. 8000 7000 6000 Ton per year 5000 Low Best Estimate High CO divided in 100 tons

4000
3000 2000 1000 0 BC BC SO2 SO2 BC PM2.5 PM2.5 SO2 PM2.5 CO CO NO2 NO2 CO OC OC OC NO2

Vehicle (89%)

Domestic Cooking (9%) Solid Waste Burning (2%)

Figure 1: Emission Inventory in Phnom Penh Capital in 2010


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3.2 Spatial Emission Variation 3.2.1 Vehicle Source Chamkar Mon was the primary district that emitted highest aerosol emission in PPC, and Prampire Makakra was the lowest (Figure 2). These were because of Chamkar Mon located in urban area that crowded of people and vehicle transportation. The highest pollutant was CO (19,690.46 ton/year), and the lowest was NO2 (3.35 ton/year). 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Doun Penh Prampire Makakra Tuol Kouk Chamkar Mon Dang Kao CO divided in 100 tons

Ton per year

BC

OC
CO Ruessei Keav Mean Chey Sen Sokh SO2

PM2.5
NO2

Urban

Sub-urban

Figure 2: Spatial emission variation from vehicle source 3.2.2 Domestic Cooking Source Aerosol emission was mostly emitted from unclean fuels such as firewood and charcoal. Based on the result, Mean Chey was found as the district that emitted highest aerosol emissions from domestic cooking source, and Prampire Makakra was the lowest (Figure 3). These was because Mean Chey district has higher density of population and mostly used unclean fuels (firewood and charcoal), which has high fraction of carbon, as their daily energy consumption unlike Prampire Makakra, located in urban area, and mostly used clean fuels as their daily energy consumption such as electricity and LPG. The highest pollutant was CO (1,983.91 ton/year), and the lowest was SO2 (0.33 ton/year).

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

CO divided in 100 tons

Ton per year

BC OC CO Ruessei Keav

Prampire Makakra

Chamkar Mon

Mean Chey

Doun Penh

Tuol Kouk

Dang Kao

Sen Sokh

SO2 PM2.5 NO2

Urban

Sub-urban

Figure 3: Spatial emission variation from domestic cooking source 3.2.3 Solid Waste Burning Source Solid waste collection services were generally covered in urban area and some parts in suburban area. This cause some amount of solid waste was being burned in sub-urban area. As discern with the result of spatial emission variations from solid waste burning source was shown that solid waste was burned only in sub-urban area. Notably, Dangkao contributed the highest emission while Sen Sokh contributed the lowest (Figure 4). The highest emission pollutant was CO (318.4 ton/year), and the lowest was SO2 (1.56 ton/year). 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Mean Chey Prampire Makakra Doun Penh Tuol Kouk Chamkar Mon Ruessei Keav Dang Kao Sen Sokh

Ton per year

BC
OC CO SO2 PM2.5 NO2

Urban

Sub-urban

Figure 4: Spatial emission variation from solid waste burning source


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3.3 Emission Reduction Options Comparison The emission projections within periods 2010 to 2025 under various scenarios are presented (Figure 5) together with the base year with all sources included. 180000 160000

All Source

Vehicle

BAU

BD

CNG

BS

140000
Ton per year 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2010 (Base Year) 2015 (Vehicle) 2020 (Vehicle) 2025 (Vehicle)

Figure 5: CO emission under various emission reductions The total emission of CO annually in the periods 2010 to 2025 will steadily increase from 120,749.94 tons to 122,147.67 tons under BAU, from 120,749.94 tons to 122,580.32 tons under BD, and from 120,749.94 tons to 153,573.62 tons under CNG. Introducing technical options would give a reduction in CO emissions; however, bio-diesel and CNG bus and minibus do not bring a significant CO reduction. These because of the number of diesel and compress natural gas vehicles were low if compared with motorcycle and passenger cars. On the other hand, BS option will be applicable for CO emission reduction from transportation and result in significantly reduction of emission. Total CO emission will be reduced 78.32% in 2020 and 75.32% in 2025 as compared to BAU option. This result was a little bit higher than Kok in 2007, who found that CO emissions would be reduced 70% in 2020 as compared to BAU option. Respectively with other pollutants (Figure 6), BD and CNG options do not bring a significant of its emission reductions within the periods 2010 to 2025. Noted, they slightly reduced other pollutants in only the first five year, and the five year later in 2020, all pollutants have gradually increased.

60000 50000 Ton per year 40000 30000

All source

Vehicle

BAU

BD

CNG

BS

20000
10000 0

PM2.5

PM2.5

PM2.5

PM2.5

SO2

BC

BC

BC

SO2

SO2

BC

NO2

NO2

NO2

SO2

OC

OC

OC

OC

2010 (Base Year)

2015 (Vehicle)

2020 (Vehicle)

2025 (Vehicle)

Figure 6: Emission under various emission reduction options In short, BS is the potential option to reduced aerosol emissions in the periods 2010 to 2025 among the fours. But, BS option was hard successfully installed in PPC because its trial in the past several years was failed due to the lack of commitment and participation involvement. In fact, bio-diesel options seem to have potentially prospected to be used in the future transportation system in PPC regarding to agriculture based country; hence, the potential to produce bio-diesel is highly expected. Though, BS option should be reconsidered for better air quality management by which traffic congestions and air pollution reductions. 4. Conclusions and Recommendations This research is to compile emission inventory database for Phnom Penh capital in 2010, which was useful as benchmark for relevant institution and stakeholder in designing air pollution in Phnom Penh capital properly and efficiency. Vehicle was the primary source of aerosol emissions in Phnom Penh capital, and followed by domestic cooking and solid waste burning sources. Spatial emission variation in PPC was found that Chamkar Mon was the highest and Prampire Makakra was the lowest. Vehicle will be acted as the highest contributed source of aerosol emissions in the future in PPC though other sources would be included. Besides, BD and CNG options which could not reduce aerosol emission, BS option would be potentially reduced CO emissions 75.32% in 2025. Therefore, bus system installation in PPC should be reconsidered for traffic congestion alleviation and air pollution reduction. Acknowledgement The author acknowledges to The Unite Nation University for funding supports in the research study. The author is cordially thanks to his adviser Mr. Kok Sothea, Lecturer of DES, RUPP and his committees for making the research better.

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NO2

Reference Amann, M. (2001). Emission Inventory, emission control options and control strategies: An overview of recent developments. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 130, 43-50 Bond, T. C., Streets, D.G., Yarber, K.F., Nelson, S.M., Woo, J.H., and Klimont, Z. (2004). A technology-based globalinventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697. Department of Environment of Phnom Penh (2010). Statistical data on solid waste management in Phnom Penh Capital. Glawe. U., et al. (2005). Solid Waste Management in Least Developed Asian Countries: A Comparative Analysis, Proceedings, International Conference on Integrated Solid Waste Management in Southeast Asian Cities, 5-7, Siem Reap July. Kok, S., Oanh, N.T.K. (2007). Emission Inventory and Modeling for Air Quality Management in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia, In Prooceeding of the International Conference on Air Quality Management in Southeast Asia, (pp.173-174). Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Ministry of Public Work and Transportation (2011). Statistic Vehicle Registration in Phnom Penh Capital. National Institute of Statistics (2010). General Population Census of Cambodia 2008. Analysis of the Census Results Report 10. Housing and Household Amenities. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Planning Suy, B., Moeung, D., Som, C., and Ouch, K. (2010). The Impacts of Biomass Fuel Consumption on Air Quality and Human Health: Case Study: Prey Chhisak and Prey Preng Tbuong Village, Sangkat Chhom Chao, Khan Dangkao, Phnom Penh Capital. (Thesis for Bachelor Degree No. ENV-10-04 Royal University of Phnom Penh). Phnom Penh: Royal University of Phnom Penh. UNEP (United Nation Environment Programme). (2010). Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Emission Inventory. Workbook version 1.1. USAID. (2010). Black Carbon Emission in Asia: Sources, Impacts, and Abatement Opportunities. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2005). Fundamentals of emission inventory development. Southeast Asia Emission Inventory Course. World Health Organization (2004). Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. Geneva 2004: p. 1435-1493.

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